Sie sind auf Seite 1von 26

Design Strength Requirements for

Externally Applied Reinforcing


Systems

Tarek Alkhrdaji
Structural Technologies
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Strengthening of Concrete Structures


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

External Reinforcing Systems

Steel Plates
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

External Reinforcing Systems

External Post-tensioning
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

External Reinforcing Systems

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Systems


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-13
CHAPTER 5LOADS, LOAD COMBINATIONS, AND
STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS

5.5Load combinations for structures repaired


with external reinforcing systems

5.5.1 For repairs achieved with unprotected


external reinforcing systems, the required
strength U of a structure without repair shall be
at least equal to the effects of factored loads in
Eq. (5.5.1).

Uex 1.2D + 0.5L + Ak + 0.2S (5.5.1)


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-13
Uex 1.2D + 0.5L + Ak + 0.2S (5.5.1)
For External reinforcing systems:
Fiber Reinforced Systems (FRP)
Steel Plates
External Post-tensioning

To Ensure that the unrepaired structure maintains a minimum


strength should failure of the repair system occur due to:
Fire, impact, or blast
Wind and earthquake forces are not included

To maintain sufficient strength until the damaged repair


system is repaired
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16 (revision)

To distinguish between adhesively bonded and


mechanically bonded systems

To provide separate design strength limits for


damage during normal operations versus for a fire
event

To provide guidance for fire rating evaluation

Other extreme events such as blast and removed


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16 (revision)

5.5Load combinations for structures repaired with external


reinforcing systems

5.5.1 For rehabilitation achieved with external reinforcing


systems that are susceptible to damage by fire, vandalism or
collision, the required strength of the structure without
rehabilitation shall equal or exceed the effects of the load
combinations specified in 5.5.2, and 5.5.3.
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16 (revision)


5.5.2 For non-mechanically bonded external reinforcement and
all FRP systems, the required strength of the structure without
external reinforcement shall satisfy Equations 5.5.2a and 5.5.2b

fRn 1.1D + 0.5L + 0.2S (5.5.2a)

fRn 1.1D + 0.75L (5.5.2b)

f is the strength-reduction factor is 5.3 or 5.4, as applicable

Rn is the nominal strength of the structure without the


external reinforcement

Equation (5.5.2b) is similar to limit in ACI 440.2R-08 (FRP)


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16 (revision)

For FRP and Non-Mechanically Bonded Systems


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16 (revision)

5.5.3 To account for potential performance issues during a fire


event, the required strength of the structure without external
reinforcement shall satisfy Eq. (5.5.3)

fexR (0.9 or 1.2)D + 0.5L + 0.2S (5.5.3)

fex is equal to 1.0 (no strength reduction)

R is the nominal strength of the structural element


considering reduced material strength

ACI 216 provides guidance on determining material strength


during a fire event
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16 (revision)

5.5.3 applies to all mechanically and adhesively bonded


reinforcing systems

Steel Plates FRP Post-Tensioning


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Effects of Fire on Concrete

Stress-strain relationship for concrete


50
20C
45
200C
40

35 400C

30
Stress, MPa

500C

25
600C
20

15 700C

10 800C
5 1000C
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1
Strain, m/m
Ref. Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1-2: General rules-structural fire design. ENV 1992-1-2, CEN: European Committee for
Standardization, UK, 2004.
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Effects of Fire on Concrete


Compressive Strength at Elevated Temperature
1
0.9 During Fire:
Compressive strength f'c/f'co, ksi

0.8 ASCE
0.7 Eurocode 2
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
Temperature, C
Ref.
15 ASCE, Structural Fire Protection, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, Practice No. 78, 1992
Ref. Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1-2: General rules-structural fire design. ENV 1992-1-2, CEN: European Committee for Standardization, UK, 2004.
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Effects of Fire on Steel Bars


Stress-strain relationship for reinforcing steel

450
20C
400
400C
350
500C
300
Stress, MPa

250

200 600C

150

100
700C
50 800C
900C
0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
Strain, m/m
Ref. Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1-2: General rules-structural fire design. ENV 1992-1-2, CEN: European Committee for
Standardization, UK, 2004.
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Effects of Fire on Steel Bars


1
0.9 During Fire:
0.8 ASCE
Yield strength fy/fyo, ksi

0.7 Eurocode 2
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
Temperature, C

Ref. ASCE, Structural Fire Protection, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, Practice No. 78, 1992
Ref. Eurocode 2, Design of concrete structures, Part 1-2: General rules-structural fire design. ENV 1992-1-2, CEN: European Committee for Standardization, UK, 2004.
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Temperature Profile

Thermal Modeling
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Determining Yield Strength


Yield Strength of Steel at Elevated Temp. (ACI 216)
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Demand vs. Capacity during Fire

Mufire=1.2DL+0.5LL+0.2S
Mnfire (ASCE 7)

Muambient=1.2DL+1.6LL
20 Mnambient (ASCE 7)
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16 (revision)

If strength (fire rating) is not adequate without the external


reinforcing material then additional fire proofing is required
To protect the ext. reinforcing system
And/or to protect the existing member

To increase the fire rating of the element

In this case, the effect of the fire protection system on the


external reinforcement and existing elements is considered
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Fire Protection

Protecting FRP and Steel Plates with Fireproofing


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Other Strengthening Methods


RC Concrete Enlargement

Concrete cover provides required fire rating


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

Other Strengthening Methods


Ext PT Encased in Concrete Enlargement

Concrete cover provides required fire rating


Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied
Reinforcing Systems

ACI 562-16, Section 5.5 Design Limits


SUMMARY
Two strength limits have been introduced to ACI 562-16 for external
reinforcing systems:
Strength limit for normal operations
Strength limit for fire events

All Non-mechanically bonded systems and FRP systems must meet the
normal operations limit in 5.5.2
Based on design (or tested) material properties and typical f factors
Mechanically attached systems not included
Allows for approx. 40% strength increase

All external system must be checked for adequate fire resistance per 5.5.3
Based on lower material strength and f = 1.0
Ignoring the external system if not fire protected
Additional fire resistance can be provided using fireproofing materials

Effectiveness of fire proofing materials must be established through


material testing and full scale structural testing
Thank You
Questions
Design Strength Requirements for Externally Applied Reinforcing Systems

Tarek Alkhrdaji
Structural Technologies