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ELECTRICAL

MACHINES II
(AC MACHINES)
Presented by
Hari Madhava Reddy. Y
EEE
Guntur Engineering College,Guntur.
EMAIL: harimadhavareddy@gmail.com
Syllabus
EE6502 Electrical Machines -II
UNIT III THREE wINDwUC.TVIONidMyOaTOrRthiplus.com
PHAS
wE
9
Constructional details - Types of rotors - Principle of operation - Slip -cogging and crawling-
Equivalent circuit - Torque-Slip characteristics - Condition for maximum torque - Losses and
efficiency - Load test - No load and blocked rotor tests - Circle diagram - Separation of losses-
Double cage induction motors -Induction generators - Synchronous induction motor.

UNIT IV STARTING AND SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION


MOTOR 9
Need for starting - Types of starters - DOL, Rotor resistance, Autotransformer and Star-delta starters
- Speed control- Vo~age control, Frequency control and pole changing - Cascaded connection-V/f
control - Slip power recovery scheme-Braking of three phase induction motor: Plugging, dynamic
braking and regenerative braking.

UNITV SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION MOTORS AND SPECIAL MACHINES 9


Constructional details of single phase induction motor - Double field revolving theory and operation-
Equivalent circuit - No load and blocked rotor test - Performance analysis - Starting methods of
single-phase induction motors - Capacitor-start capacitor run Induction motor- Shaded pole induction
motor - Linear induction motor - Repulsion motor - Hysteresis motor - AC series motor- Servo motors-
Stepper motors - introdu ct ion to m ag net ic lev ita tion s yst em s.
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BOOKS Reference

LOCAL AUTHORS: {For THEORY use this books}


1.Electrical Machines-II by Gnanavadivel Anuradha Publication
2. Electrical Machines-II by Godse Technical Publication
For Problems:

Electric Machines by Nagrath & Kothari {Refer Solved Problems}


Electric Machinery by A.E.Fitgerald {Refer Solved Problems}

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Important Website Reference

Electrical Machines-II by S. B.
Sivasubramaniyan -MSEC, Chennai
http://yourelectrichome.blogspot.in/

http://www.electricaleasy.com/p/electri
cal-machines.html

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NPTEL Reference
Electrical Machines II by Dr. Krishna
Vasudevan & Prof. G. Sridhara Rao
Department of Electrical Engineering , IIT
Madras.
Basic Electrical Technology by Prof. L.
Umanand - IISc Bangalore {video}

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BASICS OF
ELECTRICAL
MACHINES

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Electrical Machine?
Electrical machine is a device which
can convert
Mechanical energy into electrical
energy (Generators/alternators)
Electrical energy into mechanical
energy (Motors)
AC current from one voltage level to
other voltage level without changing its
frequency (Transformers)

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Fundamental Principle..

Electrical Machines (irrespective of


AC or DC) work on the fundamental
principle of Faradays law of
Electromagnetic Induction.

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Faradays Law

Faradays Law of Electromagnetic


Induction states that an EMF is
induced in a coil when the magnetic
flux linking this coil changes with time
or
The EMF generated is proportional to
the rate at which flux is changed.
d d
e N
dt dt
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Faradays Law Illustration

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Two forms of Induced EMF !

The effect is same if the magnet is


moved and the coil is made stationery
We call it as statically induced EMF

The previous case is referred to as


Dynamically induced EMF

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Governing Rules

It becomes evident that there exists a


relationship between mechanical energy,
electrical energy and magnetic field.
These three can be combined and precisely
put as governing rules each for generator
and for motor

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Flemings Right hand rule

For Generator

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Fleming's Right hand rule(for Generator)

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Flemings Left hand rule

For Motor

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Fleming's left hand rule (for motors)

First finger - direction of magnetic field (N-S)


Second finger - direction of current
(positive to negative)
Thumb - movements of the wire

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Maxwells Corkscrew rule

If the electric current is moving away from the


observer, the direction of lines of force of the
magnetic field surrounding the conductor is
clockwise and that if the electric current is
moving towards an observer, the direction of
lines of force is anti-clockwise

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Corkscrew (Screw driver) rule -


Illustration

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Coiling of Conductor

To augment the effect of flux, we coil the conductor


as the flux lines aid each other when they are in the
same direction and cancel each other when they are
in the opposite direction
Many a times, conductor is coiled around a magnetic
material as surrounding air weakens the flux
We refer the magnetic material
as armature core

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Electromagnet

The magnetic property of current carrying


conductor can be exploited to make the
conductor act as a magnet Electromagnet

This is useful because it is very difficult to


find permanent magnets with such high field
Also permanent magnets are prone to ageing
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AC Fundamentals

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AC Fundamentals - continued

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Whenever current passes through
a conductor

Opposition to flow of current


Opposition to sudden change in current
Opposition to sudden change in voltage
Flux lines around the conductor

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Inductive Effect

Reactance EMF
Lenz Law
An induced current is always in such a
direction as to oppose the motion or
change causing it

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Capacitive effect

C
Q
V
q (t 1
V (t )

)
dt
i(t )
C C
dq (t dv (t )
i(t ) ) C
dt dt

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Resistive Network Vector diagram

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Inductive Network Vector Diagram

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Capacitive Network Vector Diagram

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Inductive & Capacitive effects -


combined

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Pure L & C networks not at all


possible!

R-L network

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Pure L & C networks not at all


possible! contd.

R-C network

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Current & Flux

As already mentioned,
As the current, so the flux

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3 phase AC

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Star and Delta

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Star connection

V 3V ph
L

IL I ph

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Delta Connection

V V ph
L

IL 3I ph

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Maxwell's Right Hand Grip
Rule

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Right Handed Cork Screw
Rule

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Generators
The Generator converts mechanical power
into electrical power.
Synchronous generators (Alternator)
are constant speed generators.
The conversion of mechanical power into
electrical power is done through a coupling field
(magnetic field).

Input Magnetic Electrical Output


Mechanical
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Electric Generator
Mechanical Electrical
Energy
G Energy

Stationary magnets - rotating magnets - electromagnets


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Motor
The Motor converts electrical power
into mechanical power.

M
Electrical Mechanical
Energy Energy

Input Magnetic Output


Mechanical
Electrical

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B a s ic C o n
lus . c om
s t r u ction
Parts
Stationary Part

Stator Armature

Mechanical Electrical
Rotor Field

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AC MACHINES
Two categories:
1.Synchronous Machines:
Synchronous Generators(Alternator)
Primary Source of Electrical Energy
Synchronous Motor

2.Asynchronous Machines(Induction Machines)

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UNIT-1
Synchronous
Generator
(Alternator)
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UNIT-1 Syllabus

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Synchronous Generators

Generator

Exciter
View of a two-pole round rotor generator and exciter.
(Westinghouse)
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Synchronous Machines

Synchronous generators or alternators are used to convert


mechanical power derived from steam, gas, or hydraulic-turbine
to ac electric power
Synchronous generators are the primary source of electrical
energy we consume today
Large ac power networks rely almost exclusively on synchronous
generators
Synchronous motors are built in large units compare to induction
motors (Induction motors are cheaper for smaller ratings) and
used for constant speed industrial drives

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C o n s tr u c t i
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Basic parts of a synchronous generator:


Rotor - dc excited winding
Stator - 3-phase winding in which the ac emf is generated

The manner in which the active parts of a synchronous machine


are cooled determines its overall physical size and structure
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Armatu re W i n d Stator)
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i n g s ( O
Armature windings connected are 3-phase and are
either star or delta connected
It is the stationary part of the machine and is built up of
sheet-steel laminations having slots on its inner
periphery.
The windings are 120 degrees apart and normally use
distributed windings
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Field W in d i n g s (
s .co m
o n R otor)
The field winding of a synchronous machine is always
energized with direct current

Under steady state condition, the field or exciting


current is given

Ir = Vf/Rf
Vf = Direct voltage applied to the field winding
Rf= Field winding Resistance
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R o t o r
Rotor is the rotating part of the machine

Can be classified as: (a) Cylindrical Rotor and (b) Salient


Pole rotor

Large salient-pole rotors are made of laminated poles


retaining the winding under the pole head.
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Various Types of ROTOR

Salient-pole Rotor

Cylindrical or round rotor

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a. Salient-Pole Rotor
1. Most hydraulic turbines have to turn at low speeds
(between 50 and 300 r/min)
2. A large number of poles are required on the rotor
d-axis
N

D 10 m
gap
q-axis S S

Turbine
N
Hydro (water)

Hydrogenerator
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Salient pole twypwewro.tVoridisyuasrethd
iipnlulosw.caondmmedium speed alternators
This type of rotor consists of large number of projected
poles (called salient poles)
Poles are also laminated to minimize the eddy current
losses.
This type of rotor are large in diameters and short in
axial length.
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Salient-Pole Synchronous Generator

Stator

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b. Cylindrical-Rotor(Non-Salien t

Turbine D1m

L 10 m
Steam d-axis
Stator winding

High speed N
Uniform air-
3600 r/min -pole gap
Stato
1800 r/min -pole r
q-axis Rotor winding
Direct-conductor cooling (using
hydrogen or water as coolant) Roto
r
Rating up to 2000 MVA
S

Turbogenerator
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Cylindrica l
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t y pe r o to r s a r e u s e d
in high speed alternators (turbo
alternators)
This type of rotor consists of a smooth and
solid steel cylinder having slots along its
outer periphery.
Field windings are placed in these slots.
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Cylindrwicawl-
wR.oVtoidrySayrnthchiprolunso.ucsoG
menerator

Stator
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Working of Alternator &


frequency of Induced EMF

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Working Principle
It works on the principle of Electromagnetic induction
In the synchronous generator field system is rotating and armature
winding is steady.
Its works on principle opposite to the DC generator
High voltage AC output coming from the armature terminal

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Working Principle

Armature Stator
Field Rotor
No commutator is
required {No need for
commutator because
we need AC only}

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Frequency
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Every time a complete pair of poles crosses the conductor, the
induced voltage goes through one complete cycle. Therefore, the
generator frequency is given by

p n pn
f .
2 60 120
N=Rotor speed in r.p.m
P=number of rotor poles
f=frequency of induced EMF in Hz

No of cycles/revolution = No of pairs of poles = P/2


No of revolutions/second = N/60
No of cycles/second {Frequency}= (P/2)*(N/60)=PN/120
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Adva n t a g e s o f
lu s .c o m
s t a t i onary
armature
At high voltages, it easier to insulate
stationary armature winding(30 kV or more)
The high voltage output can be directly
taken out from the stationary armature.
Rotor is Field winding. So low dc voltage
can be transferred safely
Due to simple construction High speed of
Rotating DC field is possible.
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Winding
Factors( K , p

Kd )
K cos

p
2

sin
m

2


Kd

m sin

2

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Pitch factor (Kp)


Consider 4 pole, 3 phase machine having 24
conductors
Pole pitch = 24 / 4 = 6 slots
If Coil Pitch or Coil Span = pole pitch, then it
is referred to as full-pitched winding
If Coil Pitch < pole pitch, it is referred to as
short-pitched winding

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Coil Span = 5 / 6 of pole pitch


If falls short by 1 / 6 of pole pitch
or
180 / 6 = 30 degrees
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Save copper of end connections
Improve the wave-form of the generated emf
(sine wave)
Eliminate the high frequency harmonics

There is a disadvantage attached to it


Total voltage around the coil gets reduced
because, the emf induced in the two sides of
the coil is slightly out of phase
Due to that, their resultant vectorial sum is less
than the arithmetic sum
This is denoted by a factor Pitch factor, Kp or Kc

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Pitch factor Kp

Vectorsum
Kp
Arithmaticsum

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Pitch factor contd.

Arithmatic sum

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Pitch factor contd.

Vector sum

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Pitch factor contd.

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Pitch factor contd.

Vector _ sum
Kp
Arithmatic _ sum

2E
s cos
2
2 Es

cos

2
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Pitch factor - Problem

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Distribution factor (Kd)


As we know, each phase consists of
conductors distributed in number of slots to
form polar groups under each pole
The result is that the emf induced in the
conductors constituting the polar group are
not in phase rather differ by an angle equal
to angular displacement of the slots

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For a 3
phwaswewm.aVcihdinyeawrtihthip3l6usco.cn
odumctors, 4 pole, no. of slots (conductors) / pole
/ phase is equal to 3
Each phase consists of 3 slots
Angular displacement between any two adjacent
slots = 180 / 9 = 20 degrees
If the 3 coils are bunched in 1 slot, emf induced is
equal to the arithmetic sum (3Es)
Practically, in distributed winding, vector sum has to
be calculated
Kd = Vector sum / Arithmetic sum

emf _ with _ distributed _ winding


Kd
emf _ with _ concentrate
d _ winding

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0 0
180 180

no.of _ slots _ per _ pole n


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For calculating Vector sum

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m
2 r sin


2


Kd

m sin
2r
2

sin
m

2
d
m sin

2

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Problem:
Distribution factor /Breadth factor

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EMF Equation
of Alternator

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Equation of Induced EMF

Average emf induced per conductor = d / dt


Here, d = P
If P is number of poles and flux / pole is Weber
dt = time for N revolution = 60 / N second
Therefore,
Average emf = d / dt = P / (60 / N)
NP

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Equation of Induced EMF contd.

We know,
N = 120 f / P
Substituting, N we get
Avg. emf per conductor = 2 f Volt
If there are Z conductors / ph, then
Avg. emf induced / ph = 2 f Z Volt
Ave emf induced (in turns) / ph = 4 f T Volt

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Equation of Induced EMF contd.

We know, RMS value / Avg. Value = 1.11


Therefore,
RMS value of emf induced / ph = 1.11 (4 f T) V
= 4.44 f T Volt
This is the actual value, but we have two other
factors coming in the picture, Kc and Kd
These two reduces the emf induced

RMS value of emf induced = (Kd) (Kc) 4.44 f T Volt


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Armature
Reaction of
Alternator
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Armature Reaction

Main Flux Field Winding


Secondary Flux Armature Winding
Effect of Armature Flux on the Main Flux is
called Armature Reaction

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Armature Reaction in alternator

I.) When load p.f. is unity


II.) When load p.f. is zero lagging
III.) When load p.f. is zero leading

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Armature Reaction in alternator

I.) When load p.f. is unity


distorted but not weakened.- the average flux in the
air-gap practically remains unaltered.
II.) When load p.f. is zero lagging
the flux in the air-gap is weakened- the field
excitation will have to be increased to compensate
III.) When load p.f. is zero leading
the effect of armature reaction is wholly
magnetizing- the field excitation will have to be
reduced

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1. Unity Power Factor Load

Consider a purely resistive load connected to the


alternator, having unity power factor. As induced
e.m.f. Eph drives a current of Iaph and load power
factor is unity, Eph and Iph are in phase with each
other.
If f is the main flux produced by the field
winding responsible for producing Eph then Eph lags
f by 90o .
Now current through armature Ia, produces the
armature flux say a. So flux a and Ia are always in
the same direction.
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Phase difference of 90o between the armature flux and the main flux
the two fluxes oppose each other on the left half of each pole while assist
each other on the right half of each pole.
Average flux in the air gap remains constant but its distribution gets
distorted.
Due to such distortion of the flux, there is small drop in the terminal voltage

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2. Zero Lagging Power Factor Load

Consider a purely inductive load connected to the


alternator, having zero lagging power factor.
Iaph driven by Eph lags Eph by 90o which is the power
factor angle .
Induced e.m.f. Eph lags main flux f by 90o while
a is in the same direction as that of Ia.
the armature flux and the main flux are exactly in
opposite direction to each other.

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As this effect causes reduction in the main flux, the terminal voltage
drops. This drop in the terminal voltage is more than the drop
corresponding to the unity p.f. load.

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3. Zero Leading Power Factor Load

Consider a purely capacitive load connected to the


alternator having zero leading power factor.
This means that armature current Iaph driven by Eph,
leads Eph by 90o, which is the power factor angle .
Induced e.m.f. Eph lags f by 90o while Iaph and
a are always in the same direction.
the armature flux and the main field flux are in the
same direction

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As this effect adds the flux to the main flux, greater


e.m.f. gets induced in the armature. Hence there is
increase in the terminal voltage for leading power factor
loads.

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Phasor Diagram
for Synchronous
Generator/Alternator

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Phasor Diagram of loaded
Alternator
Ef which denotes excitation voltage
Vt which denotes terminal voltage
Ia which denotes the armature current
which denotes the phase angle between Vt and Ia
which denotes the angle between the Ef and Ia
which denotes the angle between the Ef and Vt
ra which denotes the armature per phase resistance
Two important points:
(1) If a machine is working as a synchronous generator then
direction of Ia will be in phase to that of the Ef.
(2) Phasor Ef is always ahead of Vt.
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Lagging PF Unity PF Leading PF

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a. Alternator at Lagging PF
Ef by first taking the component of the Vt in the
direction of Ia
Component of Vt in the direction of Ia is Vtcos ,
Total voltage drop is (Vtcos+Iara) along the Ia.
we can calculate the voltage drop along the direction
perpendicular to Ia.
The total voltage drop perpendicular to Ia is
(Vtsin+IaXs).
With the help of triangle BOD in the first phasor
diagram we can write the expression for Ef as

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b. Alternator at Unity PF
Ef by first taking the component of the Vt in
the direction of Ia.
= 0 hence we have =.
With the help of triangle BOD in the second
phasor diagram we can directly write the
expression for Ef as

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c. Alternator at Leading PF
Component in the direction of Ia is Vtcos.
As the direction of Ia is same to that of the Vt thus
the total voltage drop is (Vtcos+Iara).
Similarly we can write expression for the voltage
drop along the direction perpendicular to Ia.
The total voltage drop comes out to be (Vtsin-IaXs).
With the help of triangle BOD in the first phasor
diagram we can write the expression for Ef as

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Determwiwnwat.iVoidnyoafrththipelu
psa.croammeters of the equivalent
circuit from test data

The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator


that has been derived contains three quantities that
must be determined in order to completely
describe the behaviour of a real synchronous
generator:
The saturation characteristic: relationship between
If and (and therefore between If and Ef)
The synchronous reactance, Xs
The armature resistance, Ra
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uAs.cGomE

REGULATION
Voltage regulation of an alternator is
defined as the rise in terminal voltage of the
machine expressed as a fraction of
percentage of the initial voltage when
specified load at a particular power factor is
reduced to zero, the speed and excitation
remaining unchanged.
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Regulation
A convenient way to compare the voltage
behaviour of two generators is by their
voltage regulation (VR). The VR of a
synchronous generator at a given load,
power factor, and at rated speed is defined
as
En V
VR 100%
l fl
V fl
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Regulation
Case 1: Lagging power factor:
A generator operating at a lagging power factor has a
positive voltage regulation.
Case 2: Unity power factor:
A generator operating at a unity power factor has a small
positive voltage regulation.
Case 3: Leading power factor:
A generator operating at a leading power factor has a
negative voltage regulation.
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as.cgome
Regulation
This value may be readily determined from
the phasor diagram for full load operation.
If the regulation is excessive, automatic
control of field current may be employed to
maintain a nearly constant terminal voltage
as load varies
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Methods of
Determination of
voltage regulation

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Methwowdws.VoifdyDarethtieprlu
ms.icnomation of
voltage regulation
Synchronous Impedance Method / E.M.F.
Method
Ampere-turns method / M.M.F. method
ZPF(Zero Power Factor) Method / Potier
ASA Method
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1.
Syncwwhwr.VoindyoaruthsiplIums.
pcoemdance
Method / E.M.F. Method
The method is also called E.M.F. method of determining
the regulation. The method requires following data to
calculate the regulation.
1. The armature resistance per phase (Ra).
2. Open circuit characteristics which is the graph of open
circuit voltage against the field current. This is possible by
conducting open circuit test on the alternator.
3. Short circuit characteristics which is the graph of short
circuit current against field current. This is possible by
conducting short circuit test on the alternator.
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The alternator is coupled to a prime mover
capable of driving the alternator at its
synchronous speed. The armature is connected to
the terminals of a switch. The other terminals of
the switch are short circuited through an ammeter.
The voltmeter is connected across the lines to
measure the open circuit voltage of the alternator.
The field winding is connected to a suitable d.c.
supply with rheostat connected in series. The field
excitation i.e. field current can be varied with the
help of this rheostat. The circuit diagram is shown
in the Fig.

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Circuit Diagram for OC & SC test

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a. Open Circuit Test

Procedure to conduct this test is as follows :


i) Start the prime mover and adjust the speed to the synchronous
speed of the alternator.
ii) Keeping rheostat in the field circuit maximum, switch on the d.c.
supply.
iii) The T.P.S.T switch in the armature circuit is kept open.
iv) With the help of rheostat, field current is varied from its
minimum value to the rated value. Due to this, flux increasing
the induced e.m.f.
Hence voltmeter reading, which is measuring line value of open
circuit voltage increases. For various values of field current,
voltmeter readings are observed.
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Open-circuit test Characteristics
The generator is turned at the rated speed
The terminals are disconnected from all loads,
and the field current is set to zero.
Then the field current is gradually increased in
steps, and the terminal voltage is measured at each
step along the way.
It is thus possible to obtain an open-circuit
characteristic of a generator (Ef or Vt versus If)
from this information

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w w w. V id ya rt hi pl us .c o
Connect io n f o r O p e n C i
rmcuit Test
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p-Clusi.crocm
Characteristic

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Short-
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test
Adjust the field current to zero and short-
circuit the terminals of the generator
through a set of ammeters.
Record the armature current Isc as the field
current is increased.
Such a plot is called short-circuit
characteristic.
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Short-circuit test
After completing the open circuit test observation, the field
rheostat is brought to maximum position, reducing field
current to a minimum value.
The T.P.S.T switch is closed. As ammeter has negligible
resistance, the armature gets short circuited. Then the field
excitation is gradually increased till full load current is
obtained through armature winding.
This can be observed on the ammeter connected in the
armature circuit. The graph of short circuit armature
current against field current is plotted from the observation
table of short circuit test. This graph is called short circuit
characteristics, S.C.C.
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test
Adjust the field current to zero and short-
circuit the terminals of the generator through a
set of ammeters.
Record the armature current Isc as the field
current is increased.
Such a plot is called short-circuit characteristic.
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Cownwnw.eVicdytarit Short
ohinplufs.ocorm
Circuit Test

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Owpwwe.nVidayanrthdiplsush.co
omrt circuit
characteristic
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Curve feature

The OCC will be nonlinear due to the


saturation of the magnetic core at higher
levels of field current. The SCC will be
linear since the magnetic core does not
saturate under short-circuit conditions.

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s ar th iplus.co
Determin a t i o n o f X
m

For a particular field current IfA, the internal voltage Ef (=VA) could be found from
the occ and the short-circuit current flow Isc,A could be found from the scc.
Then the synchronous reactance Xs could be obtained using

V A E f
Z s ,unsat R2a X 2s ,unsat
I scA

OCC Isc (A) X s ,unsat Z s2,unsat R a2


Vrated
SCC
: Ra is known from the DC test.

VA
Isc,B
Since Xs,unsat>>Ra,
Isc, A I scA
Ef
IfA IfB
If (A) X s ,unsat
V t , oc
I scA

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Xs under saturated condition
Ef or Vt (V) Air-gap line

OCC Isc (A)

SCC

VA
Isc,B

At V =
Vrated,
V rated E f If (A)
Z s , sat R X
2
a
2
s ,sat IfA IfB

scB

X s , sat Z s2, : 2
a is known from the DC test.
sat RaR
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Advantagwewswa.VnidyLairmthiitpalutsi.oc
noms of
Synchronous Impedance Method

The value of synchronous impedance Zs for any load


condition can be calculated. Hence regulation of the
alternator at any load condition and load power factor can
be determined. Actual load need not be connected to the
alternator and hence method can be used for very high
capacity alternators.
The main limitation of this method is that the method
gives large values of synchronous reactance. This leads to
high values of percentage regulation than the actual results.
Hence this method is called pessimistic method
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w w w . V id yaprhthaispolursd.ci
Equivalent c ir c u it &
o m
a g ram
under
condition

jXs Ra
Vt=0 Ef
+
Ia
+ jIaXs
Ef Ia
Vt=0

IaRa
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Short-circuit Ratio
Another parameter used to describe synchronous generators is the
short-circuit ratio (SCR). The SCR of a generator defined as the ratio
of the field current required for the rated voltage at open circuit to the
field current required for the rated armature current at short circuit.
SCR is just the reciprocal of the per unit value of the saturated
synchronous reactance calculated by

Ef or Vt (V) Air-gap line


Isc (A)
OCC
Vrated If
SCC _ Vrated
SCR
Isc,rated If _ Iscrated
1

X s _ sat in p.u.
If (A)
If_V rated If_Isc rated
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Synchronowwuws .GViedynaertrhiapltuos.rco
Cmapability
Curves

Synchronous generator capability curves are used to


determine the stability of the generator at various points of
operation. A particular capability curve generated in Lab
VIEW for an apparent power of 50,000W is shown in Fig.
The maximum prime-mover power is also reflected in it.
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Cawwpwa.Vibdyialrthitipl
yus.com
Curve
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2. MMF method (Ampere turns method)
Tests: Conduct tests to find
OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF
SCC (for rated current) refer diagram EMF

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Steps: www.Vidyarthiplus.com
I. By suitable tests plot oee and see
2. From the oee find the field current Ifl to
produce rated voltage, V.
3. From see fmd the magnitude of field
current I.f2 to produce the required
armature current.
4. Draw I.f2 at angle (90+<1 from Irr, where
<1> is the phase angle of current from
voltage. If current is leading, take the
angle of I.f2 as (90-<1.
5. Find the resultant field current, If
and
mark its magnitude on the field current
.
ax.rs ,
6. From oee. find the voltage
corresponding to If, which will be Eo.
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3. ZPF method (Potier method)
Tests: Conduct tests to find
OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF
SCC (for rated current) refer diagram EMF
ZPF (for rated current and rated voltage)
Armature Resistance (if required)

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E ------------

o A

Field current
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7. Find E from V, IXL and <1>. Consider s;
also if required. The expression to use is

E = .J(V cos <I> + IRa)2 + (V sin <l> + IX L)2

8. Find field current corresponding to E.


9. Draw FO with magnitude equal to BE at
angle (90+') from field current axis,
where 'P is the phase angle of current
from voltage vector E (intemal phase
angle).
10. The resultant field current is given by
00. Mark this length on field current
axr s.
11. From acc find the corresponding Eo.
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4.
AS A m e t
w ww. Vidyar thiplu s.c

hod
om

Tests: Conduct tests to find


OCC (up to 125% of rated voltage) refer diagram EMF
SCC (for rated current) refer diagram EMF
ZPF (for rated current and rated voltage)
Armature Resistance (if required)
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~ -----------------------------

o F,
Field current

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L o.Vsidysarethsiplua
ww w
s.cnomd

Efficiency
The losses in synchronous generator include:
1. Copper losses in
a) Armature
b) Field winding
c) The contacts between brushes
2. Core losses, Eddy current losses and
Hysteresis losses
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Losses
3. Friction and windage losses,the brush
friction at the slip rings.
4. Stray load losses caused by eddy currents in
the armature conductors and by additional
core loss due to the distribution of magnetic
field under load conditions.

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synchronowuwsw.gVeidnyaerrthaiptluosr.cop
mower
flow
diagram
w w w . Ve siyndcyhroanrouts
The th re e-p h as

gheinepraltorupsow.ercflomdiagram
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Synchronization
& Parallel
operation of
Alternator
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Parallel operation of synchronous generators

There are several major advantages to operate generators in


parallel:

Several generators can supply a bigger load than one machine


by itself.
Having many generators increases the reliability of the power
system.
It allows one or more generators to be removed for shutdown
or preventive maintenance.

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Before connecting a generator in parallel with another
generator, it must be synchronized. A generator is said to be
synchronized when it meets all the following conditions:
The rms line voltages of the two generators must be
equal.
The two generators must have the same phase sequence.
The phase angles of the two a phases must be equal.
The oncoming generator frequency is equal to the
running system frequency.
a c/

Generator 1
b
c
Switch
a/

Generator 2
b/
Load

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Parwawl idoyparethriapltuiso.cno
wle.Vl mof
synchronous generators
Most of synchronous generators are operating in parallel with other
synchronous generators to supply power to the same power system.
Obvious advantages of this arrangement are:
1. Several generators can supply a bigger load;
2. A failure of a single generator does not result in a total power loss to the load
increasing reliability of the power system;
3. Individual generators may be removed from the power system for maintenance
without shutting down the load;
4. A single generator not operating at near full load might be quite inefficient.
While having several generators in parallel, it is possible to turn off some of
them when operating the rest at near full-load condition.

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Condwiwtiwo.Vnidsyarreth
qipuluisr.ecodmfor
paralleling
A diagram shows that Generator 2
(oncoming generator) will be connected
in parallel when the switch S1 is closed.
However, closing the switch at an
arbitrary moment can severely
damage both generators!

If voltages are not exactly the same in both lines (i.e. in a and a, b and b etc.), a
very large current will flow when the switch is closed. Therefore, to avoid this,
voltages coming from both generators must be exactly the same. Therefore, the
following conditions must be met:
1. The rms line voltages of the two generators must be equal.
2. The two generators must have the same phase sequence.
3. The phase angles of two a phases must be equal.
4. The frequency of the oncoming generator must be slightly higher than the
frequency of the running system.
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Condwiwtiwo.Vnidsyarreth
qipuluisr.ecodmfor
paralleling
If the phase sequences are different,
then even if one pair of voltages
(phases a) are in phase, the other two
pairs will be 1200 out of phase creating
huge currents in these phases.

If the frequencies of the generators are different, a large power transient may occur
until the generators stabilize at a common frequency. The frequencies of two
machines must be very close to each other but not exactly equal. If frequencies
differ by a small amount, the phase angles of the oncoming generator will change
slowly with respect to the phase angles of the running system.
If the angles between the voltages can be observed, it is possible to close the
switch S1 when the machines are in phase.
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Genwewrwa.lVpidryoarctheipdluus
.rceomfor

paralleling generators
When connecting the generator G2 to the running system, the following steps
should be taken:
1. Adjust the field current of the oncoming generator to make its terminal voltage
equal to the line voltage of the system (use a voltmeter).
2. Compare the phase sequences of the oncoming generator and the running
system. This can be done by different ways:
1) Connect a small induction motor to the terminals of the oncoming generator
and then to the terminals of the running system. If the motor rotates in the
same direction, the phase sequence is the same;
2) Connect three light bulbs across the
open terminals of the switch. As the phase
changes between the two generators, light
bulbs get brighter (large phase difference)
or dimmer (small phase difference). If all
three bulbs get bright and dark together,
both generators have the same phase
sequences.
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Genwewrwa.lVpidryoarcth
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paralleling generators
If phase sequences are different, two of the conductors on the
oncoming generator must be reversed.
3. The frequency of the oncoming generator is adjusted to be slightly higher than
the systems frequency.
4. Turn on the switch connecting G2 to the system when phase angles are equal.
The simplest way to determine the moment when two generators are in phase is by
observing the same three light bulbs. When all three lights go out, the voltage
across them is zero and, therefore, machines are in phase.

A more accurate way is to use a synchroscope a meter


measuring the difference in phase angles between two a
phases. However, a synchroscope does not check the
phase sequence since it only measures the phase
difference in one phase.

The whole process is usually automated


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Generat
Load
or

Rest of the
power system

Xs1
Ef1

Xs2
Generato Ef2
r

G
Xsn Infinite bus
Efn V, f are
constant
Xs eq = 0
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Concept of the infinite bus

When a synchronous generator is connected to a power


system, the power system is often so large that nothing, the
operator of the generator does, will have much of an effect
on the power system. An example of this situation is the
connection of a single generator to the power grid. Our
power grid is so large that no reasonable action on the part
of one generator can cause an observable change in
overall grid frequency. This idea is idealized in the concept
of an infinite bus. An infinite bus is a power system so large
that its voltage and frequency do not vary regardless of
how much real or reactive power is drawn from or supplied
to it.

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Steady-state power-
angle characteristics

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Active and reactive power-angle characteristics

Pm
P e , Qe

Vt
Fig. Synchronous generator connected to an infinite bus.

P>0: generator operation


P<0: motor operation
Positive Q: delivering inductive vars for a generator action or
receiving inductive vars for a motor action
Negaive Q: delivering capacitive vars for a generator action or
receiving capacitive vars for a motor action

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Active and reactive power-angle characteristics

Pm
P e, Q e
Vt

The real and reactive power delivered by a synchronous


generator or consumed by a synchronous motor can be
expressed in terms of the terminal voltage Vt, generated voltage
Ef, synchronous impedance Zs, and the power angle or torque
angle .
Referring to Fig. 8, it is convenient to adopt a convention that
makes positive real power P and positive reactive power Q
delivered by an overexcited generator.
The generator action corresponds to positive value of ,
while the motor action corresponds to negative value of .

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Active and reactive power-angle characteristics

Pm
The complex power output of the generator in volt- Pe, Qe
Vt
amperes per phase is given by
_
S P jQ V t I a*
where:
Vt = terminal voltage per phase
Ia* = complex conjugate of the armature current per phase

Taking the terminal voltage as reference


_
V t Vt j0

the excitation( at stator in case of motor) or the generated voltage,


_
E f E f cos j sin

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Active and reactive power-angle char
acteristics
and the armature current,
_
Ia
EfV E cos Vt jE f sin
Pm
Pe, Qe

t
Vt

f

jX s jX s

where Xs is the synchronous reactance per phase.

S P jQ V t I Vt *

E f cos Vt jE f sin
a
jX s


Vt E f sin Vt E f cos Vt2
j
Xs Xs

Vt E f sin

P &
Xs
Vt E f 2
Q cos Vt
Xs
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Active and reactive power-angle char
acteristics
Pm
Pe, Qe
Vt

2
Vt E f sin Vt E f cos Vt
P & Q
Xs Xs

The above two equations for active and reactive powers hold
good for cylindrical-rotor synchronous machines for negligible
resistance
To obtain the total power for a three-phase generator, the above
equations should be multiplied by 3 when the voltages are line-to-
neutral
If the line-to-line magnitudes are used for the voltages, however,
these equations give the total three-phase power

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Steady-state power-angle or torque-angle characteristic of
cylindrical-rotor synchronous machine (with negligible
armature resistance).
Real power or
torque

Pull-out
torque as a
generator

generato
r




motor

Pull-out
torque as a
motor
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Swtweawd.yV-sidtaytae
rstthaibpilluitsy.cliommit
3Vt E f
Total three-phase sin
powerP: X s

The above equation shows that the power produced by a


synchronous generator depends on the angle between the Vt
and Ef. The maximum power that the generator can supply occurs
when =90o.
3Vt E f
P
Xs
The maximum power indicated by this equation is called steady-state
stability limit of the generator. If we try to exceed this limit (such as by
admitting more steam to the turbine), the rotor will accelerate and lose
synchronism with the infinite bus. In practice, this condition is never
reached because the circuit breakers trip as soon as synchronism is
lost. We have to resynchronize the generator before it can again pick
up the load. Normally, real generators never even come close to the
limit. Full-load torque angle of 15o to 20o are more typical of real
machines.

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Pull-out torque
The maximum torque or pull-out torque per phase that a two-
pole round-rotor synchronous motor can develop is
Pmax Pmax
Tmax
m
2

n s 60


where ns is the synchronous speed of the motor in rpm

P or Q


Fig. Active and reactive power as a function of the internal angle
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BLONDELS TWO REACTION


THEORY

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P
aplarlCoullesge.of cEnogg m& Tech , Erode
w w w. Vid ya rth iplu
BLOND E L S T W O R
s.c om
E ACTION
THEORY
In case of cylindrical pole machines, the direct-axis
and the quadrature axis mmfs act on the same magnetic
circuits, hence they can be summed up as complexors.
However, in a salient-pole machine, the two mmfs do not
act on the same magnetic circuit.
The direct axis component Fad operates over a
magnetic circuit identical with that of the field system,
while the q-axis component Faq is applied across the
interpole space, producing a flux distribution different
from that of Fad or the Field mmf.
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The Blondel's two reaction theory hence
considers the results of the cross and direct-
reaction components separately and if saturation
is neglected, accounts for their different effects
by assigning to each an appropriate value for
armature-reaction "reactive" respectively Xaq and
Xad .
Considering the leakage reactance, the combined reactance
values becomes
Xad = X + X ad and X sq = X aq
Xsq < Xsd as a given current component of the q-axis gives rise
to a smaller flux due to the higher reluctance of the magnetic path.

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Let lq
d
anwdwIwb.Veidthyeaqrthainpdluds-.acxoims
components of the current I in the armature
reference to the phasor diagram in Figure. We
get the following relationships

Iq= I cos (+) Ia = I cos

Id = I sin (+ ) Ir = I sin

I = (Id2 + Iq2)= = (Id2 + Ir2)

where Ia and Ir are the active and reactive


components of current I.
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SLIP TEST

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Slip Test (f or salient pole machines only)

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Short Circuit Transients


for Synchronous
Generator

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Short Circuit Phenomenon
Consider a two pole elementary single phase alternator with concentrated
stator winding as shown in Fig. 4. Consider a two pole elementary single
phase alternator with concentrated stator winding as shown in Fig. 4.

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The corresponding wavwefworm.Vs fiodr ystaorrthanidprloutosr
Fig
c.ucrorenmts are shown in the
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Let short
w w w
c ir cu it o
.Vcciudrsyaat
rptohsitpiolnusof.crootomr shown in Fig. 4(a) when there are no
stator linkages. After 1/4 Rev as shown Fig. 4(b), it tends to establish
full normal linkage in stator winding. The stator opposes this by a
current in the shown direction as to force the flux in the leakage path.
The rotor current must increase to maintain its flux constant. It reduces
to normal at position (c) where stator current is again reduces to
zero. The waveform of stator current and field current shown in the Fig.
5. changes totally if the position of rotor at the instant of short circuit is
different. Thus the short circuit current is a function of relative position
of stator and rotor.
Using the theorem of constant linkages a three phase short
circuit can also be studied. After the instant of short circuit the flux
linking with the stator will not change. A stationary image of main pole
flux is produced in the stator. Thus a d.c. component of current is
carried by each phase.
The magnitude of d.c. component of current is different for each
phase as the instant on the voltage wave at which short circuit occurs is
different for each phase. The rotor tries to maintain its own poles
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The rotor
w w w .Vis
c ur re nt
idnoyramratlheipaclhusti.mceomwhen rotor poles occupy
the position same as that during short circuit and the current in
the stator will be zero if the machine is previously unloaded.
After one half cycle from this position the stator and rotor poles
are again coincident but the poles are opposite. To maintain the
flux linkages constant, the current in rotor reaches to its peak
value.
The stationary field produced by poles on the stator
induces a normal frequency emf in the rotor. Thus the rotor
current is fluctuating whose resultant a.c. component develops
fundamental frequency flux which rotates and again produces in
the stator winding double frequency or second harmonic
currents. Thus the waveform of transient current consists of
fundamental, a.c. and second harmonic components of currents.
Thus whenever short circuit occurs in three phase generator
then the stator currents are distorted from pure sine wave and
are similar to those obtained when an alternating voltage is
suddenly applied to series R-L circuit.
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Stator Currents during Short Circuit
If a generator having negligible resistance, excited and
running on no load is suddenly undergoing short circuit at its
terminals, then the emf induced in the stator winding is used
to circulate short circuit current through it. Initially the
reactance to be taken into consideration is not the
synchronous reactance of the machine. The effect of armature
flux (reaction) is to reduce the main field flux.
But the flux linking with stator and rotor can not change
instantaneously because of the induction associated with the
windings. Thus at the short circuit instant, the armature
reaction is ineffective. It will not reduce the main flux. Thus
the synchronous reactance will not come into picture at the
moment of short circuit. The only limiting factor for short
circuit current at this instant is the leakage reactance.

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After somwewtwim.eVfirdoymarththe
iipnlsutasn.tcoof mshort circuit, the armature reaction
slowly shows its effect and the alternator then reaches to steady
state. Thus the short circuit current reaches to high value for
some time and then settles to steady value.
It can be seen that during the initial instant of short circuit
is dependent on induced emf and leakage reactance which is
similar to the case which we have considered previously of
voltage source suddenly applied to series R-L circuit. The
instant in the cycle at which short occurs also affects the short
circuit current. Near zero e.m.f. (or voltage) it has doubling
effect. The expressions that we have derived are applicable only
during initial conditions of short circuit as the induced emf also
reduces after some tome because of increased armature
reaction.
The short circuit currents in the three phases during short
circuit are as shown in the Fig(next slide)
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Current
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Currant
(V phase)

-
o
de CCWJ IiiPOi .. , il't

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Capability Curves of
Synchronous
Generators

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The rating of wsywncwhr.oVnoidusyagerntehraiptolrus
si.scsopmecified in terms of maximum apparent power in KVA
and MVA load at a specified power factor (normally 80, 85 or 90
percent lagging) and voltage for which they are designed to
operate under steady state conditions. This load is carried by the
alternators continuously without overheating. With the help of
automatic voltage regulators the terminal voltage of the alternator is
kept constant (normally within
5% of rated voltage).
The power factor is also important factor that must be specified.
This is because the alternator that is designed to operate at 0.95 p.f.
lagging at rated load will require more field current when operate at
0.85 p.f. lagging at rated load. More field current results in
overheating of the field system which is undesirable. For this
compounding curves of the alternators can be drawn.
If synchronous generator is supplying power at constant
frequency to a load whose power factor is constant then curve
showing variation of field current versus armature current when
constant power factor load is varied is called compounding curve for
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To maintain thewtewrmwin.aVl
vidolytaagertchonipstaluntsth.ce olamgging power factors
require more field excitation that that required for leading power
factors. Hence there is limitation on output given by exciter and
current flowing in field coils because of lagging power factors.
The ability of prime mover decides the active power output of the
alternator which is limited to a value within the apparent power
rating. The capability curve for synchronous generator specifies the
bounds within which it can operate safely.
The loading on generator should not exceed the generator rating as it
may lead to heating of stator. The turbine rating is the limiting factor
for MW loading. The operation of generator should be away from
steady state stability limit ( = 90o). The field current should not
exceed its limiting value as it may cause rotor heating.
All these considerations provides performance curves which are
important in practical applications. A set of capability curves for an
alternator is shown in Fig. 2. The effect of increased Hydrogen
pressure is shown which increases the cooling.
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When the
active p ow er an d v o lta g e a re fix e d t he
w w w .V i d y a r t h ip lu s . c o
mallowable reactive power loading is limited by either armature or
field winding heating.
From the capability curve shown in Fig. 2, the maximum reactive
power loadings can be obtained for different power loadings with
the operation at rated voltage. From unity p.f. to rated p.f. (0.8 as
shown in Fig. 2), the limiting factor is armature heating while for
lower power factors field heating is limiting factor.
This fact can be derived as follows :
If the alternator is operating is constant terminal voltage and
armature current which the limiting value corresponding to heating
then the operation of alternator is at constant value of apparent
power as the apparent power is product of terminal voltage and
current, both of which are constant.
If P is per unit active power and Q is per unit reactive power
then per unit apparent power is given by,
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Similarly, considering the alternator o be operating at constant terminal
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voltage and field current (hence E) is limited to a maximum value obtained
by heating limits.
Thus induced voltage E is given by,

If Ra is assumed to be zero then

The apparent power can be written as,

Substituting value of a obtained from (1) in equation (2),

Taking magnitudes,

This equation also represents a circle with centre at (0, -Vt2/Xs). These two circles are
represents in the Fig. 3 (see next post as Fig. 1). The field heating and armature heating
limitation on machine operation can be seen from this Fig. 3 (see next post as Fig.1).
The rating of machine which consists of apparent power and power factor is specified as
the point of intersection of these circles as shown in the Fig. 4. So that the machine operates
sa w
fe w
ly w
. .
V
i
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y
a
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i
p
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.
c
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UNIT-2
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR
Presented by
Presented by Hari Madhava Reddy. Y
Hari Madhava EEE
R Guntur Engineering College,Guntur.
EMAIL: harimadhavareddy@gmail.com
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UNIT 2 Syllabus

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Synchronous Motor

3 phase AC supply is given to the stator and


mechanical energy is obtained from the rotor
Reverse of alternator operation
However, field poles are given electrical
supply to excite the poles (electromagnets !)
Rated between 150kW to 15MW with speeds
ranging from 150 to 1800 rpm.
Constant speed motor
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Rotating Magnetic Field


(RMF)

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Basics Rotating Magnetic Field

When 3 phase supply is given to the stator


winding, 3 phase current flows which
produces 3 phase flux
The MMF wave of the stator will have
rotating effect on the rotor
The effect of the field will be equal to that
produced by a rotating pole

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Rotating Magnetic Field (R.M.F)
contd.

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RMF contd.

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RMF contd.

R m sin t m sin .......................(a)


Y m sin t 120 m sin 120 ...................(b)
B m sin t 240 m sin 240 ...................(c)

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RMF contd.

Looking back at the waveform again, we see


that at any instant, one waveform has zero
magnitude and one has a positive value and
the other, negative value
Let us consider at the following instances
0, 60, 120, 180 degrees

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RMF contd.

Case (i) = 0 (look at the waveform)

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RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 0 in equations a, b, c

R m sin sin 0 0
m
3
sin 120 sin 0
Y m m 120 m
2

sin 240 sin 0


240 3
B m m m
2
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RMF contd.

Case (i) - Phasor diagram

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RMF contd.

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RMF contd.

Case (ii) = 60 (look at the waveform)

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RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 60 in equations a, b, c

3
R m sin m sin 60 m
2
3
Y m sin 120 m sin 60 120 m
2
B m sin 240 m sin 60 240 0

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RMF contd.

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RMF contd.

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RMF contd.

Case (iii) = 120 (look at the waveform)

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RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 120 in equations a, b, c

3
R m sin m sin120 m
2
Y m sin 120 m sin 120 120 0
3
sin 240 sin 120
R m m 240 m
2
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RMF contd.

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RMF contd.

Case (iv) = 180 (look at the waveform)

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RMF contd.

Simply substitute = 180 in equations a, b, c

R m sin m sin 180 0


3
sin 120 sin 180 120
Y m m m
2
3
sin 240 sin 180
B m m 240 m
2
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RMF contd.

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RMF contd.

It is found that the resultant flux line is


rotating at constant magnitude
This we refer as rotating field or revolving
field
The speed at which it rotates will be at
synchronous speed Ns = (120 f / P )
Direction of rotation will be in the clockwise
direction as shown in the previous slide
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Principle of
operation

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Operation

We have a rotating field at the stator


Rotor is another magnet
If properly aligned (?!) these two magnets will
attract each other
Since the stator field is rotating at
synchronous speed, it will carry the rotor
magnet along with it due to attraction
(magnetic locking)
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Magnetic Locking - Illustration

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Operation contd.

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Why - ?

It is true that magnetic locking will make the


rotor run at synchronous speed
Locking cannot happen instantly in a
machine (?)
This makes synchronous motors not self
starting

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Not self starting

Due to inertia

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How to make Syn. Motor self
starting

If the rotor is moved by external means (to


overcome inertial force acting on it) then
there is a chance for the motor to get started

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Procedure to make SM self start

3 ph supply is given to the stator


Motor is driven by external means
Rotor is excited
At an instant rotor poles will be locked with
the stator field and motor will run at syn.
speed

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Back EMF &


V Curves ,
Inverted V Curves

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EMF generation in a motor ? !

We call it as back emf


Similar to generated emf in an alternator
Rotor rotating at synchronous speed will
induce emf in the stationary armature
conductors
The ac voltage applied has to overcome this
back emf to circulate current through the
armature winding
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Back emf

Eb 4.44K C K d fT
As given, emf is proportional to flux

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Back emf

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Slight deviation from the topic (?)

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Coming back to Back emf

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Increase in Load

In a Synchronous motor with increase in load


increases

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Increase in Load, o.k What about
the speed ?

The speed of the Synchronous motor speed


stays constant at synchronous speed even
when the load is increased
Magnetic locking between the stator and
rotor (stiffness of coupling) keeps the rotor
run at synchronous speed
But when the angle of separation () is 90,
then stiffness (locking) is lost and the motor
ceases to run
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At constant load, varying the
excitation

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Kindly see to it that

In all the cases discussed above, magnitude


of current vector changes
Power factor changes
But the product Icos would be constant so
that active power drawn by the machine
remains constant

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What actually happens ?

The resultant air gap flux is due to ac


armature winding and dc field winding
If the field is sufficient enough to set up the
constant air gap flux then the magnetizing
armature current required from the ac source
is zero hence the machine operates at
unity power factor this field current is the
normal field current or normal excitation

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What actually happens ?

If the field current is less than the normal


excitation then the machine is under
excited
This deficiency in flux must be made by the
armature mmf so the armature winding
draws magnetizing current or lagging
reactive MVA leaving the machine to
operate at lagging power factor

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What actually happens ?

In case the field current is made more than


its normal operation then the machine is
over excited
This excess flux must be neutralized by the
armature mmf so the machine draws
demagnetizing current or leading reactive
MVA leaving the machine to operate at
leading power factor

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Better illustration

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Better Illustration

Similarly,

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Synchronous motor in pf
improvement

This feature of synchronous motor makes it


suitable for improving the power factor of the
system
Motors are overexcited so that it draws
leading current from the supply
The motor here is referred to as synchronous
condenser

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V - curves

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Inverted V - curves

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CIRCLE
DIAGRAM
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Circle Diagrams

This offers a quick graphical solution to many


problems

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Circle Diagrams contd.

Excitation Circle diagram


It gives the locus of armature current, as the
excitation voltage and load angle are varied

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Excitation Circle Diagram

It is based on the voltage equation of a motor


given by
Vt E f I a Z s
It can be expressed as

Vt Ef
Ia
Zs Zs
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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Vt Ef
Ia
Zs Zs
Each component in the above expression is
a current component
It can be taken in such a way that they lag
from their corresponding voltage component
by power factor angle
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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Same result can be obtained mathematically


as follows
With Vt as reference
Vt Ef
Ia
Zs Zs

Vt 0 E f
Ia
Z s Z s
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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Vt Ef
Ia
Zs Zs
Vt Ef
I cos jsin cos j sin
a Z
Zs s

Re arranging
Vt Ef Vt Ef
I cos cos j sin sin
a Z Z Zs
s s
Zs
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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Magnitude
2 2
Vt Ef Vt Ef

2
I cos cos sin sin
a Z Z
Zs s s
Zs

2 2
Vt Ef Vt E f
cos cos sin sin
2
I
2
a

Zs Z s Z s Zs

2 2
V Ef Vt E f
t 2 cos cos sin sin cos sin cos cos sin
sin
2
I
a

Zs Zs Zs Zs

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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.


2 2
V Ef Vt E f
t 2 cos cos sin sin cos sin cos cos sin
sin
2
I
a
Zs Zs Zs Zs

2
V Ef Vt E f 2
2 t 2 cos cos sin sin cos sin cos sin cos
2
I sin
a

Zs Zs Zs Zs

V
2
Ef V Ef
2
2 cos sin 2
a
cos

Zs Zs Zs Zs

2 2
2 Vt Ef Ef
I

Vt 2 cos
a
Zs Z Zs Zs
s

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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

2 2
2 Vt Ef Vt E f
I 2 cos
a Z Z Z Z
s s s s


The above equation says that Vt / Zs is one
side of a triangle, whose other side is given
by Ef / Zs
The third side is given by Ia
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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Coming back to our diagram (kindly verify the


sides)

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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

In the diagram, if Vt is assumed constant,


then Vt / Zs is a constant
Now, if Ef (the excitation) is fixed, Ef / Zs
vector and Ia vector follow the path of a circle
as load is changed on the motor
This locus is referred to as Excitation circle
Excitation circle defines the magnitude and
power factor of Ia and the load angle , for
different shaft loads
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Excitation Circle Diagram contd.

Same old diagram

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Power Circle Diagram

This again gives the locus of armature


current, as the mechanical power developed
and power factor is varied

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Power Circle Diagram

Power output per phase is given as

P V tI a cos I r
2
a a

P is the mechanical power developed


including iron and mechanical losses

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Power Circle Diagram

The equation can be written as,


Dividing the whole equation by ra and
rearranging it, we get
Vt P
Ia cos
2
I a 0
ra ra

Vt P
I cos I sin
2 2 2 2
cos 0
a a I a
ra ra
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Power Circle Diagram

2 2 2 Vt P
I cos
2
I sin cos 0
a a I a
ra ra
Subsitituting x = Ia sin and y = Ia cos, the equation
becomes
2 2 Vt P
x y y 0
ra ra

This is equation of circle with
2
V Vt P
centre 0, t & radius
2ra 2ra ra
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Power Circle Diagram

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Power Circle Diagram

Alternatively,
We know,
2 Vt P
I I a cos 0
a
ra ra
Adding Vt / 2 ra on either side we get,
2 2
2 Vt P V Vt
I cos t
Ia a
r r 2r
a 2r
a
a a
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Power Circle Diagram

Re arranging ,
2 2
2 V Vt Vt
I t
cos
P
a I
a
r 2r a
2ra ra
a

Slight Modification, yields


2 2
V t
2 Vt Vt P
I 2 cos
a 2r I a 2r ra
a 2ra a
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Power Circle Diagram

2 2
2 V t Vt Vt P
I 2 cos
a I a
2r 2r 2r r
a a a
a

The above expression shows that


2
Vt P


2r ra
a

is one side of a triangle whose other two


sides are Ia and Vt / 2ra seperated by
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Power Circle Diagram

Going back to the power circle diagram

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Power Circle Diagram - Inference

At Pmax, armature current is in phase with


Vt/2ra, hence the power factor is unity
Magnitude of armature current is given by
Vt/2ra

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Power Circle Diagram - Inference

At Pmax, we know, radius of the power circle


is zero
Substituting, radius = 0, we get
2
Vt Pmax
0
2ra
ra
2
Vt
Pmax
4ra
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Power Circle Diagram- Inference

Maximum power input,


V V
2

I a Vt cos
Pin,max Vt .1 2r
2r
t t

a a

Efficiency is given by
2
t a
max
50%
Pin,max V
t
2
/ 2ra
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Power Circle Diagram- Inference

As we see, 50 % efficiency is too low a value


for synchronous motor
At this efficiency, since the losses are about
half of that of the input, temperature rise
reaches the permissible limit
As such, maximum power output presented
earlier cannot be met in practice

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Power Circle Diagram- Inference

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V curves (again?!)

We know, excitation circle diagram shows


locus of armature current as a function of
excitation voltage
Power circle diagram shows locus of
armature current as a function of power
When these two circles are super imposed

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V curves contd.

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TORQUE EQUATION
& POWER
EQUATION

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Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

Consider the phasor diagram

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Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

In a motor power developed can be given as

Pm Eb I a cos
Looking at the phasor diagram again

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Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

We need to manipulate the vector diagram to


arrive at the expression

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Power Developed by Synchronous


Motor

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Torque Developed by Synchronous


Motor

We know(e), T (2 Ns) = P if Ns is in rps


So, T = P / (2 Ns)
or T = P / (2 Ns) if Ns is in rpm

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Maximum power developed

Condition for maximum power developed can


be found by differentiating the power
expression by and equating it to zero (as
usual) 2
Eb V Eb
Pm cos cos
Zs Zs

Differentiating ,
dP m Z
sin
d Eb s
V
0
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Maximum power developed -
condition

Eb sin 0
V
Zs
sin 0

0

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Maximum power developed

Substituting = , in the power


expression, we get,
2
EV E
Pm,max cos
Z Z
bs bs

or
2
EV E
Pm,max cos
Z Z
bs bs

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Maximum power developed

If
Ra 0
EbV
Pm , max
Zs
Substituting, cos = Ra / Zs

E bV Eb R
2
Pm ,max a

Zs Z s Z
s

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Maximum power developed

Eb Ra
2
EbV
Pm ,
max
Zs Zs Zs

Solving ,
Zs
Eb V
2
V 4R P
a m,max
2Ra
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Maximum power developed
condition

As the equation says, Power developed


depends on excitation
2
EbV Eb
Pm cos cos
Zs Zs

Differentiating with respect to Eb

d
2
dPm Eb
EbV cos

cos 0
dEb
dEb Z s Zs
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Maximum power developed -
condition

d
2
dPm Eb
EbV cos

cos 0
dEb dEb Z
s Z s

VZ s
Eb
2 Ra
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Maximum power developed -
condition

VZ s
Eb
2 Ra
This is the value of Eb which will make
developed power to be maximum
The maximum power is given by substituting
the condition (Eb) in Pm expression
2 2
V V
Pm ,max

2R a 4Ra
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Operation of
infinite bus
bars
wrewsenwted.byVCi.GOdKyULa,APr/EtEEhViela
P
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Operation
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o f AC G e n e r a t o r
s in Parallel with Large Power
Systems
Isolated synchronous generator supplying its own load is very
rare (emergency generators)
In general applications more than one generator operating in
parallel to supply loads
In Iran national grid hundreds of generators share the load on
the system
Advantages of generators operating in parallel:
1- several generators can supply a larger load
2- having many generators in parallel increase the
reliability of power system
3- having many generators operating in parallel allows
one or more of them to be removed for shutdown &
preventive maintenance
4- if only one generator employed & not operating near full load, it
will be relativwelwy win.efVficiiednyt arthiplus.com
Operation
owfwAwC.VidGyaerntheiprlaust.ocrosm in
Parallel
with Large Power Systems
INFINITE BUS
When a Syn. Gen. connected to power system,
power sys. is so large that nothing operator of
generator does, have much effect on pwr. sys.
Example: connection of a single generator to a
large power grid (i.e. Iran grid), no reasonable
action on part of one generator can cause an
observable change in overall grid frequency
This idea belong to definition of Infinite Bus
which is: a so large power system, that its
voltage & frequency do not vary, (regardless of
amount ofwrwewa.l
Vaindyraeratchtiiveplpuosw.ecrolmoad)
Operation
owfwwA.CVidGyaertnhieplruast.coorms in
Parallel
with Large Power Systems
When a syn. Gen.
connected to a
power system:
1-The real power
versus frequency
characteristic of
such a system
2-And the reactive
power-voltage
characteristic
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Operation
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o f AC G e n e r a t o r
s in Parallel with Large Power
Systems
Behavior of a generator
connected to a large
system
A generator connected in
parallel with a large
system as shown

Frequency & voltage of


all machines must be the
same, their real power-
frequency (& reactive
power-voltage)
characteristics plotted
back to back
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Operation
w ww . Vid ya rt hi pl u s .c o m
o f AC G e n e r a t o r
s in Parallel with Large Power
Systems
Assume generator just been paralleled with
infinite bus, generator will be floating on the
line, supplying a small amount of real power
and little or no reactive power
Suppose generator paralleled, however its
frequency being slightly lower than systems
operating frequency
At this frequency power supplied by
generator is less than systems operating
frequency, generator will consume energy and
runs as mwowtowr.Vidyarthiplus.com
Operation
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o f AC G e n e r a t o r
s in Parallel with Large Power
Systems
In order that a generator comes on line and
supply power instead of consuming it, we
should ensure that oncoming machines
frequency is adjusted higher than running
systems frequency
Many generators have reverse-power trip
system
And if such a generator ever starts to consume
power it will be automatically disconnected from
line
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Starting Methods
of Syn Motor

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As seen earlier, synchronous motor is not self
starting. It is necessary to rotate the rotor at a
speed very near to synchronous speed. This is
possible by various method in practice. The
various methods to start the synchronous motor
are,
1. Using pony motors
2. Using damper winding
3. As a slip ring induction motor
4. Using small d.c. machine coupled to it.

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1. Using pony motors
In this method, the rotor is brought to the
synchronous speed with the help of some
external device like small induction motor. Such
an external device is called 'pony motor'.
Once the rotor attains the synchronous
speed, the d.c. excitation to the rotor is switched
on. Once the synchronism is established pony
motor is decoupled. The motor then continues to
rotate as synchronous motor.

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2. Using Damper Winding

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3. As a Slip Ring Induction Motor
Refer Unit 3 for detail understanding

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4. Using Small D.C. Machine
Many a times, a large synchronous motor are provided
with a coupled d.c. machine. This machine is used as a
d.c. motor to rotate the synchronous motor at a
synchronous speed. Then the excitation to the rotor is
provided. Once motor starts running as a synchronous
motor, the same d.c. machine acts as a d.c. generator
called exciter. The field of the synchronous motor is then
excited by this exciter itself.

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Current loci for constant


power input, constant
excitation and constant power
developed
Refer Book for
detail study
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Current lwowcwi
f.oVridcyoarnthsitpalunst.cpoomwer
input
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J t first erected representing the axis for the voltage V A
AvertIc a I S a
I I

I
hor'\~~~
~n

line is drawn at a point A such that OA = 3v'


The current locus varies on the straight line for various powers f
excitation, it takes a Jagging current i.e., the current vector lying on the righ' t ~I~
I d' tak sldeofl l
von, 1tage vector V. For over excI tatIo It es a ea Ing current
i..e, t'ne cUrrent ~
lying on the left side of voltage vector V, llIIIJ

Similarly,
the._
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Currewnwt
lwo.cViidfoyarrcthoipnlussta.cnot
mpower developed(PM)
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1'lalfIO

Filure 2.11
v
111 fi8Ure 2.22, .---
2R
and I. are taken as two sides of a triangle, shown by
OA

1be third side is given by


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of the voltqe
we_get

Oneaives

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Current locus for constant Excitation

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HUNTING
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Natural
frequency of
oscillations
Refer Book
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Damper
windings
Refer Book for
detail study
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Synchronouws wmwot.oVrsidayrearntoht ipselulf
ss.tcarotimng machines. These machines are made self starting by
providing a special winding in the rotor poles, known as damper
winding or squirrel cage windings. The damper winding consists of short
circuited copper bars embedded in the face of the rotor poles
When an ac supply is provided to stator of a 3-phase
synchronous motor, stator winding produces rotating magnetic field.
Due to the damper winding present in the rotor winding of the
synchronous motor, machine starts as induction motor (Induction
machine works on the principle of induction. Damper windings in
synchronous motor will carryout the same task of induction motor rotor
windings.
Therefore due to damper windings synchronous motor starts as
induction motor and continue to accelerate). The exciter for synchronous
motor moves along with rotor. When the motor attains about 95% of the
synchronous speed, the rotor windings is connected to exciter terminals
and the rotor is magnetically locked by the rotating magnetic field of
stator and it runs as a synchronous motor.
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Functions of Damper Windings:
Damper windings helps the synchronous motor to start
on its own (self starting machine) by providing starting
torque
By providing damper windings in the rotor of
synchronous motor "Hunting of machine can be
suppressed.
When there is change in load, excitation or change in
other conditions of the systems rotor of the synchronous
motor will oscillate to and fro about an equilibrium
position. At times these oscillations becomes more
violent and resulting in loss of synchronism of the motor
and comes to halt.
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Synchronous
Condensers
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When
synchrwonwowus.Vmiodtyorairsthovipelruesx.ccito
emd it takes leading p.f. current. If synchronous motor is
on no load, where load angle is very small and it is
over excited (Eb > V) then power factor angle increases
almost up to 90o. And
motor runs with almost zero leading power factor
condition.
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This charactewriswtiwcs.iVs
isdimyailratrhtiopalunso.rcmoaml capacitor which
takes leading power factor current. Hence over excited
synchronous motor operating on no load condition is
called as synchronous condenser or synchronous
capacitor. This is the property due to which synchronous
motor is used as a phase advancer or as power
improvement device.
Disadvantage of Low Power Factor
In various industries, many machines are of induction motor
type. The lighting and heating loads are supplied through
transformers. The induction motors and transformers draw lagging
current from the supply. Hence the overall power factor is very low
and lagging in nature.
The power is given by,
P = VI cos .............. single phase
.. . I = P/(Vcos)
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The high current due to low p.f. has following disadvantages
:

1. For higher current, conductor size required is more which


increases the cost.
2. The p.f. is given by
cos = Active power/ Apparent = (P in KW)/ (S in KVA)

Thus for fixed active power P, low p.f. demands large KVA
rating
alternators and transformers. This increases the cost.
3. Large current means more copper losses and poor
efficiency.
4. Large current causes large voltage drops in transmission
lines, alternators and other equipments. This results into poor
regulation.
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1.1 Use of SynchronoL wls
Cwonwden.VseridinyPaowretrhFiapctolur
Ism.pcroovemment
The low power factor increases the cost of generation, distribution and
transmission of the electrical energy. Hence such low power factor needs to be
corrected. Such power factor correction is possible by connecting synchronous motor
across the supply and operating it on no load with over excitation.
Now let Vph is the voltage applied and 11ph is the current lagging Vph by angle CI>1.

This power factor CI>1 is very low. lagging.


The synchronous motor acting as a synchronous condenser is now connected
across the same supply. This draws a leading current of 12ph.
The total curren t drawn from the SUPplYIs now phasor of I ph and 12ph. This
total current IT now lags Vph by smaller angle CI> due to which effective power factor
gets
improved. This is shown in the Fig. 2.

O~==F==~~~--------
I,.fErr.tc:tive cun em)

1,~lthout sllnchrot1Ousmotor)
Fig.2 Power factor correction by synchronous condense.,

This is how the synchronous motor as a synchronous condenser is used to


improve power factor of the combined load.
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U n i t-
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p3lus.com

Three phase Induction


Motor

Presented by
Hari Madhava Reddy. Y
Guntur Engineering College,Guntur.
EMAIL: harimadhavareddy@gmail.com
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UNIT 3 Syllabus

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Introduction
~ Three-phase induction motors are the most common
and frequently encountered machines in industry
Simple design, Low cost and rugged, requires little or no
skilled maintenance
wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to
lOMW
Explosion free, due to the absence of a commutator or
slip-rings and brushes with their associated sparking,
Run at nearly constant speed from zero-to-full
- Its speed depends on the frequency of the power
source
not easy to have variable speed control
requires a variable-frequency power-electronic drive for
optimal speed control

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Construction of
Induction Motor

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Construction: has two main parts
Stator - consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow,
cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots on the internal
circumference of the stator house the stator winding.
Rotor - also composed of punched laminations, with rotor
slots for the rotor winding.

Stator
Rotor

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Induction Motor: Stator
Stator is made from laminated iron
3 phase windings, 120 spatially apart (star/delta)
0

Stator winding is carried in slots around the circumference of


a cylindrical bore.
There is a separate winding for each phase.

State Stator
coil'S coro y

z z

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Types of Rotor

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Induction wMwowto.Vr:idyRarothtoiprlus.
com
1. Squirrel-cage induction motor:

2. Wound-rotor induction motor


WOUNO,JROTOR iiIllDI!.IICTI:CJN,MOTO~
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w w w
1. Squi rr el - motor
.V i d yar t h ip lu s . c o
c ag e in d u c ti o
m
n
~ most common type of 1M
~ has squirrel-cage rotor windings
~ squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars,
~ bar ends are welded to copper end rings, so that all
the bars are short circuited.
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2. Wound-rotor induction motor
~ has a 3-phase winding similar to the stator winding.
J

~ The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip rings


which turn with the rotor.
~ The slip rings/brushes allow external resistors to be
connected in series with the winding.

~ The external resistors are mainly used during start-up, under


normal running conditions the windings short circuited
exte rna Ily.
WOUND.ROTOR INDUCTIONI MOTOR

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Rotating Magnetic Field
Balanced three phase windings, i.e.
mechanically displaced 120 degrees
form each other, fed by balanced three
phase source
A rotating magnetic field with constant
magnitude is produced, rotating with a
speed:

Where f is the supply frequency and


P is the no. of poles and N, is called the
synchronous speed in rpm (revolutions
per minute)

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Synchronous speed
/=50Hz
No. of Poles Syn. Speed, Ns
P (rpm)
2 3000
4 1500
6 1000
8 750
10 600
12 500

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Rotating Magnetic Field

0.866

0.5

-0.5

-0.866

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

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Rotating Magnetic Field

0.866

0.5

-0.5

-0.866

30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360

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Rotating Magnetic Field

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Principle of
Operation

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Principle of operation
~ This rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor windings and
produces an induced voltage in the rotor windings
~ Due to the fact that the rotor windings are short circuited, for
both squirrel cage and wound-rotor, and induced current
flows in the rotor windings
~ The rotor current produces another magnetic field
~ A torque is produced as a result of the interaction of those
two magnetic fields

Where rind is the induced torque and BR and Bs are the magnetic
flux densities of the rotor and the stator respectively

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Induction motor speed
o Can the 1M run at the synchronous speed, why?
- If rotor runs at the synchronous speed, which is the same
speed of the rotating magnetic field, then the rotor will
appear stationary to the rotating magnetic field and the
rotating magnetic field will not cut the rotor.

~ So, no induced current will flow in the rotor and no rotor


magnetic flux will be produced so no torque is generated
and the rotor speed will fall below the synchronous speed.

< Therefore. the 1M will always run at a speed


lower than the synchronous speed

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Induction motor speed

The difference between the motor speed and


the synchronous speed is called the Slip speed

Where nsJip= slip speed


ns= speed of the rotaing magnetic field
nr = mechanical shaft speed of the motor

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SLIP(s)
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T h e S lip
, . (synchmnollsspeed) - (rotor speed)
Slip = s = .....;.. -----.;.... ----,----
(synchronous speed)

n, -n
nsZip
s= =-~ OR
ns ns

Notice that: if the rotor runs at synchronous speed

5=0
if the rotor is stationary

5=1
Slip may be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the above
eq. by 100, notice that the slip is a ratio and doesn't have units
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Frequency of the induced emf and current in the rotor:
The frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor is given by

-F == P x nsl
s, 120

Where t, = the rotor frequency (Hz)


P = number of stator poles
Or Px(ns-n) = slip speed (rpm)
nsf

I. = 120
= Pxsns = sf
120

And hence,

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The rotor circuit:
AT the starting or when the rotor is blocked (5 =1)
);0> Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = E2
'The largest voltage and rotor frequency are induced in the rotor'.
Why?

If the rotor rotates at synchronous speed (5 =0)


);0> and Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = 0
The induced voltage and frequency in the rotor will be equal to zero,
Why?

Therefore in General, If the rotor speed is n (slip =5)

I Rotor Inducde voltage (emf) = s E2

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Rotor Reactance at any slip s
We know that reactance, X = OJL = 2IT f L

~ so, as the frequency of the induced voltage in the rotor


changes, the reactance of the rotor circuit also changes
~ Rotor reactance at slip s can be obtained as

X r = OJrL2 = 27r fr L,
= 27rsf L;
=sX2

Where X2 is the rotor reactance at the supply frequency


(stationary rotor)

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Compare
Induction motor &
Transformer
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Induction Motors and Transformers
Both 1M and transformer works on the principle of
induced voltage.
Transformer: voltage applied to the primary windings
produce an induced voltage in the secondary windings.

Induction motor: voltage applied to the stator windings


produce an induced voltage in the rotor windings.

- the primary of the transformer corresponds to the stator of the


induction motor, whereas the secondary corresponds to the
rotor on a per phase basis.

- The difference is that, in the case of the induction motor,


the secondary windings can move.

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Induction Motors and Transformers
~ Therefore an 1M is equivalent to a rotating
transformer with its secondary windings (i.e. rotor)short
circuited.

Presence of air-gap:
The other very important difference is that a large
magnetising current is required to set up working flux in an
induction motor due to presence of air-gap between stator
and rotor.
~ so, induction motors have poor power factor.

- Also due to the rotation of the rotor (the secondary


winding of the 1M), the induced voltage in it does not
have the same frequency of the stator (the primary)
voltage
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Equivalent circuit

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The rotor equivalent circuit: on per phase basis
S:X2

Divide both the numerator


and denominator by 5

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Induction motor equivalent circuit:
Stator of an 1M is similar to primary of a transformer so equivalent circuit can
be represented as:

RI XI Xl 11
1,1
+ I
I ,I,,"I
i
El
+

E1
R2
x, I

R.l
Stator equivalent circuit Rotor equivalent circuit

X.I

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wircwuitw: o.nVpiedr
The stator equivalent c
yarthiplus.com
phase basis

I
f 1m
:

x'"

Resistance
Actual rotor
equivalent to
resistance
mechanical load
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Losses &
Efficiency
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Performance of Induction Motor
Several performance parameters can be obtained
using Rotor Equivalent circuit

Torque, Power, Power losses


Speed verses Torque characteristics
Slip verses Torque characteristics

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The rotor
equivalentwciwrcuwit:.Vonidpeyraprhtahsiepbluassis.co
m

+
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w w w . V id y a r th ip l u s
The relation b e tw e e n r o to r in p u t ,
.c o m
r o to r copper loss and rotor output:
x, 11 X2
+

From the equivalent circuit:

ITotal, ]input to the rotor = Total rotor copper loss + Total rotor output I

)- Total input power to the rotor (P2)which is also the power crossing the air
gap IS:
~ = 3.(12) 2 (R 2 )
-; -

)- Power lost in rotor winding or rotor copper loss Pcu2 is: Pcu2 = 3.(/2)2 .R2

);0> Total mechanical power output is:


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~ = 3(/2) 2 . (R--2-)-;-
PCu2 = 3. (12)2 .R2

r: =3.(I2)2C~s)R,

IToial ]input to the rotor = Total rotor [copper loss + Total rotor output I

-A Very Important relationship:



D PCu 2 m
~ ,1 (1 -
.
2 s s)

Ii
l-s
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Power relations

Rotor input or Mechanical


air gap power Power Developed

~
Pm
1 1-5

Rotor copper
Loss
r; :P Cu2: t;
5
1: s : (1- s)

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Gross Torque Developed

The gross (total) Torque developed is: Tm - Pm


Where cor is rotor speed.
The motor speed in rps is n r == (1- s) . n s
The motor speed (angular) in rad/s is co, = (1- s)" I{US

The gross torque developed in N . m is

T == Total rotor input power (air gap power)


m

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w w w .V
Shaft Torque D ev elo pe d
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We know that rotor input power or air gap power is given as:

And Total mech. Torque, t; = ~ / {j)s Therefore,

~Shaft Torque = Gross Torque - Friction loss

IT sh - -T -T.loss I

m
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Losses - Summary

Poutput
Efficiency () =
Pinput

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Motor Torque
9.55 Pm
Tm =
n
9.55 (1 s) Pr
=
ns (1 s)

= 9.55 Pr / ns

Tm = 9.55 Pr / ns

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I2R losses in the rotor

Pjr = s Pr

Pjr = rotor I2R losses [W]


s = slip
Pr = power transmitted to the rotor [W]

Mechanical Power
Pm = Pr - Pjr
= Pr - s Pr
= (1 s) Pr

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Torque-Slip
Characteristics

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Torque -Slip Characteristics:

We know that total torque developed is :

)- Now, Let us examine the torque verses speed characteristics for different
operating conditions:

Case 1: Motor Running near Synchronous speed (s very small)

Case 2: At Starting (s=1)

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T-s curve: Cwaswe w1: oSymnchronous
.MVoitdoryaRrutnhniinpglunsea.cr speed

General torque expression is:

);;> Slip 5 is very small, and hence, R22 (SX2)2. SOtorque


expression becomes:
r; = (.2..J.
COS
SE2
R2
2
Tm a
sE 22
R2
a +- denotes propotionality
Nea r synch ronous speed:
)- Torque increases linearly with slip.
)- If rotor resistance is high rated torque is reduced
)- Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage.
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T-s curve:
Cawsew2:wA.tVSitdarytiangrthiplus.com

General torque expression is:

);;> For large value of slip and (SX2)2 R22_ At starting [s=I}, So
torque expression becomes:

a +- denotes propotionality
During Starting:
)- Starting Torque increases linearly with rotor resistance (in wound rotor
motor, higher starting torque is obtained by inserting external in rotor
circu it).
)- If leakage reactance is high, starting torque is reduced
)- Torque is proportional to the square of applied voltage.
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Torque-Slip (Speed) Characteristics
Torque

Maximum Torque
Or Breakdown Torque

Full Load Torque

Rated Load

-:
Linear Torque -slip

o lL--- -II-----._-lII- ,, -rl- _ ..-~

. . Region
o 20
$~:t! jpe~ol of
!)~llcbrooOA.S~,,peed
10 -E- Slip
.O~8, 'Q.'.6 Itli.4 0.2:
I~ I~p~~~,'f"na):;h uf ~'~hn:)lK"(*!
Ii~
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Comments (Torque-speed char.)
1. The induced torque is zero at synchronous speed.
Discussed earlier.
2. The curve is nearly linear between no-load and full
load. In this range, the rotor resistance is much
greater than the reactance, so the rotor current, and
torque increase linearly with the slip.
3. There is a maximum possible torque that can't be
exceeded. This torque is called breakdown torque
and is 2 to 3 times the rated full-load torque.

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Comments(Torque-speed char.)
4. The starting torque of the motor is slightly higher
than its full-load torque, so the motor will start
carrying any load it can supply at full load.
5. The torque of the motor for a given slip varies as
the square of the applied voltage.
6. If the rotor is driven faster than synchronous speed
it will run as a generator, converting mechanical
power to electric power.

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Condition for
Maximum Torque

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Maximum Torque and condition for Max. Torque:
Maximum Torque (also called breakdown torque)occurs when,

);> Slip at Maximum Torque: ISmaxT = R2 / X21

~ Maximum Torque Tmax:

~ The Value of Maximum Torque does not depend on Rotor resistance.

~ But slip at which it occurs depend on rotor resistance (proportional to it)

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Effect of rotor wreswist idonyatorrqtuhei-psllipus.
wan.cVe (scpoeemd) characteristic

(Rotor Resistances)
R 1 < R2 < R3 < R4 < Rs < R6
800~--------------------------------------~

700

600

T e

t
500
-s
6- 400
l5
':::s
"'C)
300
..El

200

I
s=l s=o
100
...-.- Slip

o~--~----~--~----~--~----~----~~~
o
SpeerdeGbanica~speed, r/min
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Effect of rotor resistance on torque-slip
(speed) characteristic

Rotor Resistances

RI <Rz <R_! <R.j <Rs


R~
T

t
o 0'.25 0.5 G.75 1.0
- .... Slip (8)
Ns +-- Speed o

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LOAD TEST

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LOAD

TE ST ON TH REE PH A SE IN D U C T IO
w w w .V id y a rt h i p l u
N M O T OR
s . c om
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NO LOAD TEST

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No wTe.VstidoyraRrtuhninpinlugsL.icgoh
Lowawd mt Test or
Open Circuit Test
W0 This test gives
I0
1. Core loss
A 2. F & W loss
R
3. No load current I0
N
4. No load power factor
V0 V STATOR 5. Ic, Rc, I, Xm
6. Mechanical faults, noise
B Y

ROTOR Rated per voltage V0, with


rated freq is given to stator.
Motor is run at NO LOAD
P0, I0 and V0 are recorded
www.VidyarP0t=h2 Ii0prl1+uPcs+.Pfcw om
Cos 0 w wP w0
.VidyarthNioplluoasd.cpoomwer factor is
small,
V0 I0 0.05 to 0.15
1. Ic=I0cos0 2. I=I0sin0 provided x1 is known

E E0
3. R c 0 , E 0 V 0 I (r 1 jx X
4. m
Ic I
0 1
)
On No load, Motor runs near to syn speed
So, s zero 1/s= or open circuit
r 1 I jx1 I
jx2
0 2

I0

open circuit
Ic I
V0 Rc jXm r2/s

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The Fw&wWw.lVosisdyPfawr,
tchainplbueso.cbtoamined from this test.
Vary input voltage and note input power

Input Power
Pfw

Input Voltage

Thus Pc=P0 - I02r1 - Pfw

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BLOCKED
ROTOR TEST

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Blocke wRowto.Vr
wd tideystaortrhSiphlourst .Cciorcmuit
Test
Rotor is blocked, Speed = 0, slip = 1
Isc Wsc

A
R
N
IM
V Vsc
B Y
Rotor is blocked or held stationary by
belt pulley or by hand
3-ph Variac
Low voltage is applied upto rated stator current
Voltage Vsc, Current Isc and Power Psc are measured.
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Since wsliwp wis .1V,
isdeycaonrdthairpyluisss.hco
ormt circuited
r1 jx1 r2 jx2
Isc
I0
Ic I r
1s

2

Vsc Rc jXm
s

This test gives copper loss Core loss negligible


Mechanical loss =0
=Rsc+jXsc
Therefore, Zsc = Vsc / Isc
P sc
Rc and Xm >> r2+jx2 cos =0.8 to 0.9
sc
VscI sc
Hence omitted
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Rsc= wPscw/Iwsc.2Vi=drya+rrthiplus.com
1
r2= Rsc r1
X sc Z sc 2 R 2
x 1 x 2
sc

For wound rotor motor, x1 = x2 = Xsc /2


For squirrel cage motor,

Class of motor x1 x2
1. Class A (normal Tst and Ist) 0.5 0.5

2. Class B (normal Tst and low Ist) 0.4 0.6


3. Class C (high Tst and low Ist) 0.3 0.7

4. Class D (high Tst and high slip) 0.5 0.5


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CIRCLE
DIAGRAM

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CircwlewwD.Viiadgyarrathmipluosf.
coImnd Motor
Graphical representation
The equivalent ckt., operating ch. can be obtained
by computer quickly and accurately
But the advantage of circle diagram is that
extremities or Limits of stator current, Power,
torque and slip can be known from circle diagram
The circle diagram is constructed with the help of

1. No load test (I0 & 0)

2. Blocked rotor test (Isc & sc)


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V1 Isc

Output line

sc
0 I
O
0 x
4. Join I0 and Isc
1. Draw x and y axes(V1 on y axis)
2. Draw I0 and Isc(=V1/Zsc) Line I0Isc is
output line
3. Draw parallel line to x axis from I0.
This line indicates constant loss vertically
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V1 Isc

Output line

T
sc

0 I L1
O
0 C x
L2
5. Draw perpendicular bisector to output line
6. Draw circle with C as a centre
7. Draw perpendicular from Isc on x axis..
I scT r2 Rotor Cu Loss
8. Divide IscL 1 i n su c h a w a y '
w w w . V i d y a Loss
th a t.
r t h iTplLus .rco mStator 1Cu 1
y R
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rated output power
V1 Isc

Output line
T Torque line
sc
L1
0 I C
O
0
L2 x

9. Join I0T. This is called as Torque Line.


10. Suppose 1cm=Xamp, so 1cm=V1.X= power scale
Rated output power/V1X = Total cm for rated o/p power
Total cm f or r a te d o u tp u po w e r= I
w w w . V i d y a r th i p l u
c
R
s . com
y R
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P
V1 Isc

P Output line

1
T Torque line
sc O
T
0 I L1 L1
0 C x
O L2 L2
11. From R, draw line parallel to output line crossing at P & P.
P is operating point
12. Join O and P. Cos1 is operating pf.
13. From P draw perpendicular on x axis
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eil Ody,
y R
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P
V1 Isc

P Output line

1
T Torque line
sc O
T
0 I L1 L1
0 C x
O L2 L2

14. Determine the following


1. Constant Losses and copper losses
L1L2=L1L2=constant losses =Core loss + F & W loss
no load current I0
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P
V1 Isc

P Output line

1
T Torque line
sc O
T
0 I L1 L1
0 C x
O L2 L2

At standstill, input power = IscL2 L1L2=Constant Loss

Constant loss= Stator core loss +rotor core loss (f)


F & W loss=0
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P
V1 Isc

P Output line

1
T Torque line
sc O
T
0 I L1 L1
0 C x
O L2 L2

At operating point P, input power = PL2, L1L2=Constant Loss


Constant loss = Stator core loss + F & W loss
Rotor core loss 0 (sf)
Th u s L
w w w .1LV2=iLd1Ly2a=rCto
n s ta n t
h i p l ulosss.com
y R
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P
V1 Isc

P Output line

1
T Torque line
sc O
T
0 I L1 L1
0 C x
O L2 L2

At standstill, Stator Cu loss=TL1 rotor Cu loss = IscT


At P, stator Cu loss =TL1 and
rotor Cu loss = OT
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Pmax P
V1 Isc

P Output line

1
T Torque line
sc O
O
T T
0 I L1 L1 L1
0 C
O L2 L2 x
Pmax
2. Output Power and Torque
Output Power = OP L2
The gap betn output line and circl 0 Speed Ns
At I0, o/p=0, at Isc, o/p=0 1 Slip 0
Max output pwowwwer.=VP i de O m
isyOUTPUT
a
Power.
arthiplus.com
x
y R
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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line

1 O
O T Torque line
sc O
T T T L1
0 I L1 L1 L1
0 C x
O L
L2 2
L2
2. Output Power and Torque Tmax
Output Torque = TP L2
n
The gap bet torque line and circl
At I0, torque=0, but at 0 Speed Ns
Isc, torque=T Isc=Starting torque 1 Slip 0
e is OUTPUT torque.
Max output rthiplus.com
tworwqwu.e=VTimdaxyT
a
y R
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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line

1 O
O T Torque line
sc O
T T T L1
0 I L1 L1 L1
0
L C x
O L2 L2 2 L2
2. Output Power and Torque
Max Power and Max Torque are not occurring at same time
Contradiction to max power transfer theorem

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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line

1 O
O T Torque line
sc O
T T T L1
0 I L1 L1 L1
0
L C x
O L2 L2 2 L2
3. Slip, Power factor and Efficiency
Air gap power Pg = Input power Stator Cu loss- core loss
=PL2-TL1-L1L2 = PT
O"T " O"'T "'
s = rotor Cu loss/Pg =OT/PT s mp smt
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om
y R
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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line

1 O
O T Torque line
sc O
T T T L1
0 I L1 L1 L1
0
L C x
O L2 L2 2 L2
3. Slip, Power factor and Efficiency
Power factor cos1 = PL2/OP

Efficiency= PO/PL2
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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line
braking torque
1
O T Torque line
sc O
T T
Te
0 I L1
0 C
O L2 s=1
4. Braking Torque L1
s=0 0 Speed Nxs
L2
The gap betn circle and T & s= is bra 1 Slip 0
s=

ing torque
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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line
braking torque
1
O T Torque line
sc O
T T s=1
0 I L1 L1
C
O
0
L2 x
L2
5. Induction Generator s=
s=0

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y R
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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line
braking torque
1
O T Torque line
sc O
T T s=1
0 I L1 L1
C
O
0
L2 x
L2
5. Induction Generator s=
s=0
G OG=Gen Current
s= -ve OG=Mech I/p
G (Generator) L2G=Active power
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tive power
y R
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Pmax P
V1 Isc
Tmax
P Output line
braking torque
1
O T Torque line
sc O
T
0 I L1
0 Te
O L2
5. Induction Generator
s=0 0 Speed Ns Speed
2
G
1 Slip 0 Slip -1
s=
G (G
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T s=1
L1
C x
L2
s=
OG=Gen Current
-ve OG=Mech I/p
enerator) L2 G=Active power
max
OL2=reactive power
CIRCLE
DIAG RA M O F A N IN D U C TI O N M O T
w w w . V id y a rt h ip l u s. c o
mOR- Summary
T

Rotor
Cu loss
H
o Fixed loss

o E
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F ig. 3.3
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Separation of
Losses

wrewsenwted.byVCi.GOdKyULa,APr/EtEEhViel
P
aplarlCoullesge.of cEnogg m& Tech , Erode
SEPA R AT IO N O F N O L O A D L O
w w w . V id y a rt h i p lu s
.ScSoESm
The separaton of core loss and mechanical loss (windage and friction) can be obtained by
no load test conducted from variable voltage, rated frequency supply. Step by step
reduce the voltage tll the machine slip suddenly start to increase and the motor tends
to rest (stall). The core loss decrease almost square of the voltage and windage and fricton
loss remains almost constant. Plot the curve between applied voltage (V) and power (Po),
extended to V=0 which gives mechanical loss.

Mechanical loss will be obtained from graph


Magnetic loss + mechanical loss = output power
Therefore., magnetic loss = output power mechanical loss
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Formulae for calculatng the equivalent circuit parameters:
Z0 = Voc /(Ioc / 3)
R0 = Woc / (Ioc) 2
X0 = [( Z0)2 - (R0)2
0 = cos-1 [Woc / (3 * Voc * Ioc )]
RBR = Wsc / (Isc)2
ZBR = Vsc / (Isc/ 3)
XBR = [( ZBR)2 - (RBR)2]
RiWF Resistance accountng for rotatonal losses
R1 = 1.2 * stator winding resistance (dc)
Pr = Woc Ioc2 * R1 (since Pr = P0 3 * (Ioc / 3)2 * R1)
RiWF = Voc2 / Pr
Xm Magnetzing reactance
IiWF = Voc / Riwf
Im = (Ioc2 - IiWF2)1/2
Xm = Voc / Im
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Equivalent Circuit:
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Double cage
Induction Motors

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DOUBLE CAGE ROTOR
Double Cage Rotor has two independent cages on the same rotor slots,
one inside the other for the producton of high startng torque. The
outer cage (alloy) in the rotor has high resistance and low reactance
which is used for startng purpose. The inner cage (copper) has a low
resistance and high reactance which is used for running purpose. The
constructonal arrangement and torque-speed characteristcs as shown
in fig. 3.5.
Advantages:
High startng torque.
Low I2R loss under running conditons and high efficiency.

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Double Cage constructon

Fig. 3.5
Slip
Torque-Slip Characteristcs

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Equivalent Circuit:
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If the magnetsing current is neglected, then the equivalent circuit is reduced to

Rotor

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Induction
Generators

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IN D U CT I O N G
ww w . V i d y a r th
EN E R A T O R
ip l u s . c om
Principle of operation
Inducton generators and motors produce electrical power when
their rotor is rotated faster than the synchronous speed. For a four-
pole motor operatng on a 50 Hz will have synchronous speed equal
to 1500 rpm.
In normal motor operaton, stator flux rotaton is faster than the
rotor rotaton. This is causing stator flux to induce rotor currents,
which create rotor flux with magnetc polarity opposite to stator. In
this way, rotor is dragged along behind stator flux, by value equal to
slip.
In generator operaton, a prime mover (turbine, engine) is driving
the rotor above the synchronous speed. Stator flux stll induces
currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cuttng
the stator coils, actve current is produced in stator coils and motor
is now operatng as a generator and sending power back to the
el
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ec
tri
idyar
ca thipl
l us.co
gri m
d.
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a. Sub-synchronous (motor)
b. Super-synchronous (generator)
Fig. 3.4 current Locus for Inducton Machine

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Fig.3.5 Phasor Diagram


Fig. 3.6 Torque-Slip Characteristcs
When the machine runs as inducton generator, the vector diagram shown in fig.3.5. This
is possible only if the machine is mechanically driven above the synchronous speed.
OA-no load current
AB-stator current to overcome rotor mmf
OB-total stator current

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The torque-slip curve is shown in fig.3.6.Torque will become zero at synchronous speed. If
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the speed increases above the synchronous speed, the sli will be negatve.

Fig.3.4b the point P in the lower half of the circle shows operatng point as an inducton
generator.
PT-stator electrical output
ST-Core, fricton and windage losses
RS-Stator copper loss
QR-Rotor copper loss
PQ-Mechanical input
PR-Rotor input
rotor copper loss QR
Slip
rotor input PR

Efficiency output PT
input PQ
Inducton generator differs from the synchronous generator as
Dc current excitaton is not required.
Synchronisaton is not required.

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Advantages:
It does not hunt or drop out of synchronism
Simple in construction
Cheaper in cost
Easy maintenance
Induction regulators provide a constant voltage adjustment depending on the
loading of the lines.
Disadvantages:
Cannot be operated independently.
Deliver only leading current.
Dangerously high voltages may occur over long transmission lines if the
synchronous machines at the far end become disconnected and the line capacitance
excites the induction machines.
The induction generator is not helpful in system stability.
Applications:
For installation in small power stations where it can be operated in parallel and
feeding into a common mains without atendant.
For braking purpose in railway work.

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Synchronous
Induction Motor

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SYN C HR O N O U S IN D
w w w . V id y a r thUiCpTluIO
sN.cMoOmTOR
It is possible to make the slip ring inducton motor to run at synchronous speed when its
secondary winding is fed from a dc source. Such motors are then called as synchronous
inducton motor.

Stator

3
Supply

Fig. 3.3
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Rotor connectons for dc ex wcitawtown: .Vidyarthiplus.com

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Fig 3.4
Heatng will always occur with normal three phase rotor winding as in fig.3.4. The two phase
windings (e and f) gives uniform heatng but produce large harmonics and noise. In those
machines primary chording is commonly employed to reduce the effect of harmonics.
The synchronous inducton motor is generally built for outputs greater than 30HP because of its
higher cost of the dc exciter. These motors are employed in applicatons where a constant
speed is desirable such as compressors, fans, pumps, etc., If load torque is high and the
machines goes out of synchronism, it contnues to run as an inducton motor. As soon as the
load torque falls sufficiently low, the machines will automatcally synchronize.

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Advantages:
It will start and synchronise itself against heavy loads.
No separate damper winding is required.
The exciter may be small unit due to smaller air-gap.

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Problems in
Induction
Motors
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wse,w46w0 V., V10i0dhyp,a60rHthz, ifopulru-
Example 5.1 A 3-pha

posle.cinodumcton machine delivers rated output power at a slip of 0.05.


Determine the:
(a) Synchronous speed and motor speed.
(b) Speed of the rotatng air gap field.
(c) Frequency of the rotor circuit.
(d) Slip rpm.
(e) Speed of the rotor field relatve to the
(i) rotor structure.
(ii) Stator structure.
(iii) Stator rotatng field.
(f) Rotor induced voltage at the operatng speed, if the stator-to-rotor turns rato is 1 :
0.5.

Soluton:
120 f 120 * 60
ns 1800 rpm
p 4
n 1 s 1 1710 rpm
ns 0.05 *1800
(b) 1800 (same as synchronous speed)

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w w w . V id y a r t h i p l u s .
Example 4.2 A no-load test con du cte d on a 3 0 hp , 8 3 5 r/ m in ,
c om
4 40 V , 3-phase, 60 Hz squirrel-cage inducton motor yielded the following results:
No-load voltage (line-to-line): 440 V
No-load current: 14 A
No-load power: 1470 W
Resistance measured between two terminals: 0.5
The locked-rotor test, conducted at reduced volt-age, gave the following results:
Locked-rotor voltage (line-to-line): 163 V
Locked-rotor power: 7200 W
Locked-rotor current: 60 A
Determine the equivalent circuit of the motor.

Soluton:
Assuming the stator windings are connected in way, the resistance per phase is:
R1 0.5 / 2 0.25
From the no-load test:

VLL
440
V1 254V / Phase
3 3
V1 254
Z NL 18.143
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PNL 1470 .Vidyarthiplus.com
R NL
2
3I1 ww2.w5
2
3 *14
X NL Z NL
2 2
RNL 18.1432 2.52 17.97

X 1 X m X NL 17.97
From the blocked-rotor test
PBL 7200
RBL 0.6667
3I12 3*
BL 2
60
The blocked-rotor reactance is:

X BL BL2 BL2 1.5685 0.6667 1.42


2
2

X BL X 1 X 1.42
2

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X 1 X 0.71www.Vidyarthiplus.com
2

X m X NL X 1 17.97 0.71 17.26


R RBL R1 0.6667 0.25 0.4167
2 2
X X 0.71 17.26

R 2 m * 0.4167 0.4517

2 R

Xm

17.26
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Example 5.3 The following test results are obtained from a three-phase 60 hp, 2200
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V, six-pole, 60 Hz squirrel-cage nducton motor.
(1) No-load test:
Supply frequency = 60 Hz, Line voltage = 2200 V
Line current = 4.5 A, Input power = 1600 W
(2) Blocked-rotor test:
Frequency = 15 Hz, Line voltage = 270 V
Line current = 25 A, Input power = 9000 W
(3) Average DC resistance per stator phase: 2.8
(a) Determine the no-load rotational loss.
(b) Determine the parameters of the IEEE-recommended equivalent circuit
(c) Determine the parameters (Vth, Rth, Xth) for the Thevenin equivalent circuit of
Fig.5.16.

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2200 V1 1270.2
V1 1270.2 / Phase Z NL 282.27
3 V I1 4.5
1600
R 26.34
PNL
NL 2 2
3I 1 3 * 4.5
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(a) No-Load equivalent Circuit (b) Locked rotor equivalent circuit

X NL Z NL
2
RNL 282.27 26.34 281
2 2 2 281.0 = .

X 1 X m X NL 281
PBL 9000
RBL 2 4.8
3I1 3 *2
25

R2 RBL R1
4.8 2.8 2
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impedance at 15 Hz is:
Z BL 1
6.24
I1 3*
25
The blocked-rotor reactance at 15 Hz is X BL 6.24 2
4.8
2
3.98
Its value at 60 Hz is 60
X BL 3.98 * 15.92
15
X BL X 1 X 2
15.92
X1 X 7.96 at 60 Hz

2
2
X m 281 7.96 273.04

R RBL R1 4.8 2.8 2
R
2
7.96 273.04 2
2.12
27w3.w0w4.Vidyarthiplus.com
)c (
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273.04
Vth V1 0.97 V1
7.96 273.04

Rth 0.97 2 R1 0.97 2 * 2.8 2.63

X X 1 7.96
th
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Example 4.4 A three-phase, 460 V, 1740 rpm, 60 Hz, four-pole
wotowr hwas .tVhe
wound-rotor induction m
ifdollyowaingrtphariapmeltuer sp.ecr om
phase:
R1 = 0.25 , R2 0.2 , X 1 X 0.5 , X m 30
2

The rotational losses are 1700 watts. With the rotor terminals
short-circuited, find
(a) (i) Starting current when started direct on full voltage.
(ii) Starting torque.
(b) (i) Full-load slip.
(ii) Full-load current.
(iii) Ratio of starting current to full-load current.
(iv) Full-load power factor.
(v) Full-load torque.
(iv) Internal efficiency and motor efficiency at full load.
(c) (i) Slip at which maximum torque is developed.
(ii) Maximum torque developed.
(d) How much external resistance per phase should be
connected in the rotor circuit so that maximum torque occurs at
start?
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=163.11 N.m

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28022.3
*1w0w0 w .8V7i.d5y%arthiplus.com
motor
32022.4
int ernal 1 s *100 1 96.7%
0.0333 *100
(c) (i)

(c) (ii)

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Note that for parts (aw) awnwd (.bV) iidt iys
anortthniepcleus sa.rcyotomuse Thevenin equivalent circuit.
Calculaton can be based on the equivalent circuit of Fig.5.15 as
follows:
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A three-phase, 460 V, 60 Hz, six-pole wound-rotor induction motor
drives a constant load of 100 N - m at a speed of 1140 rpm when
the rotor terminals are short-circuited. It is required to reduce the
speed of the motor to 1000 rpm by inserting resistances in the
rotor circuit. Determine the value of the resistance if the rotor
winding resistance per phase is 0.2 ohms. Neglect rotational
losses. The stator-to-rotor turns ratio is unity.

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Example

Thewfowllwow.Vinigdyteastrtrheispulutssa.creomobtained
from three phase 100hp,460 V, eight pole star connected
induction machine No-load test : 460 V, 60 Hz, 40 A, 4.2 kW.
Blocked rotor test is
100V, 60Hz, 140A 8kW. Average DC resistor between two stator
terminals is 0.152
(a) Determine the parameters of the equivalent circuit.
(b) The motor is connected to 3 , 460 V, 60 Hz supply and runs
at 873 rpm. Determine the input current, input power, air
gap power, rotor cupper loss, mechanical power developed,
output power and efficiency of the motor.
(c) Determine the speed of the rotor field relative to stator
structurewawndws.taVtoirdryotatrintg hfiielpd

lus.com
Soluton: From no loa wd .Vidyarthiplus.com
twestw:
460 /
a Z 6.64
NL 3
40
PNL 4200
RNL 0.875
3 * I1 3*
2 2
40
X NL 6.64 2 0.8752 6.58
X 1 X m 6.58
From blocked rotor test:

8000 3 0.136
RBL *140
2 R1

0.152 2 0.076
100 / 3
Z BL 0.412
140 www.Vidyarthiplus.com
X BL 0.412 w0.w13w6 .Vid0y.3a8r9t X 0.389
2 2

hiplus.coXm1 2
0.389
X1 X 0.1945
2
2
X m 6.58 0.1945 6.3855
R RBL R1 0.136 0.076 0.06
20.1945 6.3855

R

* 0.06 0.0637

2
6.3855
0.076 j0.195 j0.195

j6.386 w
V
arthiplus.com 0.0637
s
120 f ww12w0.*V6id0ya r th i p lu s
b ns 9 00 r p
P
m.com
8
ns 900
s n 0.03
873
ns
900
R2 0.0637
2.123
s 0.03
Input impedance j 6.3862.123 j 0.195 o
Z1 0.076 j0.195 2.12127.16
2.123 j 6.386 0.195

V1 460 / 3
I1 125.22 27.16
o
Z1 2.1227.16
Input power:

Pi 3
460
3
*125.22 cos 27.16
o
88.767 kW
n *

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Stator CU losses:
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2
Pst 3 * 0.076 3.575 kW
*125.22
Air gap power
Pag 88.767 85.192 kW
3.575
Rotor CU losses
P2 sPa 0.03 * 85.192 2.556 kW
g

Mechanical power developed:

Pmech 1 s 1 0.03 * 82.636 kW


Pag 85.192

Pout Pmech Prot


From no load test: Prot PNL 3I * R1 4200 3 * * 0.076 3835.2W
2 2
40

Pou t 82.636 *103


1
3835.2 78.8 kW
Pout 78.8
*100 *100 88.77 %
Pi 88.767
n www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Example A
thr ee p ha s e, 46 0 V 14 50 r pm , 50 Hz,
w w w . V id y a rth ip lu s .c o m
four pole wound rotor induction motor has the following
parameters per
phase ( R1 =0.2, R2 =0.18 X 1 X 2 X m =40). The
, =0.2,

rotational losses are 1500 W. Find,


(a) Starting current when started direct on full load voltage.
Also find starting torque.
(b) (b) Slip, current, power factor, load torque and efficiency
at full load conditions.
(c) Maximum torque and slip at which maximum torque will
be developed.
(d) How much external resistance per phase should be
connected in the rotor circuit so that maximum torque
occurs awt swtawrt.? Vidyarthiplus.com
460
V1 265.6 V pwhwas.eVidyarthiplus.com
3 w/
j 40 * 0.18 0.2 o
Z 0.2 j0.2 0.5546.59
1
0.18 j 40.2
V1 265.6 o
I st o 482.91 46.3
I1 0.5546.59
1500
s 0.0333
1450
1500
R2 0.18
5.4
0.0333
s
j 40 * 5.4 j 0.2 o
Z 0.2 j0.2 4.959 10.83
1
5.4 j 45.4

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265.6
I1 FL o 53.56 10.83 A
4.95910.83
o
Then the power factor is: cos 10.83 0.9822 lag.
1500
sys * 157.08 rad / sec .
2
60

265.6 * j 40
Vth 264.275 0.285 Vo
0.2 j 40.2
Then,
j 40 * 0.2 j0.2 o
0.28143245.285 0.198 j0.2

Z th
0.2 j 40.2 3 * 264.275
2
* 5.4
T 228.68 Nm
2 * 0.198 0.2 0.2
2
157.08
5.4 www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Then, Pag T * www.Vidyarthiplus.com
sys 228.68 *157.08 35921.1W

Then, P2 sPag 0.0333 * 35921.1 1197 W

And, Pm 1 s 34723.7W
Pag
Then, Pou Pm 34723.7 33223.7W
t Prot 1500

Pin 3 * 265.6 * 53.56 * 0.9822 41917 W



33223.7
P ou t
Then, 79.26 %
Pin 41914
3*
Tm 862.56 Nm
264.2752

2 *188.5 0.198 0.2 0.2
2
1/ 2

0.198 2

0.18
sTmax 0.4033
0.198 2
0.2 0.2
2 1/2

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(d) s 1
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Tmax
0.198 0.2 0.2
2 2 1/2

Then, R2 Re 0.446323
xt
Then, Re 0.446323 0.18 0.26632
xt
Pwrewsenwted.byVCi.GOdKyULa,APr/EtEEhViel
aplarlCoullesge.of cEnogg m& Tech , Erode
Example 5.6 The rotor current at start of a three-phase, 460 volt,
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1710 rpm, 60 Hz, four pole, squirrel-cage induction motor is six
times the rotor current at full load.
(a) Determine the starting torque as percent of full load torque.
(b) Determine the slip and speed at which the motor develops
maximum torque.
(c) Determine the maximum torque developed by the motor as
percent of full load torque.

Note that the equivalent circuit parameters are not given. Therefore equivalent
circuit parameters cannot be used directly for computaton.(a) The synchronous
speed is
2 2
I 2R 2 I
T 2 2
s syn s

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Example 4.9 A has, at rated
m
4 p o le
w w w .V50idHyza2rt0hhipplumso. voltage
t o r
c o
and frequency a starting torque of 150% and a maximum torque of
200 % of full load torque. Determine (i) full load speed (ii) speed
at maximum torque.
Solution:
Tst Tmax Tst 1.5
1.5 and 2 then, 0.75
TFL Tmax 2
TFL
Tst 2 sTmax
2 0.75
Tmax 1 sTmax
2
Then, 0.75 sTmax 2 sTmax 0.75 0

Then sTmax 2.21525 (unacceptable) Or sT m ax 0.451416


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2
T s w2 w.Vidyarthiplus.com
sw
max Tmax FL
2
TFL 2sTmax * s FL
But sT
max
0.451416

Tmax 0.451416 2 s FL
2
Then 2
TFL 2 * 0.451416 * s FL

s F2 4 * s FL 0.451416 2 0
0.451416
s F2 s FL 0.203777 0
1.80566
s FL 1.6847 (unacceptable) or s FL 0.120957
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120 * w50w0wr.pVmidyarthiplus.com
ns 1
50
4
then (a) nFL 1 s FL * ns

nFL 1 1319 rpm
0.120957 *1500
(b)
max
1 sTmax * ns 1 823 rpm
nT 0.451416 *1500

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Example 4.10 Aw3ww,
2.8V0idVy,a6r0thHipzl,u2s0.chopm, four-pole induction
motor has the following equivalent circuit parameters.
R1 0.12 , R2 0.1 , X 1 X 0.25 , and X m 10
2

The rotational loss is 400 W. For 5% slip, determine (a) The
motor speed in rpm and radians per sec. (b) The motor current. (c)
The stator cu-loss. (d) The air gap power. (e) The rotor cu-loss. (f)
The shaft power. (g) The developed torque and the shaft torque.
(h) The efficiency.
Soluton:

120 * 1800
ns 1800 rpm , s * 188.5 rad / sec
60 60 2
4 www.Vidyarthiplus.com
0.12 j0 2 5
w ww . V i dyarthipluj0s.2.c5

om
j10 0.1
2
0.05

Z1 0.12 j0.25 Xe
Re
j10 * 2 j 0.25 o
Z1 0.12 j 0.25 2.131423.55
2 j10.25
208
V1 120.1 V
3
120.1
I1 o 2.1314 23.55
o
A
2.131423.55
(c) P 3 * 2 * 0.12 1143.031W
56.3479
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(d)
P
cos
3 *120.1*
56.3479 * 2
o
18610.9794 W
s www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Pag Ps P1 17467.9485 W

(e) P2 sPag 0.05 *17467.9785 873.3974 W



(f) Pm 1 s 16594.5511W
Pag

Pag 17467.9485
(g) T 92.6682 N .m
188.5 188.5
P shaft16194.5511
Tshaft 85.9127 Nm
188.5 188.5
(h)
Pshaft
*100 87.02%
Ps
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Example 4.11 A 30 , 1 0 0
w ww
W A , 4 60 V , 6 0 H z , e i g ht -pole induction
.V i d y ar t h i p lu s . c o m
machine has the following
equivalent circuit parameters:
R1 0.07 , R2 0.05 , X 1 X 0.2 , and X m 6.5
2

(a) Derive the Thevenin equivalent circuit for the
induction machine.
(b) If the machine is connected to a 30, 460 V, 60 Hz
supply, determine the starting torque, the maximum torque the
machine can develop, and the speed at which the maximum torque
is developed.
(c) If the maximum torque is to occur at start, determine the
external resistance required in each rotor phase. Assume a
turns ratio iplus.com
(wstwatwor.toVriodtoyr)ao
rf 1t.2h.
Solution: V
Xwm ww .Vid6y.5arthiplus.com
V V
th * 1 * 265.6 257.7
X1 X m 0.2 6.5
j6.5 * j0.2
Rth jX 0.06589 j0.1947
th 0.07
0.07 j0.2 j6.5
0.06589 j0.1947 j0.2

257.7V 0.05
s

2
3 * 257.7 *
(b) Tst 0.05 624.7 N


94.25 0.06589 0.05 0.1947 0.2
2 2

2
3 * 257.7
Tmax

2 * 94.25 0.06589

0.06589 0.1947 0.2
2 2

T s max 2267.8Nm
0.05

0.1249
0.06589 0.1947 0.2
2 2

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Speed in
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rpm
for which max torque occurs

= 1 max
* n s 1 0.1249 * 900 rpm
787.5
sT

R2
(c) sT R 2
max
R12 X1 X 2
2
s start 1 1
or * * 0.05 0.4
start
R2 sTmax R
2
0.1249

Then Rext 0.4 0.05 / 1.2 0.243


2
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UNIT-4
Starting & Speed control
of 3ph Induction Motor
Presented by
C.GOKUL
AP/EEE
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UNIT-4 Syllabus

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Necessity
of
Starters /
NEED FOR
STARTING

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w ww .V id ya rt hip lu
Wh w e n e e d s t
s .c om
y a r ters?
As it is seen that a 3 phase induction motor
has
positive finite starting torque T when slip s=1. this
mean that 3-pahse induction motor is a self-starting
motor and begins to rotate on its own when
connected to a 3-phase supply.
At the instant of starting 3-phase induction motor
behaves like a transformer with a short-circuited
secondary.
Consequently, a 3-pahse induction motor takes
high starting current if started at full voltage. In
order to limit this high starting current to
reasonable limits starting methods are used.
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STARTING
METHODS
OF
INDUCTION
MACHINE
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w w w. Vi dy a rt h ip
Metho d s o f S t a r
lu s. com
t in g
There are primarily two methods of starting
the induction motor:-
a) Full voltage starting.
b) Reduced voltage starting.
Full voltage starting methods consist of:-
a) DOL (Direct-on-line starting)
Reduced voltage starting consist
of:- a) Stator resistor (or reactor)
starting. b) Auto-transformer starting.
c) Star-delta starting.
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AUTO
TRANSFORME
R STARTER

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V1
xV1
xV1 Rotor
IL
Ist xIsc Stator

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


The fraction of xV1 is applied to the stator wdg at starting.
As speed increases, gradually voltage is increased
Finally full voltage is applied to the motor.
Advantages 1. Voltage is changed by transformer action
and not by dropping voltage as that of reactor
2. So power loss and input current are less.
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V1
xV1
xV1 Rotor
IL
Ist xIsc Stator

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


The stator starting current is I st xV1 / z1 xI sc
For auto-transformer, input VA= output VA
ILV1=Ist (xV1)
Therefore, line current at
input is x2 times the DOL IL=xIst
current. IL=x2Isc
2 2
Test
s I 1st
x I sc s
2
Thus, I fl
T fl I
1fl

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efl
fl
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V1
xV1
xV1 Rotor
IL
Ist xIsc Stator

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


Line current at input due to auto-transformer starting =x
Line current at input due to stator reactor starting

V1
xV1
xV1 Rotor
IL
Ist xIsc Stator

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V1
xV1
xV1 Rotor
IL
Ist xIsc Stator

Fig: Auto-transformer starting


Line current at input due to auto-transformer starting =x
Line current at input due to stator reactor starting
Starting torque with auto transformer starting
=x2
Starting torque with DOL starting

Starting torque with auto transformer starting =1


Starting torque with stator reactor starting

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STAR DELTA
STARTER
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St ar -D el t a st a rt in g
w w w . V id y a rt h iplus.com
For star, 3 terminals of stator wdg are required.
For delta, 6 terminals are required.
Now make delta
R Y B Connection.

Stator

2- Run - Delta
TPDT
1- Start - Star

Fig.: Star-Delta starting


Rotor www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Atwstwarwt.inVgidT sw.dcgoimn star

yPaDrTthtiop1lu,
Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3
Motor rotates.
The starting current is
Now TPDT to 2- Delta I st.y VL / 3z 1
Line voltage applied R Y B
to wdg. Motor runs at rated speed I L.y Starting
Line current

Stator

2- Run - Delta
TPDT
1- Start - Star

Fig.: Star-Delta starting


Rotor www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Atwstwarwt.inVgidT sw.dcgoimn star

yPaDrTthtiop1lu,
Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3
Motor rotates.
The starting current is
Now TPDT to 2- Delta I st.y VL / 3z 1
Line voltage applied R Y B
to wdg Motor runs at rated speed I L.y Starting
Line current

Stator

2- Run - Delta
TPDT
1- Start - Star

Fig.: Star-Delta starting


Rotor www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Atwstwarwt.inVgidT sw.dcgoimn star

yPaDrTthtiop1lu,
Reduced voltage is applied to wdg = VL/3
Motor rotates.
The starting current is
Now TPDT to 2- Delta I st.y VL / 3z 1
Line voltage applied
to wdg Motor runs at rated speed I L.y Starting
Line current
At starting, if, wdg in delta
The starting current is
I st.d VL / z 1 I sc.d
I L.d 3 I st.d
1
I st.y I st.d
3
Starting line current with Y- starter Ist.y 1
= 3 I =
Starting line current with stator in st.d 3

Thus Ist. in star is one third of that current in delta.


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Starting wtowrqwue.VwiidthyaYr- 1
thsitpalrutsin.cg om(V1/3)2 = =
Starting torque with stator in V1 2
3
This shows that Tst.y in star is one third of starting torque
in delta.
In case of auto-transformer, if turn ratio x = 1/3
Then starting line current and is starting torque are
reduced to one third of their values with delta.
This shows that
Star delta starting is equivalent to auto transformer
if auto transformer turn ratio x=1/3=0.58 or 58% tapping
This method is cheap, effective and used extensively
Used for tool drives, pumps, motor-generator set.
Used up to rating of 3.3kV,
After this vowltwagwe.,
mVi/cdbyeacormtehsiepxlpeunsi.vecfoomr delta
winding
Example www.Vidyarthiplus.com
Determine the % tapping of the auto-transformer so
that the supply current during starting of IM does not
exceed 1.5 times full load current. The short circuit current
on normal voltage is 4.5 times the full load current and the
full load slip is 3%. Calculate the ratio of starting torque
full load torque.
Solution
V1
IL=1.5IFL xV1 Rotor
xV1
Isc=4.5IFL
IL
I st xI sc Stator
IL/Isc=0.333

In auto-transformer IL/Isc=x2 x=0.577


Hence % tapwpwinwg .isV5i7d%yarthiplus.com
2 2
Test I1st I sc
2
x s
I
s
Now www.Vi yarthiplus. om
d c fl

fl

T 1fl I


efl fl
2
0.333 4.5 0.03
0.202

V1
xV1
xV1 Rotor
IL
Ist xIsc Stator
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Example www.Vidyarthiplus.com
The short circuit line current of a 6hp IM is 3.5 times
its full load current, the stator of which is arranged for star
delta starting. The supply voltage is 400V, full load effn is
82% and full load power factor is 0.85% (lag).
Calculate the line current at the instant of starting.
Neglect magnetizing current.
Solution
6hp IM, P=3 VLILcos
Isc=3.5IFL 6 746 1
IFL= I L
Star-delta starting 3 0.85
0.82 400
Isc (line) =3.5 IFL FL=82%, pf=0.85 (lag)
Voltage =400V
=9.26A (line current ta)
for =5.34A (phase current
del for delta)
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Isc=3.5IFL=3.5wx5w.3w4.Vidyarthiplus.com
=18.73A
At the instant of starting, motor wdg is in star
For star, line current is equal to phase current.
IL at the instant of start =18.73A for delta (400V)
IL at the instant of start =18.73/3 A for star (400/3)
=10.81A
Pwrewsenwted.byVCi.GOdKyULa,APr/EtEEhVielaplarlC
oullesge.of cEnogg m& Tech , Erode
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DOL(Direct-on-line)
Starter

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ww w .V i d y ar th
DOL(D ir e c t - o n -
i p lu s. c o m
l in e ) s t arting
This method involves direct switching of
poly-phase stator on to the supply mains.
The motor takes starting current of 5 to 7 times its
full load current depending upon its size and
design.
Such large current of short duration dont harm
the rugged squirrel cage motor, but the high
currents may cause objectionable voltage drop in
power supply feeding the induction motor
These large voltage drop causes undesirable dip in
the supply line voltage, consequently affecting the
other equipments connected to the same supply.
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The
relawtiwonwb.eVtiwdeyeanrttheipsltuasrt.icnog
mtorque Ts and full load torque Tf is now
obtained .
Let Is and If be the per phase stator currents
drawn from the supply mains corresponding to
starting and full load conditions respectively.
We 1 r2
know:- Te .I 2 .
s 2 s

Therefore:-
2

Ts I s r2 1 I s
2 .s
T f I f r2 ------Eqn(1)
f
sf I f
V1
Now I I sc
st Z
sc

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V1 is wwpwer.-Vpihdaysae
rthisptalutosr.comvoltage & Zsc
=(r1+r2)+j(x1+x2), is the leakage impedance.

Therefore Eqn(1) can be written as:-

2
Ts I
sc
.s
If f
----Eqn(2)
Tf
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Stator
resistance(reactor)
Starter

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w w w . V i d ya r th ip l
Stato re s i s t a n c e ( r
r us .c
c o m
e a to r)method
In this method, a resistor or a reactor is inserted
in
between motor terminals and supply
mains.
At the time of starting some voltage drop occurs
across the starting resistor and therefore only a
fraction x of supply voltage appears across it.
This reduces the per phase starting currents Is
drawn by the motor from the supply mains.
As the motor speeds up,
the reactor is cut out in
steps and finally short-
circuited when the motor
speed is near to
synchronous speed.
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Since
thwewpewr.pVhidasyeavrothltiapgleuiss.rceo
dmuced to xV1 the per phase starting current
is:-
xV1
Is xI sc
Z
sc
Now we
know:-
1 I 22 r2
T .
s s

Therefore we have:-
2
Ts 2 I sc
x s
TTherefore:
I
f f
-
f
-----Eqn(1)
starting torque with reactor starting xV1
x
2

starting torque with direct switching V
1

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2
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Rotor
resistance
Starte
r
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ROTOR RESISTANCE STARTER(only
for
slip ring inducton motor)
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P

lCoullesge.of cEnogg m& Tech , Erode


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Increasing the rotor resistance, not only is the rotor
(and hence stator) current reduced at starting, but at
the same time, the starting torque is also increased
due to improvement in power factor.
The introduction of additional external resistance in
the rotor circuit enables a slip-ring motor to develop
a high starting torque with reasonably moderate
starting current.
Hence, such motors can be started under load. This
additional resistance is for starting purpose only. It is
gradually cut out as the motor comes up to speed.

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Speed control of
3 phase Induction Motor

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Speed Control of IM
Given a load T characteristc, the steady-state speed can be
changed by altering the T curve of the motor

Te
3R'
r
Vs
2
2 Varying voltage
(amplitude)
ss ' 2
Rr
s X X 2
R
ls lr
s

2 Varying line
s frequency
P 4
f
3
P
1 Pole Changing

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a) By changing the applied voltage:
Torque equation of induction motor is

Rotor resistance R2 is constant and if slip s is small


then sX2 is so small that it can be neglected. Therefore, T
sE22 where E2 is rotor induced emf and E2 V
& hence T V2, thus if supplied voltage is decreased,
torque decreases and hence the speed decreases.
This method is the easiest & cheapest, stll rarely used because-
1) A large change in supply voltage is required for
relatively small change in speed.
2) Large change in supply voltage will result in large
change in flux density, hence disturbing the magnetic
conditions of the motor.
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b) By changing the applied frequency
Synchronous speed of the rotating magnetic field of
induction motor is given by,

f = frequency & P = number of stator poles.


Thus, synchronous speed changes with change in
supply frequency, and thus running speed also
changes. However, this method is not widely used.
This method is used where, only the induction motor
is supplied by a generator (so that frequency can be
easily change by changing the speed of prime
mover).
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V/F control
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Variable Frequency Control of IM (v/f control)

Speed control above rated (base) speed


Requires the use of PWM inverters to control frequency of
motor
Frequency increased (i.e. s increased)
Stator voltage held constant at rated value
Air gap flux and rotor current decreases
Developed
torque decreases
Te (1/s)
For control
below base speed

use Constant
Volts/Hz method
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control
Airgap flux in the motor is related to the induced
stator
voltage E1 :
E1 Vs Assuming small voltage drop
ag across Rs and Lls
f f
For below base speed operation:
Frequency reduced at rated Vs - airgap flux saturates
(f ,ag and enters saturaton region oh B-H curve):
- excessive stator currents flow
- distorton of flux wave
- increase in core losses and stator copper loss
Hence, keep ag = rated flux
stator voltage Vs must be reduced proportional to
reduction in f (i.e. maintaining Vs / f rato)
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control
Max. torque remains
almost constant
For low speed operation: E1 Vs Vs
2

cant ignore voltage drop


ag Tmax
f f
across
Rs and Lls (i.e. E1 Vs) c
poor torque capability o
(i.e. torque decreased at low nt
ro
speeds shown by doted lines) l
stator voltage must be boosted (r
to compensate for voltage ef
drop at Rs and Lls and maintain er
constant ag to
For above base speed sli
d
operation e
(f > frated): 1
stator voltage maintained 3)
at rated value ww
Same as Variable Frequency
idyarthiplus.com s

508
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control
Vs
Vs vs. f relaton in Constant Volts/Hz drives Boost - to
compensate for
Vrated voltage drop at Rs
and Lls

Linear offset curve


Linear offset for high-startng
torque loads
employed for most
applicatons

Non-linear offset
curve
for low-starting
Non-linear offset varies with Is torque loads
Boost
f
fra
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o
509
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control

For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:


fs = Kfs,rated s = Ks,rated
(1)
(Note: in (1) , speed is given as mechanical speed)
KVs ,rated , when f f s ,rated
Stator s
voltage:Vs V f
(2) s , when f s s ,rated
,rated

Voltage-to-frequency ratio = d = constant:


Vs,rated
d
s,rated (3)
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control

For operaton at frequency K tmes rated frequency:


Hence, the torque produced by the motor:
' 2
3R Vs
Te r

s s Rr
' 2
(4)
X
2
R K
2

s s
X ls
lr

where s and Vs are calculated from (1) and (2)


respectively.
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control

For operation at frequency K times rated frequency:


The slip for maximum torque is:
'
Rr (5)
smax
X l X lr
2 2 2
Rs K
The maximum torque is then given by:
2
3 Vs
Tmax (6)
2 s R R 2 2
2
X ls X lr
s K
s

where s and Vs are calculated from (1) and (2)
respectvely. www
dyarthiplus.com

512
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control
Constant
Torque Area Field Weakening Mode (f > frated)
Rated (Base) (below base speed)
frequency Reduced flux (since Vs is constant)
Torque reduces
Constant Power Area
(above base speed)

Note:
Operaton restricted
between synchronous
speed and Tmax for
motoring and braking
regions, i.e. in the
linear region of the
torque-speed curve.
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Constant Volts/Hz (V/f) Control

Constant Torque Area

Constant Power Area

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c) By changing No. of poles

synchronous speed(Ns) (and hence, running speed) can be changed


by changing the number of stator poles. This method is generally used
for squirrel cage induction motors, as squirrel cage rotor adapts itself for
any number of stator poles. Change in stator poles is achieved by two or
more independent stator windings wound for different number of poles in
same slots.
For example, a stator is wound with two 3phase windings, one for 4 poles
and other for 6 poles.
For supply frequency of 50 Hz
i) synchronous speed when 4 pole winding is connected,
Ns = 120*50/4 = 1500 RPM
ii) synchronous speed when 6 pole winding is connected,
Ns = 120*50/6 = 1000 RPM

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I I I h I I I
I b
c
I A
I - I

E
/ f\
)
\ V
f.
Ih
c
III b
, 'f
T2
(a) (b)

c
(c)
wwFwigu.reV3i1: dPoyle
aChrantginhg:iVparliouus sco.nncectoionms
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P
ar lCoullesge.of cEnogg m& Tech , Erode
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CASCADING OPERATION

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Cascaded connecton
In this method of speed control, two motors
are used. Both are mounted on a same shaft
so that both run at same speed.
One motor is fed from a 3phase supply and
other motor is fed from the induced emf in
first motor via slip-rings.

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Motor A is called main motor and motor B is called auxiliary
motor.
Let, Ns1 = frequency of motor A
Ns2 = frequency of motor B
P1 = number of poles stator of motor A
P2 = number of stator poles of motor B
N = speed of the set and same for both motors
f = frequency of the supply

Now, slip of motor A, S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1.


frequency of the rotor induced emf in motor A, f1 = S1f
now, auxiliary motor B is supplied with the rotor induce emf
therefore, Ns2 = (120f1) / P2 = (120S1f) / P2.
now puttng the value of S1 = (Ns1 - N) / Ns1

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At no load, speed of the auxiliary rotor is almost same as its synchronous speed.
i.e. N = Ns2.

Four different speeds can be obtained


1. when only motor A works, corresponding
speed = Ns1 = 120f / P1
2. when only motor B works, corresponding
speed = Ns2 = 120f / P2
3. if cummulative cascading is done,
speed of the set = N = 120f / (P1 + P2)
4. if differential cascading is done,
speed of the set = N = 120f (P1 - P2)
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Slip power
recovery
Kramer
Scherbius
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1)
Kwrwamwe.VridSyyasrttheipmlus.com
RYB Voltage
f regulating
device

MIM ACM
If brush emf is more than slip voltage
Power flows from ACM-Rotor of MIM.
MIM operates at Super-Synchronous speed
If brush emf is less than slip voltage
Power flows from Rotor of MIM- ACM.
MIM operates at Sub-Synchronous speed
Since power is flowing from one machine to another with one
shaft, it is
cownswtwan.tVpiodweyradrrtivhe.iplus.com
2)
Swcwhwe.rVbidiuysarSth RYB
yipsltuesm.com
RYB
f
regulating
MIM device

ACM AIM

At Super-Synchronous speed, power flows from supply-AIM


(Motor) - ACM -rotor of MIM.
At Sub-Synchronous speed, power flows from rotor of MIM
- ACM AIM (Gen) - supply.
Power changwews tohriqupeldursiv.e com
w.VCiondsytaanrt
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Braking of 3ph
Inducton
Motors
Plugging
Dynamic Braking
Regeneratve
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Braking Methods
Regenerative Braking
Plugging or reverse voltage braking
Dynamic ( or rheostatic ) braking :
a) ac dynamic braking
b) Self-excited braking using capacitor
c) dc dynamic braking
d) zero-sequence braking

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1. Regenerative Braking
If an induction motor is forced to run at speeds in
excess of the synchronous speed, the load
torque exceeds the machine torque and the slip
is negative, reversing the rotor induced EMF and
rotor current. In this situation the machine will
act as a generator with energy being returned to
the supply.
If the AC supply voltage to the stator excitation is
simply removed, no generation is possible
because there can be no induced current in the
rotor.

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Regenerative braking
In traction applications, regenerative braking is
not possible below synchronous speed in a
machine fed with a fixed frequency supply. If
however the motor is fed by a variable frequency
inverter then regenerative braking is possible by
reducing the supply frequency so that the
synchronous speed becomes less than the
motor speed.
AC motors can be microprocessor controlled to
a fine degree and can regenerate current down
to almost a stop

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B TL
A
Te
8 poles 4 poles
D

TL A
D
0 Speed Ns
1 Slip C 0 -Te +Te

B Two quadrant operation


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Regenerative braking
Power input to induction motor:
Pin=3VIscoss

Motoring operation s<90 m< ms


Braking s>90 m> ms

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Regenerative braking
Advantage: Generated power is usefully
employed
Disadvantage: It can not be employed
below synchronous speed when fed from
constant frequency source.
Speed Range : Between synchronous
speed and the speed for which braking
torque is maximum.

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2. Plugging
Plugging induction motor braking is done by reversing
the phase sequence of the motor. Plugging braking of
induction motor is done by interchanging connections
of any two phases of stator with respect of supply
terminals. And with that the operation of motoring shifts
to plugging braking.
During plugging the slip is (2 - s), if the original slip of the
running motor is s, then it can be shown in the following
way.

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From the figure beside we can see that
the torque is not zero at zero speed.
Thats why when the motor is needed to
be stopped, it should be disconnected
from the supply at near zero speed.
The motor is connected to rotate in the
reverse direction and the torque is not
zero at zero or any other speed, and as a
result the motor first decelerates to zero
and then smoothly accelerates in the
opposite direction.
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3. DC Dynawmwicw.BVridaykainrtghiplus.com
or Rheostatic or AC Dynamic Braking
The disadvantages of plugging are removed in dynamic
braking. Dynamic braking requires less power.
Under normal operating condition
Stator - Rotating Magnetic Field - Ns Faster sNs
Rotor - Te - Rotates - Nr Slower

If DC supply is given to stator


Stator - Stationary Magnetic Field -Ns Slower
=0

Rotor - Rotates - Nr Faster Ns(1-s)=


Teb
This Teb is dynamic braking torque. NsS
Teb depends on 1. DC source. 2. Rotor resistance 3. Speed
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Con si de r r ot o r
w w w . V id y
aisrtrhuinpnliungs.actosmyn speed Ns
Stator is excited by DC
The relative speed between stator field and
rotor is Ns.
Slip = (Relative speed Ns)/Ns = 1
This is equivalent to IM with a rotor at STANDSTILL
Now consider, rotor is at rest and stator is excited by DC
Stationary flux induces no rotor emf
This is equivalent to IM with a rotor RUNNING at Syn speed
Conclusions
1. Rotor at syn speed with DC dynamic braking is similar to
rotor at rest during IM operation
2. Rotor at rest with DC dynamic braking is similar to
rotor running at syn speed during IM operation
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Circwuiwt Dwia.Vgridamyarthiplus.com
AC DC
R1

Stator R1 is connected to limit


stator current
Additional rotor resistance
is also connected to limit
Rotor the current and to obtain
braking characteristics
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Circwuiwt Dwia.Vgridamyarthiplus.com
AC

Rectifier

R1 Transformer

Stator

Rotor

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Und e r
w w
n o r m a l o pe r a t in g c o n d itio
w . V i d y a rt h i p lu s . c o m
n
Rotor speed w r t stator field under DC dynamic
braking is Ns(1-s) = NsS
In the equivalent ckt diagram, replace s by S
jx2 In phasor diadram
I1 I2 also replace s by S
V1
I

VDC jXm r2/S I1


I1

I0

x1 = 0, and no stator core loss


I2 r2 SE2
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m2
The d yn a m ic b r a k i ng t or q u
w w w . V id y a r t h ip lu s .
e i s
c om
3 2r
Ted = I2 2
s S

Te The T-s ch is similar to IM but with slip scale reversed

R2 < R2< R2
TL A
0 Speed Ns
1 Slip 0
r2 Ted
R2
R2
R2
Ted increases with increase in rotor circuit resistance
Due to this it is also called as RHEOSTATIC braking
The entire
powwwerwd.eVvieldopyeadrinthroitporlius

sdi.sscipoamted in R2
MM F pr o d uc e d b y 3-
w w w . V id y a r th i
pplhusw.dcgodmue to AC
3
MMFAC = ImN
2
MMF produced by single ph due to DC = IDC N
The resultant MMF produced due to DC

IDC N
60 MMFDC = 3IDC N
IDC N
3IDC N
For equal MMF due to and DC
AC
3
I m N 3IDC N
2
3
IDC I1 N
2
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AC
dywnwamwic.Vbirdaykainrgthinipnloutsh.icngo

mbut SEIG operation


A bank of capacitors is connected across
three phases of stator wdg.
IG receives AC excitation from bank of capacitor
The generated electrical energy is
AC dissipated as heat in rotor circuit
Due to high cost of capacitor, this
method is not used in practice.
Advantages of
C C 1. Smooth stop
2. Less rotor ckt
Stator loss
C
3. No tendency to
reverse
Rotor
www.VDiidsaydavarnttahgiep:
Lleuss.qucicokmthan plugging
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UNIT-5
Single phase Induction
Motor & Special Machines
Presented by
C.GOKUL
AP/EEE
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Single phase
Induction Motor

Pwrewsenwted.byVCi.GOdKyULa,APr/EtEEhViel
aplarlCoullesge.of cEnogg m& Tech , Erode
ww w .V id y ar th ip l u s.
I n tr o d u c t i o
com
n

What is single phase induction motors?


is an inducton motor having a squirrel cage
rotor and a single phase stator winding.
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wWwowr.VkiidnygarPthripinluc
si.pcolem

Suppose the rotor is at rest and a single phase


supply is given to the stator winding. Now the current
flowing in the stator winding will produce a m.m.f
with in the stator and this m.m.f induces a current in
the rotor. Again the induced current inside the rotor
will produce a m.m.f with in the rotor itself which is
equal in magnitude and opposite in direction with the
stator m.m.f. Thus the two m.m.f cancel out each
other and as a result there will be no net torque
acting on the rotor. There for the rotor will stay at
rest. So due to this effect, we have to find another
method to start the motor.
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Types of Single Phase Induction Motors

Depending on the method used to start the


motor : -
1) Capacitor-start motors
2) Capacitor-run motors
3) Capacitor start-and run motors
4) Shaded-pole motors

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ww w .
1) Capac i to r -
V id ya r th ip lu s . co m
S ta r t p h a s e i nduction
motor
A capacitor-Start motor is a spilt phase
induction motor with a starting capacitor
inserted in series with the start winding
creating an LC Circuit which is capable of
producing a much greater torque.
An Lc circuit refers to a circuit containing
an inductor w/c connected together they
can act as an electrical resonator w/c
stores electrical energy.
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Workinwg wPwri.Vnicdiypalrethoipflu
ssi.ncogmle phase
capacitor-start motor
In capacitor-start motors the capacitor enables
the motor to handle heavy start loads by increasing
the strength of the magnetic field created by the
windings. The capacitor is individually mounted
outside of the motor as a separate unit either on the
top or side of the motor with a centrifugal switch
located between the capacitor and the start winding.
The switch connects the capacitor with the motor at
startup and disconnects them when the motor has
reached about 75% of its operating speed. And during
startup period when the centrifugal switch is closed,
capacitor-start motors typically deliver from 250-350%
of the full load torque.
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w w
Equivale n t
w .V id y a rt h ip lu
c i rc u i t o f c
s .c o m
a p a c itor-start
motors
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Types of
w w w .V id y a rt h
s i n gl e p h a s
ipl u s. c om
e c a p a citor-
start motor
Among this the basic types include:-
A) Single voltage externally reversible
B) Single voltage non reversible
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w w w . V id ya rt h ip
Appl ic a ti o n s o f s
l u s. c om
i n g l e phase
capacitor-start motors
Capacitor-start from high torque (>175%
full load) are used: -
Operation having high starting loads
such as: - Elevators
- Compressors &
- Refrigerators
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Capacitor-start moderate torque (<175%


full load) are used:-
Operation having low starting
loads such as:- Fans
- Blowers &
- Small pumps.

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2) Capacitor run motors
Capacitor-run motors are motors having a
capacitor connected in series with the start
winding in order to increase the running
efficiency.
Capacitor-run motors use run-capacitors
that are designed for continuous duty which
are energized the entire time during
operation of the motor.

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Workinwg wpwri.Vnicdiypalrethoipflu
ssi.ncogmle phase
capacitor-run motors
In capacitor-run motors, a run-capacitor
is connected to the start winding of the
motor and it constantly energizes the start
winding while the motor is running. And this
creates a 90o phase change between the start
winding current and the run winding current
making a two phase motor. As a result a
rotatng magnetc field is created within the
motor which causes the rotor to rotate more
eficiently.
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w w w .V id y ar th i p lu
Advanta g e s a n d d i s a
s .c o m
d v a n tages of
capacitor-run motors
Advantages
The capacitor remains in the circuit at all
tmes thus no centrifugal switch is required.
They can be designed to have low vibraton
and less noise under full load conditon.
If properly designed, they are more efficient
than other type of motors.
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Disadvantages
Since capacitor start motors have low
startng torque they cannot be used in
applicatons with severe startng conditons.

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w ww .V id ya r t hip
pl us .
Applicatio n of s in g l e h a
c o m
s e capacitor- run
motors

are mainly used for applications requiring


low starting torque and high efficiency
such as:- Small compressors,
Pumps &
Fans.
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3) Capacitor start-and-run motors
Capacitor-start-and-run motors or permanent-
split capacitor motors
are single phase inducton motors having
capacitors connected in the circuit during both
the startng and the running period. In this type
of motors both the start winding and the run
windings are permanently connected to the
power source through a capacitor at all tmes.

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Types of
w w w . Vid y a rt h ipl u
s i n gl e p h a s e c
s. c om
a p a citor start- and-
run motors
Depending on the number of capacitors
used: -
1. Single value capacitor start-and-run
motors:
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2. Two
vawluwew.cVaidpyaarcthitipolruss.tcaorm
t-and-run
motors
The two values of capacitance can be obtained
using two different methods.
a. By using two capacitors in parallel
b. By using a step up transformer
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Advantage

Ability to start heavy loads


Ability to develop 25% overload capacity
Higher efficiency and power factor
Extremely quiet operation

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Applicatio n s o f si n g le p h
co m
a se capacitor start-and-
run motors

Two value capacitor start and run motors are


frequently used in applicatons requiring
variable speed such as : -
Air handlers,
Blowers and
Fanes.
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Single value capacitor start-and-run


motors are used in applicatons requiring
low startng torque such as:-
Fans
Blowers &
Voltage regulators.

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4) Shaded pole motors
A shaded pole motor is a single phase inducton
motor having one or more short circuited
windings actng only on a porton of the
magnetc circuit.
Generally the winding is a closed copper ring
embedded in the face of the pole together
known as the shaded pole which provides the
required rotatng field for startng purpose.

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Workingwpwrwin.Vcidipyalertshioplfu
s.icnogmle phase shaded
pole motors

Now when an alternating current is passed through


the field or main winding surrounding the whole pole, the
magnetic axis of the pole shifts from the unshaded part to
the shaded part. which is analogous with the actual
physical movement of the pole. As a result the rotor starts
rotating in the direction of this shift from the unshaded
part to the s ha d e d p ar t.
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Advantag es a n d d i s a d v a nlu s .
ctoamgesof single phase shaded
pole motors

Advantages
Simple in constructon
Tough surface
Reliable and cheap
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Disadvantages
Low startng torque
Very little overload capacity
Low efficiency (5% for tny sizes 35%
for higher ratngs)

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Applicatio n s o f s i n g l e p
.c o m
h a s e shaded- pole
motors
Because of its low startng torque, the shaded
pole motor is generally used for
Small fans,
Toys,
Hairdryers,
Ventlators etc.
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Special Machines

There are variety of special machines available


Here, our territory includes
Stepper Motor
Hysteresis Motor
AC series Motor
Linear Reluctance Motor
Repulsion Motor

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Stepper
Motor
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Stepper Motor

Stepper Motor, derives its name from the fact that it follows
definitive step in response to input pulses
See to it, that the input is in the form of pulses
Straightaway it is understood that the input, being pulses, can
be controlled and in turn the output gets controlled
Wherever precise positioning is required stepper motors are
widely employed
Typical values stepper motors develop torque ranging from 1
N-m upto 40 N-m power output range from 1 W to 2500 W

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Stepper Motor types

There are three designs of stepper motors


available in the literature
They are
Variable Reluctance stepper motor
Permanent magnet stepper motor
Hybrid stepper motor

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Stepper Motor Variable


Reluctance Stepper Motor

Operating principle

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1. Variable Reluctance
Stepper Motor
As usual, it has
Stator
Rotor

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor
- Stator

Stator is a hollow cylinder whose inner


periphery houses salient poles

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor
- Rotor

Rotor is a solid cylinder whose outer


periphery has salient poles

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

When we emphasize that the operation just


performed is 1-phase-ON mode we indirectly
mean that we have something called as 2-
phase-ON mode and so on
As the name goes, 2-phase-ON mode
denotes 2 phases being switched ON at the
same time

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

2-phase-ON mode

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

When we started, 2-phase-ON mode, many


would have thought that step angle would be
15 deg
But the table in the previous slide shows the
step angle is same as that of the previous
case (30 deg, maintained)
But the position of the rotor is changed,
which is a desirable factor in some of the
position control experiments
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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

If the step angle is altered from the original intended design, it


would add much to the application side of our machine
Can we bring any other step size here?
Is it possible, first of all?
The answer is yes, it is possible
There is no restriction imposed on us in altering the
combination of switching pulses
In fact, the 2-phase-ON mode is the child of our manipulation of
combination of phases involved in switching

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

Going by the same discussion, if we resort to


the combination of 1-phase-ON mode and 2-
phase-ON mode we will end up with some
interesting operation

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

It is interesting to note here that this


discussion has no end in it
We have something called as micro-stepping
and the reader is advised to do it as an
assignment

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Variable Reluctance Stepper Motor

All the previous slides regarding Variable


Reluctance Stepper Motor can be confined to
what is referred to as single-stack variable
reluctance stepper motor
It becomes clear by now that we have
something called as multi-stack variable
reluctance stepper motor

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2. Permanent Magnet
Stepper Motor
It is very similar to Variable Reluctance
stepper motor
The only difference being that the rotor is
made up of permanent magnet
In VR motors, the rotor is a magnetic material
(It can carry the flux lines through it)

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Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Stator and Rotor

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Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

The stator phases can be excited with either


positive current or negative current
Positive current in phase A will create a set
of poles while the negative current will create
opposite poles
Similar is the case with phase B

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Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Consider positive current in phase A

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Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

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Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Advantages
Permanent magnets require no external
exciting current low power loss
High inertia
Develops more torque than VR motor

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Permanent Magnet Stepper Motor

Disadvantages
It is very difficult to produce permanent
magnet rotor with more number of poles
This makes the design of PM motors with
higher step angle

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3. Hybrid Stepper Motor


Hybrid stepper motor combine the features of
VR and PM stepper motors
The stator is an electromagnet
The rotor is a permanent magnet
The difference in the rotor is that the rotor
magnet is axial with one end completely
north pole and other, south pole

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Hybrid Stepper Motor

The confusion, if any, can be better


illustrated with the schematic representation
given below

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Hybrid Stepper Motor

The side view of the axial permanent magnet


in the rotor is shown below

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Hybrid Stepper Motor

The operation is left as an assignment for the


reader
The reader can build on this idea that the
rotor alignment would be based on the
attraction between formed stator poles (this
being electromagnet) and permanent rotor
poles

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Applications

Type-writers
Tape drives
Floppy disk drivers
Process control systems
X-Y plotters

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Hysteresis Motor

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Hysteresis Motor
This is based on the principle of hysteresis
Basically this is a constant speed motor
similar to synchronous motor
As is always the case
It has a
Stator and a Rotor

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Hysteresis Motor - Stator

Stator of hysteresis motor is similar to single


phase induction motor
The stator winding can be either split phase
type of shaded pole type

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Hysteresis Motor - Rotor

Rotor is a smooth cylinder made of chrome-


steel
Materials of high resistivity comparable to
that of an insulator are normally chosen to
make the eddy current loss zero which make
the core loss equal only to hysteresis loss

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Hysteresis Motor Operating Principle

The concept of hysteresis is the basis


of such motor
As we know, hysteresis is the lagging
of magnetic flux density (B) with
respect to magnetizing field strength
(H)

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Hysteresis loss

Remember, the very old hysteresis curve


It looks as shown

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Hysteresis loss

At the outset, what we can elaborate is that if an


attempt is made to induce pole in a magnetic
material with higher retentivity the induced pole will
not loose its magnetic property even though the
induction is taken out completely
It is like remembering some event even after the
event is over (retaining something)

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Hysteresis loss

Where this come in the machine?

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The typical hysteresis loop for the


rotor material

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Torque Slip characteristics

The torque slip characteristics of hysteresis


motor has some interesting points to note

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Applications

Precision Audio equipments


Record players
Electric clocks
Tele-printers

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AC series Motor

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AC series motor
An AC motor with commutator and brush
assembly is referred to as commutator motor
(Remember commutator and brush assembly
in the wound rotor of an Induction motor)
There are two types of commutator motor
AC series motor
Universal motor

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AC series motor

What would happen if a normal dc series motor is connected to


ac supply?
The motor will run normally as the torque will still be
unidirectional
This is due to the fact that current and flux will change direction
simultaneously (dealt during 3 ph IM)
But, power factor would be very poor due to very high
inductance of armature and field windings
At the same time, alternating flux would induce eddy emf in the
core leading to heavy eddy current loss in the machine
Also, sparking occur at brushes during the commutation period
due to heavy voltage and current
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AC series motor

These disadvantages make the machine


unsuitable with AC supply
Proper modifications can make the machine
suitable with AC supply

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AC series motor Required


Modifications

Eddy current loss and the associated heating


loss can be overcome by properly laminating
the machines armature core and field core
The power factor can be controlled by
decreasing the reactance of armature
winding and field winding

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AC series motor Modifications


Elaborated

Decreasing the reactance of the field winding


increases the speed of the machine due to reduction
in the air gap flux
Increase in the speed gives rise to decreased torque
Now to improve the torque, armature turns has to be
increased proportionately
But this will again increase the effective reactance of
the machine which is undesirable

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AC series motor Modifications


Elaborated

To keep the armature reactance minimum and the


associated armature reaction reactance effect, a
special compensating winding is provided
The compensating winding is connected in such a
way so that the flux produced by the compensating
winding will be exactly in opposition to the flux
produced by the armature winding
This will neutralize the armature reaction reactance
effect

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AC series motor Modifications


Implementation

This compensating winding can be connected in two ways


Based on the connection it is referred as conductively
compensated and inductively compensated

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AC series motor Modifications


Implementation

Another major set back is the sparking associated


with commutation
In dc motors, this is overcome by commutating
poles (com poles) or inter poles
The voltage induced in the short circuited armature
winding is huge enough (this voltage is absent in the
case of dc motors) which creates undesirable
sparking even when inter poles are provided

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AC series motor Modifications


Implementation

One method to reduce sparking connecting a shunt


resistance with the commutating winding of the
machine
By adjusting the resistance, voltage across the
compole winding is adjusted

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AC series motor Characteristics

The characteristics of AC series motor are very


similar to dc series motor

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Repulsion Motor

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Repulsion Motor
It has a
Stator
Rotor

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Repulsion Motor - Stator

Stator is a hollow cylinder whose inner periphery


houses armature conductors
Winding is excited with single phase supply

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Repulsion Motor - Motor

Rotor is a solid cylinder whose outer periphery has


conductors
It is very similar to the armature of the dc motor with
commutator and brush arrangement
The brushes are short circuited by low resistance
jumper (why?)

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Repulsion Motor - Operation

The operation of the repulsion motor is shown with


stator designed as salient pole type
The operation will remain same with stator discussed
as salient pole type
But take it that the stator is distributed type with slots
carrying single phase armature conductors

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Repulsion Motor - Operation

To make it clear

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Repulsion Motor - Operation

Then, how to make the motor start?

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Repulsion Motor - Shortcomings

Speed changes as the load is changed


It becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load
Working power factor is very poor
Likely sparking at brushes

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Repulsion Motor - Shortcomings

Speed changes as the load is changed


It becomes very high (dangerously high) at no load
Working power factor is very poor
Likely sparking at brushes

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Repulsion Motor Overcoming the
disadvantages

An attempt in overcoming the disadvantages has


given way to new types of Repulsion motor
Compensated Repulsion Motor
Here, an extra winding called the compensating
winding is added in series with the armature winding
This winding is placed in the inner slots of the stator
The main purpose of compensating winding is to
improved the power factor (as in the case of
compensation provided in the AC series motor) and
to improve the speed regulation
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Repulsion Motor Overcoming the
disadvantages

Repulsion-start Induction-Run Motor


As the name indicates the motor starts as a
repulsion motor and after attaining 75 percent of the
speed the brushes are lifted and the armature
winding is shorted as Induction Motor
This arrangement is advantageous as the brushes
would not any current during operation
There are also designs in which the brushes ride on
the commutator throughout the operation

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Repulsion Motor Overcoming the
disadvantages

Repulsion Induction Motor


This is the third design in which stator is the same as
in normal repulsion motor
But the rotor has two separate windings
One winding carries commutator and brush
arrangement similar to dc motor
Other winding is squirrel cage winding similar to
cage induction motor
Both these windings operate during the entire period
of operation of the motor
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Repulsion Motor Overcoming the
disadvantages

Squirrel cage windings are placed deep inside the


rotor and remains inactive during start due to its high
reactance
When the rotor attains 85 % of the speed, squirrel
cage windings takes control
Commutated windings provide the starting torque
which is seen to well above 350 percent of the full-
load torque

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Linear Induction
Motor

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Linear Induction Motor


The readers are advised to do this part as an
assignment
Interested people can this important points before
taking up the assignment

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Linear Induction Motor

A normal Induction motor has a stator and a rotor


Stator is a hollow cylinder with conductors in its inner
periphery
Rotor is a solid cylinder with conductors on its outer
periphery

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Linear Induction Motor

If the stator is cut in to half parallel to its axis (It will


look as english alphabet U from the front end), the
motor is referred to as sector Induction Motor
The important to note is that the motor will work
developing almost 30 % of its power rating
Anyway the voltage has to be reduced to prevent
saturation since the number of conductors has been
reduced to half of its original value

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Linear Induction Motor

If the U shaped stator and cylindrical rotor is made


flat, then the machine is referred to as Linear
Induction Motor
As a passing reference, the reader can note that this
type of machine is employed in trains which operate
on the principle of Magnetic Levitation

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Servo
Motor
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Introduction
They are also called control motors and have high-torque
capabilities
Basic principle of operation is the same as that of other
electromagnetic motors. However, their construction, design
and mode of operation are different.
Their power ratings vary from a fraction of a watt up to a few
100 W.
Both DC and AC (2-phase and 3-phase) servomotors are used.
Applications
In radar , tracking and guidance systems, process controllers,
computers and machine tools.

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DC
These motors are either separately-excited dc motors or permanent-
magnet dc motors.
The schematic diagram of a separately-excited DC motor along with its
armature and field MMFs and torque/speed characteristics is shown in
Fig. 39.26. The speed of DC servomotors is normally controlled by
varying the armature voltage. Their armature is deliberately designed
to have large resistance so that torque-speed characteristics are linear
and have a large negative slope as shown in Fig. 39.26 (c). The
negative slope serves the purpose of providing the viscous damping
for the servo drive system.
As shown in Fig. 39.26 (b), the armature mmf. and excitation field mmf
are in quadrature. This fact provides a fast torque response because
torque and flux become decoupled.
Accordingly, a step change in the armature voltage or current
produces a quick change in the position or speed of the rotor.

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xw . ww.Vidx arthiplus.com
y.
Field

DC
Supply
V

0----
(a)

T v.>v>v,

.
Armature
MMF
1
0
Field
v,
MMF

(b) (c)
Fig. 39.26
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AC
w ww . Vid ya rthip lu s. c
S e rv o m o t o
o m
r s
Such motors normally run on a frequency of 60 Hz or 400
Hz (for airborne systems). The stator has two distributed
windings which are displaced from each other by 90
(electrical).
The main winding (also called the reference or fixed
phase) is supplied from a constant voltage source,
Vm 0 (Fig. 39.27). The other winding (also called the
control phase) is supplied with a variable voltage of the
same frequency as the reference phase but is phase-
displaced by 90 (electrical).
The control phase voltage is controlled by an electronic
controller. The speed and torque of the rotor are
controlled by the phase difference between the main and
control windings. Reversing the phase difference from
leading to lagging (or vice-versa) reverses the motor
directio n.
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Cage Ro
/~

Control
Phase
VaL90

0--

Fixed
Phase

HighRot
Res"I stance

o
-N +N

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Magnetic
Levitation
System
- Introduction
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Introduction
What are Magnetic levitation systems?
Maglev. are devices that suspend
ferromagnetic materials with the aid of
electromagnetism. It has wide number
of applications such as high-speed
trains, aerospace shuttles, magnetic
bearings and high-precision platforms.

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System Block Diagram
Set point Intel micrcontroller
+ Ts
Reference Interface Digital z Interface Magnetic
input + E(s) Circuit Controller o Circuit U(s)Levitation
E*(s) h System
-

Maglev Front Panel

Actual Ball position Y(s)

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References
Electrical Machines-II by S. B.
Sivasubramaniyan -MSEC, Chennai
http://yourelectrichome.blogspot.in/
http://www.electricaleasy.com/p/electrical-
machines.html
www.scribd.com
www.slideshare.net

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References
Armature Reaction of Alternator by N.Karthikeyan
BEE2123 ELECTRICAL MACHINES Muhamad Zahim
EE20A - Electromechanical Energy Conversion
Alternators and Synchronous Motors by Amit Mishra
Electrical Machines www.utm.my
INDUCTION MOTOR by MUHAMMAD WAQAR
Single phase Induction Motor
Magnetic Levitation by Tori Johnson and Jenna Wilson

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Books Reference
Electric Machinery by A.E. Fitzgerald Charles
Kingsley, Jr.Stephen D. Umans
Electrical Machines by Nagrath & Kothari
Electrical Machines by P.S.Bimbhra
Electrical Machines-II by Godse
Electrical Machines-II by Gnanavadivel

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