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Institutional Corrections originated (1895) with the Gladstone Committee as an

attempt to reform young offenders. The first institution was

established (1902) at Borstal Prison, Kent, England.
By criminologists - Saturday, July 5, 2014 - No Comments
Branding - stigmatizing is the process in which a mark,
Institutional Corrections
usually a symbol or ornamental pattern, is burned into the
Definition Of Terms
skin of a living person, with the intention that the resulting
scar makes it permanent as a punishment or imposing
Alcatraz - a US federal penitentiary, Often referred to as
masterly rights over an enslaved or otherwise oppressed
"The Rock", the small island of alcatraz was developed with
facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military
prison (1868), and a federal prison from 1933 until 1963.
Bridewell Prison and Workhouse - was the first
correctional institution in England and was a precursor of the
Alexander Maconochie - was a Scottish naval officer,
modern prison. Built initially as a royal residence in 1523,
geographer, and penal reformer. He is known as the Father of
Bridewell Palace was given to the city of London to serve as
the foundation for as system of Houses of Correction known
as Bridewells. These institutions, eventually numbering 200
His 2 Basic Principle of Penology
in Britain, housed vagrants, homeless children, petty
1. As cruelty debases both the victim and society, punishment
offenders, disorderly women, prisoners of war, soldiers, and
should not be vindictive but should aim at the reform of the
colonists sent to Virginia.
convict to observe social constraints, and
2. A convict's imprisonment should consist of task, not time
Bridewell Prison and Hospital - was established in a
sentences, with release depending on the performance of a
former royal palace in 1553 with two purposes: the
measurable amount of labour.
punishment of the disorderly poor and housing of homeless
children in the City of London.
Auburn Prison - Constructed in 1816, (opened 1819) it was
the second state prison in New York, the site of the first
Bureau of Corrections - has for its principal task the
execution by electric chair in 1890. It uses the silent or
rehabilitation of national prisoners, or those sentenced to
congregate system.
serve a term of imprisonment of more than three years.
Banishment - a punishment originating in ancient times,
- has 7 prison facilities
that required offenders to leave the community and live
- 1 prison institution for women
elsewhere, commonly in the wilderness.
- 1 vocational training centre for juveniles.
- Classification Board - classifies inmates according to
BJMP - (Bureau of Jail Management and Penology)
their security status.
government agency mandated by law (RA 6975) to take
- Reception and Diagnostic Centre - (RDC) receives,
operational and administrative control over all city, district
studies and classifies inmates committed to Bureau of
and municipal jails. It takes custody of detainees accused
before a court who are temporarily confined in such jails while
- Board of Discipline - hears complaints and grievances
undergoing investigation, waiting final judgement and those
with regard to violations of prison rules and regulations.
who are serving sentence promulgated by the court 3 years
- Iwahig Penal Farm - established in 1904 upon orders
and below.
of Gov. Forbes, then the Sec. of Commerce and police.
- New Bilibid Prison - established in 1941 in Muntinlupa
- created Jan. 2, 1991.
Camp Bukang Liwayway - minimum security prison.
- Charles S. Mondejar - 1st BJMP chief.
Camp Sampaguita - medium security prison
- BJMP chief tour of duty, must not exceed 4 years, maybe
- Davao penal Colony - established jan 21, 1932 (RA
extended by President. Grounds:
1. In times of war
- Sablayan Penal Colony and Farm - established
2. other national emergencies.
Sept.27, 1954
- Senior superintendent - the rank from which the BJMP chief
(Proclamation No.72) location:Occidental Mindoro
is appointed. This is the rank of the BJMP Directors of the
- Leyte Regional Prison - established Jan.16, 1973
Directorates in the National Headquarters. This is also the
- Old Bilibid Prison - First Penal Institution in the Phil.
rank of the Regional Director for Jail Management and
designated as insular penitentiary by Royal Decree in
- Chief of the BJMP - Highest ranking BJMP officer. Appointed
by the President upon recommendation of DILG Secretary. is
Burning at Stake - a form of ancient punishment by tying
- BJMP Deputy Chief for Administration - the 2nd highest
the victim in a vertical post and burning him/her.
ranking BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon
recommendation of the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief
Cesare Beccaria - an Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher
and politician best known for his treaties On Crimes and
- BJMP Deputy Chief for Operations - the 3rd highest ranking
Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death
BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon
penalty, and was a founding work in the field of penology and
recommendation of the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief
the Classical School of criminology
- BJMP Chief of the Directorial Staff - the 4th highest
Charles Montesquieu - a french lawyer, who analyzed law
BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon
as an expression of justice. He is famous for his articulation of
recommendation of the DILG Secretary. Rank is Chief
the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in
many constitutions throughout the world.
Borstal - a custodial institution for young offenders.
Code of Justinian - formally Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of
Civil Law), Justinian I the collections of laws and legal
Borstal System - rehabilitation method formerly used in
interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the
Great Britain for delinquent boys aged 16 to 21. The idea
Byzantine emperor Justinian I from AD 529 to 565.
one day to three years; and
Commitment Order - is an act of sending a person to prison 4. Municipal Prisoner one who is sentenced to a prison term
by means of such a warrant or order. of one day to six months.

Correctional Administration - the study and practice of a Flogging - (Flog) beat (someone) with a whip or stick as a
system of managing jails and prisons and other institutions punishment.
concerned with the custody, treatment and rehabilitation of
criminal offenders. Fred T. Wilkinson - last warden of the Alcatraz prison.

Corrections - describes a variety of functions typically Galley - a low, flat ship with one or more sails and up to
carried out by government agencies, and involving the three banks of oars, chiefly used for warfare or piracy and
punishment, treatment, and supervision of persons who have often manned by slaves or criminals.
been convicted of crimes.
Goals of Criminal Sentencing
Death Row - refers to incarcerated persons who have been 1. Retribution
sentenced to death and are awaiting execution. 2. Punishment
3. Deterrence
Deterrence - as contended by Cesare Beccaria, proponent of 4. Incapacitation
the classical theory, that punishment is to prevent others 5. Rehabilitation
from committing crime. 6. Reintegration
7. Restoration
Director Charles S. Mondejar - the first Chief of BJMP. He
took his oath of office on July 1 of 1991. Golden Age of Penology - 1870 - 1880

District Jail - is a cluster of small jails, each having a Guillotine - an ancient form of capital punishment by cutting
monthly average population of ten or less inmates, and is the head.
located in the vicinity of the court.
Halfway House - a center for helping former drug addicts,
Draco - was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th prisoners, psychiatric patients, or others to adjust to life in
century BC. He replaced the prevailing system of oral law and general society.
blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by a court.
Hammurabi's Code - an ancient code which contain both
Ducking Stool - a chair fastened to the end of a pole, used civil and criminal law. First known codified law prior to Roman
formerly to plunge offenders into a pond or river as a law. Better organized and comprehensive than biblical law.
punishment. One of its law is lex taliones (an eye for an eye)

Dungeon - a dark cell, usually underground where prisoners Hedonism - the ethical theory that pleasure (in the sense of
are confined. the satisfaction of desires) is the highest good and proper aim
of human life.
Elmira Reformatory - located in New York, was originally a
prison opened to contain Confederate prisoners of war during Hulk - an old ship stripped of fittings and permanently
the Civil War. It became known as a death camp because of moored, especially for use as storage or (formerly) as a
the squalid conditions and high death rate in its few years of prison.
operation. Established 1876.
Impalement - (Impaling) a form of capital punishment, is
Elmira System - An American penal system named after the penetration of an organism by an object such as a stake,
Elmira Reformatory, in New York. In 1876 Zebulon R. pole, spear or hook, by complete (or partial) perforation of
Brockway became an innovator in the reformatory movement the body, often the central body mass. Killing by piercing the
by establishing Elmira Reformatory for young felons. The body with a spear or sharp pole.
Elmira system classified and separated various types of
prisoners, gave them individualized treatment emphasizing Institutional Corrections - refers to those persons housed
vocational training and industrial employment, used in secure correctional facilities.
indeterminate sentences.
Jail - is defined as a place of confinement for inmates under
Ergastulum - is a Roman prison used to confine slaves. They investigation or undergoing trial, or serving short-term
were attached to work benches and forced to do hard labor in sentences
period of imprisonment.
Gaol - old name/term of jail.
Exemplarity - the criminal is punished to serve as an
example to others to deter further commission of crime. Three Types of Detainees
1. Those undergoing investigation;
Expiation - (Atonement) execution of punishment visibly or 2. those awaiting or undergoing trial; and
publicly for the purpose of appeasing a social group. Expiation 3. those awaiting final judgment
is a group vengeance as distinguished from retribution.
Jails - holds
First Women's Prison - opened in Indiana 1873. Based on a. Convicted offenders serving short sentences
the reformatory model. b. Convicted offenders awaiting transfer to prison
c. Offenders who have violated their probation or parole
Four Classes of Prisoners d. Defendants who are awaiting trial
1. Insular or national prisoner one who is sentenced to a
prison term of three years and one day to death; James V. Bennett - was a leading American penal reformer
2. Provincial prisoner one who is sentenced to a prison term and prison administrator who served as director of the
of six months and one day to three years; Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP) from 1937 to 1964. He was
3. City prisoner one who is sentenced to a prison term of one of the strongest advocates in the movement in
persuading Congress to close Alcatraz and replace it with a copper mine of Simsbury Connecticut. Inmates are confined
new maximum-security prison, eventually successful in 1963 underground (Black hole of horrors).
when it closed.
Operational capacity - the number of inmates that can be
January 2, 1991 - the Bureau of Jail Management and accommodated based on a facility's staff, existing programs,
Penology was created thru Republic Act 6975 as a line Bureau and services.
under the Department of Interior and Local Government.
Panopticon - a prison design, allowed a centrally placed
Jean Jacques Villain - pioneered classification to separate observer to survey all the inmates, as prison wings radiated
women and children from hardened criminals. out from this central position.

Jeremy Bentham - a prison reformer, believed that the Parole - refers to criminal offenders who are conditionally
prisoner should suffer a severe regime, but that it should not released from prison to serve the remaining portion of their
be detrimental to the prisoner's health. He designed the sentence in the community.
Panopticon in 1791.
Parole and Probation Administration (PPA) - was created
John Howard - a philanthropist and the first English prison pursuant to Presidential Decree (P.D.) No.968, as amended,
reformer. to administer the probation system. Under Executive Order
No. 292, the Probation Administration was renamed as the
Justice - crime must be punished by the state as an act of Parole and Probation Administration, and given the added
retributive justice, vindication of absolute right and moral law function of supervising prisoners who, after serving part of
violated by the criminal. their sentence in jails are released on parole or granted
conditional pardon. The PPA and the Board of Pardons and
lapidation - (Stoning) the act of pelting with stones; Parole are the agencies involved in the non-institutional
punishment inflicted by throwing stones at the victim. treatment of offenders.

Lex Taliones - an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth. Penal Management - refers to the manner or practice of
managing or controlling places of confinement such as jails
Lockups - Suspects usually stay in a lockup for only 24 to 48 and prisons.
hours. A suspect may later be transferred from the lockup to
the jail. PD No. 603 - was promulgated to provide for the care and
treatment of youth offenders from the time of apprehension
Mamertine Prison - was a prison (carcer) located in the up to the termination of the case.
Comitium in ancient Rome. It was originally created as a
cistern for a spring in the floor of the second lower level. Under this law, a youth offender is defined as a child, minor
Prisoners were lowered through an opening into the lower or youth who is over nine years but under eighteen years of
dungeon. age at the time of the commission of the offence.

Mark System - developed in Australia by Alexander Pennsylvania and New York - pioneered the penitentiary
Maconochie, whereby credits, or marks, were awarded for movement by developing two competing systems of
good behaviour, a certain number of marks being required for confinement. The Pennsylvania system and the Auburn
release. system.

Mittimus - is a process issued by the court after conviction to Pennsylvania System - An early system of U.S. penology in
carry out the final judgment, such as commanding a prison which inmates were kept in solitary cells so that they could
warden to hold the accused, in accordance with the terms of study religious writings, reflect on their misdeeds, and
the judgment. Mittimus is often attached on the commitment perform handicraft work.(Solitary System).
order issued by the court whenever the convict is to be
transferred to prison for service of sentence. Auburn System - An early system of penology, originating
at Auburn Penitentiary in New York, under which inmates
Mortality rate - A measure of the frequency of deaths in a worked and ate together in silence during the day and were
defined population during a specified interval of time. placed in solitary cells for the evening.(Congregate System)

Mutilation or maiming - an ancient form of punishment, is Penology - a branch of Criminology that deals with prison
an act of physical injury that degrades the appearance or management and reformation of criminals.
function of any living body, sometimes causing death.
Poene (latin) - penalty
National Prisons Association - was organized in Cincinnati Logos (latin) - science
in 1870.
Pillory - a wooden framework with holes for the head and
Neo-Classical - children and lunatics should not be punished hands, in which offenders were formerly imprisoned and
as they cannot calculate pleasure and pain. exposed to public abuse.

Classical Theory - pain must exceed pleasure to deter Prison - which refers to the national prisons or penitentiaries
crime. All are punished regardless of age, mental condition, managed and supervised by the Bureau of Corrections, an
social status and other circumstances. agency under the Department of Justice.

Positivist Theory - criminal is a sick person and should be Prison Hulks - (1776-1857) were ships which were anchored
treated and not punished. in the Thames, and at Portsmouth and Plymouth. Those sent
to them were employed in hard labour during the day and
Eclectic - it means selecting the best of various styles or then loaded, in chains, onto the ship at night.

Newgate Prison - not a real prison but an abandoned

Prison Reform - is the attempt to improve conditions inside Rank Classification of BJMP
prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. Director
Chief Superintendent
Probation - Probation in criminal law is a period of Senior Superintendent
supervision over an offender, ordered by a court instead of Superintendent
serving time in prison. Chief Inspector
Senior Inspector
John Augustus - Father of Probation. Augustus was born in Inspector
Woburn, Massachusetts in 1785. By 1829, he was a Senior Jail Officer IV
permanent resident of Boston and the owner of a successful Senior Jail Officer III
boot-making business. Senior Jail Officer II
Senior Jail Officer I
Father Cook - a chaplain of the Boston Prison visited the Jail Officer III
courts and gained acceptance as an advisor who made Jail Officer II
enquiries into the circumstances of both adult and juvenile Jail Officer I
RA 10575 - The Bureau of Corrections Act of 2013.
Provincial Jail - under the office of the Governor. Where the
imposable penalty for the crime committed is more than six Rack - a form of torture or punishment wherein pain is
months and the same was committed within the municipality, inflicted to the body through stretching.
the offender must serve his or her sentence in the provincial
jail. Rated Capacity - the number of beds or inmates assigned by
a rating official to institutions within the jurisdiction.
Where the penalty imposed exceeds three years, the offender
shall serve his or her sentence in the penal institutions of the Reformation - the object of punishment in a criminal case is
Bureau of Corrections. to correct and reform the offender.

Punishment - the infliction or imposition of a penalty as Reformatory Movement - The reformatory movement was
retribution for an offence. based on principles adopted at the 1870 meeting of the
National Prison Association.
Quakers - (or Friends, as they refer to themselves) are
members of a family of religious movements collectively The reformatory was designed:
known as the Religious Society of Friends. Many Quakers a. for younger, less hardened offenders.
have worked for reform of the criminal justice systems of b. based on a military model of regimentation.
their day. Quakers believe that people can always change: c. with indeterminate terms.
their focus has been on reforms that make positive change d. with parole or early release for favorable progress in
more likely, such as increased opportunities for education, reformation.
improved prison conditions, help with facing up to violent
impulses, and much else. Rehabilitation - to restore a criminal to a useful life, to a life
in which they contribute to themselves and to society.
William Penn - founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the
English North American colony and the future Commonwealth Retribution - punishment inflicted on someone as vengeance
of Pennsylvania. was the first great Quaker prison reformer. for a wrong or criminal act.
In his Great Experiment in Pennsylvania in the 1680s he
abolished capital punishment for all crimes except murder. Security Level - A designation applied to a facility to
He also stated that prisons shall be workhouses, that bail describe the measures taken, both inside and outside, to
should be allowed for minor offences, and all prisons shall preserve security and custody.
be free, as to fees, food and lodgings. He provided for
rehabilitation, as he stipulated that prisoners should be The simplest security level categorization is:
helped to learn a trade, so that they could make an honest a. maximum
living when they were released. b. medium
c. minimum
John Bellers - (1654-1725) was the earliest British Friend to
pay serious and systematic attention to social reform. He Maximum - security facilities are characterized by very tight
pleaded for the abolition of the death penalty, the first time internal and external security.
this plea had been made. He argued that criminals were the
creation of society itself and urged that when in prison there Common security measures include: (Maximum)
should be work for prisoners so that they might return to the - A high wall or razor-wire fencing
world with an urge to industry. - Armed-guard towers
- Electronic detectors
Elizabeth Fry - (1780-1845) was the most famous of Quaker - External armed patrol
reformers, though others were equally influential in raising - A wide, open buffer zone between the outer wall or
public awareness. Reforms such as the separation of women fence and the community.
and children from men and the development of purposeful - Restrictions on inmate movement
activity of work or education came about through pressure - The capability of closing off areas to contain riots or
from informed people. disruptions.

RA 6975 - sec.60 to 65, created the BJMP. Houses the following inmates:
- Those sentenced to death assists the President in the grant of executive clemency
- Those sentenced with min. 20 years through the Board of Pardons and Parole.
- Those remanded inmates/detainees with min. 20
years sentence DILG - supervises the provincial, district, city and municipal
- Those whose sentences is under review by SC jails through the provincial governments and the Bureau of
(min.20 years) Jail Management and Penology, respectively.
- Those whose sentences is under appeal (min.20
years) DSWD - supervises the regional rehabilitation centres for
- Those with pending cases youth offenders through the Bureau of Child and Youth
- Those who are recidivist Welfare.

Ultra-Maximum/Super-Maximum Security Prison - house Transportation - a punishment in which offenders were

notorious offenders and problem inmates from other transported from their home nation to one of that nation's
institutions. These institutions utilize: Total isolation of colony to work.
inmates, Constant lockdowns
Twelve Tables - The Law of the Twelve Tables (Latin: Leges
Medium-security institutions - place fewer restrictions on Duodecim Tabularum or Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient
inmate movement inside the facility. legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.
Established basic procedural rights for all Roman citizens as
Characteristics often include:(Medium) against one another
- Dormitory or barracks-type living quarters
- No external security wall Underground Cistern - a reservoir for storing liquids,
- Barbed wire rather than razor wire underground tank for storing water. This was also used prison
- Fences and towers that look less forbidding in ancient times.

Houses the following inmates: Utilitarianism - a tradition stemming from the late 18th-
- Those sentenced to less than 20 years and 19th-century English philosophers and economists
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that an action is right if
Minimum-security prisons - are smaller and more open. it tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to
produce the reverse of happinessnot just the happiness of
They often house inmates who: the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected
- Have established records of good behavior by it.
- Are nearing release
Voltaire - believes that fear of shame is a deterrent to crime.
Characteristics often include:(Minimum)
- Dormitory or barracks living quarters Walnut Street Jail - opened in 1790 in Philadelphia.
- No fences Considered the 1st state prison. Inmates labored in solitary
- Some inmates may be permitted to leave during the cells and received large doses of religious training.
day to work or study.
- Some inmates may be granted furloughs Workhouses - European forerunners of the modern U.S.
prison, where offenders were sent to learn discipline and
Sing Sing Prison - was the third prison built by New York regular work habits.
State. It is a maximum-security prison.
Zebulon Reed Brockway - was a penologist and is
Sir Evelyn Ruggles Brise - was a British prison sometimes regarded as the Father of prison reform and
administrator and reformer, and founder of the Borstal Father of American Parole in the United States.

Sir Walter Crofton - the director of Irish prisons. In his

program, known as the Irish system, prisoners progressed
through three stages of confinement before they were
returned to civilian life. The first portion of the sentence was
served in isolation. After that, prisoners were
assigned to group work projects.

Stocks - instrument of punishment consisting of a heavy

timber frame with holes in which the feet and sometimes the
hands of an offender can be locked.

Three major government functionaries involved in the

Philippine correctional system:
1. DOJ

DOJ - supervises the national penitentiaries through the

Bureau of Corrections, administers the parole and probation
system through the Parole and Probation Administration, and