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quasi-incompressible elasticity

F. Gharzeddine, A. Ibrahimbegovic

419

Abstract In this work we develop a geometrically non- However, several works have soon followed drawing

linear version of the method of incompatible modes, attention to a lack of robustness of the enhanced strain

suitable for quasi-incompressible nite deformation method in the large strain problems. Namely, the analysis

hyperelasticity. The proposed method is featuring the presented in Wriggers and Reese (1996) identied the

principal axis representation of the theory, facilitating the appearance of a non-physical zero eigenvalue at a certain

choice of the strain energy function (in terms of the stage of the compression of a single quadrilateral element

principal stretches) and simplifying the stress computa- in a homogeneous state of strain. Several authors (Criseld

tion. The choice of the spatial Cauchy-Green strain mea- et al. 1995; De Souza et al. 1995, among others) have also

sure, leading to a very sparse structure of the strain- reported similar performances. Although the standard

displacement operators, and the operator split solution of displacement model does not present this deciency it is

equilibrium equations, leading to reduced secondary well known that the presence of incompressibility of the

storage requirements, further increase the computational material (e.g. rubber), leads to the so-called locking phe-

efciency. A set of numerical examples is used to illustrate nomenon with such a discretization. A couple of possi-

a robust performance of the constructed plane strain ele- bilities to eliminate hourglass instability effect in

ment with a single incompatible mode in quasi-incom- compression have been presented by Korelc and Wriggers

pressible deformation patterns. (1996) or Wriggers and Korelec (1996) and Glaser and

Armero (1997).

1 In this paper, we present a geometrically nonlinear

Introduction version of the original method of incompatible modes,

The method of incompatible modes was initially proposed geared towards quasi-incompressible large deformation

as an interesting possibility to enhance the performance of problems. The low-order (4-node) nite element inter-

low-order (typically 4-node) element in bending domi- polations are still used for constructing the basis of the

nated deformation patterns (e.g., see Wilson et al. 1973) in element, but the main difference from our previous work

linear elasticity. Keeping such a motivation in mind, the on geometrically nonlinear method of incompatible modes

original method of incompatible modes has been extended (see Ibrahimbegovic and Frey 1993) is in the choice of

to other choices of interpolations (e.g., 9-node element, see incompatible modes. Namely, it is demonstrated by the

Ibrahimbegovic and Wilson 1991) and fully nonlinear results to follow that the incompatible modes which are

problems (e.g., see Ibrahimbegovic and Frey 1993). the most appropriate for bending are less so for quasi-

It was soon noted that the incompatible mode method incompressible deformation patterns and that the latter

also performs quite well and can be used as a successful requires somewhat different choice of the incompatible

alternative to mixed methods (e.g., see Atluri and Reissner modes.

1989) in linear analysis of quasi-incompressible elastic The outline of the paper is as follows. In the next

materials, either in its original version (see Ibrahimbego- section, we briey recall the fundamental ingredients of

vic and Wilson 1991) or in its modied version, currently the nite deformation elasticity in principal axes. In Sects.

referred to as enhanced strain method (e.g., see Simo and 3, 4 and 5 we discuss the numerical implementation

Rifai 1990). The extension of the enhanced strain method details. Section 6 includes some illustrative numerical

to fully nonlinear analysis (e.g., Simo and Armero 1992) simulations that assess the performance of this element

was also shown to inherit a superior performance (with in compression. Finally, the conclusions are drawn in

respect to the standard isoparametric interpolations) in Sect. 7.

quasi-incompressible large deformation patterns.

2

Received 14 December 1998 Formulation of finite deformation elasticity

Among different possibilities to formulate the nite de-

F. Gharzeddine (&), A. Ibrahimbegovic formation elasticity theory, we choose the one employing

Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, the spatial strain measure, i.e. the strain measure dened

Dept. GSM, Lab. G2MS, CNRS UPRES A 6066,

BP 529, 60206 Compiegne, France in the current conguration. More precisely, our choice

is the Cauchy-Green deformation tensor, b, which repre-

This work was supported by MENERT and CNRS (LG2mS). This sents the corresponding transformation of the metric

support is gratefully acknowledged. tensor in the initial conguration, G

b FG1 FT 1 3

Variational basis of the incompatible mode method

In (1) above, F is the deformation gradient. We assume In this work, we apply the method of incompatible modes

hyperelastic material, which implies the existence of a to the nite strain quasi-incompressible elasticity, fol-

strain energy function w. Invariance requirements im- lowing in the footsteps of the previous works on the

pose that the strain energy function be dened in terms of subject (e.g., see Simo and Armero 1992 or Ibrahimb-

invariants of the tensor b, or in a more convenient form egovic and Frey 1993). To that end, the key assumption to

which is obtained by using the principal stretches ki , i.e. be used is the one on the multiplicative decomposition of

w wki 2 the deformation gradient in which one abandons the

standard deformation gradient, F, in favor of an enhanced

The principal stretches are the solution to the following ~

gradient, F,

420 eigenvalue problem

~

b k 2 g1 m 0

i i 3 F I aF 10

where g is the metric tensor in the current conguration. In (10) above, I is a unit, two-point tensor, a is the spatial

Standard thermodynamics considerations directly lead displacement gradient, so that I a represents a spatial

to the constitutive equation for energy-conjugate stress deformation gradient superposed on the compatible de-

tensor given in terms of the Kirchhoff stress, s. Namely, formation gradient F. The graphical interpretation of the

in context of purely mechanical theory the latter can be multiplicative decomposition is given in Fig. 1.

dened as The spatial deformation gradient a can formally be

constructed by making use of the material gradient A, i.e.

ow

D : s d Lv g 4 a AF1 11

og

where d is the rate-of-deformation tensor and Lv g is the Hence, in the subsequent consideration we use A as one of

Lie derivative of g. Considering that Lv g 2d, from (4) the state variables.

above we get The weak form of the balance equations can now be

rewritten as

ow Z

s2 5 1

og Gu; A; w : s : ru~ wT g gru~ wdB Gext 0

B 2

Isotropy implies that the Kirchhoff stress tensor s shares

12

the same eigenvectors mi found in the eigenvalue problem

in (3), so that we can write where the spatial gradient of the virtual displacement eld

X w is recomputed with the enhanced deformation gradient

s si g1 mi 0 ) s si g1 mi

g1 mi ; 6 F~ as

i

~1

ru~ w rwF 13

where si are the principal values of the Kirchhoff stress.

One can readily compute an explicit form of the con- However, in contrast with the standard displacement-

stitutive equation in the principal axis representation. To based interpolation case, we get an additional equation

that end, we rst compute the directional derivative of the associated with the variation of the incompatible mode

eigenvalue problem statement in (3) to get (e.g., see parameters f, which can be written as

Ibrahimbegovic 1994) Z

1

Gu; A; f : s : ru~ fT g gru~ fdB 0 14

oki ki 1 B 2

g mi

g1 mi 7

og 2 where ru~ f is the spatial form of the variation of the

Next, by using the chain rule and the last result, we can enhanced displacement gradient given as

rewrite (5) in the principal axis representation as ~1

ru~ f rfF 15

X ow 1

s ki g mi

g1 mi 8

i

oki

Comparing the last result with the one in (6), we conclude

that

ow

si ki 9

oki

Therefore, the principal axis methodology leads to a very

efcient computational framework, since the tensor cal-

culus can be reduced to manipulation of scalars, i.e. the Fig. 1. Multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient

corresponding principal values. into compatible and an enhanced deformation gradient

4 Xnen

~

Discrete approximation of the incompatible mode method ru

wj Be wa

ru~ Na 22

The crucial simplication introduced in this section is the a1

choice of Euclidean coordinates, which leads to a simple X

n im

u~

coordinate representation of the metric tensor in terms of r fjBe ^b

fb

ru~ M 23

the unit matrix, i.e. b1

g 7! I 16

where wa and fb are, respectively, the virtual displace-

Moreover, in the Euclidean framework the total displace- ments and virtual enhanced gradient interpolation

ment vector, d, is well dened, and so that the position parameters, and

vectors in the current conguration can be constructed as ru~ M

^b F

~T rM ^b 24 421

uxd 17

The symmetric part of the last two expressions can be

where x is the corresponding position vector in the written in a matrix notation as

reference conguration.

In each element, Be , the displacement vector is inter- X

nen

~

u

polated in the standard isoparametric manner (e.g., see symr w 7! jBe Ba d; Awa 25

Hughes 1987) as a1

X

nen and

djBe Na xda 18

a1

X

nim

symru~ f 7! cjBe Gb d; Afb 26

where da are the nodal displacements and Na x are the b1

element shape functions for a particular choice of element

with nen nodes. The deformation gradient can then be where B and G can be written, respectively, as

constructed as 2 3

eT1 eT1 ru~ Na

X

nen 6 eT2 eT2 ru~ Na 7

F : rujBe xa da

rNa ; 6 7

6 T T u ~

e3 e3 r Na 7

a1

19 Ba d; A 6

6 eT eT ru~ Na eT eT ru~ Na 7

7 27

oNa oNa oNa 6 1 2 ~ 2 1 7

T

r Na ; ; 4 eT eT ru Na eT eT ru~ Na 5

2 3 3 2

ox1 ox2 ox3 eT3 eT1 ru~ Na eT1 eT3 ru~ Na

where `

' denotes the tensor product.

As already noted by Ibrahimbegovic and Frey (1993), and

the enhanced displacement gradient can formally be con- 2 3

eT1 eT1 ru~ M^ b

structed as the gradient of an incompatible displacement 6 ^ b 7

6 eT2 eT2 ru~ M 7

eld, so that we can write 6 T T u ~ ^ 7

6 e3 e3 r Mb 7

X

nim ^ b oM

^ b oM

^b Gb d; A 6 T T u~ ^ T T u ~ ^ 7 28

^ b; T^b oM e

6 1 2 e r M b e e

2 1 r M b 7

A ab

rM r M ; ; 4 eT eT ru~ M ^ b 5

^ b eT3 eT2 ru~ M

b1

ox1 ox2 ox3 2 3

eT3 eT1 ru~ M^ b eT1 eT3 ru~ M

^ b

20

with ei as the unit base vectors which constitute the unit

where M b x are incompatible mode shape functions3 matrix I e1 ; e2 ; e3 . It is apparent from (27) and (28)

and nim is the chosen number of incompatible modes. above that the main advantage of choosing the spatial

As noted by Ibrahimbegovic and Frey (1993), the in- strain measures is resulting sparse structure of the strain-

compatible mode shape functions must be modied to displacement operators B and G, which is essentially the

make them orthogonal in the energy norm to any con- same as the one from the linear theory.

stant stress eld, and thus to ensure the patch test With this matrix notation in hand, the weak form of the

satisfaction. This can be carried out according to (see governing equations in (12) can be restated as

Ibrahimbegovic and Wilson 1991) ( Z )

Z nel X

nen

^ b Mb 1e

M Mb dB 21 Gd; A; w : A wTa BTa d; Asd; A dB f a

e1

B Be a1 Be

" #

Using the isoparametric interpolations for the virtual nel X

nen

displacement eld and the variation of the enhanced dis- : A wTa ra f a 0 29

e1

placement gradient, results with a1

T

3

In choosing the compatible and incompatible displacement s hs11 ; s22 ; s33 ; s12 ; s23 ; s31 i is the vector containing all

T the components of the Kirchhoff stress tensor in (8), and

shape functions, one must ensure that Na Mb = ;; Typically, nel

functions Mb are polynomials of one degree higher that those in A e1 is the nite element assembly operator (e.g., see

Na . Hughes 1987) over all nel elements in the mesh.

Similarly, incompatible mode based residual in (14) can gj Hj1 hj

be rewritten as j1 j j

Z a a g 34

X

nim

Gd; A; f : fTb GTb d; Asd; A dB The converged values of incompatible mode parameters,

Be

b1 satisfying the equilibrium equation in (30), are used to

X

nim construct an element-wise approximation of the incom-

: fTb hb 0; 8 e 2 1; nel 30 patible mode eld, A. Having obtained the incompatible

b1 mode values, we proceed to the next sweep of the global

The crucial difference between the last two equations iterative procedure in order to provide an improved value

concerns the continuity requirements and the resulting of the total displacement eld. In that respect we make use

422 nite element discretization. The equilibrium equation in of the following linearized forms of the discrete equilib-

(29) is associated with the variation of displacement eld rium equations

with the nodal values of the interpolation parameters, wa , i

which are shared by all the elements in the neighborhood LinGd ; A; w

of node a. On the other hand, the equilibrium equation in Xnen X

nen

(30) is associated with the variation of the incompatible w

: Gdi ; A; wTa Ke1;ab Ke2;ab ub

mode eld, constructed for each element independently. a1 b1

Therefore, the former leads to a set of global, whereas the Xnen Xnim

latter to a set of local nonlinear algebraic equations. As wTa Fe1;ab Fe2;ab gb 35

described in the following section, a special solution pro- a1 b1

cedure is proposed in order to take advantage of this and

particular structure of the nonlinear equations on hand.

f

LinGdi ; A;

5 X

nim X

nen

Operator split in the method of incompatible modes f

: Gdi ; A; fTa Fe1;ab Fe2;ab ub

The main idea of the operator split (e.g., see Chorin et al. a1 b1

1978) is to separate the solution to the second group of X

nim X

nim

discrete equilibrium equation in (30) (for xed values of fTa He1;ab He2;ab gb 36

the nodal displacements, the best iterative guess), from the a1 b1

subsequent computation of a new iterative value of the

nodal displacement vector from the global equilibrium where

Z

equations in (29). A more detailed discussion is provided

next. Ke1;ab BTa d; ADBb d; AdB 37

Be

To that end, we assume that di is the best (iterative) Z

value provided for the nodal displacement vector. Keeping Ke2;ab pab I3 dB;

this value xed, we proceed to compute the corresponding Be

incompatible mode parameters which will satisfy the X3 38

equilibrium equation in (30). Since the latter is a set of pab sij eTi ru Na eTj ru Nb

nonlinear equations, we need to use an iterative procedure; i;j1

At a typical iterative sweep, j, of such a procedure, we

make use of the linearized form of the equation in (30) and

Z

LinGdi ; Aj ; f Fe1;ab GTa d; ADBb d; AdB 39

X

nim X

nim Be

: Gdi ; Aj ; f fTa He1;ab He2;ab gb Z X

3

a1 b1 Fe2;ab rab I3 dB; rab ^ a eTj ru~ Nb

sij eTi ru~ M

Be

31 i;j1

where 40

Z it

By denition of incompatible mode approximation A

He1;ab GTa d; ADGb d; A dB 32 follows that all element-based residuals vanish, i.e.

e

B

and f 0;

Gdi ; A; 8 e 2 1; nel 41

Z X

3

Hence, (36) can be used to compute the increments in

He2;ab sab I3 dB; sab ^ a eTj ru~ M

sij eTi ru~ M ^ b

incompatible mode parameters in terms of incremental

Be i;j1 displacement.

33 X

nen

reduces to b1

The result in (42) can then be replaced into the linearized vertical center line. The bottom of the block is restrained

form of the global balance equations in (35), in order to in the vertical direction only, with an imposed vertical

eliminate the incompatible mode parameters displacement at the top. The selected material parameters

nel are K 40000 and l 80:2. The block is compressed to a

A Kd^ r f; K FT H1 F 43 homogeneous state of deformation. As depicted in Fig. 4,

e1

the load deection curves, computed with Q1I2 and Q1I4,

practically coincide. When using Q1I4, with up to 45%

6 compression all eigenvalues remain positive. At this stage

Numerical examples one eigenvalue turns negative. Figure 5 represents the

To test the developed plane strain element formulation for eigenmode at this rst buckling point, exhibiting certain

nite elastic deformations a simple model is considered in amount of hour-glassing, already noted by Wriggers and

terms of a compressible neo-Hookean material, with the Reese (1996). A second negative eigenvalue appears at a 423

strain energy of the form deformation state of 46:2%. The next two bifurcation

1 l points are 46:5% and 47:2% of compression. We note that

W Kln J2 k21 k22 2 l ln J; k3 1 all four bifurcation points are detected at about the same

2 2 compression state. The rst bifurcation point detected by

where J det F, K and l are the Lame material parame- Q1=I2 is at a stage of 86%. The associated eigenvector,

ters. plotted in Fig. 6, exhibits no hour-glassing. It is interesting

We denote by Q1=I4 the resulting nite element with 2 to point out that all bifurcation points always appear at

incompatible modes M1 n 1 n2 and M2 g 1 g2 , about the same stage of compression even when we rene

and by Q1=I2 the one with a single incompatible mode the mesh. The latter is the consequence of the homoge-

Mn; g n2 g2 . It is interesting to note that the latter neous deformation state.

choice also inherits a very robust performance in bending-

dominated problems (e.g., see Arunakirinathar and Reddy 6.3

1995). Non-homogeneous compression test

In this example we perform a simulation of non-homoge-

6.1 neous compression test, as very recently proposed by Reese

Checkerboard pressure mode et al. (1998). The geometry and the loading of the structure

We consider the 4 element mesh shown in Fig. 2. We as-

sume that all the nodes on the boundary of the mesh are

xed (i.e., the displacements are set to zero), apart the

middle node on the right-hand side, which can move

horizontally. A compressive load is imposed at that node

resulting with highly constrained compressive deforma-

tion. The simulation carried out with Q1=I4 produces a

pathological result where the sign of the Jacobian alter-

nates between negative and positive values (see Fig. 3)

which is referred to as the checkerboard pressure mode

(see Hughes 1987). The same analysis repeated with Q1=I2 Fig. 3. Checkerboard pressure mode sign of computed

pressure in each element

shows no presence of this checkerboard mode.

6.2

Homogeneous compression test

We investigate here the example discussed previously

by Wriggers and Reese (1996). The right half of a rectan-

gular block is discretized by using 10 10 elements.

Symmetry boundary conditions are imposed along the

Fig. 2. Model used for checkerboard pressure mode elements

424

Fig. 5. Eigenvector associated with the rst bifurcation

detected by Q1=I4

with mesh renement for Q1=I2

detected by Q1=I2

ration at 48:5%

main nding is that the original choice of Wilson-type of

Fig. 7. Non-homogeneous compression test: geometry and incompatible modes, initially proposed for capturing the

loading bending dominated deformation patterns, does not nec-

essarily remain optimal for capturing the quasi-incom-

are plotted in Fig. 7. The material parameters are chosen pressible deformation patterns, and it suffers from the

the same as in the previous example. The boundary con- same kind of sensitivity already noticed for the enhanced

ditions at the top of the structure are chosen in such a waystrain method.

that the nodes cannot move in the horizontal direction. The However, reducing the number of incompatible modes

analysis is performed by imposing a pressure of 600. The to a single one, Mn; g n2 g2 , eliminates the fore-

result convergence with mesh renement is depicted in Fig. mentioned sensitivity, and leads to a robust element per-

8. The percentage of compression quoted in Fig. 8 applies formance. The latter has been conrmed by a conned

to the upper middle node. We can see that by increasing the pressure (checkerboard provoking) test and a couple of

number of elements over the height, we converge to the other examples recently proposed in the literature.

solution obtained by Reese et al. (1998), i.e. 50% of com-

pression of the structure for the applied load level. References

Arunakirinathar K, Reddy BD (1995) Further results for en-

hanced strain methods with isoparametric elements. Comput.

7 Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 127:127143

Conclusion Atluri SN, Reissner E (1989) On the formulation of variational

This works provides an extension of the classical method theorems involving volume constraints. Comput. Mech.

of incompatible modes (e.g., see Wilson et al. 1993) to 5:337344

Chorin A, Hughes TJR, McCracken MF, Marsden JE (1978) Korelc J, Wriggers P (1996) Consistent gradient formulation for a

Product formulas and numerical algorithms. Commun. Pure stable enhanced strain method for large deformations. Eng.

Appl. Math. 31:205256 Comput. 13:103123

Criseld MA, Moita GF, Jelenic G, Lyons LPR, Owen DRJ (1995) Reese S, Kussner M, Reddy BD A new stabilization technique for

Enhanced lower-order element formulation for large strains. nite elements in nonlinear elasticity. Preprint

COMPLAS IV Proceedings, Barcelona, Owen DRJ et al. (eds), Simo JC, Armero F (1992) Geometrically nonlinear enhanced

UK strain mixed methods and the method of incompatible

De Souza Neto EA, Peric D, Huang GC, Owen DRJ (1995) Re- modes. Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 33:14131449

marks on the stability enhanced strain elements in nite Simo JC, Rifai MS (1990) A class of mixed assumed strain

elasticity and elastoplasticity. COMPLAS IV Proceedings, methods and the method of incompatible modes. Int. J. Num.

Barcelona, Owen DRJ et al. (eds), UK Meth. Eng. 29:15951638

Glaser S, Armero F (1997) On the formulation of enhanced strain Wilson EL, Taylor RL, Doherty WP, Ghaboussi J (1973) Incom-

nite elements in nite deformations. Eng. Comput. 14:759791 patible displacement models. In: Fenves SJ et al. (eds) Nu- 425

Hughes TJR (1987) The Finite Element Method: Linear Static and merical and Computer Methods in Structural Mechanics, pp

Dynamic Analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 4357

Ibrahimbegovic A, Wilson EL (1991) A modied method of in- Wriggers P, Reese S (1996) A note on enhanced strain methods

compatible modes. Commun. Num. Meth. Eng. 7:187194 for large deformations. Comput. Meth. Appl. Mech. Eng.

Ibrahimbegovic A, Frey F (1993) Geometrically nonlinear method 135:201209

of incompatible modes in application to nite elasticity with Wriggers P, Korelec J (1996) On enhanced strain method for

nite rotation eld. Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 36:41854200 small and nite deformations of solids. Comput. Mech.

Ibrahimbegovic A (1994) Equivalent Eulerian and Lagrangian 18:413428

formulation of nite deformation elastoplasticity in principal

axes. Int. J. Solids Struct. 31:30273040

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