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HONOR ROLL
191h AAA Group 151h AAA AW Bn 1251h AAA Gun Bn Va.
Original Honor Roll Col. H. A. Gerhardl Lt. Cal. J. C. Evans Lt. Col. 1. J. Buntin
88/h AAA Abn Bn 26th AAA Group 161h AAA Gun Bn 1261h AAA AW Bn Mass.
Lt. Col. f. l. Cormier Col. N. A. Skin rood Moj. F. X. Gallant Lt. Col. R. C. Carrero
228/h AAA Group S. C. 2 Blh AAA Group 1 81h AAA Gun Bn 1291h AAA AW Bn Va.
Col. T. H. Pope Col. W. C. Conway Ll. Cal. H. F. Ewing Lt. Cal. G. D. Easles
I07/h AAA AW Bn S. C. 30lh AAA Group 20th AAA Gun Bn 130lh AAA AW Bn SP N. C.
Lt. Col. f. R. Mciver Cal. P. H. Wollaston Lt. Cal. C. F. Ottinger Lt. Cal. W. LamonI, Jr.
305/h AAA Group N. Y. 651h AAA Group 2151 AAA AW Bn SP 1681h AAA Gun Bn
Co/. J. S. Moyer Col. H. S. Tubbs Ll. Cal. J. F. Stabler Lt. Col. M. C. Macy
68th AAA Group 22nd AAA AW Bn 243rd AAA AW Bn R. I.
Separate Commands Cal. G. F. Pierce "Lt. Col. W. H. Bornscheuer Lt. Col. E. E. McMillon
80lh AAA Group 28th AAA Gun Bn 245th AAA Gun Bn N. Y.
Hq AAA Command
Col. . M. Spengler LJf Col. J. A. Word, Jr. Lt. Col. C. Davidson
Lt. Gen. J. T. Lewis
9 AAA Group ~2nd AAA Gun Bn 2481h AAA Gun Bn Illinois
Easlern AAA Command
01. W. F. Spurgin Lt. Col. H. G. Cummings Lt. Col. A. C. Androe
Col. A. G. Franklin
138th AAA Group 35th AAA Gun Bn 27151 AAA Gun Bn Calif.
Weslern AAA Command
Col. H. B. Hudiburg Lt. Cal. L. H. Kirk, Jr. Lt. Col. V. S. Matthews
Brig. Gen. J. G. Devine
142nd AAA Group Ala. 36th AAA Missile Bn 340lh AAA Gun 8n D. C.
Central AAA Command
Col. R. M. Hardy LI Col. E. R. Gooding Lt. Col. R. T. Bord
Col. D. J. Boiley
205th AAA Group Wash. "'7th AAA Gun lln 41 81h AAA Gun Bn Va.
AAA Repl Training Cenler
Cal. J. H. Pindell Lt. Col. J. H. Brubaker Lt. Col. W. K. Adams
Lt. Col. E. E. Twining
211 th AAA Group Mass. 38th AAA Gun Bn 4S0th AAA Gun Bn
Hq Far East AAA Spec. Sch.
Cal. D. MacDuff Lt. Col. R. T. Shugart Lt. Col. G. W. Shivers, Jr.
Col. F. E. Day
213th AAA Group Penn. 39th AAA AW Bn 4591h AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. H. A. Cressman Lt. Cal. F. D. Pryor Lt. Col. C. D. Souvinet
Brigades 40th AAA Gun Bn 4661h AAA AW Bn
2141h AAA Group Ga.
3151 AAA Brigade Cal. J. G. Johnson Lt. Cal. W. H. Hubbard Lt. Col. S. M. Arnold
Col. H. G. Hoskell 218th AAA Group Penn. 41st AAA Gun Bn 4951h AAA Missile Bn
32nd AAA Brigade Lt. Cal. J. L. Butler Lt. Col. W. T. Lind Lt. Col. B. H. Backstrom
Col. C. H. Blumefield 220th AAA Group Mass. 42nd AAA Gun Bn SP 4961h AAA Gun Bn
341h AAA Brigade Cal. R. H. Hopkins Lt. Col. J. E. Arlhur, Jr. Lt. Col. H. L. Dickey
Brig. Gen. F. C. McConnell 2241h AAA Group Va. 46th AAA AW Bn SP 5051h AAA Missile Bn
5 h AAA Brigade Cal. E. W. Thompson Lt. Col. R. M. Walker Lt. Col. M. E. Chotas
g. Gen. T. V. Stayton 2261h AAA Group Ala. 49th AAA Gun Bn 'h AAA Gun Bn
~Olh AAA Brigade Lt. Cal. C. C. Hines . Col. J. H. Valliere

*
~ Col. N. J. Wallon
Brig. Gen. E. F. Cardwell 233rd AAA Group Calif. 50th AAA AW Bn SP ~ 507th AAA Gun 8n 175mm)
451h AAA Brigade Col. W. T. Stone Lt. Col. W. C. Boyce, Jr. Lt. Col. J. A. Loing

*
Brig. Gen. T. W. Porker 242nd AAA Group Conn. 52nd AAA Gun Bn 5131h AAA Gun 8n
471h AAA Brigade Cal. R. Perez Lt. Cal. J. A. Rogers Lt. Col. H. Mclauchlin, Jr.
Brig. Gen. F. M. Doy 250lh AAA Group Calif. 561h AAA Gun Bn 5161h AAA Missile Bn
52nd AAA Brigade Cal. R. B. Williams ~~ Lt. Col. W. Y. McCachern Lt. Col. A. H. Monguso
Col. B. Thielen 260lh AAA Group D. C. Ih AAA AW Bn 5181h AAA Gun 8n
53rd AAA Brigade Cal. G. V. Selwyn . Col. W. D. Word Lt. Col. D. C. Sherrets
519th AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. L. T. Heath 302nd AAA Group ~ 641h AAA Gun Bn
561h AAA Brigade Col. J. M. Welch Lt. Col. A. H. Booth Lt. Col. A. E. Holt
Brig. Gen. H. F. Meyers 3131h AAA Group 66th AAA Gun Bn 5261h AAA Missile Bn
1041h AAA Brigade Mass. Cal. A. F. Hoehle Lt. Col. J. C. Wilkerson Lt. Col. R. W. Molloy
Brig. Gen. V. D. Coyne 326th AAA Group 68th AAA Gun 8n 53151 AAA Gun Bn
1051h AAA Brigade N. Y. Col. M. D. Meyers Lt. Col. P. J. Gundloch
Brig. Gen. A. H. Doud 3281h AAA Group 691h AAA Gun 8n 5491h AAA Gun Bn
1071h AAA Brigade Va. Cal. C. C. Parrish Lt. Col. M. G. Moyer Lt. Col. E. Mountain
Brig. Gen. J. W. Squire 3691h AAA Group N. Y. 70lh AAA Gun 8n 550lh AAA Gun 8n
1081h AAA Brigode Ga. Cal. C. L. Baskervill Lt. Col. C. F. England Lt. Col. F. E. Terry
Brig. Gen. G. J. Heorn 374th AAA Group 7151 AAA Missile Bn 55151 AAA Gun Bn
1121h AAA Brigade Calif. Col. T. F. Mullaney, Jr. Lt. Col. V. A. MacDonald Lt. Col. C. M. Allen
Brig. Gen. J. W. Cook 76th AAA AW Bn SP 5541h AAA Gun Bn
26151 AAA Brigade Dela. Lt. Col. F. J. Logasse
Battalions Lt. Col. K. R. Philbrick
60151 AAA Gun Bn
Brig. Gen. J. B. Moore 771h AAA Gun 8n
1 sl AAA Tng Bn Lt. Col. E. E. Bellonby
Lt. Col. L. A. Twomey
Groups Maj. J. E. Nuwer 6051h AAA Gun Bn
83rd AAA Gun Bn
2nd AAA AW Bn SP Lt. Col. F. J. Roddy
3rd AAA Group Lt. Col. P. B. Wolff 70151 AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Cal. R. O. Van Horn
Col. M. G. Weber 92nd AAA AW Bn It. Col. P. A. Ferrell
41h AAA AW Bn
51h AAA Group Lt. Col. S. C. Forris 7091h AAA Gun Bn Penn.
Lt. Col. E. O'Connor, Jr.
Col. H. G. Haskell 93rd AAA Gun Bn Maj. W. Yaple
51h AAA AW Bn
61h AAA Group Lt. Col. B. B. A. Haenel 7191h AAA Gun Bn Calif.
Lt. Cal. N. E. Fisher
Col. A. A. Adams 941h AAA AW Bn SP It. Col. W. W. Morse
51h AAA Tng 8n
71h AAA Group Lt. Col. A. K. King 7201h AAA Gun Bn Calif.
Lt. Col. C. E. Hogan
Lt. Col. R. C. Boll 951h AAA Gun Bn Lt. Col. G. A. Duke
71h AAA AW Bn
81h AAA Group Lt. Col. K. R. Nelson 724th AAA Gun Bn Penn.
Lt. Cal. M. J. McGuire
Col. l. J. Hillberg Maj. J. l. Knotts
91h AAA Gun Bn 96th AAA Gun Bn
10lh AAA Group
Col. J. C. Bone
Lt. Cal. G. N. Wilcox JI. Col. C. M. Pentecost 7251h AAA AW Bn N. C.

131h AAA Group 10lh AAA AW Bn V 971h AAA Gun 8n


Maj. J. C. Maultsby
7281h AAA Gun Bn Calif.
Lt. Col. Samuel Moy Lt. Col. K. Dittrick
Col. J. F. Eoson Maj. J. E. Huntsman

*
151h AAA Group 11th AAA AW Bn SP 102nd AAA Gun Bn N. Y.
7371h AAA Gun Bn
Col. P. B. Stiness Lt. Cal. D. A. Gile Lt. Col. E. R. Welte
Lt. Cal. B. W. Perry
181h AAA Group 141h AAA Gun Bn 106th AAA Gun Bn N. Y.

*
Cal. R. W. Rumph Maj. W. H. Sprigs Maj. J. B. McMonus (Continued on Cover 3)
THE UNITED STATES
ANTIAIRCRAFT
ASSOCIATION

FOUNDED IN 1892
OFFICERS
Published from 1892 until 1922 as
LT. GEN. LEROY LUTES THE JOURNAL OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY
HONORARY PRESIDENT
Published from 1922 until 1948 as the
LT. GEN. JOHN T. LEWIS COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL
PRESIDENT

LT. GEN. LYMAN L. LEMNITZER VOL. LXXXXVII JULY-AUGUST, 1954 No.4


VICE-PRESIDENT

BRIG. GEN. CHARLES S. HARRIS CONTENTS


SECRETARY-TREASURER
COVER: Target Practice in the 68th AAA Group.
ADDITIONAL MEMBERS OF THE
EXECUTIVE COUNCIL A PAPER RESERVE IS NOT ENOUGH.
B)' Maj. Gen. B. L. MilbllTll ., , 2
MAJOR GENERAL WILLIAM F. MARQUAT
~IAJOR GENERAL CHARLES G. SAGE PHEVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. B)' Brig. Gen. H. F. iVIe)'ers 5
COLONEL JOHN S. MAYER NE\V CRISES THREATEN IN KOHEA AND INDOCHINA.
COLONEL DARWIN D. MARTIN By Brig. Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, USA (Retired) 8
COLONEL GEORGE V. SELWYN
CAHEER l\IANAGEl\IENT 10
LIEUTENANT COLONEL JOHN E. CONNOR
LIEUTENANT COLONEL OTHO A. MOOMAW ELECTRONICS AND MEN. By Lt. Co/. L. 1V1. Orman 12
I-IERMANN GORING ANSWERS THE $64 QUESTION.
B)' Brig. Gen. vFilliam W. QlIinn , 14
The purpose of the Association shall be to
promote the efficiency of the Antiaircraft
SECURITY CONTROL IN THE SOVIET ARl\IY.
Artillery by maintaining its standards and tra- By Lt. B. L. Grayson 15
ditions by disseminating professional knowl- MAJOR BAHTLETT AND TI-IE GREAT GOD THOR.
edge, by insPiring greater effort toward the By Lt. Co/. Earle Aloltlltain , IS
improvement of materiel and methods of
AAA OPERATIONS CENTER. By Lt. Co/. L. M. Orman 22
training and by fostering mutual understand-
ing, rt!Jpect and cooperation among all arms, STUDY OF MILITARY HISTORY , 23
branches and components of the Regular BEFORE YOUR UNIT MOVES. By Captain Carl M. GlIelzo 24
Army, National Guard, Organized Reserves,
MOBILE ANjTPS-ID. By Major Victor DeStefanis 27
and Reserve Officers' Training Corps.
SKYSWEEPEH IN GROUND SUPPORTING FIHES.
By l'daj. D. B. Millar 28
DO YOU KNOW MILITARY DISCIPLINE?
The JOURNAL prints articles on subjects of By Lt. Co/. H. M. H lIston 29
professional and general interest to personnel of
the Antiaircraft Artillery in order to stimulate THE ARMY LANGUAGE SCHOOL. By Capt. B. B. Nichols 30
thought and provoke discussion. However.
opinion. expressed and conclusions drawn in
ROK OFFICERS' CLASS. By Capt. Wm. F. Brown 31
articles are in no sense official. They do not re- ROTC ASSOCIATION MEDAL WINNERS 32
flect the opinions or conclusions of any official
or branch of the Department of the Army. UNIT ACTIVITIES " 33
The JOURNAL does not carry paid advertisinlr. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR : 39
The JOURNAL pays for orilrinal articles upon
publication. Manuscript should be addressed to
FORT BLISS NE\VS .. " 40
the Editor. The JOURNAL is not responsible NEWS AND CO;VIl\IENT 43
for manuscripts unaccompanied by return
Postage. BOOK REVIEWS 45

BRIG. GEN. CHARLES S. HARRIS, USA, Ret., Editor


PUBLICATION DATE: AUGUST I, 1954 M Sgt Fred A. Baker, Business Manager
SFC James E. Moore, Jr., Editorial Assistant
e
'S 'n lHl :iO r~'~)dilM"~
"g,.

lubli~hed bimonthly b)' the 'Gnited States Antiaircraft Association. Ltlitorial and executh-e offi('e~. 631 Pennsylvania Avenue, X.\V .•
~aShlDgton 4, D. C. Terms: $3.00 per year. Foreign subscriptions. ~-l.OO per year. Single copies, 7Sc. Entered as second.class matter
~'a.hiugtoD,
rnUancraft D. C.: additional entry at Richmoud, Va., under the c\ct of ~[arch 3. 1879. COfl}.right, 1954. b}" the United State.
A"'~ociation.
IN the realization of the present state
of world tension, we have-and proper-
Green become a qualified soldier. vVe
know from bitter experience how long
forcements, and Department of Army re.
quirements for such individuals have re
ly so-rejected unpreparedness. At the it takes to turn our potential military cently been materially increased. vVhe~
same time we have rejected the policy of strength into effective fighting forces. mobilization of our reserve forces is re
maintaining Armed Forces at full war \Ve know that unless we have a properly quired, however, complete units must Ix
strength, not only for compelling eco- organized, highly trained, active and ready. \<Vehave definitely discarded the
nomic reasons, but also for the reason vigorous reserve to form the bulk of our old concept of mobilizing only cadres tc
that prolonged full mobilization would forces, based on the nucleus of a limited be used as a nucleus for the subsequt'm
imperil our entire culture and our liber- regular establishment. we will not have assignment of the remaining, untrained
ties-the very things which these forces those forces in time. In discussing cur- and larger element of a unit. Unless the
are intended to guard and preserve. Even rent studies designed to improve the unit as a whole is organized and giver
if free people would endure the sacrifices readiness of our reserve forces, Secretary some training in time of peace, it wil;
and hardships of all-out mobilization in of Defense \Vilson recently stated in not be ready for mobilization and the
a period of uneasy peace, such a program a semiannual report: "These studies required additional advanced training for
would defeat its purpose-nrst by de- should establish a greatly improved re- early deployment after mobilization. In
stroying the economy which is an in- serve program, effectively adjusted to the this connection it should be borne in
separable part of our military strength, present-day requirements for rapid mobi- mind that the proportion uf active force~
and eventually by robbing us of the free- lization and entrusting to the reserves a in being to total mobilization require
dom we sought to defend. Accordingly, more vital defense role than ever before ments is much smaller in the Army than
the alternate program is one of defense in their historv. The need for a more for any other Service. Hence, the Army\
for the free world geared to the long effective reserve program has increased particular need for strong reserve forces.
haul; one which can be borne by the with the probability that our country it- especially organized units.
United States and our allies indefinitely. self might come under direct attack up- ivlost of us are familiar with a logistica:
\Ve have thus adopted a middle on the outbreak of hostilities and that term called "production lead time." Let
ground between unpreparedness and full trained reserve units must be available us apply this term to our reserve unit!
mobilization. In adopting such a middle for deployment immediately, not nine to in measuring their value in any futuI(
ground, however, we must fully appreci- twelve months later. A greater state of national war effort. A division force 01
ate what it imposes. We have clearly readiness for our reserve forces is es- pretrained reservists, properly organized
staked our national security on our ability sential if we are to remain strong militari- and trained while in reserve status.
to mobilize our partial or full military ly and economically over an indefinite could be mobilized and deployed in fivf
strength with far greater speed than period of time." months. A draftee division force, with
ever before. out such pretraining, requires more than
Of course, it is no longer possible, if 10 months, assuming the availability 01
it was ever possible, for "a million men THIS then is our real purpose in a trained cadre to start with. If we dc,
to spring to arms overnight." \Var is maintaining reserve forces-the saving of not need this division force until Mobili
not that simple. It has become an exact, mobilization time and, of course, the en- zation Day plus 10 months, we can stan
an exacting and a very complex science. compassing purpose of saving lives of from such a cadre on M-Day and pro
A man can no longer take down from our troops, including reservists, by elimi- duce it. Bearing in mind, however, tha
the mantelpiece his trusty musket and nating the necessity of committing them these reservists who engage in peacetim
by forming in ranks on the Village to battle before they are adequately or- military training are primarily civilians
ganized and trained. Accordingly, the and as such work regularly in stores, fac
true test of the effectiveness of our re- tories, government, as teachers, lathe op
General Milburn, well known Antiaircraft serve forces lies in the answer to the era tors, truck drivers, clerks and butch
commander in World Wor " and more reo
cently the Gl ond Deputy Chief of Stoll of question: how much mobilization time ers, would not both the civilian econom}
FECOM, now serVes as the Special Assistant to can be saved by their organization and and the war effort benent by leavin<
the Chief of Stoll for Reserve Component
Allairs. training? them in their civilian jobs for five month.
\Ve will alwavs need individual rein- before calling them to active duty?
2 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
FURTHER, consider the sa\'ing in tra ;-months active duty pay and allow- in the hundreds of thousands of reservists
Active Army, Navy, or Air Force facili- ance required to produce an equivalent who have returned and are returning to
ties necessary to house them. feed, care division force from the induction system reserve status from two vears' active serv-
for, and train them and the cost in over- after a war starts. Add to this the capa- ice and in the many thousands who will
head personnel, utilities, and money re- bility of producing two division forces in return in the near future. One of the
quired to support such operations, It is the time formerly required for one, using important results of the Korean war is
obvious that in organizing and training the same overhead and same facilities, that it has replenished the pool of trained
reservists while they retain their civilian and our reserve forces have proved their military manpower, and particularly the
jobs. as citizen-soldiers, we gain in two worth beyond question. combat trained pools in our civilian pop-
ways: first, by lessening the shock on Do we today have-immediately avail- ulation. Today, by law, every man who
the ci\'ilian support of a war. which you able-the kind of reserve we need? The enters the Army from civil life goes
must agree is essential: and second-by answer is definitely no. We do, however, through 24 months of military training
cutting in half the overhead required to have the foundation upon which we and service and comes out with 6 years
produce, after M-Oay, effective forces by can achieve such forces within the span of compulsory membership in the Army
a gi\'en date, For those who might con- of 3 to 6 years, gi\'en the necessary au- reserve ahead of him. In the Navv and
tend that we cannot afford the monetary thority and proper understanding and Air Force the normal active duty tour
cost of the kind of reserve we need, we support by our people. Speaking for the is 4 years with 4 years in the reserve.
might compare reserve costs with the ex- Army, we have great potential strength This adds tremendously .. to our militarv

Gun crew of Battery A, 340th AAA Battalion, DCNG, in a Sunday alert drill on their site in the AAA defenses of W'ashingcon
potential: a potential which cannot be
wasted if we are to have trained reserve
forces immediately available for an emer-
gency. Accordingly, these obligated re-
servists must be required to participate
in resen'e training programs to the extent
required to maintain their readiness for
an emergency. It is appreciated, how-
ever, that steps should be taken to the
extent practicable to prevent a possible
inequity to veterans, particularly combat
veterans, which may result if they should
be required to serve again in a limited
emergency such as Korea. The Depart-
ment of the Army feels that this can be
accomplished by the induction of a sub. 418th AAA Gun Battalion, Danville, Va. on firing range at Bethany Beach, Dela.
stantial number of non-prior service per-
leadership of the immortal \iVashington, finds its ultimate expression in the de-
sonnel who would undergo an intensive
a citizen-soldier hi~self, that this nation mand for sacrifice-the sacrifice of life
period of initial or basic training. If
was brought into being. They established itself by indi\'iduals in order that the
this whole reserve could then be screened
the tradition of service which has been life of the nation may be preserved."
repeatedly to insure that all assigned to
this nation's shield against the dangers So let us give the citizen-soldier credit
the reserves would be actually available
which have threatened it during its 179 for this same sort of inborn patriotism
in case of emergency, both the inade-
years of existence." The citizen-soldier for I am sure he possesses it. At least,
quacies and inequities of our reserve pro-
is not understood by many of his fellow he has the very laudable desire to be
gram would be eliminated.
citizens. Some accuse him of wanting identified with a time-honored profession
Such a Reserve program would be able whose principal function is service to our
to join a military unit for pay and re-
to produce trained individuals and units country and to associate with men of
tirement benefits alone. That point of
truly capable of deployment in a relative- action, courage, confidence and pride,
view is not convincing for we had plenty
ly short time as cohesive fighting teams. whose lives are devoted to that profes.
of citizen-soldiers before any such bene-
It would meet the full requirements of fits were authorized by the Congress. sion. I am confident that when a citizen-
a sound, strong and equitable reserve: soldier walks into an armory and says, "]
\Vhy does the citizen-soldier want to
highly trained, without significant attri- want to sign up," his motive is in his
identify himself with the military? I do
tion, and instantly available. heart and in his blood and not in his
not know what the true answer is except
that I know it cannot be found by cold pocketbook. So let us do all we can to
analysis of factors we might apply to stress both the value and the worth)'
MEANWHILE, in relying so heavily business or social affiliations. I think the motives of the citizen-soldier, emphasiz'
on our reserve forces we are taking a real reason is at least closely identified ing the fact that a sound national securi.
heavy risk, the risk that they may not, in with the elemental truth that men and ty cannot be attained and maintained
fact, be ready when the country needs women of this great country of ours feel without him and that we as a nation
them. A reserve which is not ready when that when their country needs the help should thank God that we still have men
needed is not a reserve; like a worthless they feel they can give, they willingly who want to do their pan in preserving
check that cannot be cashed-it only lend a hand and if necessary, just as the freedom our forefathers fought and
gives us a false sense of security. willingly lay down their lives, if neces- died for.
Therefore, some way, somehow, our sary on the field of battle. Unfortunately, there are many cases
reserve program must be made to work. today in which reservists are willing and
ready to participate in the reserve pro-
One thing is certain: it will never work
without public understanding and sup-
port. The patriotic and invaluable serv-
I have found in my long experience in
the Army that this elemental truth per-
oram but their wives, their mothers, their
I:>
sweethearts and their employers are
ice which our citizen-soldiers, sailors, air- meates the regular establishment where bringing pressure on them to stay away
men and coast guardsmen have contrib- the limited monetary wage is certainly from any form of military service.
uted and are now contributing toward not a primary consideration for service. Only when they and the American
the defense and security of our country George Fielding Eliot expressed it this people as a whole recognize that reserve
in these times of uneasy peace is not way: 'The gray-haired men who wear service is the only practical alternative
fully appreciated by our people as a stars on their shoulders have grown up to full-time military service on a much
whole. The citizen-soldier is, in many with this truth. They understand it: it larger scale, for much longer periods, and
ways, a unique individual. The Chief is bred into their souls, their hearts, their at much greater costs, will we really be-
of Staff of the Army, General Matthew minds. They cannot always explain it, gin to have the reserve forces that we
B. Ridgway, recently paid this tribute but it is always remembered in all they must have to deter aggressive acts against
to the citizen-soldier: "It was through do. They live day by day with the fact us and that we must have to achie\'f
the efforts of citizen-soldiers, under the that their profession, unlike any other, peace through preparedness.

4 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
PREVENTIVE MA NTENANCE
Address by Brigadier General Harry F. Meyers, Command-
ing General, 56th AAA Brigade, to class attending Army
Field Force Commanders Preventive Maintenance Course,
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 19 May 1953.

GENTLEMEN, if Benjamin Frank- As you go through this course, visualize this when I graduated from \Vest
lin were alive today, assisting in this it all being condensed into six hours of Point?" I could only answer that com-
course and writing his Poor Richard's classroom instruction and one hour of manders in 1939 were not very enthusi-
Almanac, one quote for posterity would county fair type practical work . astic about wasting time on preventive
undoubtedly read: "A little neglect may Gentlemen, it can be done At maintenance ....
breed mischief; for want of a proper Devens, one half of the officers attended
valve stem, the air was lost; for want of each period one day or the next. . If It Looks Good
the air, the tire was lost; for want of the
tire, the jeep was lost; for want of the
jeep, the ,message was lost; for want of
Leaves and passes were suspended
If a doctor had to operate on the morn-
ing of the 3rd, he attended the class he
.
T HE next part of my talk will be de-
voted to pointing out some of my ex-
the message, the battle was lost" ... missed, on the 4th .... periences during the last 35 years from
Thirteen months ago, I attended this \Ve uncovered some outstanding in- Private to Brigadier General with 22
course as a student. ... One of the points structors .... The Chemical Officer with years in the company or battery grades
stressed for all commanders was the im- his droll wit had the class in an uproar. which illustrate my answer to the Lt.
portance of conducting courses and pro- ... \Vhen I say class, there were over Colonel. ... I shall call it "Command
grams at home stations to cover the Army 200 each day .... The Quartermaster Hysteria" or "If It Looks Good, It is
l\laintenance System and to stress pre- had stage settings that moved with the Good" ...
ventive maintenance .... On comple- precision of a professional TV show. Example 1. Between \Vorld War I
tion of the course here, I returned to ... I would like to add, however, that in and \Vorld \Var II, a certain Command-
Fort Devens with several pounds of order to conduct a satisfactory course in ing General of the Hawaiian Depart-
pamphlets, which you will receive, but preventive maintenance, the commander ment decided that with the loss of most
no post level plan .... As Commanding must have a special staff .... \Vithout of his horses, the next best show would
General of Fort Devens and of the 56th the expert assistance of the Engineer, be a motor show .... Each and
AAA Brigade, I felt that such a course Quartermaster, Medical, Signal, Chemi- every mobile unit had their own elimi-
should be provided for the two com- cal, Transportation and Ordnance Offi- nations and then the finals were held.
mands .... cers plus their civilian specialists,' the ... This was in the early days of motor
No other officers in either command school or program will fail. ... vehicles in the Army and this General
had attended this course .... First, I had From a beginning of doubt and resent- decided that overall appearance would
to indoctrinate my S4 with the impor- ment, the course developed into an in- be the criterion .... The unit winning
tance of such a course .... He then, teresting and worthwhile endeavor .... vehicles were properly manicured, re-
with command pressure, had to indoc- Now for results: painted and on the display line by day-
trinate the special staff .... I gave the Four commanders throughout the light with the handlers busy until in-
54 an outline of what I wanted, which in Zone of Interior sent for copies of our spection time with chamois skins and
simple language, was a condensed ver- plan for use at their posts after we sent fine brushes ....
sion of this course .... The first two at- a copy to the school here for informa- The inspecting party, consisting of
tempts by the staff were miserable .... tion .... the commanding general and his Staff,
On the third, the course started to take Every officer, warrant officer and dressed in boots, spurs and white gloves,
shape.... On the 3rd of June the course nurse who attended the Fort Devens paraded back and forth, around and un-
was held in the post theatre at Fort School was enthusiastic over the course der some 20 prize vehicles .... Finally,
Devens and repeated on the 4th .... and expressed their appreciation .... a 2 and 1;2 ton truck-I say a 2 and lh ton
1\ly instructions were that every officer One nurse told me personally that it was -it was similar to our present trucks in
and warrant officer, male and female, the first time preventive maintenance overall size and general body design-re-
would attend the course .... All com- had meant anything to her. ... One of ceived first prize .... It was a thing of
mands wailed .... The surgeon said: "I the most pertinent remarks was by a Lt. beauty and a joy forever .... Every re-
only have one eye, ear, nose and throat Colonel of Infantry with an outstanding movable item of the body and motor had
doctor"; the reception center commander \Vorld \Var II record He graduated been removed and nickel plated .....
screamed; the nurses c("lld not be let from West Point in 1939 He asked The tires were painted with a lacquer
off.... I was immune to every cry .... me: "\Vhy wasn't I given a course like of some kind that glistened in the sun.

JUt Y -AUGUST, 1954 5


. The body was beautiful. ... All in his battery to purchase a tailor-made always been the best of friends ....
oil and grease openings were painted a German khaki uniform, Stetson hat and Example 6. Just before Pearl Harbor,
bright red .... I suspect that some de- shoes of the same make and color. ... I commanded the searchlight battalion
scendant of Nippon had assisted as the Each guide was required to have a dis- of the AAA regiment in Hawaii ....
colors were blended together like on a tinctiv~ colored pair of shoes.... Natu- In this battalion there were around 300
Japanese pagoda .... rally, at 21 and 30 dollars a month for wheeled vehicles including the search.
After the award, the story varies base pay, his battery personnel had no lights which were on wheels with
slightly .... The losers claimed the money for months .... wheeled power plants .... Training
truck didn't have a motor .... All agreed Example 5. A Colonel in command schedules never allowed enough time
that the truck had been towed to its of the AAA Regiment in which I com- for proper maintenance .... Try as I
position .... The best story is that after manded a searchlight battery was old might, every afternoon the troops de-
the award, the Commanding General di- "Spit and Polish" himself .... Long voted their time to manicuring the pa-
rected the Sergeant to drive the truck after other outfits were wearing trousers, rade ground and lawns around Depart-
away.... The Sergeant, being one of our regiment wore breeches and boots. ment Headquarters .... In desperation,
the old-timers, got into the driver's seat, . . . Only a complaint to the Army LG. I set up a battalion inspection team ....
noted the truck was on a slope, released stopped him from forcing all to purchase There were ten inspectors and one ser-
the brake and the truck moved off.... clothing locally as the Quartermaster had geant recorder. ... Vehicles rolled onto
Rumor has it that the Commanding ceased to stock breeches or boots.... the inspection rack Each man
General exclaimed to his staff: "See, it Before each monthly motor and equip- checked 8 items All we did was
not only looks the best but the motor is ment inspection, batteries were required record deficiencies with no attempt to
so silent that you can't hear it run" ... to repaint all vehicles, including motors, correct.... We were finally able to
Example 2. Captain A was very am- and all equipment .... inspect one vehicle every 10 minutes.
bitious .... He secretly had all the hel- One hot summer day I received sealed ... After this, the vehicles were returned
mets of his battery painted a glossy olive orders to make a 25-mile march, mclud- to the battery shops with the check lists
green, of his own blending, the bayonets ing supper in the field, return to the post for action ....
nickel plated and then, unknown to the and have all my searchlights in opera- I then had the colonel come around
other battery commanders, turned out tion at 2000 set up around the parade to my battalion inspection rack, showed
for a regimental inspection .... The ground .... The Colonel then came him our procedure, multiplied the time
colonel commended the officer, making around to inspect .... The engine ex- to inspect one vehicle by the number of
him an early candidate for the Command hausts were red hot from the muffier vehicles, pointed out the number of in-
and General Staff School, and ordered clear up to the engine block. ... The spections required by regulations by the
all other battery commanders to follow Colonel started giving me a good going different echelons of command and
suit .... No one could copy the paint over for not cooling my engines prop- begged him for more maintenance
mixture, and the other battery com- erly.... My reputation does not bear time....
manders did not force their men to con- any evidence that I submit to such treat- He just stood dumbfounded, shook
tribute to a slush fund for nickel plating. ment submissively and I flared back at his head and turned me down .... He
... The colonel should have court- him and said: "This is your fault, Sir, was afraid to make an issue of this with
martialed the officer, as shortly after Cap- not mine." ... He was a rather large the next higher headquarters and clung
tain A left for the Command and and red-faced person of very pompous to his 1910 ideas of "Just Polish the
General Staff School, Ordnance re- and positive appearance and views.... Equipment for Inspections" ...
quested all helmets and bayonets be When his blood pressure came down, I Example 7. This will be my last one. :
turned in for modification and Captain repeated my accusation and then added: ... I will not identify this any more I
A's successor had a very bad time getting "You require us to paint our motors than to say that I was present and it .
Ordnance to accept the items as they had monthly .... This seals the heat in the happened after the Korean War started. I
been changed from their original speci- engine head and does not give the ... A very senior commander was in-
fications .... motor a chance to cool by normal radia- specting gun crews and motor vehicles.
Example 3. This is a very broad one. tion from the metal. ... Motors should ... The work clothes of the men were
... Every battery always had a duplicate not be painted this way." ... I asked of every shade .... Different manu-
set of "Inspection" dishes and kitchen him if he had his own car engine painted facture, government, civilian and per-
equipment .... Also on field inspections, monthly .... sonal laundries, varied material-You
a comb, brush, toothbrush and shaving Everyone, including myself, expected have all seen the condition, particularly
equipment that had never been used. disciplinary action but early the next in 1950 and 1951. ... The inspecting
... As one of the silly things, for years morning after the motor, the colonel officer said: "Have these men draw new
after shaving cream was universally and I had all cooled down, the colonel work clothing of the same shade" ...
used, each man had to have a shaving came down to my motor shed .... With The clothing was clean and we were at
brush and a cake of shaving soap for the the aid of a microscope and a piece of war .... This same inspector saw a man
annual I.G. inspection .... paint chipped from the engine, we were with a small tear in the sleeve of his
Example 4. Captain B in Panama able to count 13 layers of paint .... On field jacket He said: "Come here,
many years ago, who retired recently as the next inspection, all paint had been young man" He grabbed the tear in
a brigadier general, required each man removed and the Colonel and I have the sleeve ap.d proceeded to rip the sleeve

6 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
from shoulder to cuff and ordered the and seacoast schools, firing points, test spent in training preventive maintenance
man to draw a new jacket .... As you centers and many defenses in the United and repair personnel .... The same
will learn here, the proper procedure Kingdom .... I was amazed at the care thing is undoubtedly true in the other
would have been to talk to the man on that was taken of the equipment .... schools....
preservation and timely repair and not On study, I found that at an antiaircraft As Commanding General of all the
destroy a usable garment .... This same firing point or other installation or unit AAA Units of the Antiaircraft Com-
officer is very conscious of preventive of any branch, you would find a repre- mand in the First Army Area, I would
maintenance when it comes to guns, fire sentative of the Ordnance, Signal Corps, say our outstanding problem of preven-
control equipment and vehicles but he Engineers, Quartermaster in each unit tive maintenance is the same as that
should have been trained in this school where there was Ordnance, Signal, En- encountered throughout the Armed
before being allowed to inspect .... gineer or Quartermaster equipment .... Forces.... No stability in our person-
In the above examples of "How Not These men were actually enlisted staff nel and reduced T/O&E's. So long as
To Do It," I have tried to point out five officers at each level of command .... our personnel situation is critical, our
principles of supply economy: They were in exactly the same category preventive maintenance will suffer....
~ Proper care, preservation and timely for promotion, etc., as any of the Signal One of the training division com-
repair.... officers or Engineer officers in our serv- manders told me that he had about 200
~ Use of supplies and equipment for ice.... School trained men were never vehicles and less than 100 drivers au-
their intended purposes only .... lost as they retained their own branch thorized in his T/D .... We have to
~ Only the amount of material neces- designation and were tested periodically accept such reductions, but it places a
sary to accomplish the desired results .... by members of their own corps.... very difficult problem in the hands of a
~ Safeguarding against loss and dam- While Senior Military Attache in commander ....
age.... Pakistan, I visited the Kashmir fighting My former Brigade S3 is now com-
~ Prevent oversupply and hoarding .... front, all divisions and regiments, as well manding a medium artillery battalion
Before leaving the "Good Old Days," as the schools in that country .... in Korea.... In a recent letter he spoke
let me give you one example of perfect Without the Pakistan electrical and me- of the maintenance problems .... Even
preventive maintenance .... In our old chanical engineers, preventive mainte- at full strength, he has plenty of head-
seacoast batteries, we were always al- nance would have been nil. ... Because aches .... I am sure all of us are more
lowed one or two battery mechanics, of superior maintenance, the Pakistan conscious of this maintenance "must"
depending on the size and type of bat- Army is ready for combat at all times.... than ever before in our Armed Forces...
tery, who were corporals or the equiva- I know that during my service, the You can inspect, instruct, work your-
lent in specialist grade .... These me- American Army will not adopt this pro- self to death but if and so long as bat-
chanics lived at the emplacements and cedure .... I know it works better than tery commanders change often, enlisted
were on full time special duty .... I had our own system and am throwing it out NCO's refuse to reenlist, overseas levies
a mechanic in a 12-inch gun battery at to you as something to think about in hit the best men; our cost of mainte-
Corregidor in 1930-1932 who typifies the the future .... We carry Medical per- nance will go up and up .... You will
perfect preventive maintenance pattern. sonnel in our T/O&E's, why not the hear lectures here regarding Ordnance,
... He would often work most of the other services? In all AAA defenses to- Engineer, Signal and Quartermaster In-
night to finish some job he had started. day we have, or are supposed to have, spector-Instructor Teams .... When you
... My battery could be inspected day Ordnance integrated fire control repair can get them, they are wonderful. ...
or night by any echelon of command detachments, consisting of one Warrant However, continental armies are being
and it would always be in a perfect Officer and seven enlisted men .... reduced in personnel, both civilian and
shape.... Oh yes, once a month this Also Ordnance artillery maintenance or military .... If the doctrines taught here
man took his three-day pass, but we don't repair detachments which are cellular could be carried out, we would be well
need to go into that. units of the same T /O&E .... on the road to a high level of preventive
Now unfortunately, these units are maintenance ....

N EXT I will deal with preventive


maintenance as observed in the United
assigned to the continental armies and
are not under the command of the AAA
defense commanders .... Here we have
As I have implied, I cannot speak too
highly of this course.... Preventive
Maintenance is a Command Responsibil-
Kingdom and Pakistan .... I discussed a perfect example of Ordnance support ity... However, commanders must be
this while in class here and was invited but the using unit does not have the given the means and authority to carry
back so I'll take a chance on being authority to command these units but is out their duties ...
thrown out this time .... still responsible for the results .... In conclusion I would like to recom-
In the British Commonwealth coun- Thirteen months ago, a representative mend that a sound movie be made of
tries, the services are represented in all of the Ordnance stated from this plat- this course, or at least the highlights of
T /O&E units .... In England, the form that the schools here had trained the course. In order to spread the gospel
corps responsible for this is called the 18,000 men during the Korean War but in my command, I could use at least
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engi- that only 6,000 could be traced to doing three sets of these £lms to good advan-
neers.... During the spring of 1943, the job for which they were prepared. tage ....
as an observer for the Army Ground ... My reaction is that this is a very A TV program would be better but
Forces, I visited most of the antiaircraft poor return for the money and time that will come in the future ....
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 7
New Crises Threaten in Korea :1 p
b

and Indochina* ~
l

By BRIG. GEN. THOMAS R. PHILLIPS, U.S.A. (Retired)


,\Jiljtary All(llyst of tile Post-Dispatch

Army Already Is Spread Perilously Thin-Career Personnel Are Quitting the Service.

AL1\\OST anything can happen in enced and do not have their fonner ef- 1\\ost of the troops are in rear areas. De-
the Far East. "Vith the end of the in- fectiveness. fensive fortifications have been construct-
conclusive talks on Korea at Geneva, the The South Korean army has improved ed in great depth by the Reds, going as
South Korean President, Syngman Rhee, steadily since the armistice. It has 20 far back as 30 miles.
feels free to unify Korea by his own divisions, 16 of which are battle exper- On the South Korean side, however,
means, including war if necessary. ienced. The Koreans have organized a civilians, who had been evicted from the
"Our side is free to take action," For- field army and several army corps. All land to a depth of many miles from the
eign Minister Y ung Tai Pyun said at their own divisions, except the First front while the war was going on, have
Geneva. "J\\y Government will not waive ROK Division, are commanded by Ko- been allowed to return and take up their
its right to North Korea or leave it to be reans through these higher commands. normal occupations. Defensively, there-
colonized by Chinese invaders." Training of the South Koreans is in- fore, the United Nations forces are not
tense. They work at it for longer hours in as good a position as the Reds.
The new Premier of France, Pierre
each day and more days each week than There is no evidence that the Reds
Mendes-France, has promised to make
our .forces do. An extensive school sys- are planning to reopen the conRict. Chi-
peace in Indochina by July 20 or hand
tem, based on American practice, is main- nese are colonizing North Korea, which
in the resignation of his government.
tained and the competition for higher lost half its population of 8,000,000 in
"Vhile declaring that "France will re-
training is intense. Many Korean officers the war. The best evidence of the peace-
main in the Far East," he spdks of
are sent to military schools in the United ful outlook for the time being is the
"sacrifices of territory that even now the
States. It is rarely that one falls below presence of Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor,
situation does not require."
the first 10 per cent of the class in hnal commander of the United Nations forces

I
grade. in Korea, in the United States on leave.
"Risk of Atomic War"
The armistice provided that the 'forces
?v\endes-France believes that "if the Majority of Troops Train and armaments in Korea could not be
conRict in Indochina is not settled and increased. A Neutral Nations Supervi-
The front is fully occupied with all
settled very quickly, it is a risk of war, sory Commission was provided to check
of international war and perhaps atomic
war, that must be envisaged."
the outposts manned. The bulk of the
troops are required to be within six hours for violations. The inspection teams
come from Sweden, Switzerland, Poland
I
distance from the main defensive posi-
In Korea the relative military posture tions. This permits training to be carried and Czechoslovakia. I
has changed very little. The United on by the majority of the troops. Certain ports of entry by air, sea and I
States has withdrawn two divisions from On the other side the Chinese and land were designated. These actually in- i
the Far East, but still has five Army and North Koreans are maintaining approxi- c1ude all the ports of entry used by the I
one Marine divisions in Korea and one mately the same forces that were in United Nations in Korea. In North Ko-I
Army and one Marine division in Japan. North Korea when the armistice went rea, however, the long boundary with
The British Commonwealth Division is into effect. There is no such extensive Manchuria and Siberia makes it easily
still in Korea. rotation on their side of the lines as there possible to evade the armistice provisions
The Air Force has withdrawn one is on ours, so their ground forces are on forces and equipment.
medium bombardment wing to be re-
equipped with B-47s in the United
mostly battle-experienced.
Airfields have been reconstructed and Swiss, Swedes Complain I
States. new ones built in large numbers. If the In North Korea, the Reds have placed j
Due to rotation and the long period conRict were reopened it is probable that every obstacle in the way of the Swedish
without combat, the ground and air the enemy would attempt to oppose the and Swiss members to prevent them from
forces in Korea are relatively inexperi- United Nations in the air from bases in carrying out their inspection duties. The
North Korea. Swedish and Swiss members have com-
*Reprinted from 51. Louis Post-Dispatch, plained officially about this interference
June 21, 1954.
Red dispositions are not offensive.

8 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
a number of times. The only result was The real restraint on Rhee comes from Asiatic military contribution, since the
the placing of similar complaints by the his ovvn military men. Our officers have forces are not in existence. This means
polish and Czech members that they had convinced most senior Korean officers that the Vi,7estern powers would have to
been hampered in their duties in South that they could get nowhere against the send in ground forces, not necessarily
Korea. massive Chinese defenses if thev did in large numbers, but enough to make a
The fact is, of course, that every facili- start north. military force that could not be over-
ty has been provided in South Korea There the matter stands. The peace looked.
';"hile every obstacle has been placed in will be uneasy as long as the irreconcil- If experience means anything, once
the way of inspection in North Korea. able old patriot, Syngman Rhee, lives. our forces are established on these mis-
As far as the inspection teams are con- The future of the negotiations at Ge- sions all over the world, they will stay
cerned the Chinese could have dou- neva about Indochina cannot be fore- there.
bled their forces without the inspectors' told. The new French government may A Southeast Asia Treaty Organization,
knowledge. be willing to make enough sacrifices in therefore, would create new military
It appears, though, that the difficulties Indochina to make a peace acceptable to commitments at a time when a reduc-
placed in the way of the inspection teams the Reds. In this case the loss of all of tion is taking place in the armed forces
have been due more to the suspicion Viet Nam is inevitable. Laos and Cam- . of the United States and American mili-
that dominates every Communist state, bodia might be preserved, since there is tary forces are strained to the utmost to
rather than an effort to conceal increases no popular support for the Communists maintain existing overseas forces.
in forces or equipment. such as exists in Viet Nam. The Army is the worst case. It has 11
Both sides have an effective espionage A so-called "free Thailand" govern- divisions overseas and six in the United
system, since this is easy in a divided ment has been set up in South China by States. The Eighty-second Airborne Di-
country. Gen. Taylor has stated that the Communists and is an indication of vision is the only one in the States that is
he could not definitely accuse the Chi- Red intentions toward Thailand. in readiness as a strategic reserve. Efforts
nese of any extensive violation of the are being made now to bring the Second
armistice terms. Asia Defense Talks Go On Armored Division up to a suitable state
One result of the Communist refusal The United States is proceeding with of readiness. The other four divisions are
to allow the inspectors to perform their its talks to organize a Southeast Asia little more than replacement centers for
duties, while they can operate in South regional security pact somewhat similar rotation to overseas units.
Korea, is that the Communists have to the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-
Career Personnel Quitting
built up a large dossier of alleged viola- tion. This would mean that the United
tions by the United Nations while the State would build bases, warehouses and It will be impossible to maintain two-
U.N. Command has next to nothing in lines of communication in Southeast Asia thirds of the Army overseas for any
the official record against the Reds. In on the territory of member states, such length of time. The career personnel,
case of resumption of the conflict this as Thailand and Burma, or Laos and faced with an indefinite stretch of fre-
dossier could be used to exculpate a new Cambodia, and send troops and aircraft quent moves, long periods away from
Communist aggression. to occupy and protect them. their families and with spending two-
thirds of their time outside of the United
Initially the forces would not be large,
Rhee a Dangerous Element States will quit-are quitting.
probably a division or two, and three or
The 79-year-old president of the Re- The same problem exists in the Air
four air wings. Antiaircraft and supply
public of Korea, Rhee, is himself the Force and Navy to a lesser degree.
and engineering personnel would re-
most intransigent and dangerous element If new commitments are made in
quire about 50,000 men additionally.
in the situation. Rhee sees North Korea Southeast Asia, if the forces now over-
The whole, even though not large, along
and Korean unity forever lost if Chinese seas cannot be withdrawn due to the
with the forces of other members woU:ld
colonization is allowed to continue. dangers and tensions of the times, then
make an important addition to the se-
the new commitment, in the opinion of
He is willing to fight and wants to curity of Southeast Asia. It also would
many top officials in the Pentagon,
fight. Our military and diplomatic of- insure that fresh aggression would be
should not be made without at the same
ficials have assured him in most solemn met by the combined power of the West-
time going before the Congress to pro-
terms that he would not be supported ern and Asiatic nations in the organiza-
vide for the increased forces that will be
by the United States in an aggression tion.
required.
against North Korea. The proposal is valid. Its implementa- As of today, the commitment is being
Rhee does not believe them. He has tion ultimately would depend, however, planned but the military forces are not.
his own American advisers who assure on Asiatic manpower, trained and aided If no armistice is reached in Indochina,
him that however little the United States by the Western powers. The right bal- it is apparent that the new French pre-
might like it, we would have to support ance of national forces would be one in mier will be willing to internationalize
him if a war were started. which each contributes what it is best the war and will expect the United
Either side could create incidents that able to furnish. The Western powers States to use atomic weapons.
could reopen the conflict. There is al- on this principle would furnish air and The request for American and other
ways this danger, but the most serious naval power, armaments and military nations' assistance can come very quickly,
threat of restarting the war comes from knowledge. ' since Mendes-France has given himself
the South Korean side. Initially there could be only a small (Contillued on page 11)
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 9
CAREER MANAGEMENT
SELECTION FOR SENIOR MILITARY SCHOOL
The next step in selection is for each
branch list to be reviewed by the branch
THIS article discusses the specific 6. Overall Elliciencv Index. chief, after which the recommended
method by which Infantry, Artillery and In recognition of th; fact that declared order of merit is submitted to Chief,
Armor officers are selected for attendance specialists are at some disadvantage with Career Management Division for ap-
at the Command and General Staff regard to such factors as command and proval. Once the lists are approved, the
College and other high level military troop duty, provisions exist for com- availability of individuals must be deter-
schools. parison of specialists among themselves. mined.
Less than fifty per cent of combat A small portion of the quotas for Final approval of lists of officers to at-
arms officers can be accommodated at Army \Var College and Regular Com- tend a given course is made by Chief,
the Command and General Staff College mand and Staff Officers Courses are Career l\lanagement Division, T AGO,
and of those who graduate from this designated for Reserve Officers. for Command and General Staff Collecre
school, less than half can expect to attend Normally three times the number of and Armed Forces Staff College level '"
top military colleges. This means that officers needed to fill a school quota are courses; and by the Army Chief of Staff
many able officers will not be able to tentatively selected. Such selections are for \Var College level courses.
receive such schooling, but it assuredly based upon the order of merit deri,'ed The ultimate objective of the entire
does not limit the J1lental or practical from scores obtained from the weighted system is to select for further schooling
development of such officers. It has been factors, with modified evaluation for those officers most likely in time of na-
proved again and again that selection some unusual achievement. The selec- tional emergency to pro,'ide the top lead-
criteria has never been perfect. Officers tions are then arranged in order of merit. ership in the Army.
should not get unduly discouraged or
unhappy over failure to be selected to
attend one of our top schools. A great ASSIGNMENT OF AIRBORNE OFFICERS
many general officers of \Vorld \Var II
Requirements for airborne officers boards and staffs, and as airborne in-
were not among those who had the ad-
have existed since the parachute test unit structors in service schools.
vantage of privileged school training.
made their first jumps in August, 1940. Officers normally are selected for air-
~ In the selection an officer is required
Although there are approximately 7900 borne unit training only if available for
to compete only with his contemporaries.
airborne officers on active duty, they are assignment to airborne duty following
Officers are divided into Basic Year
not always available to fill some 2400 such training. The assignment is made
Groups. Reserve officers are also segre-
airborne requirements. Career Manage- then to permit qualification as an experi-
gated into year groups.
ment branches sometimes experience a enced airborne officer-one who has
~ The individual's record speaks for it-
little difficulty in filling a requirement, served a minimum of one year in an
self as regards broadness of his experi-
due to non-availability. For example, airborne organization, unit o~ staff, and
ence and manner of performance. It is
there are approximately 1000 airborne has participated in the planning, prepa-
assumed that all officers want to attend
Artillery officers on active duty to fill an ration and execution of an airborne op-
these schools so all records are consid-
authorization for some 500 officers; yet a eration, field exercise, or maneuver. In
ered regardless of whether or not appli-
shortage exists in our airborne uni;s for order to insure that newly qualified air-
cations or special recommendations are
Artillery officers. There has been a con- borne officer will receive adequate unit
received.
stant need for volunteers in our Special training, Career Management Division
~ Fair, unbiased, consistent considera-
Forces Units (Airborne). These Special has permitted lieutenants to serve at least
tion is given each officer.
Forces Units are specially organized, nine months with an airborne unit, and
~ Selection is supervised by the chief
trained and equipped to conduct opera- all other grades have been permitted to
of staff of the Army and his top level
tions within or behind enemy lines for serve at least one vear prior to reassicrn-
assistan ts. , '"
military purposes. ' ment.
Actual selection in the branches is
One advantage of being airborne Each airborne officer is identified as
made with consideration for the follow-
qualified is that such qualification pro- such by prefixing a "7" to his MOS, and
ing:
vides a greater opportunity for varied retaining the prefix to his primary MOS
I. Command duty. assignments. Being .an airborne officer as long as he remains qualified for air-
2. Staff duty. could increase your chances of getting borne duty, irrespective of duty assign-
3. Instructor duty (includes civilian troop duty. Likewise, officers with air- ment. This MOS prefix is removed if
component and certain l\'IAAG and mis- borne experience are in continuous de- the officer becomes physically disquali-
sion assignments). mand for staff duty in the Pentagon, in fied, or if he requests removal from air-
4. Combat experience. the XVIII Airborne Corps, 11th and 82d borne duty through command channels
5. Troop experience (branch qualifi- Airborne Divisions, 508th Airborne to his career branch, stating his reason
cation). RCT, and elsewhere on important or reasons for such a request.

10 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
The needs of the senTice, the officer's erence cards. Airborne officers are uti- Only personnel selected for assign-
qualifications, and when possible his in- lized in non-airborne assignments when ment to a Mission or MAAG in Central
dividual preferences are the factors their services are required, and career- or South America must possess pro-
which regulate the assignment processes. wise to gain the broadening experience ficiency in the language of the host
Officers desiring airborne assignment necessary for a balanced military back- country. Those selected who are not
should so indicate on their annual pref- ground. language qualified are sent to the Army
Language School, Presidio of Monterey,
California, for a 23 week course in
DUTY WITH UNITED STATESMILITARY MISSIONS AND MAAG's Spanish or Portuguese prior to assign-
ment to the oversea agency.
On these assignments, authority for
ONE of the most satisfying yet chal- forces. Specifically, the purpose of the
travel of dependents varies with local
lenging duties is an assignment with one Military Mission is to aid in the train-
conditions in the host countries. At the
of the many United States Military Mis- ing. The purpose of the MAAG, on the
present time families may accompany of-
sions and Military Assistance Advisory other hand, is to administer the military
ficers assigned to Missions or MAAG's
Groups CMAAG's) scattered throughout assistance to the host country under the
located in: Turkey, Greece, Portugal,
the four corners of the world. Mission Mutual Security Program. This military
Norway, Netherlands, Ethiopia, Italy;
and MAAG personnel are in almost daily . assistance is in the form of military
France, Denmark, England, Belgium,
contact with the leaders of the govern- equipment, materials and services, which
Liberia, and all countries of Central and
ment, diplomatic corps, and armed forces include technical and training assistance.
South America. Travel of dependents to
at the highest level of the country in In many of these countries United States
the remaining countries, where Missions
which serving. Understandably officers Air Force and Navy personnel are also
and MAAG's are located, is accom-
selected for such assignment, and for that assigned for the same purposes.
plished only with the specinc approval
matter their families as well, must meet Each of the Missions and MAAG's is
of the Chiefs of the agencies. lrhe tours
the most exacting and highest standards a team and positions are established
vary from one to three years.
of professional attainments and social ac- which will best provide the desired as-
To aid in preparing for one of these
ceptance. In return for hard work and sistance for the host government. Many
assignments, each officer selected receives
in some cases personal inconvenience of the teams are composed of personnel
a brochure written by the members of the
there are many personal advantages that from all branches of the service who pro-
Mission or MAAG from their actual ex-
should be weighed carefully by officers vide inspiration, guidance and knowl-
periences. These brochures include in-
when considering this type of duty; but edge in their particular qualifications.
formation covering all manner of things
more of that later. By way of intro- In meeting the officer personnel re-
from how and what to pack to the price
duction let us review the location and quirements of the Missions and MAAG's,
of corn Hakes on the local market.
purposes of our far-Hung Missions and the Career Management Division must
From a career standpoint, assignment
MAAG's. consider them along with their other
to a Military Mission or MAAG may
United States Army personnel serve oversea requirements and assign qualified
well be advantageous. All positions re-
with Military Missions and/or MAAG's officers who are available for an oversea
quire ingenuity and ability. Some are
located in the following countries: assignment. Selected officers require th~
for instructors and as such are similar to
personality, tact and judgment to rep-
Belgium Indo"China assignments on the staff and faculty of a
resent the Armed Forces and the United
Brazil Iran service school. Other positions may be
States in a foreign country and they must
Bolivia Italy as advisors to unit commanders, or as ad-
have sufficient remaining service to com- ministrative officers.
Chile Liberia
plete the prescribed oversea tour. In
Colombia Netherlands
some instances they must be further
Costa Rica Nicaragua
nominated to the Mission or MAAG or New Crises Threaten
Cuba Norway
presented to the host government for ac- (Continued from page 9)
Denmark Panama
ceptance. Normally requirements are re- only a month to negotiate a peace. It
Ecuador Paraguay
ceived and selections made three to five may come in the face of a serious emer-
El Salvador Peru
months in advance of the reporting date gency with the Reds threatening Hanoi
England Philippines
-or even a year if the officer has to learn to help along the negotiations as they did
Ethiopia Portugal
the language. Dien Bien Phu.
Formosa Saudi-Arabia
Officers interested should refer to SR' Again no decision has been made bv
France Spain
600-175-5, dated 12 February 1951, the United States as to what to do i~
Greece lrhailand
which outlines the basic qualifications this eventuality. If a decision to inter-
Guatemala Turkey
required for selection. Qualified officers vene had been made under conditions
Honduras Venezuela
may indicate their desires on the Officer's that made it seem likely, Pentagon of-
Yugoslavia
Preference Card, or they may volunteer ficials believe that at the same time the
Generally, the purpose of these or- for such foreign service at any time prior Administration should have reversed the
ganizations is to cooperate with the host to receipt of oversea orders by making reduction in the military establishment
governments with a view toward en- application under the provisions of AR and asked the Congress for necessary in-
hancing the efficiency of their armed 600-175. creases.
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 11
ELECTRONICS AND MEN
By LT. COL. LEONARD M. ORMAN

]IN the May-June JOURNALarticle en- present radar maintenance course is on course of maintenance on the Tipsy. It
titled Electronics Design we posed the a level with undergraduate engineering. was tacked on to the end of the AAFCS
questions "Do we have too much elec- Yet our maintenance men in the artillery 1\133 course. An enlisted man got two
tronics in the Army today? Can we main- don't need to know an electron from a weeks on the Tipsy, and an officer, three
tain it?" Let's now give some considera- capacitor. Let's adopt the pragmatic ap- or four days. This permitted no prac-
tion to the men behind the equipment, proach of the Technical Institute. There tical work whatsoever. Put yourself in
the operators and maintenance men. the application to practical problems is the place of these men. You had a nine
\Ve must base our planning on the shown rather than how formulas are de- months course with two weeks on the
two-year soldier. For the foreseeable rived. A technical institute is terminal Tipsy; chances were only one in five in
future the majority of our army will in its nature. It fits its graduates specif- a battalion of being assigned to one .. So
be composed of the two-year draftees, ically for engineering work whether this what did you care about the Tipsy. Field
whether we like it or not. Consider our be operation or maintenance, or building results of the past two years showed the
present radar maintenance school of or testing. Some even go into elementary results. Although this was not the only
nine months duration. Add to this basic design. The Institute does not pretend factor, results achieved in the field were
training, leave and pipeline time and to train a man for research or develop- less than one-half of those achieved in
you'll find that most of the men report- ment work. \Vhen it is considered that the Board service test of this set. Tipsy
ing for duty as radar maintenance men industry requires about five technicians needs a man who knows this set to main-
have about seven months to work before for every engineer, the need is seen for tain it. An "L" band set is a different
they again don mufti. Don't forget that the pure technician. For example the animal from an "X" band. So I repeat,
these men are green as grass when they Raytheon L\lanufacturing Co. has 20,000 it's pure hog wash to say that if a man
report. The only practical work that employees. Of the 1,500 engineers only knows one radar set he can repair any.
they've had is in the laboratories under 46 per cent have B.S. degrees and only He may in time, but not in the soldier's
the eagle eye of an instructor. Usually II per cent have graduate degrees. first two years service.
that work has been done in small grou"ps. So, I strongly recommend a greater
Specialization specialization in the electronic courses
Obviously these men aren't much good
until they have several months of prac- This is now getting to be a nasty word for the two-year men. This is not, of
tical experience on the set itself. \\1hat's in some military vocabularies. But since course, the only solution. One other
the answer? There just isn't more time we've offended already, let's take the solution is to devote greater effort toward
available. Even the most efficient ad- bit in our teeth and trample on this training junior maintenance men in the
ministration of a soldier's time wouldn't sacred cow some more. \Ve'l'e got to battalions by conducting practical schools
increase the available duty time more specialize more. In addition to lowering along with the work. Still another solu-
than a couple of months. Electronics our sights 011 the level that we teach as tion is to require reenlistment for at
equipment is getting more complex all suggested above we must also on the least three years for the regular electronic
the time. Can we possibly decrease the amollnt that we expect a man to learn. courses. But the present scheme is not
course? Yes, I sa)' we can m1d we lIIl1St. This will create additional problems for satisfactorv.
the G I in distribution of men but show
The Electronics Course me a better solution. Teach a man a Margin For Error
\Ve can cut the length of the course single piece of equipment, drop the frills would adopt one safety factor. I
by two methods-by a change in ap- from the course, the "general subjects," would continue to give some selected
proach and by greater specialization. and make of this man one thing, a trou- regular army men longer courses. Grant-
ble shooter on a single item of equip- ed that most troubles are simple tube
The Approach ment. Don't try to make him learn more changes, some others require more com-
\Ve are trying to teach a man too than one item. If you do, then he will prehensive analysis. Here your mainte-

I
much. Having taught electricity and know no single one well. If necessary nance man, senior grade, would corne
electronics at the J'vlilitarv Academv for divide a complex system into several into the picture. Ordinarily, your junior
three years I know tha; some of our parts; e.g. the acquisition radar of the grade maintenance man could get the
AAFCS 1\133, as distinct from the fire set back on the air but when he's stuck
control radars. The theon' that if a man then call for help. "Vhat has been pre-
Lieu!. Colonel Orman, Member of AFF
Boord No. 4 and a regular contributor to
knows one radar he can learn another viously said about aspect and specializa-
these columns, has been transferred recently in a hurry is hog wash. This has been tion still applies even to the senior grade
to the Ordnance Corps with station at Aber-
deen Proving Grounds, Maryland. We expect
proved by the initial poor state of main- maintenance man. Don't make a long-
to continue featuring his articles. tenance in the field of Radar Set AN/- hair out of him. Don't try to teach him
TPS-I D. So far there has been no too many types of equipment.
12 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
Help ranking staff assignment. field of new weapons with new capa-
Two important aids should be given Then, since the war we got fresh en- bilities, made practicable by the latest
all maintenance men. These are: couragement again when the career man- and continuing scientific development.
]. Equipment designed for the main- agement people began offering many \Ve expect to man those weapons our-
tenance man. AAA officers master's degree courses in selves and not to rely on hiring someone
2. The Trouble Shooter's Bible. electronics and advertising that "the mili- else to do it. \Ve need more specialists
Bv the first of these is meant more tary careers will not be jeopardized by and all the technical astuteness we can
metering of circuits, unitized compon- taking these courses and following these develop.
ents, more check points and similar de- lines of work." And, of course, in some Leadership can be and is being dem-
vices. These aids were discussed at length respects this has worked out as promised. onstrated in technical fields. The man
in the article Electronics Design. The technical specialists have fared well who has the education, the foresight, the
Have you watched a TV repairman in assignments to R & D Boards, to judgment and courage to develop and
at work? Most use a trouble shooter's Schools, and on special assignments to make the decision to provide effective
guide with lots of pictures. If you get industry and the services. equipment for our troops has to be a
this type of trouble, look at such and However, the general situation is al- leader. Indeed his responsibilities are
such. The SCR-584 and some Navy ready clearing up to show that the spe- just as keen as those on the battlefield.
equipment are easier to maintain than cialist in our own branch is losing out. And indeed the time has come in the
newer gear in part because we have well The career management people make it Antiaircraft Artillery when technical pro-
documented guides. These should be de- only too clear to us now that broad ex- ficiency is an essential to leadership.
veloped as soon as possible on newer perience in command and various staff Obviously we need to develop a broad
equipment. There is room for a good jobs is the factor that counts heavily to- viewpoint among our electronic officers.
deal of improvement in older ones. More ward selection for advanced army schools They need to be Army officers as well as
pictures. IVlore indexing. More cross- and choice assignments to the general specialists. They need to understand the
indexing. staff. And those assignments, in turn, are problems of the combined arms. At the
required for promotion to the top grades. same time scientific development in elec-
Electronics Officer Career
vVe also need to do a lot to make a As I observe my own classmates from tronics is moving fast and the specialist
more attractive career for our electronics West Point I note that those who were has to keep up the touch. The officer
officers. The army has been exceedingly promoted ahead, those who are getting specialist can do other tours of duty to
liberal in providing top flight electronic ahead in the army advanced school pro- get breadth of view, but there is a limit
training for selected officers both in the gram, those who are getting well lined in how far or how long he can afford to
universities and in Army and industrial up to go to the top are without exception get out of the main stream.
installations. However, the program sags troop leaders. Those with the master's Obviously, too, scientific development
for the officer in his advancing years. degrees, or the Ph.D's., and those in re- will continue at a fast pace in the anti-
After the big to-do about getting radar search and development are being left aircraft and guided missile fields. For
officers early in World \Var II most of behind. first class weapons we need first class
us remember well how the radar officers And as if that isn't enough, the re- officers to guide in their development and
lost out later in the \Var when there cent Womble report recommends that employment. \Ve must and no doubt we
were few slots for field grade radar offic- more emphasis be placed on leadership shall shape our career system to give the
ers and at the same time the commanders and less on "technical astuteness." The electronics specialist ~ full challenge to
would not let the radar officer change artillery should take strenuous objection his ability and a full chance to go to the
his MOS to take command or a higher to this. We are moving forward in the top in his profession.

BOOKS
PARATROOPER. New Book by Lt. Col. Francis X. Bradley, Military Assistant to Secretary Stevens, and
Lt. Col. H. Glen Wood, Paratroop Battalion Commander in the 82nd Airborne Division. Foreword by
General Ridgway .................•..••..••.•.......•.......................•...... $3.50
FROM THE DANUBE TO THE YALU. By General Mark Clark $5.00
KESSELRING: A SOLDIER'S RECORD. By Albert Kesselring ...........•....................... $5.00
U. S. GRANT AND THE AMERICAN MILITARY TRADITION. By Bruce Catton ...................•. $3.00
I FLEW FOR THE FUEHRER. By Heinz Knoke .......•....................................... $3.00
ARMY WIFE. By Nancy Shea .....................................•.................... $3.50
BATTERY DUTIES. By Colonel Cocklin and Major Boatner ...................................• $2.50
GUIDED MISSILE PAMPHLET •.•.....•.....•...•........................................ $1.00

ORDER FROM THE ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL


631 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W. WASHINGTON 4, D. C.

JULY-AUGUST, 1954 13
Hermann Goring Answers the $64 Question
By BRIGADIER GENERAL WILLIAM W. QUINN
Joint United States Military Aid Grollp to Greece

REIClIS;\lARSBAL I-IERl\IANN GORING is I had told the Reichsmarshal of the Goring also gave quite a discourse on
dead-and probably forgotten by many. I impending \'isit, of General Spaatz. He the B-25 and its role in the allied air
have not forgotten him, however, nor seemed delighted and, I be1ie\'e, a little counteroffensive. He admitted that he
have I forgotten that day in 1\ lay 1945 flattered that General Spaatz was inter- was completely fooled and surprised by
when he astounded some very important ested in talking with him. He told me its extensive use. He went on to say that
people with his keen intellect and his he would enjoy the visit as he was sure it was not the existence of the B-25 that
unusual analysis of the Nazi defeat. they had a lot in common. came as a surprise, but the fact that he
Goring had surrendered to our forces It was interesting to watch Goring had grossly underestimated the industrial
earlier in the month and was being ques- when he was ushered in and seated be- potential of the United States to produce
tioned by some officers in the United hind the big desk. One could assume it in such numbers and to introduce it in
States Seventh Army. General Carl that the maker of the desk must have combat with such speed and devastating
Spaatz, who then commanded the Ameri- had Goring in mind when he built it, for effect.
can air forces in Europe, on learning of they went together like a picture and its
Goring's status, requested us to fly him to frame. Goring bowed slightly in greeting
The 64-Dollar Question
London for interrogation. and, upon the interpreter's instructions,
Lieutenant General Alexander M. sat down at the desk. This conversation continued for some
Patch, the Seventh Army Commander, He wore his favorite blue-gray uni- time until finally General Spaatz said,
replied that he was not through with form with heavy gold braid trimmings "Now, Reichsmarshal, I am going to ask
Goring at the moment, but that if Gen- but without ribbons or medals. you what we call in America the '64.
eral Spaatz wanted to talk to him at Before the conversation began, Goring dollar question.' I want to ask you:
Seventh Army Headquarters, he would made a short salutatory statement to Gen- Could we have defeated Germany by
make Goring available. Later, General eral Spaatz, saying that he was extremely strategic bombardment alone and don't
Spaatz, accompanied by General Hoyt glad to be able to see and to talk with you consider, from an airman's point of
S. Vandenberg, certain of his staff and a General Spaatz personally as he held him view, that the Normandy invasion was
few civilian technicians, flew to Augs- in great esteem as an airman. However, unnecessary?"
burg, Germany, about the middle of May he added that he wished the circum- I remember the knowing smile that
1945. On arrival, his party was joined stances were just a little different and flashed across Goring's face when he
by General Patch and myself and all of that he were not the vanquished. Gen- answered, quite dramatically, "Nein!"
us proceeded to the prisoner of war com- eral Spaatz smiled at this and the con- (No!) I also remember General Patch's
pound where Goring was incarcerated. versations began. chuckle when he turned to General
\Ve moved into a rather new and mod- General Spaatz started with questions Spaatz and said, ''Tooey, you asked for
ern school building which served as the about the Battle of Britain, the technique it and you sure got it."
headquarters for the enclosure. We went and tactics of the air fight over the Brit- General Spaatz countered with an-
upstairs to what had been the principal's ish Isles, that is, Luftwaffe offensive other question: "If you do not believe
office, which was very well lighted and tactics and the allied defensive mecha- that we could have defeated you by I
furnished with relatively new, modern- nisms. By Goring's dissertation on this strategic air and that we had to invade
istic furniture. \Ve all took seats in a comprehensive subject, it soon became the Continent, will you please explain
semicircle in front of an enormous black apparent to the entire party that his tech- to me your reasoning?"
desk which was bare except for a small, nical knowledge regarding aerodynamics, Goring slowly rose from the chair as I
revolving globe of the world. meteorology, and jet propulsion was the principal might have done when I
amazing. Not only was he a strategist, posed with a tough question from one
but he had a tremendous amount of of his students. He glanced out of the
General Quinn served during World War 11
basic knowledge of aircraft and the tech- window and turned slowly back to Gen-
as G2, IV Army Corps, ond loter with Hq. niques involved in their employment; so eral Spaatz. As he gave the globe a
Seventh Army, from the invosion of Southern
Fronce to the end of the Wor. Having served
much so that General Spaatz on several slow turn with his finger, he answered'i
in Korea as G2 of the X Army Carps in the occasions turned to his advisors and ''I'll try."
Inchon landing and later as commander of
the 17th Infantry, 7th Division, he is now
looked at them quizzically. I'll tr)' to show )'011 precisel)' those
serving as Chief of JUSMAG in Greece. \Vithout exception they nodded back reasons, he continued. First )'011 mmt
affirmatively, indicating that they agreed lInderstand that in the history of warfare
with the particular observation or the there has never )'et been an offensive
*Reprinted from American fifercur)', Decem-
ber 1953. statement involved. weapon that has not been C01l1ltered by
14 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
a defensive one. Swords developed the you cml have little dO'ubt. that is beside the poil/t. My point is that
sllield; the submarine developed the de- Consequently, if tllere had been 110 in- when we IO'stgrO'und and continued to
stroyer; the bomber the interceptor; cmd vasion, if tile allied infmltry had not IO'seground, there was entailed a loss of
so fortll. Of cO'urse, offensive weapons stormed tile beaclles of Normandy when subsidiary plants, small-parts factaries,
destroy when the defensive ones are ab- it did, we would not lun'e been defeated civilial/ labor, mId small component cO'n-
sent, but my premise is that defensive from tile west. Tilere wOllld have been struction. Eitller tlley became a loss or
u'eapons or techniques have kept only a no decision in the west. had to be disl,laced further east. \-\Then
sllort step behind offensive weapons. Now the reason that the invasion led this displacement took place, tl,ere was
Naturally, slU:h evolution is based on a to our defeat was the fact that it emlsed a simultaneous interruption in produc-
standpoint of sheer military necessity. the clock to' nm twice as fast from a tion in some 1,articular item. A great
For example, when the B-25, mId then stmldpoint of time available to us. In Ilumber of tl,ese factO'ries were dispersed
later Lancasters mId B-I7s, were giving other words, when the invasion came, tllTO'Ugh01I1France mId their loss retarded
us a going-over, we began to go under- our position becmlle doubly worse, for our jet IlToducti01l.
ground. I might interject at this point, besides the running out of time, we were \Ve lost so much ground that eventu-
tllat if we had started at the outset to go 'lOW confronted with loss of space. ally we lzad to take men 0111 of the plants,
underground, your B-25s would not have You see, we began to lose ground put ri~es in their hmlds and dispatch
lIurt us seriously nor wallid have yonr when we were unable to' eject yO'u fram them to )'our front to try to hold back the
heavy bombers. However, we made great Normandy. The main reason was Gen- tide-to save this space and gain mO're
progress in our passive defense program, eral Vandenberg's Ninth Air Force, I time. And as 1ve lost the men in the
particularly with allr indllStrial tools, might add. This support was mainly plmlts, O'urproduction decreased, so that
other critical and strategic products and responsible for the fact, and I believe our dispatch of a jet for c01nbat was
supplies, as well as the jet. And I tell YOll Field Marshal van R1Indstedt agrees with progressively becoming less frequent.
this, Herr General, if we had had one me, that we could not shift 01lr reserves Finally we cmlle to the point where
more year, at the rate at which we were to the beaches in time to thrmv y01l back the production returns diminished to'
rapidly building our jets under shelter into the sea. However, that was a part zero. \Ve were overT1ln. We lost the
and 111l1110lestedby your strategic air- of the invasion. Yours was a concentrated war. So in answer to Y01I( American "64-
craft, we would have driven you from air effort, in that it was cO'mpletely lo- dO'l/ar qllestion," Herr General, had you
the air. And since your people have cap- calized and thereby Y0'1I employed en not invaded when you did, we would not
tured and inspected our jets, I mn sure masse the great power that YO'lI had. B1It be having tllis conversati011 today.

Security Control in the Soviet Army


By LIEUTENANT BENSON LEE GRA YSON

THE Government of the Soviet


Union is dedicated to the establishment
This raises the possibility of an armed
rebellion against the Communist Dicta-
dier with Communist propaganda. The
second organization is assigned the mis-
of Communist Dictatorships in every na- torship. The danger inherent in this sion of discovery and liquidation of any
tion on the surface of the earth. Since situation is fully realized by the Soviet disloyal elements in the Soviet Army. It
other nations are unwilling to accept Government. Suspicious of even the consists of units of the j'vIVD secret
slavery, the Soviets have succeeded in slightest deviation from the party line in police.
imposing Communist Governments only any field, the government employs the The Main Political Administration is
when they have employed force, or the most ruthless measures to ensure the the organization in charge of all political
threat of force, to achieve their aims. loyalty of the Soviet Army. and educational activities in the Soviet
Their reliance upon military force has Security control of the Soviet Army Army. It functions as both a part of
caused the Soviet leaders to keep the is entrusted to two separate organizations, the USSR Ministry of Defense, and as
army, and in fact the entire country, in which operate independently of the ordi- the Military Department of the Central
a constant state of mobilization for war. nary military chain of command. The Committee of the Communist Party. In
Thus, in a nation where the great first consists of the political officers and every Russian unit down to the battalion
majority of the population would wel- the network of Communist Party and level, there is a representative of the
Come a relaxation in state control, the Komsomol (Young Communist League) Main Political Administration who serves
Soviet Government is forced to keep a members in the Soviet Army. It is as Deputy Commander for political af-
large number of citizens under arms. charged with instilling the Russian sol- fairs (Zampolit). There is also a political
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 15
leader in every company, the Politruk. to thirty and placed under the control of inspire their fellow soldiers with loyalty
For a time, the position of company a political worker. The political worker to the state. by propaganda work and
political leader was abolished, but in lives with the recruits, examines their by setting a good example.
1949 it was re-introduced, and the pro- mail, and attempts to lead them into In order to preserve the quality of
gram of political indoctrination of the discussions in order to discover their Komsomol and Party organizations, sol-
soldiers was intensified. political opinions. diers showing leadership potential are
The practice of having a representative Following basic training, the new sol- urged to join. During the Second World
of the Communist Party in each army diers receive further indoctrination in War, heroes were sometimes forced to
unit was begun by Trotsky during the the company. Lectures are given on the join the Communist Party so that the
Russian Civil War .. This representative, glory of Communism, the current party Government could claim that all Rus-
known as the Political Commissar, was line, and the danger of foreign espionage. sian war heroes were also firm supporters
given equal authority with the unit com- In the past, Stalin's Short History of of the Communist Government. Usually,
mander and had to countersign all or- Russia was a required text at the biweek- soldiers are eager to join the Party cells
ders. However, Soviet Army officers con- ly political classes. Russian soldiers who since membership in them facilitates pro-
tinually complained that the system of have escaped, complain that the frequent motion. In fact, Party membership is a
joint command undermined discipline political lectures left no time for relaxa- virtual necessity for promotion of an
and caused unnecessary confusion in bat- tion. One fugitive estimated that not officer above company level, and it is
tle. As a result, the Political Commissar more than ten per cent of the personnel estimated that eighty-six per cent of the
was replaced in 1942 by the Zampolit. took the political indoctrination seriously. Soviet officer corps are Communists or
Although not as powerful as the for- Komsomols. However, Party membership
mer Commissar, the political officer has requires the soldier to evidence exem-
great authority. He is responsible for all THE political indoctrination of the plary conduct, and any breach of dis-
propaganda and educational activities in Soviet Officer Corps is stressed. The cipline by a Party member is punished
the Soviet Army, and supervises Kom- officers are also required to attend lec- with greater severity than would other-
somol and Communist Party affairs in tures on the glories of Communism, and wise be the case.
his unit. The political officer prepares are expected to have a thorough knowl- Party members in the army who show
the unit newspaper, presides over club edge of the fine points of Marxist-Lenin- skill in spreading Communist propa-
meetings and censors the soldier's mail. ist theory. They are subjected to fre- ganda and indoctrinating the troops are
The few leaves permitted the Russian quent examinations to test their progress. sent to school to be trained as political
soldier are granted at the discretion of Lenin's collected works are required read- officers. These schools are operated by
the Zampolit. ing for all officers. the Main Political Administration, which
In spreading Communist propaganda also maintains the Lenin Military Politi-
throughout the army, the political officers cal Academy in Moscow, for the training
IN order to ensure the absolute loyalty
of the Soviet Army to the Communist
are assisted by the network of Komsomol of senior political officers.
and Communist Party organizations in The political officer's duty is largely
Government, the political officer is re- the armed forces. Army Komsomols are a matter of instilling the troops with
quired to forward periodic reports on directed by the Komsomol section of the Communist propaganda so that they will
both officers and enlisted men of his unit Main Political Administration, which not be led into any activities against
to the Main Political Administration. must approve the leader chosen to head the state. One of his duties, however, is
This system leads to a great amount of the Komsomol group. Primary Komsomol more nearly related to the punitive func-
friction between the regular officers and organizations are found at the company tions generally assigned to the MVD.
the Zampolit. Because the promotion of level, and are expected to educate the The political officer co-operates with the
officers depends on their loyalty to the Russian soldiers in Communist theory. MVD in maintaining a network of spies
regime, the reports of the political officer Communist Party groups in the army and informers at all levels of the army.
are carefully surveyed. The commanding are direotly responsible to the Central These informers are recruited by the
officer of a unit is placed in the awkward Committee of the Communist Party. Sec- political officer, and are blackmailed by
situation of being in the power of the retaries of Party groups down to the him because of minor offenses they have
political officer, who is theoretically his regimental level are freed from all mili- committed. They are forced to act as
subordinate .. tary duty so that they can devote all their spies among their fellow soldiers, and
Minor breaches in discipline, for ex- time to Party work. The Secretary of report any suspicious conversations or
ample, the breaking of the non-frater- the regimental Party organization directs other indications of anti-Soviet feeling.
nization rule in Germany, are punished the activities of all Party members in the These informers do not report their find-
by the Zampolit. More serious offenses, regiment. The basic unit of the Party, ings to the political officer, but to the
and any case containing even the slight- the cell of from three to five members, is MVD.
est trace of disloyalty, are turned over to found in each of the twelve companies
the MVD. The political indoctrination in the regiment. The chief of the cell
of the Russian soldier begins with his is responsible for inducing the best of THE MVD or Ministry of Internal
induction into the army. Upon arriving the non-party men to apply to join the Affairs controls the police and terror ap-
at a training center, the recruits are Communist Party. Komsomol and Com- paratus of the Soviet state. It penetrates
divided into groups of from twenty-five munist Party members are expected to into e\'ery aspect of Soviet society, and.

16 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
is responsible for the discovery and subordinates. Entry into any Soviet Mili- obviously it will be a very long time
liquidation of any element suspected of tary School is determined largely on the before they will become convinced. Fur-
dislovaltv to the Government. Since the basis of political dependability. An of- thermore, the very methods the Soviet
loyalty ~f the Soviet Army is absolutely ncer who attended the Frunze Academy, security agencies use to eliminate op-
essential to the Government, there is a the highest Soviet staff college, reported position in turn provoke more resistance.
"Special Section" of the MVD which is that the l\1VD used attractive women From a survey of the security controls
solely concerned with the security of the agents to approach the students and at- in the Soviet Army, it is possible to draw
armed forces. MVD detachments are tempt to discover their secret political one important conclusion. The mono-
assigned to all military formations dm'\lI1 opmlOns. lithic surface of the Soviet State conceals
to the level of the battalion. The Special The l\1VD apparatus is not essentially much inner opposition to the regime.
Sections receive the reports of the in- a secret police in that its reputation for These cracks in Soviet solidarity are vital
formers recruited by the political officers. terror is advertised among the Russian weaknesses, and in time of war, they can
The l\1VD organization has a chain of people to instill fear and obedience in be exploited by a clever and resourceful
command independent of both the regu- them. There is however, one agency of enemy to bring about the destruction of
lar military, and the Main Political Ad- the MVD that operates in utmost se- the Communist Government.
ministration control. crecy, the army counter-intelligence or
The MVD maintains dossiers on every Smersh (an abbreviation of two woros Later Comment
officer, political officer and Communist meaning death to spies). In 1943, I am in complete agreement with your
Party member, as well as on those en- Smersh was separated from the MVD comment that the Communists are gen-
listed men that are brought to their at- and made into a separate Ministry, the erally more aggressive than is our side.
tention. Promotions are not granted MGB or Ministry of State Security, but I believe that this is due to the indoc-
without a security check by the MVD. following the death of Stalin it was re- trination the Communists receive. The
The MVD encourages informers to de- united with the MVD. It is believed Soviet soldiers, and I assume the Chinesf
nounce even the most loyal supporters that the main functions of Smersh are Communists also, are taught that Co.
of the government, so that in the event to supervise the activities of the MVD munism will eventually triumph. Par
it is decided to remove an individual in order to prevent any disloyal elements their political indoctrination includt:.
for any reason, sufficient "evidence" is from infiltrating into that agency, as well Stalin's Foundations of Leninism, which
always ready in the dossier. as to prevent foreign espionage in gen- states that everything must be subordi-
The MVD has no difficulty in obtain- eral. nated to the basic policy of world revolu-
ing recruits, since it is regarded as an In its effort to carry out world revo- tion. It is explained that the Soviet
elite service and given special privileges. lution, the Soviet Union has been handi- Union is in danger so long as a single
Junior MVD officers frequently domi- capped by the fact that a large number capitalist state survives. This continual
nate regular officers, nominally their of the Russian people themselves oppose indoctrination convinces many of the
superior. During the Second World Communism. In an attempt to control people that Communism can not be
War, MVD units were employed to pre- the population and eliminate any possi- stopped.
vent withdrawals. After the disastrous ble opposition within Russia, the Soviet The United States and her allies, how-
retreats in the nrst months of the Ger- Government has resorted .to terror. Be- ever, conduct no such indoctrination.
man offensive, MVD units were sta- cause of the vital role assigned the Soviet Our planning is essentially defensive in
tioned behind the Soviet lines, with or- Army in the planned expansion of the character, we are concerned with con-
ders to shoot anyone proceeding towards Soviet Union, the loyalty of the a;rmy is taining the Soviet Union rather than
the rear without written permission. absolutely essential. To ensure this loyal- forcing the Communists to retreat. Any-
At the end of the war, the MVD re- ty, the Soviet Government has resorted one understanding the basic ideology of
garded the partisans as subversive ele- to measures which would be rejected by Communism is able to understand the
ments because they had escaped the any but the most degenerate of states. fallacies it is based upon. If our coun-
usual indoctrination given the regular In the Soviet Army, the political of- try undertook to explain the real mean-
units. The partisans were, members of ficers attempt to indoctrinate the soldiers ing of Communism, it is quite likely that
the Soviet Army who fought behind Ger- and spy upon the unit commanders. The no more Americans would succumb to
man lines, conducting guerrilla activity. MVD spies upon the political officers, Communist brain-washing, since anyone
Originally they had been formed by units and is in turn spied upon by Smersh. As equipped to compare the two ways of
or individuals cut off in the rapid Rus- a result, discipline is enforced by terror, life cannot help but be convinced by
sian retreat. The MVD put all such in- and overall military efficiency is reduced. our democratic system.
dividuals into storm battalions, to be The important question for the future Of course, the above statements are
used in suicidal attacks. Those who sur- of the United States is: will the Soviet merely my own personal opinions, and I
vived, and they were very few, were security methods succeed in eliminating do not presume to know all the facts in
then placed in a special unit to be re- the opposition within the army? It seems the case. Nevertheless, I should be more
indoctrinated in Communist ideology. to the author that the answer is no. If optimistic about the American chances
after more than three decades of Soviet for eventual defeat of Communism if we

T HE MVD is as concerned with the


reliability of high ranking officers as of
r\lle, the Soviet Government is still un- stopped retreating, and began to appre-
able to convince the Russian people that ciate, and make others appreciate, the
Communism is the ideal way of life, democratic way of life.

JUt Y -AUGUST, 1954 17


Major Bartlett and The Great God Thor
By liEUTENANT COLONEL EARLE MOUNTAIN
Try this on your M33!

T RAINING tends to become stereo-


typed. Many instructors fail to use im-
and invite the gun commanders to watch
a demonstration that should thoroughly
manders should come in and watch the
radar crew pick up and track targets.
agination in presenting subjects to the convince them, once and for all, that the Once they 'lock-on' there is no further
troops and the result is a disinterested so-called 'pinball machine' is worthy of action they can do. Then the guns
class in which nothing is taught and their confidence." should go into remote one at a time-I'm
nothing is learned. Even the dullest sub- "Sounds good," I replied, "but how referring to the 'present position check,'
ject can be presented in some fashion to dQ you propose to go about staging this and each gun crew can then readily see,
stir interest and compel class attention. demonstration?" by peering through the bore of their own
It's not easy, but it can be done. "If you would like, old man, I'll be gun, that the radar does track a target
I recall an experience I had as a bat- glad to give you a hand and run the and that the gun does follow it.
tery commander. It was just before we demonstration for you." "That leaves the computer element as
went to the range to do our second serv- "OK, it's a deal," I said, "how about the possible source of doubt. That doubt
ice practice. The first practice was pretty 1300 tomorrow afternoon? I'll get the I hope to dispel today.
good, but I felt we could have done men together, have the equipment "The computer is an electronic gadget
better and I gathered the section chiefs warmed up, give you an introduction, that solves firing table problems. We
together in the mess hall for a round and then you take over." could sit down with pencil and paper
table discussion. This is one of my pet and work out the firing azimuth and
techniques, to get the key men together
over some coffee, start a good discussion
and then monitor it, keeping the talk go-
T HE next day, on schedule, I assem-
bled the required personnel in the radar
firing elevation for the guns but it would
be too slow. So we have the computer
that does it almost instantly. We have
ing and in the area under discussion. I van. It was sort of crowded, but we all to have some base upon which to start.
soon discovered that the "team" concept squeezed in. After the preliminary in- Our base is the firing tables. Neither
of a battery was not apparent in my out- troduction, Major Bartlett took over and you nor I are in any position, at the mo-
fit. The range section didn't have much gave his presentation. ment, to question their validity. Smarter
confidence in the gun section and the "Gentlemen-let's first discuss what brains than ours have developed and
gun section was vehement in its opinion we are trying to do in AA gunnery. Our compiled them. We accept them. This
of the range section. The argument job is to deliver a projectile into space means that when the firing tables say
reached its peak when a gun commander to reach a certain point at the same in- that for a certain altitude and horizontal
blurted out, "Look, we had the highest stant the target, either a hostile plane or range from the battery we must point the
rate of fire possible and we would have a towed sleeve, arrives at the selected radar at such an elevation, crank in such
had a terrific score if it wasn't for that point. Over the years since World War I a slant range, elevate the guns so much,
blankity-blank pinball machine out there much study, research, and development and cut a fuze of so many fuze numbers
that fouled us up!" There was no doubt have been made, resulting in the combi- -we must admit they know what they
as to what he thought about the M33! I nation we have here, the FCS M33 and are talking about.
quickly called a truce and said that I the 90mm gun. Within its capabilities, "The computer is made in accordance
would study the problem and have an this combination is tops. The M33 can with the firing tables. You can easily
answer in a day or so. track any plane that the guns can en- check this. Here is an example. Zero
It was evident that mutual respect and gage. The computer can take the present out all parallax, zero out the wind speed,
confidence between the sections had to position data from the radar and trans- set the density at 100 per cent. Now,
be developed. I decided to concentrate form it into the pointing data required by one question, what is the standard muz-
on the radar-computer team for the pri- the guns to get hits. The data transmis- zle velocity of these guns?"
mary test. How to show the gun sections sion system can feed it to the guns and "2700 f/s," said one of the gun com-
that the 1\133was tops and was deserving continually point them at the proper manders.
of their confidence, that was the problem. elevation and azimuth to hit the target "Right-now we will seJ; the muzzle
At this moment, thank my lucky star, the radar is tracking. velocity dial at 2700.
in walked myoId friend, Major Bartlett, "Let us further examine the computer. "To show how the computer is built
of whom I have told you before. It I jump to the computer for this reason, it on the firing table, let us set in a simple
wasn't long before I had unburdened my- is the part of the system that takes the problem. Elevate the radar to 655 mils,
self to him and stated the problem. radar data, changes it, and sends it to crank in the slant range to 10,000 yards,
"Here's my suggestion," said the ma- the guns as firing data. My suggestion set radar azimuth at 3,950 mils. This is
jor. "Let's get the radar team together is that at some other time the gun com- the pointing data for a point at 8,000

18 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
vards horizontal range and altitude of if we knew our projectile weight, if we changes the firing data coming out of the
6,000 yards. knew the powder temperature, and if we computer. Since we do not move the
"Now place the operation switch at had a radiosonde met message, we would guns, we have to make the firing dials
tracking test and the input data switch just crank in the met data, correct the read the original firing data. This is
at local position. Note that the firing MV for powder temperature, air tem- done by changing those dials represent-
elevation dial on the computer reads 655 perature, and projectile weight, and open ing non-standard elements until the orig-
mils, that the firing azimuth reads 3,950 up fire at full rate. There would be no inal data again appears on the firing
roils. This is just a check on the data trial fire required. But, unfortunately, dials. Thus, we, in effect, make a new
transmission from radar to computer. that is not always possible. More likely met message by moving the dials which
Now leave the input data switch on than not we will have to fire trial fire for represent met conditions. Or, by moving
LOCAL and put the eyperation switch on one reason or another, either old met data only the MV dial, we may arrive at a
FIRE FOR EFFECT. From the firing or new ammunition or a combination of new muzzle velocity if we are sure of
tables we read that the firing azimuth both." the met data used and are not positive
should be the original azimuth 3950, "Hold it right there a minute, Major," about the initial muzzle velocity selected.
plus a correction for drift, or approxi- said one of the gun sergeants. "The last "Let us assume that a battery com-
mately 3946 mils, the firing elevation is time I was in AA we had the 584 and mander is about to do a trial fire problem.
781 mils, the fuze is 20.08, and time of the M-9 computer. As I remember, it He has selected the following pointing
Hight,20.04 seconds. You notice that all was a cinch to do trial fire. We fired, data: Azimuth 3950, elevation 655 slant
our dials here do read these sums. Do plotted the bursts, set in spot corrections, range of 10,000 yards. Like most of our
you see now that the computer does solve and away we go! But this gimmick, with units on-site, he hasn't much choice on
the firing table problem?" all the twiddling of dials, is the craziest selection of the TSP point because of
"One question, Major," said the com- thing ever." dud and fragmentation areas. Now, let
puter operator. "I thought that the com- "You have touched on the big differ- us assume that the great god Thor, sit-
puter was built for an MV of 2,675 f/s, ence in the two systems of trial fire," ting on a cloud in the sky, looks down
rather than 2,700. At any rate, when I replied Major Bartlett. at the battery, and, in his omniscience, is
work out my daily check problems, I able to discern what the met conditions
"First, let us take a quick look at the
have to set an MV of 2,675." actually are at the moment the problem
'spot' method of applying corrections. It
"This 2675 f/s muzzle velocity setting is fired. To make this particular problem
is valid only at the azimuth, altitude,
is for test problems only and i~ the mid- possible for any unit to work out, let's
and slant range at which the problem
point between the upper and lower MV zero out all parallax. Otherwise, if some
was fired. For example, suppose you
limits, that is; 2450 to 2900 f/s. In other other unit tries this, they wouldn't get
fired at azimuth 2,400. Further, there
words, it is the midpoint of the MV the same answer.
was an initial mistake, we will assume,
potentiometer in our computer. "Let us now leave the battery com-
in setting in the wind azimuth. It was
"Now that we agree that the computer mander, momentarily and ask the great
set as azimuth 800 mils. In other words,
does solve firing table problems, let us god Thor what met conditions actually
you told the computer it was blowing
go to the next step. Remember, the firing exist and let's set them into the com-
from left to right while in fact it was
tables are based upon certain basic as-
azimuth 4,000, or actually blowing right puter. He tells us that the wind speed
sumptions. Who knows them?"
to left. Now you could correct for that is 25 mph, the wind azimuth 3,600 mils,
The radar chief spoke up, "Well, that by spot corrections for that particular azi- the density 103, and the air temperature,
all conditions are normal. That is, density muth you were firing at. But, if you had weight of the projectile and powder
100 per cent, no wind, air temperature to engage at an azimuth of 5,600 mils, temperature are such that the battery
of 59°, and the MVof the ammunition without benefit of additional trial fire, should use a muzzle velocity of 2,680.
is 2,700 f/s." you would double your original error." Let us now read the firing data the bat-
"There's a couple more, Bill," said a tery should use. It is firing azimuth
gun commander, "Projectile weight of 3,942, firing elevation 785, fuze 21.04,
two squares and powder temperature of AT this point Major Bartlett made and time of flight of 21.05.
70°." use of a grease pencil and drew a diagram "Thor, from his cloud, knows also,
"Very good, men, you've named them on the plotting board to illustrate his that when the target comes in, it won't
all. Because conditions are never normal; point. Everyone agreed that the spot be at the azimuth, elevation and slant
there is, for example, always some stray method was only good at the point at range at which the battery commander
breeze floating around anyway, we have which the TSP was fired. fired his TSP.
these dials on the computer to tell the "Now let me illustrate what happens "He knows that it will be engaged at
little electrons inside that things are not when the M-33 system is used. To pre- radar pointing data of azimuth 2,350,
exactly what they originally thought. sent this problem I'm going to make a radar elevation 645, and slant range 9,-
The result is that, as we tell the com- few assumptions. However, these will 000. Note, now, this is a different azi-
puter what really exists, the machine not in any way affect the basic principle muth, a different elevation, and a dif-
quickly applies the necessary correction of the M-33 trial fire theory. The general ferent slant range from that used in the
to the firing data to compensate for non- theory is to tell the radar where the TSP. Let us record what the battery
standard conditions. bursts occurred. The radar is then moved firing data should be for this new point.
"Now, if we knew our muzzle velocity, to 'look' at the center of burst. Doing this It is firing elevation 753, firing azimuth
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 19
2357, fuze 17.58, and time of Hight of "Now, sergeant, you are the computer the 'spot' system the firing data at this
17.52. man, step up here and follow my direc- point would be in error, as we previously
"All this the great god Thor knows tions. demonstrated. We have traversed 1,600
-but, unfortunately, he can't tell the "First, we must decide whether we mils from the original point, we have de-
battery commander. will move muzzle velocity or density. creased the elevation 10 mils and We
"The battery commander sets up his Since we assume we know the MV and have decreased the slant range 1,000
original problem. Would you set up the admit that the met message may be in yards. Here is the data that the great god
radar pointing data, sergeant? It was error, pick the one that you know the Thor said would get hits: .
azimuth 3,950, elevation 655, and slant least about and stick with it, in this case, Firing Azimuth 2,357
range 10,000. Now let us put in what density. Firing Elevation 753
the battery commander thought was the "Now, sergeant, turn the density dial Time of Flight 17.52
correct conditions. Remember now, it is until the time of Bight dial reads 21.05. Fuze 17.58
the best information he has from his met That's it. Now, turn the wind speed
dial and bring in the elevation dial to "Here we read from the computer dials
message which might be 2 hours old or,
read 785 mils. Notice that you have what the battery commander would have
maybe someone goofed and made a mis-
thrown the time of Hight dial off. Re- used as a result of the trial fire:
take in taking it. But, he has no knowl-
edge of the conditions aloft other than adjust the density dial to bring the time Firing Azimuth 2,357
this message. So he sets in a wind speed of Bight in about half the distance and Firing Elevation 753
of 30 mph, a wind azimuth of 3,000 mils, try the wind velocity for the other half. Time of Flight 17.52
a density of 100 per cent, all from his That's right, continue to work one Fuze 17.57
met message. against the other until the time of Bight "Now we will strip off the tape and see
"Let us assume that he does know the and elevation are correct. Now, what what our dials read."
velocity of his on-site ammunition. This affects azimuth?" With a Bourish, the Major ripped off
mayor may not exist in the field but "Wind azimuth and speed, sir." the tapes. All eyes strained to read the
for the problem we will assume it. Let "That's right. Now move the wind computer dials.
us also agree that the powder tempera- azimuth knob to bring the firing azimuth "Here is what the great god Thor said
ture he read is correct. That is something to 3,942. Right. Now check the other were the actual met conditions and here
he can determine. We will assume then firing data dials and, if they are off, re- is what the computer determined them
that the muzzle velocity he will set into adjust the wind velocity dial and the to be:
the computer will be 2,680. Note that I wind azimuth dials until all three firing Actual Computed
haven't said anything about the possible data dials read correctly. Wind Speed 25 mph 25 mph
error due to air temperature. If you study "Now about the fuze. My suggestion Wind Azimuth 3,600 mils 3,600 mils
the table on the effect of air temperature is to leave it alone. The fuze dial is tied Density 103 103
a 0
you will see that even 10 change will in with the time of Bight dial. For a Are there any questions?"
only make a difference of 3 f/s. We'll particular time of Bight there is a par- The gun sergeants looked at one an-
ignore that. ticular fuze. The machine is made that other. Finally one said, "Sir;I take back
"Here is where you will have to go way. Fooling around with a fuze per my remarks about this machine. I'm
along with me a bit. It would be possible cent spot is trying to take out the fuze going out there and get that crew of mine
to sit down and figure out what the running time errors and, in this case, together and I promise you that, if the
deviations in the sky would be because you are just as liable as not to double the boys in here do their job, we'll carry
of this erroneous data. But we can ac- error as you are to correct it. My advice our end OK. From now on out I'm
complish the same demonstration and is-leave it alone! bearing down on O&S and gun level."
make the computer do the same work by "Now let us recap what we have done. "We're convinced," they said as a man.
changing the dials to read what the firing We have fired a TSP. We have worked At that we broke up the meeting.
data should have been. This is like mak- out a new met message, actually. We We had the best shoot ever that year
ing the radar stand still and moving the knowingly ignored the muzzle velocity and I often wondered what the great god
guns to the burst. dial because we already knew it. We Thor thought as he Roated by on his
"To make sure that you understand can't improve upon it. We now have cloud.
that there is no trick involved, I'm going our dials reading the data the battery PS: You, too, can work out the prob-
to cover up all the computer dials except commander should have used. But, re- lem. Warm up your M-33 and try it out!
the firing data and time of Bight dials." member, we decided that the battery
would have to engage at an entirely dif- Editor's Comment
ferent point in the sky. Without remov- We hope you may enjoy trying this
HERE, Major Bartlett took a piece of ing the tape over the dials, let us move out on your M33 as much as we did
electricians tape and completely covered the radar to point at that spot in the sky observing it. You will find it gives a
the wind speed, wind azimuth, density, where, as the great god Thor already splendid illustration of the accuracy ca-
and muzzle velocity dials. At this poipt knew, the unit w0l.:!-ldopen fire. Ser- pabilities of that computer. It can be
everyone was all attention, you may be geant, move the radar to the second point used in the battalions for interesting and
sure. It was absolutely impossible to read -azimuth 2,350, elevation 645, and slant valuable instruction.
any of the dials he had covered. range 9,000. You recall, also, that with If you have read Colonel Mountain's
20 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
deviations in trial fire are entirely due to
P wind and density errors. Then, solving
on the same assumption, he naturally
comes out V{(rywell indeed. However,
T R the deviations may just as likely be due
to elevation error as to wind and density
errors. Assume such an error and plot
w the burst center low or high on the TF
H = 6000 Yds curve. Then you will find that Colonel
Mountain's solution will give you er-
w roneous corrections both in range wind
and density. Now swing to another part
of the field of fire and see how those cor-
rections work. Or the deviations may be
T
due to variation in time of fuze run~ing.
R = 8000Yds In space the results are nearly the same
as for range wind error. Try that out in
L TSP Sketch a problem and note results. The in-
evitable conclusion is that you cannot be
sure your corrections are accurate be-
article in the March-April JOURNALand tion has to be determined by velocity fire.
cause you cannot separate the effects
his letter in the May-June issue, you will Study the basic gunnery' involved and
from meteorological errors, with certain-
know that he and his engaging side- particularly the differential effects that
ty, from the effects due to other errors.
kick, Major Bartlett, are teaching a may apply at the TSP.
method of trial fire-their version of the The better procedure is to eliminate or
In trial fire the deviations of the burst
Bell Laboratories method. This method minimize every possible error. By careful
center, in the vertical plane as recorded
training, errors in gun laying and burst
is used by a number of battery com- may be due to errors in any of the fol-
manders to the exclusion of the velocity lowing elements: . observation can be eliminated; however,
fire as taught at the AA & GM School. the only sound procedure in trial fire or
No doubt it has some merit, but it also
cp,
elevation, error in gun laying or velocity fire is to double check gun lay-
observation; ing and also to use two independent
has some basic faults which you should
D, range, error in observed deviation; means of observation.
study well. So, we renew the argument.
d, atmospheric density; Valid met data can be provided to
In the first place just inquire how
W R, range wind; minimize wind and density errors. For
many AAA batteries in World War II
MV, muzzle velocity; dependable results messages should be
ever had a chance to fire trial fire just
t, time of fuze running. run both before and after the firing.
prior to a battle engagement with enemy
planes. Then, if it isn't practicable in Note the TSP Sketch. Assuming in Here, too, some valid checks on the
war, why delude ourselves in target prac- each case all the other conditions to be accuracy of the met data should be
tice? as expected, note that variation in muzzle made, and that is not now normal.
Note next that Major Bartlett pre- velocity will move the burst along the With the errors in elevation and in
sumes that the batterv commander MV line; variation in fuze running time, wind and density data reduced to a
knows his muzzle velocitY, but that his along the trajectory TR; error in eleva- minimum we can solve for muzzle ve-
met message is incorrect. Isn't the cart tion, along the time of flight curve TF; locity in a scientific manner by velocity
before the horse? How shall the AAA error in density along the density effect fire. And that we still rate in first priority
commanders ever know their muzzle line, not plotted but nearly the same as because we don't believe trial fire just
velocities so well until they give more the MV line; and an error in range wind before battle engagement is practicable.
attention to velocity fire and the meticu- will move the burst along the range We thoroughly agree with Colonel
lous accuracy required therewith, in- wind effect line WW. If unknown er- Mountain in his emphasis on accuracy
cluding accurate met data. Maybe the rors are likely in any of all the six vari- in level, orientation, and synchroniza-
met data has been poor in the past; even ables above, the problem is simply be- tion. In fact, we agree with him uniform-
so, that is something that can be cor- yond mathematical or graphical solution. ly, except we don't share his enthusiasm
rected by AAA commanders. Whereas, Nor can any ingenious instrumentation for trial fire. But agree or disagree, we
except for rare chronograph firing, the insure a sound solution. hope to publish more of his splendid
muzzle velocity for each lot of ammuni- Colonel l\10untain assumes that his articles.- ED.

BOOKS TRIUMPH AND TRAGEDY. By Winston Churchill ......•......................... $6.00


A STILLNESS AT APPOMATTOX. By Bruce Catton $5.00
OF
ATOMIC WEAPONS IN lAND COMBAT. By Colonels Reinhardt and Kintner $3.95
NOTE THE RIVER AND THE GAUNTLET. By S. L. A. Marshall $5.00
Order From ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL • 631 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W .• Washington 4, D. C.

JULY-AUGUST, 1954 21
AAA OPERATIONS CENTER
By LT. COL LEONARD M. ORMAN

DURING World War II Antiaircraft tighter degree of fire direction to the moted to these scopes. The officer seated
Operations Detachments used Opera- AAOC. at these scopes can observe targets on
tions Center AN/ITQ-2. Although this t The AN/MTQ-2 consisted of 2 vans the scope or see the composite projected
equipment was transportable it was not which could be connected end to end to picture. From these sources of informa-
mobile enough. It is packed in 13 cases form a single field AAOC. In addition tion he can assign targets to the batteries
and requires 4 to 6 hours to assemble for to communication, heating and cooling of a battalion. One officer should be
operations or repack for movement. equipment, it contained 2 devices new able to handle target assignments to four
Furthermore, it had all of the attendant to AAOC's. These were the Kenyon firing units. The AN/SP A8A remote
disadvantages of emplacement in a tent. Projection System and Remote Parallax PPI scope has one unique facility, i.e.,
The tent was inadequate during b1ack- Correction PPI Scopes, the AN/SPA- parallax correction can be made directly
out, rain or heavy wind. 8A's. The Kenyon Projection System is from the scope face. By previously set-
A project was set up during 1945 to a rapid photographic development proc- ting into the scope the parallax between
improve the mobility of AAOC's. Oper- ess similar in some respects to the Land the AAOC central surveillance radar
ations Center AN/MTQ-1 is the result. Polaroid Cameras now on the market. and the firing units the center of the
It consists essentially of the AN/TTQ--2 The central surveillance radar is remot~d PPI scope can be displaced to any of
repackaged in a 30-foot semi-trailer van. into the communications van. Here the the 4 firing units and range and azimuth
The horizontal plotting board has been PPI scope is photographed, the photo- can be read directly. In other words, a
replaced by a vertical translucent screen. graph is developed and projected onto target can be assigned to a unit with
This screen and the tote board forms a a horizontal projection surface. The the range and azimuth of the target
partition with a door between the p10t- plotters add any information received measured from the unit's position and
ting and operations areas. The entire from other sources by grease pencil plots not from the position of the central sur-
equipment can be removed from the van to the displayed information. The com- veillance radar.
and emplaced in a building by 6 men in
4 hours. It can be replaced in the van
posite picture is again photographed and In addition to the facilities mentioned,
processed. The completed picture is pro- the AN/MTQ-2 has a radar height-
I
in a similar period of time. jected on the wall at the end of the van finder, the ANjTPS-lOD (not to be con-I
Aside from mobility and a better she1- where it is then visible to the operations fused with radar set AN/TPS-1D, the I
ter the AN/MTQ-1 offers little over personnel. "Tipsy," an entirely different set), status I
World War II equipment. For this rea- and tote boards. The controls of the
son development was begun on Opera- height-finder are located in the rear of I
tions Center AN/MTQ-2. Here an at- IN the operations van are four identi- the operations scopes. Height on targets
tempt was made to take advantage of cal remote PPI scopes. The central sur- is obtained by the height-finder opera-
some advances in electronics to give a veillance radar presentation is also re- tors and displayed on t~e tote board.

ANTIAIRCRAFT OPERATIONS CENTER. AN/MTQ-2


Communication a
Projection Van ANTIAIRCRAFT OPERATIONS CENTER, AN/MTQ-2
Operations Van

OPERATIONS SCREEN
STATUS BOARD

TOTE BOARD

TARGET
DESIGNATION
CONSOLE HEIGHT
DESIGNATION
CONSOLE

BATTALION CONTROLLERS

Fire Direction for SAM


Fire Direction for SAM

22 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
While the service test of the AN/- picture. This optical effect is achieved
~ITQ-2 revealed that it is not satisfac- by curving the plotting surface (SI) to
tory for AA use in its present form it match exactly (in reverse) the curvature
does serve to indicate a trend. of the PPI screen (S3) as shown in dia-
In \\Torld War II the AAOC operated gram.
onlv as an information center for the A partially reflecting glass (S2) is
firi~g units. AAA gun battery command- placed midway between the plotting
ers independently selected the targets for surface and the PPI screen. The light
engagement, guided only the SOP. Even rays of a pencil marking at P, for in-
then it was realized that a better dis- stance, strikes the reflection glass at Rl
tribution of the AAA fires on the enemy and is partially reflected to the eye (VI)
planes might be achieved by centralized and will appear to originate from the
control if it were only practicable. With point Plan the extension of the line
the advent of the Nike among antiair-
craft weapons the need for centralized
control appears to be greater and also v,~
more practicable. I
I
I
Reflection Plotter / VI - Rl. Thus the marking seems to be
A gadget introduced on commercial , I made on the PPI surface directly on the
\ , / ~
I marine radars which may have applica-
tion to military sets is the reflection plot-
\
\..,.," /
/ target itself. The effect remains un-
changed from any other angle such as
\ I' /
ter shown here. With it plots can be '. I ',/ V2. The marking always appears to
" )(
I made directly on the radar scope without R'/ / R. s. merge with the target directly below it.
distortion or parallax. The markings on / / This device is presently being investi-
1 /
the surface are projected down to the I / gated for use with Radar Set ANjTPS-
1//
scope in such a way as to appear direct- 1/ 10; more familiarly known as "Tipsy."
ly on the targets as a part of the radar Po It can be applied to any set.

STUDY OF MILITARY HISTORY


Any satisfactory program for self-improvement should be progressive and appropriate to the grade of the student. The
works included should provide the officer with professional background appropriate to his level of responsibility and eventu-
ally with an ever-broadening understanding of military art and science and of the relationship of military policy to the foreign
and economic policies of the United States. In the past this progressive aspect of historical study has been neglected with the
result that ofIicers have tended to prepare themselves for the role of war lord, such as Alexander, Frederick the Great, Napo-
leon, or of a great military leader such as Caesar, \Vashington, Grant, Lee, or Foch, instead of preparing for their more
probable assignments or those next above. As a result, too many American military men have neglected the lighting man,
basic leadership, minor tactics and logistics, weapons, and communications. The study of these subjects should begin early
in an officer's career and continue in ever-expanding fashion, throughout his service.-From Brig. Gen. Palll M. Robinett's
manllscript for the forthcoming book, THE STUDY AND WRITING OF AMERICAN MILlT ARY HISTORY, by the
Department of Military History, U. S. Army.

SELECT LIST FROM BOOKS RECOMMENDED


For First Five Years' Service For Second Five Years
The U. S. Army in War and Peace, Spaulding Machine Warfare, Fuller
History of the United States Navy, Knox
On War, Clausewitz
Decisive Battles of the United States, Fuller
The Military Staff, Hittle Captain Sam Grant, lewis
Rag, Tag and Bobtail, The Story of the Continental Army, Stonewall Jackson and the Civil War, Henderson
1775-1783, Montrose lee's lieutenants-A study in Command, Freeman
The life of Johnny Reb, Wiley
Sherman-Fighting Prophet, lewis
The life of Billy Yank, Wiley
Men against Fire, Marshall War as I knew It, Patton
Fix Bayonets!, Thomason The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, Mahan
Eleven Generals: Studies in American Command, Pratt American Campaigns, Steele
Company Commander, MacDonald
The Martial Spirit-A Study of our War with Spain, Millis
Indian Fighting Army, Downey
Infantry in Battle, Infantry School Approach to the Philippines, Smith
Small Unit Actions in Korea, Gugeler Guadalcanal: The First Offensive, Miller

ORDER FROM THE ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL

JULY-AUGUST, 1954 23
BEFOREYOUR UNIT MOVES
By CAPT. CARL M. GUELZO

T HE movement of a unit from one


station to another by rail really isn't the
of warning that your battalion will be
on the move by rail, go to see the post
available to you. He knows the facilities
available for loading and entraining at
hopeless task it appears to be at first. Transportation Officer. He can help you your post and how they can be used to
It involves several actions and reports to start your preparations along the right best advantage. He will also contact
which may challenge the average bat- line. Take up with him special problems other post agencies for you in solving
talion commander, but fortunately every you anticipate in loading and blocking other problems connected with the move
Army post has a transportation officer and bracing the organization equipment such as messing facilities, blocking and
and others who are professionally quali- on the rail cars, the approved methods bracing, and route clearance to the load-
fied by experience to give very practical of marking supplies and equipment, and ing and entraining areas.
help. Just as soon as you get the word the loading facilities that' will be made Unit moves require an enormous a-
mount of coordination, cooperation, and
RAn. MOVEMENTTABLE--PERSONNEL
pre-planning not only by you and your
battery officers, but by your battalion
11n strength
Checkable
Baggage
Passenger
Requirements
Car
staff, especially the S4, and almost every
e Unit Pullman
0 WO EM Total Piecef Wt Cube Coaches other post agency you can think of.
# Section
The expense involved is considerable-so
1 Ii:! & H:t Co, 3d Inf 21 1 263 2$5 6:14 49120 2456 5 -I 142t much so that the Installation T ranspor-
2 Service Co $ 3 175 1$6 394 31520 1576 31 93 tation Officer (ITO) is virtually com-
pelled to wait until he receives your
formal movement orders before contact-
Totals $$ 4 1$48 1940 4Ch4 325120 16256 37 970
ing the railroad companies to secure the
Fig. 1 necessary equipment. He won't just sit
back because a good deal of prior plan-
TRAnI COnSIST TABLE ning is not only necessary for the trans-
I~ Rai1wa :&luiPl!lElnt portation agencies involved but will also
Pullman
i Unit Gl.-ouping Coach Kit- Bag- Box Total make his job and yours vastly easier.
n std Tour chen gage
From the battalion commander the
1 Hegt' ~ Iij & Iij Co 0 4 10 2 1 0 17
Bn-Ih & fu Co ITO will first of all want the official or-
l:ieavy Tank Co 0
2 HeaVY Weapons Co 4 9 2 1 0 16 ders for the movement. In addition, he'll

5 va v
.- '. - '1

0 4 10 2 1 0 17
also need the number and breakdown of
personnel (officers, warrant officers, and
Heavv Mortar Co
enlisted men); the supplies and equip-
Fig. 2 ment to be shipped; the destination of
your unit and the date bv which you
ENTRAINING TABLE must be at that destination;' the date you
Trn Order of Loadina De-parture Arrival .l!;n'tI'aJ.IlJ.Dg
/I ~I Departure Date Hour Date Hour Date Hour Officer desire to load; and the desired place
1 !.lAIN 1 $Apr 0810 $ Apr
of entrainment, departure, and loading.
542 0910 14 Apr 0730 Lt Edwards
The personnel, supplies, and equipment
2 llAIN 3 $Apr l220 8 Apr 1320 14 Apr 1430 Lt Dryer to be moved can be furnished in con-
-~ 543

,. .:..~
-, - :;..

--- - junction with the information to be pro-


vided by your battalion S4; the destina-
5 I~~ 5 9 Apr ChOO 9 Apr 0700 15 Apr OliO I Lt Smith
tion and arrival date will come through
official channels via the movement or-
Fig. 3
ders; and the remainder will be derived
TIIDIVIDUAL TRAIN LOADING PLAN through coordination with the other post
var p.'iumoer Gar agencies involved in the move.
Unit Unit tlumoer
No. of Pers No. of Pers
BE --
---
Personal Baggage 2 Medical Company 27
-
-- .- ...... Captain Guelzo, a former contributor to
these pages from the 3rd AAA AW Battalion
USAx Kitchen car -- 213 Officers of lied & Tk Cas 16 in Korea, is now back in the Far East with
Otaru Port.
Fig. 4
24 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
RAIL KOYEMEB'f TABLE-EQUIPIIl!Br
OrgaIlizatio:na1. stamard Velrl.c1.es Specia1. Freight Gars Req1rlred
L Eq uiplll8nt Trai1.ers Trucks Equipnsnt 7lat Gars
i Sox
n 0
~ ~ t>Il
~ ~ .f;!
a Unit m
'rim ~ ~ "b0 .p
0 "b0 .p
0 "b0 Tow
(l)
0 ~] lam
(l)s:l
0
a '" a
'" ~ ~
::i
a
.$ ~ ..... 0
.....I .....I 0
.....I .....I
N ~ ~& ~o a a 0 s:l I
w Cars
.
s:l s:l 0 H 0 0 0
0 p..
& mE-<
Cl!
<II
::iI
0
E-<
..flt
0
E-<
r-I
0
Eo<
r-I
0
Eo<

rfI'
~
E-<

('<\
0
E-<
~CIl
E-<
0
r-I
]
0'
~
it
...;t ...;t '"
...;t
'" t""\

I
1.89th Mad Tk Bll 750 :120,000 180 1.0 5 31. 30 339 2 3 1.5 2 25 ! 45
2 2M4Tk 19f 1 1.

~- -
:3 72 M4A3Tk 27E 72 72
IV

9 Tota1.s 750 :120,000 180 1.0


-
5 1 131. 30
~......",

3 39
- 2
~

~3
-- 95 8 128 I
-~
1.34
Fig.la

From the battalion 54, the ITO will swered by the ITO who maintains con- utilization of rail equipment available,
need four basic reports: tact with the railroad authorities. and guarantee that the best and most
Rail movement table: listinga break- Individual train loading plan: prescrib- direct routing is used not only for your
down, by organization, of personnel, ing the assignment of personnel to the move, but that of every other move being
baggage, and Pullman or coach space re- exact rail car in which they will ride made by organizations or agencies of the
quirements (see Fig. 1). A separate table and listing the individual freight cars army.
is prepared for the supplies and equip-- on which the unit supplies and equip- When the battalion 54 completes his
ment to be moved (see Fig. 1a). An ment will be loaded (see Fig. 4). The equipment worksheet and the railmove-
equipment worksheet (see Fig. 1b) will ITO will tellthe 54 not only the types ment table, the ITO will utilize both
help in preparing the equipment table. of rail equipment to be furnished, but forms in preparing the vehicle and equip-
Train consist table: listing a break- the car numbers as well. ment loading plan. This plan lists,
down by trains(ifmore than one) of the After receipt of' all this information among other things, the type of equip-
type and number of rail cars required from you and the battalion 54, the ITO ment to be loaded aboard freight cars,
(see Fig. 2). The ITO can give you will in turn do a number of things for quantity, data necessary for the computa-
all the information you or the 54 will both of you. First of all,he will secure tion of railcharges, weight of the equip-
need regarding the types of rail equip- clearance for the move from the Chief ment, dimensions of each piece of equip-
ment available and the capacitiesof Pull- of Transportation, Department of the ment, and the number and types of
man and coach cars and freight cars. Army. Besides providing the means of freight cars required and to be used. The
Entraining table: listinga breakdown transportation,the Transportation Corps plan is used in ordering the precise type
by trains (see Fig. 3) of the order of is also charged with the responsibility of freight car needed for each piece of
departure of the trains;dates and hours of trafficmanagement for the Army. The equipment-whether it be a boxcar or a
of loading; dates and hours of departure; move of your unit will be coordinated 40-foot, 45-foot, or 50-foot flatcar-and
and the date and time of arrival at with the moves of allother units through- to ensure maximum utilizationof allrail-
destination. Any questions the 54 may out the entire country which take place cars so ordered.
ha\"e regarding the routing of the trains at the same time as yours to prevent Rail rate structures in use by Ameri-
and the travel time involved will be an- unnecessary delays, ensure maximum can railroadsin computing transportation

EQUIPMENT WORKSHEET
Mili nt
Total Per Tota1. 40-ft Box O-ft Fla-t Total
Piece Description Car Length No. Length No. No. Length Cars
~ Medium Tank ~
750 Organizatiom1. EquipllElnt 250 :in bu1.k 3 :in bulk 3
2 Tank, bea vy, M24 2 .396" 1 480" 1.
72 Tank, medium, M4A3 1 296" 72 480n 72
24 Truck, t ton 8 532" 3 600'1 3
1.2 Vehicle, utility, armd 2 5J4" 6 540n 6
8 TraiJer, ammunition 4 56(11 2 600n :2

Rail equipnsnt tota1.s 1.34

Fig.lb
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 25
charges are highly complex, differing not and bracing your equipment after load- tually all of the prior planning will have
only by the type of commodity being ing on the railcars, crating where neces- been accomplished prior to the actua]
shipped but also by the total weight and sary, and marking; the Post Finance Of- moment you move out to the entraining
whether or not shipments constitute a ficer ,vill be asked to provide funds area. Your unit equipment will have
full or partial carload. Neither you nor where necessary to purchase perishables been loaded under the supervision of
the battalion S4 need concern yourselves en route; the ITO will contact the Post representatives of the Post Engineers and
with the transportation charges, but the Surgeon about furnishing medical sup- the passenger cars spotted at the loading
information you provide the ITO will plies and attendants for the trip; and the point at the appointed time through c~
be used in figuring what is to be moved Provost Marshal will be requested to ordination with the railroad. By that
and the most economical way of moving prepare routings and traffic control to time, all you need do is ensure that your
it making full utilization of rail equip- loading and entraining areas. men are loaded aboard their respective
ment. The waste is obvious of ordering And after everything else has been Pullmans or coaches in an 'orderly man-
a 50-foot flatcar when a 40-foot flatcar done, the ITO will prepare the TR's and ner and as quickly as possible. The move.
will do the job, as is the confusion of Government Bills of Lading which au- ment of your train has been carefully
specifying a 45-foot flatcar for supplies thorize payment to the railroad for the mapped out and scheduled to fit into
which should be loaded in a boxcar. The passengers and freight transported. both the over-all military transportation
accuracy of the information you furnish When the time comes for your battery scheme and the normal freight and pas.
the ITO is reflected in his vehicle and to pull up stakes, certain items of infor- senger traffic of the railroad.
equipment loading plan which, in turn, mation will be furnished you by the The battalion S4, however, still has
determines the rail cars which will be ITO. You will be informed of the time one job left: To prepare Army Shipping
ordered and the ultimate cost of the move your train will depart and its ultimate Documents covering all the equipment
to the Government. It behooves the ITO destination, and the exact type of rail loaded aboard rail cars. These shipping
to order only the cars actually needed equipment the civilian carrier is furnish- documents are used to support the bills
and in a quantity that can be loaded to ing. You can figure rather closely for of lading prepared by the ITO, which
secure most effective utilization. yourself what you can expect in the way in turn are used by the railroad in se-
It is possible that the railroad may not of railcars. curing reimbursement for services ren-
be able to fulfill all requirements. But You will be authorized one kitchen dered, from the Government. Again ac-
every effort will be made to provide the car (or a baggage car that can be con- curacy determines to a large extent sav-
type of cars requested, or at least suitable verted into a kitchen car by the addition ings to the Government, because the
substitutes. For example, you may not of field ranges and other items of mess descriptions, the weights, and the cubic
get the kitchen cars you ask for, but in equipment) for every 250 men or frac- footages that appear on the documents
their stead the railroad will furnish you tion thereof provided the total number must also necessarily appear on the bills
with baggage cars that can be converted of personnel is in excess of 100. If you of lading-and it is on the bills of lad-
into troop kitchens. You may not get know either the total weight or the total ing that disbursements of Government
first class Pullman sleepers, but tourist cubic footage of the personal baggage funds are made.
sleepers instead. But no matter what the that will be checked by your officers and We've talked a good bit about money
transportation situation may be, don't men, you can figure the number of bag- so far because we believe the cost may
expect parlor, bar, or observation cars. gage cars that you will need on the basis amaze you. Check with your ITO on the
In addition, the ITO will contact sev- of one car for every 50 tons or 4320 cost of a rail movement of an AAA gun
eral other post agencies to assist you in cubic feet. Freight cars will be furnished battalion with all personnel, supplies,
moving your battery. He will coordinate in accordance with your needs. You can and organic equipment and weapons.
with the Post QM to ensure that suf- use as planning factors in computing The ITO, if I may coin a phrase, is a
ficient rations and mess equipment are the number of passenger cars, one Pull- transportation man, not a medicine man;
furnished for the move; he will see the man for every 26 men, or one daycoach but he is there to help you when and
Post Engineer about giving you all the for every 55 men. where he can and, if both you and he
assistance you will require in blocking In physically moving your battery, vir- are stumped, to ask the appropriate
agency who will be able to help.

References
AR 55-120 & AR 55-145: Marking
BEING TRANSFERRED? and shipping personal baggage.
AR 55-155 & TM 9-2854: Information
If so, send us your new address. If you do not yet know the new about blocking and securing vehicles.
AR 380-5: Safeguarding security in-
address, write us to suspend mailing your JOURNAL. Then we hold it
formation.
here and forward when we do get your ne,'\' address. That will give AR 850-5: Marking.
you better service. SR 55-720-1: Unit moves to overseas
destinations.
TM 38-705: Preparation of Army
Shipping Documents.

26 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
.MOBILE AN/TPS-ID
By MAJOR VICTOR DeSTEFANIS, S3, 65th AAA Group

AAA units equipped with the AN/- the appropriate grid is inserted between curing the equipment.
TPS-ID radar set and faced with the the plexiglass sheets. A message center The resultant benefits of this extreme-
dual problem of housing and siting can clock is placed next to the board. ly simple solution are:
solve their problems at one stroke by in- 4. An AN/GRC-9 radio is mounted ~ Siting: Rapid and complete evalua-
stalling the radar in a standard i\ I-I 09 or next to the com'ersion board near the tion of a large number of sites is possible.
ill-34 2~ ton Ordnance repair shop type rear of the truck. The plotter transmits
truck. Addition of a conversion board the converted data. EE-8 telephones are
and AN/GRC-9 radio and a one ton also available if needed.
trailer to hold the power unit makes a 5. Two spare parts chests are stored
complete radar search and plotting cen- behind the radar set in opposite corners
tral in one package. No other vehicles of the truck.
are necessary other than that required to 6. In march order position the main
haul personnel to and from the site. center section of the antenna is carried
The unit described herein is the M- inside the van and bolted to the floor.
109 installation and is an outgrowth of The antenna tips are also carried within
an installation in the older M-34 type the van. The inside sections of the
rehicle. These installations have been antenna are carried strapped to the top
I'aluable in Panama for evaluating many of the one ton trailer.
radar sites and for mobile operation. No 7. One PU 107/U generator is car-
difficulty has been experienced in one ried in the one ton trailer with gas and
year of operation in the extremely rugged oil. The standby generator is hauled to
terrain and high humidity of the Canal the site by the same truck that delivers
Zone. the crew. If the driver and assistant are
The units are so arranged in the truck radar operators the set can go into opera-
that: tion immediately upon arrival. Going Figure 2. Rack to support radar anten-
. nae.
1. Each drawer can be individually into or out of position can be accom-
removed for maintenance. There is plen- plished rapidly by two men, in less than ~ Flexibility of the radar network.
ty of "elbow room" in the van for tech- fifteen minutes. Rapid and periodic shifting of sites to
nicians to set up test equipment. 8. Heat from the set is sufficient to minimize exploitation of otherwise fixed
2. The indicator is placed on the same keep operators warm in cold weather. shadow areas by enemy air forces is pos-
side of the truck and facing the trans- Blowers in the truck circulate the air. In sible.
mitter-receiver unit. This permits the warm weather any or all of the windows ~ Centralization of critically short re-
operator to tune the transmitter-receiver and doors can be opened and hoods used pair personnel and facilities. The mobile
assembly while watching the scopes di- over the scopes if necessary. sets can be driven to centrally located,
rectly. 9. Leveling is accomplished by adjust- well equipped and staffed centers for
3. An internally illuminated conver- ing the jacks on the antenna base. The major emergency maintenance and/or
sion board constructed of two sheets of unit is remarkably stable. On hard, firm, periodic overhaul.
plexiglass set in a box containing an level ground it is only necessary to use ~ Main tenance: Experience has
electric light is mounted vertically be- two 2" x 4" timbers braced between the shown that maintenance problems are
tween the windows. A suitable map with truck body and ground between the two reduced drastically since it is unnecessary
sets of rear wheels. No jitter is exper- to uncable, unstack, cable and restack the
ienced even when bringing the antenna equipment at each move. The equip-
to a sudden full stop from maximum ment rides easily in its rack and no dam-
rotation speed. ages have been sustained due to travel.
The only major alterations to the truck ~ Use of standard units: The M-109
are the removal of one 23" section of the and radar are "married." When union
center duct in the ceiling and an 8" is no longer necessary simple repairs will
hole cut in the roof to permit passage of release the 1vl-109 for other uses.
the antenna spindle. It is not necessary ~ This solution places complete mo-
to cut or rearrange any of the truck wir- bile radar search and plotting centrals in
ing. The entire set is mounted in and the hands of units presently equipped
supported by a simple and rapidly con- with the basic AN/TPS-ID without
structed frame of 2" angle iron (see waiting for a far more expensive issue
Figure 1. Mobile radar installation 111 sketch). Additional materials are a few item which has no other advantages and,
operating position. bolts of 4, 8 and 12 inch lengths for se- in some respects, serious disadvantages
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 2'
Skysweeper In Ground Supporting Fires
By MAJOR DONALD B. MILLAR

S01\1£ dav in battle the matter will masking. However, by a judicious choice
come up fo~ decision, does the Sky- of taroets
b,
the Shsweeper's capability•
sweeper offer any value to the army com- can be utilized.
mander for reinforcing the artillery sup- 4. The lethal area of the 75mm shell
porting fires. \\That about it? is less than that of the 105mm or 155mm
The Skysweeper is an exceedingly ex- projectile, but Skysweeper's increased
pensive weapon with radar and other rate of fire over these weapons compen-
electronic equipment possibly too delicate sates for this deficiency.
and too expensive even for the AA role. 5. The Skysweeper sites will have to
Thus far it has not been considered suit- be selected with care, but suitable ones
able for indirect ground firing roles for can normally be found for worthwhile
the following reasons: targets.
]. Primarily, there is no way at pres- Adapters and sights for indirect fire
6. It has a high silhouette compared
ent to compensate for trunnion tilt. to other FA weapons, and this defect
Therefore, the guns cannot be laid accu- Skysweeper troop tests the problem of cannot be overcome except by camou-
ratelv nor massed effectivel\'. compensating for trunnion tilt and accu- flage and fortification.
2.' The weapon is designed for AA rate la)'inob of the boun was solved. The Here are some of the results of the
fire, and the cost of the weapon does not project officers designed and, with the troop test which may present a better
warrant exposing the expensive radar help of Ordnance, fabricated adapters to picture of the capabilities of the Sky-
and fire control system to counter-battery mount the panoramic sight mount and sweeper as an indirect fire weapon.
fire. range quadrant J\H on the direct fire Three 2-gun batteries were employed
3. The high velocity of the gun pre- sight bracket of the Skysweeper. The dminob the test. The distance between
vents firing at targets in defilade, and its photo shows the adapters and sights batteries was approximately 1,500 yards
effectiveness at all ranges is greatly af- mounted on the 75mm gun. The adapt- laterally, 600 yards in range, and 60
fected by any mask that may be present. ers allow normal field artillery proce- yards in elevation.
4. The shell has limited destructive dures and commands to be used in the ~ No difficulty was experienced in con-
power due to its size. event the most forward guns in the ductillg precision registration. An aver-
5. Mobility of the weapon is such that A1\ checkerboard defense are called on age of 14 rOllnds was required to com-
it cannot compete with comparable field to reinforce the fire of an adjacent FA plete a precision r~gistration.
artillery pieces. unit. However, should the Commander ~ One gUll adjustment was med all all
6. The high silhouette of the weapon plan to use the Skysweeper, it will be observed fires where adjustment was
makes cover and concealment difficult. necessary to obtain the adapters and called for by the observer. An average
However, the time will come when sights from Ordnance. of 5 rounds was required for adjustment.
the army, commander's need for more ar- 2. If the enemy air force is shot the Effect on the target was obtained on all
tillery support is all-important-and more cost of the Skysweeper may lose relative WILL ADJUST missions.
important to immediate needs than will importance compared to the urgent need
be the cost or vulnerability of the Sky' ~ Target trmlsfers of 400 mils laterally
for artillerv. The vulnerability of the
sweeper. In that light the six points and 1,500 yards in range were made;
Skysweepe~ can be minimized by using
each battery delivered effective fire 011
outlined above may be reexamined fur- only one or two guns at one emplace-
ther as follows: the target during all transfers. The area
ment giving the enemy only a point-type
covered by the 3 batteries in fire for
1. During the recently conducted taroet
b
which is difficult to hit. In addi-
effect covered approximately 100 yards
tion, the Skysweeper am fire 23 rounds
in radius.
in 30 sec01lds withollt reloading. This
Major Millar entered the Antiaircraft Artil. factor, coupled with the ability to mass' The Sky sweeper is not very suit.,ble
lery with the Delaware Guard in 1940.
Winning his commission in DeS, he served fire effectively, precludes having to group for ground supporting fires, and it is not
in World War II with AAA in the Pacific and a large number of guns in one area. intended here to make it out as one.
later as an instructor of the School. Now a
member of the Combat Developments Depart- 3. The Skysweeper has the disadvan- However, the time will certainly come
ment, the AA & GM Branch, TAS, he served taoes
b,
of anv high velocitv• weapon, such when its use in that role is demanded,
as the Assistant Project Officer in the Sky-
sweeper Troop Test. as large probable error, difficulty in en- and it is pertinent to give it some thought
gaging targets on reverse slopes, and now.
28 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
DO YOU KNOW MiliTARY DISCIPLINE?
By LT. COL. ROBERT M. HUSTON

W HAT do.yau knaw about military


discipline? As a cammander, fram squad
waterline, and his wire ran aut befare
he had cavered two. thirds af the dis-
into. a taugh hard team, with service as
its primary gaal and reward. Belanging
leader to. battalian cammander, do. yau tance. There his persanal striving ended to. such a team is the principal satisfac-
really understand what discipline is? and with that failure King Company, tian af an Army career. This fact has
Can yau explain it intelligently to. yaur left alane in a great vaid, ceased to. aper- been reco.gnized by the Wamble Cam-
subordinates? Do. yau knaw why it is ate as the autpast af an Army." mittee, named far Admiral Wamble.
necessary? Do. yau knaw enaugh about What is the paint to. this stary? Mili- This Committee has just campleted a
it to. develap it in yaur men and in your- tary discipline taday is af necessity indi- study of career attractiveness in the
self? These are vital questians to. the vidual rather than mass. In the days af Armed Farces. Based an a. survey af
career saldier. They are vital in carrying Caesar and Napolean, armies fought in apinian throughaut the Armed Forces
out his respansibility far the safety and mass farmatian under direct supervisian and a study o.f all factars involved in
welfare af the Nation. They are also. af higher cammanders. Discipline could making a career attractive to. its profes-
vital to. his own safety in time af battle be enforced by the direct influence af a sianal service persannel, the Baard came
and his perso.nal satisfactian and happi- strong commander and held tagether by to. the co.nclusion that proper discipline
ness in time af peace. Befare we try to. the mass. Taday, the weapans of war was ane af the principal factars co.ntrib-
give an answer as to what military dis- do. not permit personnel to. be massed. uting to. career attractiveness.
cipline is, why it is necessary, and ho.w War is faught by small units and indi- We have defined and illustrated the
to abtain it, I am gaing to. quate an ex- vidual technical personnel who. aperate necessity for discipline; now let us deter-
cerpt fro.m General "Slam" Marshall's and service the complicated equipment mine what methods we shall use to. in-
boak "The River and the Gauntlet." af war. Therefore discipline must be still this discipline in aurselves and aur
This relates to. the situatian in Campany understood and instilled in individuals, subordinates. First af all everyane must
K, 9th Infantry, during the battle o.f the nat in units. It can nat be cantrolled by understand what military discipline is
Changchon River, Karea, an the 25th af forceful leadership of a few. Military and why it is necessary. The individual
No.vember 1950. On the night af the discipline, today, is abtained when the must realize that it applies to. him per-
25th af Navember, Company K, in aut- individual, and I repeat individual, with- sanally. This is accomplished by peri-
post pasitian far the Eighth United aut supervisian and in the face of diffi- adically defining discipline and citing
States Army,. was hit by the main body culty and personal disagreement can be examples. Discipline is then abtained
of the Chinese affensive. This infor- depended upon to. carry aut o.rders that by supervisian and training during
mation never got back to. higher head- have been given ar, in the absence of which all commanders, from the squad
quarters. To. quate General Marshall: arders, thase orders that he believes leader an up, require strict compliance
"Though at the farefront o.f the Eighth wauld have been given. Sgt. Bigger did with all arders, regulations, and custams.
Army, the Company remained aut af nat passess this type o.f discipline. As a This is accomplished an the whole not
contact with every element to its rear. result, his failure to. carry aut his as- by punitive measures but by persistence
Distance and terrain features silenced signed task in the face of difficulty can- an the part af cammanders in correcting
the SCR 300 (radio.). Sgt. Alfred Bigger tributed to. the decimation af King Cam- all who. fail to. perfarm in the prescribed
was sent from Battalian to. run a tele- pany and deprived Eighth Army af manner. For example, the new man is
phane line to. King Company. But as necessary info.rmatian needed to. react brought into. the Army with very little
Bigger tald the stary af his failure, he quickly and intelligently in an extremely idea af what military discipline means
was given heavy wire instead af light seriaus situatian. ar why it is required. Yau will start by
130 which is useful an such missians. explaining what military discipline is
So he cauldn't carry it aver the hills and
thereby take the shartest line between
two. points. Instead, he follawed the
I BELIEVE Sergeant Bigger's case
portrays the necessity far discipline as
and why it is necessary. Then yau must
explain to. him that discipline is a per-
sonal matter which he must master nat
we have defined it. Aside from the neces- only in order to. became an effective part
sity for discipline in battle, discipline of the team but far the personal satis-
Lieut. Colonel Huston enlisted in the Ore- contributes taward personal satisfactian factian he will receive from knawing that
gon Guard Coast Artillery in 1931, where he througho.ut yaur service by develaping a he is cantributing effectively to. the serv-
earned his commission in 1935. Serving with
AM in the Pacific in WW II, he recently single will, in yaurself and in yaur cam- ice. The fact that thraugh self-discipline
commonded the 933rd AM AW Battalion in rades, to. serve yaur cauntry regardless af his ability to. meet the harsh require-
Korea. He is now the Army Advisor, 198th
AM Group, Delaware. persanal difficulties and sacrifice. Dis- ments of battle may eventually not only
cipline welds yau and yaur camrades mean self-preservatian but preservation

JULY-AUGUST, 1954 29
of his comrades and his country. That whether with or without supervision, he in battle when all the will power he has I

this self-discipline is developed by ac- has taken a long step toward obtaining will be needed; when he realizes this, he
eomplishing all tasks required of him discipline. When he reaches the point has what we are talking about.
regardless of his personal feelings. That that he polishes his brass, shines his What do you know about discipline?
he will be required to keep his brass shoes, and makes his bed exactly as pre- If you know what it is, so you can ex-
shined, his boots polished, and his bed scribed with the knowledge that he is plain it intelligently to your subordi-
made exactly as prescribed, as a matter performing measures of self-discipline by nates; if you know why it is necessary;
of disciplinary training. He will be su- doing those things which he normally if you know how to develop it in YOur-
pervised constantly to ensure that he wouldn't do except that they are re- self and your subordinates; then resolve
does do these things. Man is a creature quired; when he realizes that by so dis- to yourself that you win do your part in
of habit. Once he creates the habit of ciplining himself he is developing the ensuring that our Army will never fail
performing all tasks large or small win which will enable him to function for the lack of this vital quality.

THE ARMY lANGUAGE SCHOOL


By Captain B. B. Nichols

School Plans &- Operations Officer

Colonel D. W. Hickey, Commandant

The Army Language School at the exclusively to Russian. Except for the and a nephew of Czar Nicholas II of
Presidio of Monterey, California, has Romanic-Germanic group all courses are Russia.
developed into a wen-organized institu- forty-six weeks in length. The Romanic- Some students have applied for lan-
tion that offers courses in twenty-four Germanic courses are twenty-three weeks guage training under provisions of DA
different languages. The school has its in length, except the Rumanian course Pamphlet 20-21, SR 615-120-51, or DA
own reproduction plant for publishing which is thirty-nine weeks. Circular 40. After graduation they are
textbooks and its own sound recording The present Commandant of the given worldwide linguistic assignments.
studio for producing audio aids; its own school, Colonel D. W. Hickey, Jr., was Others have applied for assignments
research library provides the students commissioned in the Coast Artillery in which require knowledge of a foreign
with extensive and up-to-date literature World War 1. During World War II language. This group is comprised of
concerning the linguistic field. The stu- he commanded the 54th AAA Brigade applicants for Foreign Area Specialist
dents accepted for training are not only in Europe. Since the War he served as Training or for duty within the Army
taught to speak, read and write a desig- the Assistant Commandant of the Coast Attache System, as provided for in SR
nated language, but they are also pro- Artillery School and later as the Military 350-380-1 and SR 600-147-1 respectively. !
vided with basic military, geographic, Attache to Pakistan. Still other students have been selected
economic, historic and political informa- Most of the teachers at the school are for assigmnents which require knowl-
tion about the country in which the natives of the country whose language edge of a foreign language. These indi-
.language is spoken. they teach. A few are native-born Ameri- viduals are utilized in the Army Security
The twenty-four languages offered cans who have been educated in the Agency, the e.1.e., psychological war-
by the school are divided into four foreign. country. All of them are re- fare assignments, military attache system,
groups: The Far East Group consisting quired to possess a degree of fluency in military missions, military army advisory
of Chin_ese-Cantonese, Chinese-Manda- English; many of them speak fluently in groups and joint United States military
rin, Japanese and Korean; the Middle five or six other languages. Among the advisory groups.
East-Slavic group consisting of Albanian, interesting instructors there are: A Rus- Thus the Army Language School has
Arabic, Bulgarian, Czechoslovakian, sian Major General who refused repa- developed a successful means of devel-
Greek, Hungarian, Persian, Polish, Ser- triation after he had been captured by oping qualified linguists for the services.
bo-Croatian and Turkish; The Romanic- the Germans in World War II; an ex- The graduates move on to apply their
Germanic group 'consisting of Danish, cabinet member of an iron curtain coun- skill in their general work, or as a trans-
French, German, Italian, Norwegian, try in Europe; a descendant of the last lator or interpreter. The best universities
Portuguese, Rumanian, Spanish and queen of the Lee dynasty of Korea; the grant credits for the language courses
Swedish; and the fourth group devoted son of a former prime minister of Japan; completed.

30 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
~-----------------------
UNIT ACTIVITIES
I...~------------------------
HEADQUARTERSARMY ANTI- from the Army "Var College; Lt. Col. Lt. Col. Paul A. Harmon, Assistant
AIRCRAFT COMMAND Everett D. Light, from AFCS; Lt. Col. Executive, leaves during July for Europe.
1\-IerleJ. Senn, Austria; Lt. Col. William Major Alvin P. Lobsinger, Brigade S3,
Lt. Gen. Joll1l T. Lellns, COli/111m/ding 1. King, CGSC; Maj. James C. Chand- departs for Turkey in early July.
ler, TAG School; Capt. Wallace N. Major Irving L. Kanof, Brigade S4,
"NIKE" came to Colorado Springs for
King, USAREUR; and WOJG Robert transfers to Europe in August. Major
.\rmed Forces Day. A complete model
A. Robbeloth, from Korea. Oliver J. Francis, Assistant S4, wiII as-
ofthe Army's new surface to air guided
sume the S4 duties.
missile was furnished for display in
56th AAA BRIGADE 1st Lt. Joseph \V. Lemieux goes to
downtown Colorado Springs by the
Camp Kilmer via the AG School.
Western Electric Company. Built to ex- Brig. Gen. Harry F. Meyers, Comd. GAINS
actscale, the model included all the ac-
By 1st Lt. Pml! E. Joyce, PIO Lt. Col. Robert B. Anderson, Brigade
companying equipment necessary for
S3.
operation of a missile site and is the only Brigadier General Harry F. Meyers
Major John D. Healy, Radar Officer.
oneof its kind. has reassumed command of the brigade.
1st Lt. Paul E. Joyce, S2.
Colonel Perry H. Eubank, Chief of General 1\Ieyers has just completed two
Colonel Merle R. Thompson comes
Staff,departs in July for the Army \Var tours of temporary duty which took him
from the Pentagon to be the Executive.
College.Colonel Walter F. Ellis, G3, has half way around the world on each trip.
Colonel Thomas H. Harvey has ar-
beenassigned to the Career Management He was the senior member of two sur-
rived from SHAPE to take command of
Division-Artillery, T AGO, Washing- vey groups appointed in connection with
the 2nd AAA Group and Fort Niagara,
lOn,D. C. Lt. Col. Ford E. Pratt, G4, the Military Assistance Pacts signed by
relieving Colonel Maurice P. Shaver,
hasdeparted for duty with USARPAC. the United States with Pakistan and
who has departed for Ankara, Turkey.
Other staff members currently on or- Iraq. Prior to his TOY, General Meyers
Lt. Col. John P. Mial has succeeded
ders include: Lt. Col. Raymond M. was Commanding General of Eastern
Major Murray McLeod as CO, 44th
Clock, Engineer Officer, to Upper Mis- Army Antiaircraft Command. This is
AAA Battalion, Fort Niagara, N. Y.
sissippiValley Division; 1st Lt. Arthur D. the second time General lVleyers has
Hendricks, to USAREUR; and CWO commanded the 56th AAA Brigade, his
Francis M. Wischer, to USAFFE. previous tour with the unit having been' 52d AAA BRIGADE
from February 1951 to January 1954. Co/. R. S. Spangler, COnHlumding
Additions to the ARAACOM staff in-
clude: Lt. Col. Ervin H. Shumate and LOSSES
By Lt. Col. Theodore W. Lowrie, PIO
I ~Iajor George A. DeMarcay, Jr., recent Colonel Kenneth J. \Voodbury, Ex- Colonel Richard S. Spangler who has
graduates of CGSC; and Capt. O. F. ecutive, will leave in August for assign- commanded the 52d AAA Brigade since
I Doherty, from Korea. ment as Chief, Military District of New June 1953, wiII leave in July for a new
Col. Robert \\T. I-lain will soon arrive Hampshire. assignment as PMS&T at the University
of Hawaii.
Colonel Spangler served recently as
Deputy Chief, United States Military
Assistance Advisory Group for Iran, in
which he was commended for his out-
standing performance of duty. He was
then assigned to the 52d AAA Brigade in
the fall of 1952 where he served as Com-
mander of the 16th AAA Group, and lat-
er as the Executive Officer of the Brigade.
In June 1953 he took over Command of
the 52d AAA Brigade from Brigadier
General Tarrant who has beel) reas-
signed to the Special Weapons branch
at Department of Army Headquarters.
In the competition for the Best Battal-
ion in the Brigade for the month of May,
the 66th AAA Battalion under Lt. Col.
John C. Wilkerson was designated for
this honor.
47th AAA Brigade furnishes Honor Guard as Emperor Haile Selassie arrives at The Honor Batteries for the month
I Los Angeles City Hall accompanied by Mayor Norris Poulson of 1\lay were "c" Battery 66th AAA
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 33
Battalion commanded by Captain John is leaving for the Artillery School, Fort The past sixty days have seen the bat-
W. Turner and "B" Battery 69th AAA Sill, Oklahoma. talion gain thirteen new guided missile
Battalion commanded bv 1st Lt. Alfred MjSgt. Clarence B. Eisaman and SFC warrant officers; WOJG S. 1\.1.Gamer,
V. Busicchia. Anderson Vititor of the 35th AAA Bat- F. T. Harrell, J. B. Kent, S.1\.1accarone,
On 15 May, Colonel Spangler, along talion were recently awarded Commen- H. L. Shelnut, G. M. Vinson, W. W.
with representatives of the Civil De- dation Ribbons with Metal Pendant for Warren, H. W. Burney, E. W. Ivey, 1.
fense, Air Force and Ground Observer Meritorious service while serving with R. Anderson, W. E. Hutchison, B. F.
Corps, appeared on the TV Program, the Armed Forces in Korea. Decorations Cooksey and J. E. Armes.
"An Eye on New York." Colonel Spang- were presented by Lt. Col. Lewis H. The 71st AAA Battalion is in the pro-
ler and these representatives of the Air Kirk, Jr., Battalion Commander. cess of converting to a Missile Battalion.
Defense System were interviewed con- Over 1500 of our civilian neighbors Major Sam L. Davies assumed com-
cerning the role each organization plays accepted our invitation to visit the on- mand of the Battalion. Major Felix G.
in protecting Greater New York City. site positions and see their AA Defense Millhouse is Executive Officer.
From the 17th to the 21st of May the during "Open House" held during the The 14th AAA Gun Battalion re-
80th AAA Group, the 326th Operations afternoon of Armed Forces Day. ceived the "Battalion of the Month"
Detachment, Headquarters and "N' and plaque for the month of April. This
"B" Batteries of the 12th AAA Battalion 19th AAA GROUP makes four of the past six months.
were at Camp Upton, Long Island for Colonel Harrison A. Gerhardt, Comd. Major William H. Sprigg assumed
a tactical field exercise. command of the 14th Battalion vice Lt.
Colonel Harrison A. Gerhardt recent-
On 4, 11, 18 August 1954, during the Col. Tom B. Strother who was trans-
ly assumed command of the 19th AAA
hours of 0830-1200, on-site training will ferred to Europe. Captain Duport M.
Group. His previous assignment had
be conducted for approximately 200 Copp, S3, and Captain John M. Jen-
been in the Office of the Secretary of
West Point Cadets. nings, CO of Battery "C" are departing
Defense.
Two sites of the 749th AAA Battalion for the Advanced Artillery School.
Major William T. Colvert reported in
will be used. One hundred Cadets will
May to replace Captain James T. Worth-
go to each site. The groups will receive CENTRAL ARMY AA
am, S4, who departed for the Advanced
practical work on gunnery procedure,
Officers Course at Fort Bliss, Texas. COMMAND
with the remaining time devoted to
"County Fair" orientation of AAA Ma-
Captain Walter A. Wood 3d, has as- Colonel Donald J. Bailey, Commanding
sumed the duties of the Assistant S3,
teriel. Armed Forces Day in the Greater Kan-
vice Captain Kincheon H. Bailey, Jr.,
Lt. Col. Theodore W. Lowrie, Assist- sas City Area was combined on May the
who departed for EUCOM.
ant Executive Officer, has temporarily 15th with the official opening of Grand-
2d Lt. Charles E. Currey, Hq & Hq
been assigned as the Brigade S2 as an view Air Force Base and celebrated in
Btry Commander promoted to 1st Lt.,
additional duty, replacing Major Gerard great fashion. More than 50,000 en-
as of 13 May 1954.
J. Burke who is leaving for the Far East. thusiastic visitors came to view the smart
On 25 June over a nationwide radio
Major Derosey C. Cabell has assumed exhibits and lively demonstrations. And
hookup, the "Army Hour" program
the duties of 80th AAA Group S3, re- among the most popular offerings on the
broadcast an eleven minute recording
placing Major Harry Landsman who is base were those of the Army AA Com-
depicting an alert in a AAA line battery.
going to Turkey. Major Cabell was pre- mand displaying the Skysweeper, the
Utilizing personnel of Battery C, 70th
viously stationed in Heidelberg, Ger- Nike and allied equipment.
AAA Gun Battalion, the recording
many.
proved to be a very realistic and inspiring
Captain James B. Bacon, Brigade Ra- 531 st AAA Battalion
portrayal of our AAA Defense in action.
dar Officer, left for USAREUR. Captain
Plans are now formulated for a world- Lt. Col. Phillip J. Gundlach, CO
Albert E. Hill is now the Radar Officer
wide broadcast. 531st AAA Battalion, sent down an 18
of the Brigade.
Headquarters 19th AAA Group, to- man composite crew under Lt. Oliver
gether with the 70th AAA Gun Battal- H. Dashiell manning the Skysweeper,
17th AAA GROUP ion, participated in the ATT held at Fort the ANjTPS-ID and allied equipment.
Baltimore, Maryland Meade, Maryland, on June 22 to 25. Crew and equipment were Hown down
Members of the 601st AAA Battalion, from Ellsworth AF Base, South Dakota,
Colonel E. A. Chapman, Commanding
Andrews Air Force Base, Lt. Col. E. E. in a Strategic Air Command C-124
Lt. Colonel John D. Underwood re- Bellonby, Commanding, held Open "Globemaster." With its 60,000 pound
cently returned from Alaska to take com- House, Saturday, May 15, in observance capacity it could have brought another
mand of the 89th AAA Battalion. He of Armed Forces Day, and approximately gun and crew. On the base this well
succeeds Lt. Col. James Kravitz, who is 250 people from the neighboring com- trained crew at intervals during the day
now assigned to duty in Alaska. munities visited the batteries. formed in back of their equipment and
Captain Lawrence M. Jones is now The 36th AAA Missile Battalion, Lt. then double timed to their posts and
the Group Assistant S3. Captain Charles Col. E. R. Gooding, Commanding, was demonstrated battle drill. The superb
S. Bowyer is S2 and 1st Lt. Robert T. presented the 19th AAA Group "Battal- manner in which they tracked and simu-
Hayden is Assistant S3. Captain Bowyer ion of the Month" plaque for the month lated action against the fast jet fighter-
replaces Captain James J. Harrison who of May 1954. interceptors streaking across the sky won

34 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
about 1 September to his new duty in
the G3 Section at the Pentagon. Colonel
Haskell is expected to be replaced as
Group Commander by Colonel William
H. Vail, Jr. who retllrnS from the Euro-
pean Command.
Recently promoted l\lajor Jack Young,
formerly Assistant S3, returned from Fort
Bliss, where he completed a specialized
guided missile course, and has been
transferred to the 83rd AAA Battalion
to assume the duties of S3.
The Group Headquarters staff in-
cludes Lt. Co!. Gersen L. Kushner, Ex-
ecutive; Major Donn M. McCann, S3;
Major Lawrence J. Burger, S4; Captain
Eugene E. Powers, 81; Captain Lester
B. Leigh, S2; Captain Robert E. De-
\Vcese, Radar Officer; 1st Lt. Troy D.
Hopson, Commo; Captain Dean C. Fel-
lows, Project Officer; and Captain Fran-
cis E. 1\ lendenhall, Assistant S3.
The Skysweeper being unloaded from the C-124 "Globemaster"

42nd AAA BATTALION SP


the plaudits of the visitors. And the manding the 31st AAA Brigade and
I .
smart appearance was Just as outstan d'mg Colonel Harold G. Haskell, the Group In an impressive redesignation cere-
, asthe smart performance. Colonel Bailey Commander. mony held in Nellingen, Germany on
, received continual compliment from the The 31st AAA Brigade award for the 25 May, 1954, the former 899th AAA
risitors on the soldierly demonstration Battalion, 28th Infantry Division became
"Best Gun Platoon" for the month of
I of the 53 1st. the 42nd AM Battalion, 9th Infantry
May 1954 was presented to Battery B,
Division.
SOlst AAA Gun Bn bv Colonel Haskel!.
495th AAA Battalion
/
The 42nd has been commanded by Lt.
Major Gale A. Watson, formerly
Co!. John E. Arthur, Jr. since Septem-
The Nike and a small crew under Group S3 returned from Command and ber 1953. Major William A. Gresham
I WOJG Henry Plock of the 495th Mis- General Staff College upon successful is the Executive; Captain George Kaiser,
I sile Bn were Hown up from Fort Bliss in completion of the course to become Ex- SI; Captain Francis G. BoIke, 82; Cap-
two C-82 "Flying Boxcars." For the ex- ecutive Officer of the 50lst AAA Gun tain Arthur Fikentscher, 83; Captain
I hibit the Nike was roped off from close Battalion. .\-Vellington Jones, Asst. 83; and Captain
I scrutiny, but Mr. Plock and his men Colonel Harold G. Haskell will leave Robert B. Burgert, 84; Captain Orville
were kept busy answering questions. The
, crew and equipment were Hown to Sioux
City, owa for a repeat performance on
the next day at the Armed Forces Day
celebration there. Incident to the Nike
exhibit Brig. Gen. H. N. Toftoy shipped
from Redstone Arsenal a model guided
missile and rocket display with excellent
photographic coverage of the Nike and
other missiles. This was displayed in a
tent and inspected freely by the visitors.

5th AAA GROUP


Co!. H. G. Haskell, Coma.
By Capt. Lester B. Leigh, PIO

Brigadier General James G. Devine,


Commanding General, \-Vestern Army
Antiaircraft Command, recently inspect-
ed units of the Group accompanied by Brig. Gen. James G. Devine, wrEST ARACOM Commander, Co!. E. B. Hempstead,
Colonel Edward B. Hempstead, Com- 31st AAA Brigade, and Co!. H. G. Haskell inspect the 5th AAA Group.
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 35
Samuel E. Anderson, Fifth Air Foret B.
Brigadier General Dwight E. Beacl \
Eighth Army Artillery Officer; and Cok, B.
nel Charles B. Duff, 55th AM Brigadt JI
In the recent Brigade Command In r
spection the Battalion received an exce, rr
lent rating. The 398th is part of t~ I
10th AAA Group in defense of a lar~ ~
air base.
The 398th staff includes l\lajor De~ ~
bert O. Carpenter, executive; Major Le;
J. Hock, S3; Captain Louis A. Langevin.
Chaplain; 1st Lt. John S. Cooper, S2
Colonel Harold G. Haskell, CO 5th AAA Group, presents the 31st AAA Brigade 1st Lt. Daniel B. Flemming, SI; 1st L.
Award for the best Gun Platoon to SFC Ernest B. Robinson, Gun Platoon Ser-
geant, Battery B, 518th AAA Bn. Leading the formation: 2nd Lt. H. M. Routh, Marvin L. Becker, S4; 1st Lt. Joseph M
Battery Commander, 2nd Lt. T. F. Sandstrom, and 1st Sgt. C. F. Hull. Lt. Col. Holihen, l\'lotor Officer; 2nd Lt. vVilme
D. C. Sherrets, Battalion Commander, looks on. O. Gray, Radar and Communications:
2d Lt. John C. Sollars, I & E Officer.
Thomas H. Sayes to the Advanced Battery B, commanded by 1st Lt
Lasley, Bn. Motor Officer; and 1st Lt.
Sammy D. Myers, has won the Best
Thomas Casso is Commo Officer. Course at the Artillery School; Captain
Battery Award for the past three inspec.
Commanding Batteries A, B, C, and Albert J'vl. Thayer to the Electronics
tions. Other Battery Commanders, gi\'.
o are Captains vVilliam Corley, I-Iarry Evaluation Group, vVashington, D. C.
ing B Battery keen competition, are 1st
Tholen, Gregg Breitegan and John J. Despite heavy losses of officer and en- Lt. James S. Pettit, A; 1st Lt. Royal C
l\kColpin. listed instructors, the Little Fort Bliss of Smith, C; 1st Lt. Donald H. Smith, Jr-
the Far East will soon begin teaching D and 1st Lt. Fred Goldman, Hq. Bat-
The battalion is proud of its fine
Skysweeper and M33 Fire Control Sys- tery.
record in the maintenance and operation
tems .. Captain William J. Reidy joined Captains Elmer J. Coffey and Owen
of all its equipment. During its last Di-
F. Doherty and Lieutenants James B.
vision Command Maintenance Inspec- the faculty recently.
Gillen and Philip G. Broeckel have reo
tion the unit attained the highest battal- Other additions and changes are: Ma- cently returned to the States.
ion score in the Division. jor John R. vValker, Jr., formerly Execu-
The 42nd also set a new Division rec- tive Officer at Toyoumi Firing Range, 7th AAA GROUP
ord in the Signal phase, with each bat- has replaced Major Sayes as Brigade S2
Lt. Col. Chesley F. Dllrgin, Coma.
tery score 97 or higher. and PIO. Brigadier General Eugene F.
On the extra-curricular side of the Cardwell, the brigade commander, has The 7th AAA Group was activated
ledger the 42nd teams placed first and chosen 1st Lt. Frank E. Hamilton as his on 1 May, 1954, to take over the duties
Aide-de-Camp. and the personnel of the former 41st
second in Division Artillery .22 caliber
MA Group (Provisional). Upon acti-
riRe matches, while teams from Head- Units of the brigade will soon be vation, the following assignments were'
quarters Battery and Baker Battery won filmed in their tactical positions and at made: Lt. Col. Chesley F. Durgin as
the Div Arty softball championship and the various firing ranges to illustrate U.S. the Commanding Officer; Lt. Col. Wood-
basketball title, respectively. troops in the air defense system of Japan. row L. Nelson, Executive; Major Harry
Three out of the five men on the Div The Signal Corps is doing the job with E. Bock, Jr., S2 and S3; Capt. Jesse N.
Arty Pistol team are from the 42nd and the assistance of unit PIOs. General Worsham, TI&E Officer; Lt. Bernard E.
five out of the Division Artillery baseball Cardwell will make the opening remarks. Reiter, Assistant S3; Lt. Donald J. Grail, I
nine are battalion men. A&R Officer; Lt. Ralph M. Fruzan.
The film will be used in various ways
Headquarters Battery Commander; and
back in the ZI, including television pre-
C\VO Russell E. Faupel, SI and Person-
40th AAA BRIGADE sentation.
nel. In addition to the AAA defense of
Brig. Gen. E. F. Cardwell, Commanding priority targets, the Group composed of
By Major John R. \J..lalker, PIO
398th AAA AW BN. the 508th AAA Det (Opns), 68th AAA
Gun Bn., 865th AAA Bn. (A W) (SP),
Lt. Col. F. J. Pallister, Comnumding
and the 933d AM Bn. (A W) (Mbl),
June and July turned out to be "Sayo-
nara" months for the staffs of 40th AAA The 398th AAA AW Battalion was has trained many Republic of Korea
Brigade and Far East AAA Specialist chosen as the best marching battalion in Army Soldiers who have been attached
School. Departures included Major Rob- the recent review, marking the activation to the Battalions as KATUSA personnel.
ert H. McCauley to C&GS, Fort Leaven- of the 55th AM Brigade (formerly the In addition, the Group has recently corn.
worth; Major John L. Stripling to the 44th MA Brigade Prov.). The review- pleted a fourteen week training prograrn
Staff and Faculty at Fort Bliss; 1\ lajor ing party included Lieutenant General for the 1st Republic of Korea Army MA

36 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
BJrtalion to be acti\'ated. The 865th The 96th AAA Battalion is command-
.\.t\A Bn. (A W) (SP) was the sponsor ed by Lt. Col. Cal\.in 1\1. Pentecost.
BJrtalion and exercised direct control Colonel R. \,y. Hood, former command-
Jnd responsibility in all training matters. er, has also gone to duty in the Pentagon.
The successful completion of the ROKA Captain James D. Starkey commands the
training program was culminated by a 500th Detachment, having relieved 1\la-
1200 troop review held in Seoul on 26 jar Charles O. May, Jr., who left for
)lay,1954. Troops of the Group, as well duty with G3 in WESTARACOi\1.
JSthe entire ROKA Battalion, passed in Major William J. Fling, S4, leaves for
re\'iew before Lieutenant General Bruce Hq. Fifth Army in July; Major Alfred
C. Clarke, Deputy Eighth United States H. Fierke, S2, for the 17th AAA Group;
:\rmy Commander; Brigadier General Major Bernard A. Gilman, for .USAR Brig. Gen. D. V. Johnson, G-3,
Kim Kae Won, Deputy Artillery Officer, duty in'.'cleveland, Ohio; Captain Lloyd USAREUR, presents Pfc. John A. \Vil-
Republic of Korea Army, and Colonel \,y. Dull, Radar Officer, goes to the Army Iiams, 4th AAA Battalion, with the
Charles B. Duff, Commanding Officer, Language School, Presidio of Monterey, 32nd AAA Brigade rifle championship
trophy. Pfc. \Villiams went on to the
55th Antiaircraft Artillery Brigade. Calif.; and Captain Robert L. I-logan, to
USAREUR finals in Germany to win a
Recent losses include Lt. Col Bock, Fort Bliss, Texas. Captain Thomas E. place on the USAREUR rifle team that
who was promoted and transferred to Brown has joined the S3 Section from will go to compete in the National rifle
the 29th AAA Group, and Capt. Wor- Fort Bliss. match finals.
sham, who returned to CONUS. Maj.
paid dividends. When a member of the
William R. Bullard joined the Group as 32nd AAA BRIGADE Royal Signals Association from nearby
S3 on 4 June 1954.
Colonel Charles H. Blllmenfield, CO'l1ld. Corby visited the school, he noted that
the high winds had damaged the school's
Recent Changes Colonel Charles H. Blumenfield has
flagpole. A few days later, the Britisher
Lieut. Colonel Durgin transferred to joined the Brigade from the G4 Division returned to the school with a new flag-
FECOM. Lieut. Colonel Raymon C. of Hq. USAREUR to take command in pole and equipment needed to install it,
Ball, Commanding 7th AM Group. July, relieving Colonel Gordon H. Holt-
which he presented to the school, a gift
Maj. Fred R. Whitehead, Commanding erman, who goes to the Army \Var Col-
which the Americans will long treasure.
365th AAA Bn (SP). 1\'iaj. Wm. R. lege. Brigadier General J. F. Cassidy, Dep-
Bullard, Jr., Commanding 933rd AAA The Bushey Hall Military Reserva-
uty GI, USARUER, represented the
.\W Bn. tion, near London, Brigade Headquar-
Commander-in-Chief for the annual com-
ter is gradually becoming a regular post.
mand inspection of the Brigade con-
68th AAA GROUP It now has a modern snack bar, barber
ducted by the General and his staff dur-
Col. George F. Pierce, COlll11umding shop, PX, clothing store, laundry, postal
ing the period 9-16 June. Other recent
unit, E1\'1Club, Theatre and motor pool.
By Captain Robert L. Hogan distinguished visitors included Major
Lt. Col. \V. D. \,yard, who command-
General J. G. Van I-louten, Gl, USA-
The 68th AAA Group is stationed at ed the 60th AAA Battalion, Lakenheath,
Fort Richardson, Alaska, near the city of for almost three years, rotated to the
Anchorage. There it functions in close States last month. He was succeed by
teamwork with and under the opera- Lt. Colonel James L. Davis, Jr., who
tional control of the 10th Air Division joined from Camp Chaffee, Arkansas.
(Defense) in the defense of Elmendorf A total of sixteen EM from units of
AF Base. the Brigade graduated in May from the
The Group includes the SOOth De- Aircraft Recognition Course at Brigstock,
tachment (Opns), the 96th AAA Gun the Brigade School Cepter in the UK.
Battalion and the 867th AAA AW Bat- Graduates of this unique course go back
talion. Recently all units participated to their units where they serve as in-
with the Air Division in "Operation structors in aircraft recognition, a highly
.'\ORTH STAR." emphasized phase of the training pro-
A great many changes have been made gram for AAA gunners in the Brigade.
recently in the key personnel. Colonel The Skysweeper was shown to the
William B. Hawthorne, leaving for New British public for the first time in Eng-
York City, has been relieved by Colonel land on Armed Forces Day, by the 39th
Pierce, whose last station was Fort Mon- AAA Battalion at Langham Camp on
roe, Va. The new Group Executive, Lt. the North Sea, arousing keen interest.
Col. Noyes \"leltmer, Jr., replaced Lt. Just prior to Major J. J. Reid's depar- Colonel G. H. Holterman, 32nd AAA
Brigade Commander, presents the Bri.
Col. Robert D. Harlan, who took com- ture from Brigstock School as the school gade Commander's Annual sports tro-
mand of the 867th. Lt. Col. William R. Commandant in early 1\lay to become S3 phy to Lt. Col. \VI. D. \X1ard, 60th AAA
Parr, former commander of the 867th, of the 60th AAA Battalion at Laken- Battalion. The 4th AAA Battalion was
left for duty in the Pentagon. heath, sound Anglo-American Relations a close runner-up.

JULY-AUGUST, 1954
37
REUR. and Brigadier General J. H. deputy post commander. 34th AAA BRIGADE
Hinrichs, Deputy Chief of Ordnance. The 13th AAA Group is the only RA
Brig. Gen. F. C. McConnell, Comdg.
Brigadier General D. V. Johnson, G3, AM unit now in Camp. Colonel J. F.
USAREUR, came from Germany early Eason and the Group are busily engaged By Callt. lVm. J. Murphy, PIO
this month to present trophies to the in coordinating the National Guard and The year 1954 will create a new record
Brigade rifle and pistol championship Reserve AAA training. for rotation of officers from the European
teams and individuals. The 4th AAA The North Carolina National Guard Theater. Three war-horses of the old
Battalion, Upper Heyford, took nrst units here in June included the: Coast Artillery days are among those be.
place team and individual honors in ~th ing retired from USAREUR Headquaz-
252nd AM Group
pistol and rifle competitions. 1st Lt. Rich- ters: Brig. Gen. Jack Cassidy (Transpor-
Colonel K. M. Corbett, Comdg.
ard E. Leech, Captain of the nrst place tation Corps), Colonel John McComsey
BOth AAA AW Battalion (SP)
pistol team took top Brigade honors for and Colonel D. C. Tredennick.
Lt. Col. Wm. Lamont, Jr., Comdg.
individual pistol marksmanship while
150th AM Gun Battalion The Brigade Headquarters has exper-
nrst place individual honors in the rifle
Lt. CoL P. B. Platt, Comdg. ienced an almost complete turnover dur-
competition went to Pfc John A. Wil-
ing the past three months. General Mc-
liams. Williams score has earned him 725th AM AW Battalion
Connell, who arrived in December, is
a place on the USAREUR rifle team Major J. C. Maultsby, Comdg.
still the Commanding General; Col. J. S.
that will go to Fort Benning and later Florida: Albergotti, Executive, will depart about
to Camp Perry, Ohio to compete in the
227th AAA Group 1 October after completing a six months
National Finals. extension; Major J. F. Butler, S1, has
Col. E. F. Henry, Jr., Comdg.
Among the recent changes in the 32nd
14Sth AAA AW Battalion been replaced by Major J. E. Schoeller,
AAA Brigade are: Lt. Col. Raymond J.
Lt. Col. N. L. Reynolds, Comdg. who came to the brigade from Fort
Conelly, formerly Brigade Adjutant, ro-
265th AAA AW Battalion Sheridan, Illinois; Major F. H. Baker is
tates to the States in July. He has been
Major D. C. Sheppard, Comdg. still holding down the S2 slot.
succeeded by Lt. Col. Edwin O'Connor,
712th AAA Gun Battalion Lt. Col. G. M. Gershon, former com-
formerly CO, 4th AAA Battalion, Upper
Major A. A. Moore, Comdg. mander of the 504th AAA Opns Det, has
Heyford.
taken over the S3 job, replacing Lt. Co],
Lt. Col. Benjamin McCaffery, former- The Alabama Guard Units here III
C. E. Gushurst, who will attend the
ly CO, 92nd AAA Battalion, Brize Nor- July included the: next session of the Command and Gen- I
ton, has been assigned as Brigade S4. 142nd AA Group eral Staff College. Major J. R. Stutts
He succeeds Lt. Col. Wilmer R. Beh- Col. R. M. Hardy, Comdg. has been brought in from the 25th Bn .
rend, who is rotating to the States for
226th AAA Group to take over as S4 after Lt. Col. L. J.
reassignment in July. Lt. Col. Stephen
Col. N. J. Walton, Comdg. Lesperance was moved up to S4. of
C. Farris succeeded Col. McCaffery as
104th AAA AW Battalion Seventh Army Artillery.
CO 92nd AAA Battalion.
lOSth AAA AW Battalion Capt. C. M. Murray is assistant S4.
S~heduled to rotate from the Brigade
Lt. Col. R. T. Ervin, Jr., Comdg. Major J. F. Seals, former executive of
Planning Section in July to the States for
the 40th Bn has taken over as radar of-
reassignment are Lt. CoL Henry M. 216th AAA AW Battalion
ncer from Major J. W. Young, who will
Boudinot and Lt. Col. George T. Hanna. Lt. Col. James N. Brown, Comdg.
attend the Advanced Artillery course at
Major John Swerda, who has been CO 27Sth AAA AW Battalion
Fort Sill. Capt. H. J. Polichnowski is
of the 34th AAA Operations Detachment Lt. Col. J. T. Hardin, Comdg. S3 and Capt. Wm. J. Murphy who
since the unit arrived in England in early 279th AAA AW Battalion joined from the 56th AM Brigade, is
1951, has rotated to the States, and is Lt. Col. J. M. Balch, Comdg. assistant S3. When Major L. F. Ladd
succeeded by Capt. Charles R. Northrop. 464th AM AW Battalion departed, the assistant communication
Major Francis J. Manley arrived from
Major \iVm. J. Munroe, Comdg. officer, Capt. J. F. Bowers took over.
the States in June to become Executive Colonel O. H. Kyster, CO, 8th AAA
Officer, 39th AAA Battalion, Langham Colonel L. E. Burgess, commanding
the 312th AAA Brigade, led the Reserve Group has transferred to the G4 section.
Camp. Seventh Army. He was replaced by Col.
Major Leo P. Oliver recently arrived units in training. Other major units in-
cluded: L. J. Hillberg, from Hq, USAREUR.
from Germany to become Brigade Main- A brigade testing team has been
tenance and Supply Officer at Cranwich 316th AAA Group
formed under the command of Lt. Col.
Camp. Lt. Col. T. J. Thorne, Comdg.
J. P. A. Kelly and is busily engaged in
Major Henry W. Andermann, recent- 411 th AAA Gun Battalion
administering the Army Training Test
ly promoted, is Headquarters Comman- Major J. R. Bealle, Comdg. to both brigade units and divisional anti-
dant. 325th AAA AW Battalion aircraft artillery battalions.
Lt. Col. J. E. Nash, Comdg. All battaliou's have completed the nrst
CAMP STEWART, GEORGIA 376th AAA AW Battalion record service practice at the ranges and
Brig. Gen. R. W. Mayo, Commanding Major Albert Simmons, JI., Comdg. are beginning on their second go-around.
Colonel 'V"m. A. Weddell recently ar- 481st A/\A AW Battalion The 67th AAA Gun Battalion, the
rived from Fort Bliss to take over as Lt. Col. W. J. Byford, Comdg. first of our units to be equipped with

38 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
:be ~133 fire control system, is aptly ap- group the 457th AW Battalion, Balti- Tank Training
1lying itself to learning the operation more, under Lt. Col. John Horst, Jr.; The western area of Camp Stewart's
J [his modern equipment. 463rd SP Battalion, Philadelphia, under 280,000 acre reservation has taken a new
.-\11personnel in brigade are now pre- Lt. Col. Jack Oritt; 486th A \V Battalion, look. For the past 15 years the eastern
'\Iring for the inevitable field exercises Richmond, under Lt. Col. Charles C. and central portions of the post have
~nd maneuvers which, like clockwork, Edwards; and 304th Opns Det under been utilized for training antiaircraft ar-
!Illlaround with the ad\'ent of warmer l\lajor S. J. Steinberg. tillervmen while the western reaches
weather. l'v1ore about this aspect of life Colonel Harry \\T. Orth, Wilmington, remained virtually untouched.
.n [he 34th AAA Brigade in the next Del., was the Commandant of the AA & Now this western area is bustling with
J~ue. GM School. Prominent among the in. a new armor activity that could increase
structors were Colonels M. A. Gross and the importance of this already important
FORT MILES, DELAWARE V. P. Lupinacci and Lt. Col. F. E. antiaircraft training center. Recentlyan-
Reiber, Pittsburgh; Lt. Colonels J. E. nounced plans by Brig. Gen. R. \V.
July the Fourth marked the beginning
Cook, \Vashington; Don T. Michael, i\hyo, post commander, call for active
of the active summer training at Fort
Cincinnati; M. G. Stroud, \Vilmington; Third Army Tank units, Resef\'e and
\Iiles and Bethany Beach, Delaware,
Jack Smith, Allentown; and C. YV. National Guard, to conduct annual
for the D, C. National Guard and the
Mebus, Philadelphia. training on this section of Stewart.
Second Army Guard and Reserve AAA
\Vith Colonel Hoehle as the reviewing A "tent city" complete with post ex-
units.
officer and music by the 331st USAR change, movies and television has been
260th AAA Group
band, the Antiaircraft Reserve also pa- erected near the tank training site which
~lajor General \Vm. R. Abendroth raded smartlv in honor of Colonel Mc- is about 25 miles from the main canton-
commanded the District Guard troops Garrauoh t> on'July_ 10th. For the Reserves ment area.
with Colonel Robert F. Cocklin as his Colonel Hoehle presented to Colonel At present the 194th tank battalion is
Chief of Staff. McGarraugh a beautiful plaque com- providing instruction for the 710th tank
Colonel George V. Selwyn, CO, 260th memorating his outstanding contribu- battalion which is a part of the II th Air-
.-\AA Group, DCNG, commanded the tions to Reserve training at Fort Miles . borne Div. from Fort Campbell, Ky.
.\ntiaircraft camp and firing range at
Bethany Beach, Delaware. The major
units included the 340th AAA Gun Bat-
talion, Lt. Col. R. T. Bard, commanding, II L_ET_T_ER_S _TO_TH_E_ED_IT_O_R_II
md the 380th AAA Gun Battalion, Lt.
Col. Andrew G. Conlyn, commanding. To the Editor: at the Artillery Officers' Advanced
Aside from the heavy AAA guns fir- yVe have read with interest the Atomic Courses.
~ing, a highlight of the two weeks was Age article in the May-June 1954 issue We have often discussed writing some
the massed troop parade at Fort i\lliles of the ANTIAIRCRAFTJOURNAL,"Fallacy articles on atomic warfare for the Jour-
I on July 10th honoring Colonel Riley E.
I \IcGarraugh, able Fort Miles command-
of 'lVlassive Retaliation' Threat" by Brig. nal, but we are so deeply involved that
Gen. Thomas R. Phillips, USA Retired. we cannot clearly distinguish what is
er, who retires next month. I certainly hope that all the readers of classified and what isn't. This will prob-
District day on July 14th brought the our Journal take the time to read Gen- ably be a difficult problem for some time
I District commissioners and a host of eral Phillips' article carefully. to come.
VIP's to the camp to observe the bat- As you know, the Department of
teries on the firing range and other I expect to leave here the week-end of
Tactics and Combined Arms here at the II July, shortly after Colonel Frank
3ctivities. School presents instruction on special Miter arrives. I understand that Frank
weapons to various army and artillery will take over my job as Director of the
2nd Army AAA Reserve courses. We are always faced with the Department of Tactics and Combined
Colonel Armand F. Hoehle, CO, problem of providing "take away" ma- Arms. Another item of interest to you
313th AAA Group of Pittsburgh led the terial to the students. \Ve give the stu- is the recent change-over of the respon-
Reserve units into Fort Miles also on dents an element table, the New York sibility for development and instruc-
July 4th and served as the Provisional Times' article on Atomic Age, General tion concerning guided missile tactics.
Brigade Commander. Bradlev's article on Guided Missiles and This responsibility has been transferred
Colonel J. M. Welch, 302nd AAA Atomi~ Warfare, and one or two other from the Department of Guided Missiles
Group of Cincinnati commanded the similar articles. yVe .were successful in to the Department of Tactics and Com-
Ohio troops including the 199th AW obtaining the permission of the Saturday bined Arms as of the 20th of June. This,
Battalion, Cleveland, Major Luke Evening Post to reproduce General Brad- in effect, consolidates all tactics instruc-
Laughner, commanding; 614th Gun Bat- ley's article. I think General Phillips' tion at the School within the one depart-
talion, Columbus, Lt. Col. F. C. Harold, article is just as valuable and I would ment.
commanding and the 30lst Opns Oct, be more appreciative if we could obtain
under Capt. J. M. Alexander, Jr. the Journal's permission to reproduce COL. THOMASW. ACKERT,Director,
Colonel Martin D. Meyers, 326th this article for use as a "hand-out" in Dept. of Tactics and Combined
AM Group of Philadelphia, had in his the Army Special \Veapons Course and Arms AA and GM Branch, T AS.
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 39
the AAA and G1\1 Center have beet

101z.t Bliss 71ews numerous.


Brig. Gen. Earl \\'. Heathcote Was
named to the newly authorized positiot
of Deputy Commanding General.
88th Airborne AAA Battalion
Col. Roy A. Alford is the new Center
Demonstration
G-4, succeeding Lieut. Col. Glenn P
High-ranking Army officers of Cana- Elliott, now attendino o a 0 ouided missP.It
da and 1\lexico and a representative of course in the Antiaircraft and Guide(
General 1\1. B. Ridowayo . were amono0 i\ lissiles Branch of The Artillery School.
spectators who watched an air-drop of i\lajor Michael Halliday, Inspector Gen-
personnel and equipment by the 88th eral, has been re-assioned to duty• in
o
Airborne AAA Battalion and a series of Hawaii.
antiaircraft artillery demonstrations on
Col. Edward L. \\Tilson, Post Quarter.
the Fort Bliss rang~s, 1\lay 27th.
master, has been transferred to the Far
Special guests of Major General S. R. East Command, as have Lieut. Col. H.
Mickelsen for the exhibition were: Lieu- N. Elkins, Finance and Accountino o Of.
tenant General GUY G. Simonds Chief ficer, and Lieut. Col. Robert F. Thorn-

-
of the General St~ff, Canadian' Army, ton, Post Chaplain.
and party; Major General Reinaldo
Col. Loren T. Jenks replaced Col.
Nuncio Gaona, commander of Juarez,
Thornton as Post Chaplain, and Lieu!.
Mexico and party; Brigadier General
Col. Joseph N. Beaver is the new Finance
H. N. Toftov• representino 0 General Rido-
0 and Accounting Officer .
way; and members of the El Paso Cham- Paratroopers of the 88th Airborne AAA
ber of Commerce. Battalion during the airdrop at Dona
Ana Dry Lake Bed at Fort Bliss, May 27. Antiaircraft Artillery Replacement
One hundred and eighty paratroop-
Training Center
ers, led by Lt. Col. E. L. Cormier, com-
mander of the 88th, dropped out of the Five field grade officers were recenth.
skies above Dona Ana Dry Lake Bed to tions on the Dona Ana and Hueco assigned to the AAA RTC: .
show a crowd of 12,000 civilian and ranges. These were sponsored by the Lt. Col. John Barry Beatson, CO, 9th
military spectators how an airborne anti- Antiaircraft and Guided i\lissiles Branch Battalion: Lt. Col. Theodore vVilliam
aircraft unit can land in enemy-held of The Artillery School and were at- Hover, assistant administrative inspec-
territory and set up a defense in a mat- tended by Fort Bliss students and guests. tor; Lt. Col. William H. Peterson, Head-
ter of minutes. It was the largest per- Dramatic illustration of the wayan quarters commandant; Maj. Harry C.
sonnel drop ever held at Fort Bliss. air-ground team can operate in combat Eisenhart, 4th Battalion executive; and
was afforded by Strategic Air Command Maj. Clinton Thomson, motor officer,
Following their smooth descent, in
and Tactical Air Support planes work- Service Battery.
their new T-lO chutes, men of the 88th
Airborne Antiaircraft Battalion from Ft. ing with Army troops in the demonstra- Major Walter K. Sims and Major Jo-
Campbell, Ky., set up their weapons tion at Dona Ana range. Here antiair- seph M. Puszynski departed for duty
and made ready to defend their inland craft artillery supported Infantry in a in the European Command.
"beach head." Landing in the drop zone, simulated attack which was preceded by Transfers within RTC included: Maj.
a C-ln assault plane brought a jeep and air strikes at the "enemy" in front of Patrick L. Klein from assistant S-3,
a .50-caliber quadruple-mount machine the assaulting troops. Headquarters RTC, to executive officer,
gun to aid the men in their simulated Firing demonstrations of light, medi- 5th Battalion, and Maj. John E. Nuwer
defense. um and heavy AAA followed the Infan- from assistant S-3, Headquarters RTC,
The paratroopers were preceded by try-support exhibition. Quadruple-mount to CO, 1st Battalion.
an Air Force combat control group of .50-caliber machine guns, twin AO-mm
fourteen men who jumped to prepare self-propelled guns and towed AO-mm Army Field Forces Board No. 4
the drop area for incoming troops. guns fired against RCAT's. So did the
Lt. Col. James R. Dillon is the new
Six C-119 aircraft from the 463rd Army's new Skysweeper, a .75-milli-
head of the Test Group, Test Facilities
meter weapon.
Troop Carrier \Ving at Ardmore, Okla., Section of Board No.4. He succeeds
brought in the men of the 88th Battalion AA guns, both 90-mm and 120-mm, Lt. Col. Leonard 1\1. Orman, who has
to make their jump. The F-86 Fighter~ were demonstrated in firing at towed been transferred to Aberdeen Proving
which carried out cover missions over sleeve targets up to ranges of 30,000 feet. Ground, Maryland.
the drop area were from the 366th Fight- Lt. Col. Henry M. Clanton, head of
er Bomber \Ving at Alexandria, La. the Heavy AAA Group, AA Service Test
Antiaircraft Artillery and Guided
The Paratroopers' jump, which was Section, has been transferred to the' Far
open to the public, was followed by a Missile Center
East. New head of the Heavy AAA
series of antiaircraft firinoo demonstra- 1\ lajor changes in the pe'rsonnel of Group is Maj. Obaldo Garcia.
40 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
1st Guided Missile Brigade
Personnel changes in the 1st Guided
~lissile Brigade included four field of-
beer losses when package commanders
departed for new duty stations in the
United States. These four officers, all
from the 1st Gi\l Group, were: Lt. Col.
\ntonio H. Manguso, Lt. Col. Lyman
D. Burkett, Maj. Sam L. Davies, and
~Iaj. Austin J. Canning, Jr.
Gains reported by the 1st Group were:
Lr. Col. John J. Guy, assistant execu-
[ire: 1\laj. Edward J. Rumpf, assistant
5-3; and Maj. Harold B. Sloan, Nike
package commander in the Training De-
t.lchment.
In the 2nd GM Group Headquarters,
~Iaj. John T. Elliott, S-4, was trans-
ferred to the 247th FA Battalion, while
~[aj. Thomas E. Selby assumed duties
asassistant S-3. He was transferred from
[he 259th FA Battalion.
The 259th FA Battalion has a new USMA Cadets study the Corporal during their visit to Fort Bliss, June 19-23
executive, Maj. James B. Campbell. He
replaced l\laj. Selby. is commanding officer of the Battalion. Antiaircraft and Guided Missiles
Lt. Col. Richard \i\lalmer of the 5th Major Kenneth V. Deans is executive
Branch The Artillery School
Ordnance Battalion came to the Bat- officer.
tJlion by transfer from Headquarters and Lt. Col. Reuben \V. Mundy has been
Headquarters Detachment, 9th Ord- re-assigned to duty as Assistant Coordi-
USMA Cadets
nance Battalion. nator of Instruction, and Lt. Col. John
Instruction on surface-to-air and sur- B. Parrott is now Chief of Plans Section.
6th AAA Group face-to-surface missiles, as well as on Newcomers to the Coordination of
guided missile propulsion and guidance Instruction Department were: Major
'-Colonel Arthur A. Adams, 6th AAA
systems highlighted two days of inten- James B. Teer, Operations Officer, and
Group commander, has received orders
sive training for 445 United States Mili- Major James G. Barr, Plans Officer.
for duty in the Far East.
tary Academy cadets during their sum-
Colonel Harry B. Cooper, Jr., has Major Barr is a transfer from Nonresi-
mer visit to Fort Bliss.
joined as assistant Group commander. dent Instruction Department, where he
Arriving on Saturday, June .19, the was succeeded by Major Keith G. Ben-
'\Iajor \Villiam J. Johnson has re-
Class of 1955 began its training pro- der as training publications officer.
ported to the 546th AAA Battalion.
gram on Monday, June 21. Lectures and
.\Iajor James Cobb, currently serving Lt. Col. Raymond J. Belardi, former-
demonstrations on guided missile sub-
with MAAG in Formosa, has been as- ly Director of General Subjects Depart-
jects and observance of guided missile
signed to 548th AAA Battalion to join ment, has been transferred to the 59th
training in the 1st Guided Missile Bri-
in mid-September. AAA A\V Battalion as commanding of-
gade occupied the day.
The second day of training was de- ficer.
246th FA Battalion voted to witnessing light, medium and Newcomer to the Department of
Participating in the Army's "Exercise heavy antiaircraft artillery firing on the Guided Missiles is Maj. Fred R. Brown-
Flashburn," April 26-May 6, the 246th Fort Bliss ranges and to further guided yard who has been assigned to duty in
FA 1\Iissile Battalion of Fort Bliss be- missile training. Inclement weather pre- the Tactics and Gunnerv Section.
came the first surface-to-surface guided vented the demonstration at \Vhite
The Department of Gunnery and
missile unit to take part in a full scale Sands.
Materiel has lost Maj. William G. Trigg
atomic field maneuver. The cadets found a full program of transferred to the European Command .
.\lanned by troops of the 246th, Cor- recreation and entertainment available
poral missiles from Fort Bliss demon- during their off-duty hours, including a Lt. Col. Kenneth E. Pell was assigned
Strated the value of long-range weapons trip to Calsbad Caverns, a trip to Juarez, to duty with the medium and heavy
in delivering atomic destruction far be- Mexico, to see the bullfights, dances at antiaircraft artillery and guided missile
hind the enemy lines. the Fort Bliss Officers' Club, and a varied section of the Tactics and Combined
Lieutenant Colonel Paul Gray, Jr., sports schedule. Arms Department of the School.
JUt Y -AUGUST, 1954 41
Awards To Bliss Personnel
DISTINGUISHEDFLYING CROSS
Lt. Robert B. Sumner
1ST A..."'D 21'm OAK LEAF CLUSTERS
To AIR ~IEDAL
Lt. Robert B. Sumner
2ND OAK LEAF CLUSTERTo BRONZE
STAR MEDAL
Capt. Robert \V. ~lartin
BRONZESTARMEDAL
Col. Fredrick Van Atta
Col. Harry B. Cooper, Jr.
Capt. William M. Davis, Jr.
Capt. Garth M. Crosby
Capt. John F. Keams
Lt. Carroll W. Smith \VOJG Robert C. Collins starts rapid promotion as he receives his new bars from i
Lt. Tommy D. IVlarlatt Colonel Arthur Cramer, Director, Electronics Department. Lt. Co!. Henry P.•
Lt. James L. Harrison lVforse, Assistant Director, looks on.
Lt. Ernest A. Tietke
M/Sgt. Orville J. Johnston examination. He passed the examina- on June 21. at which Major Genera;
iVl/Sgt. Charles E. Bunn, Jr. tions successfully last month, and has S. R. J\lickelsen, Commanding Genera! .
M/Sgt. Richard G. Mci\lurphy now received the coveted promotion. of Fort Bliss and ROTC Camp Com .
SFC Carter H. Wright A large number of such promotions mander, welcomed the future officers to
SFC Lonnie F. Mills are being made among electronics experts the post.
SFC Jackie R. Turner now assigned to the guided missile bat- After the General's welcome address.
Sgt. Eddie L. Harmes talions. For many of them that merely Colonel Robert T. Connor, DepUlr
Sgt. Darrell D. Ranum marks a fine start. The field offers Camp Commander, outlined to the ca.
splendid opportunities for higher pro- dets the training schedule for the sum-
COl\Il\lENDATIONRIBBON \VITH
motion in warrant officer and commis- mer camp and emphasized its great scope
METAL PENDANT
sioned officer grades. The cadets' training began the same
iVl/Sgt. Norman G. Brown
day with a trip to the field, where the:
M/Sgt. Alvara P. Moraga
AAA ROTC Summer Camp were instructed in defense against chem
SFC Donald B. Littrell
ical, biological, and radiological warfare
SFC Booker T. Beckwith Opens
attack.
SFC William N. Laack
The 1954 AAA ROTC Summer In the second week the cadets started
SFC Wesley L. Linthicum
Camp opened at Fort Bliss on June 19, their artillery training in the Fort Bliss
SFC Donald J. Saindon
with 757 cadets in attendance. gun parks and the following week moved
A formal opening assembly was held to the firing ranges to fire the AM guns.
Electronics Men Promoted
Typical of the rapid promotion today
in the Artillery for men in the fields of
electronics and guided missiles is that of
Warrant Officer Junior Grade Robert C.
Collins recently from the grade of cor-
poral.
Ten months earlier Cpl. Collins en-
tered the AA & Gi\l Branch of The
Artillery School at Fort Bliss to take a
guided missile specialist course. He had
had no previous experience in elec-
tronics, but he did have a high school
education and he was a worker. Upon
graduation he was assigned to duty in
the Electronics Department. i\leanwhile
vacancies were being established for
more warrant officers in the guided mis-
sile field. He promptly went to work on ROTC cadets from Battery F take gas mask drill during summer training at
his own time to prepare for the required Fort Bliss.
42 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
Armed Forces Day The sleek white Nike, displayed with summer camp at Camp \Vellfleet, J\lass.,
its launcher, was the focus of popular 22 August to 5 September.
[ Two simulated A-bomb explosions,
:he Army's new Nike-guided missile, attention, viewed in its guarded and
Jod the Sky sweeper automatic cannon, roped-{Jff area. The older AAA weapons
"ere stellar attractions, ~Ia~' 15, in the from the quad .5Ckaliber machine guns Safety Firing Switch for Quad
to the l20-millimeter heavy guns also
.
'Jrvest Armed Forces Dav exhibit ever
" '
heldat Fort Bliss. Fifteen thousand spec- drew attention. Fa\'orite in this division
.50 M.G. Mount
was the new Skysweeper, combining 146tlz AAA AW Bn., Michigan NG
:Jtors.it was estimated, thronged to Noel
Field to \,isit 26 different displays of the radar, computer and gun on one carriage.
Those who have had safety trouble in
l'IJuntry's "Power for Peace." Army buses, running on a half-hour target practice on the Quad .50 M.G.
Explosion of a mock A-bomb, of the schedule, carried visitors from the ex- Mount with an improvised wire or cord
:ype used in training troops, sent a hibits on Noel Field to open house in attached to the firing switch will be glad
"OJushroom" cloud high into the sky, the new permanent barracks area, chap' to hear that AFF Board No.4 has recom-
Jod brought a momentary hush to the els, and the troop train stationed on a mended the use of a standard safetv
,i~lllseers. Bliss railroad siding. pendant switch to correct the trouble.
This electrical switch is suitable for all
automatic weapons and for the Sky.
IUHUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIUI 1IIIIIIIlUIIIIIIIIHHIIIIIIIIIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIII1IIllllIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII11111111111111111111111111111111111I1111111 II11nl1111 IIIIIIIIIUIlIIIIlIlIllUUIIIUlllllU
sweeper. The word has been received
that the switch has been approved and
that soon the switch and an adaptor will
be made available for the Quad .50 M.G.
j\lounts.
111111111111I11I11I11I11111nliUMlIIlIIlIlIIlIlIIHlIlIIlIlIIllIllllllU1II 1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIInHI III11I1HIIIIIIIIIUIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII IIIIHIIIUftlntlllllinUll101
One of the first to suggest this correc-
tion was M/Sgt. Maynard E. Doxey,
General Sage Promoted in time to lead it through that campaign now Sg!. Advisor with the 146th AAA
until the surrender on Bataan. Follow- AW Bn., J\ING, Detroit, Michigan. In
J\lajor General Charles G. Sage, Ad-
ing his release as a PO\V, he was pro- 1953, while serving in his wartime re-
jutant General of the State of New Mex-
moted to brigadier general in 1946 and serve grade as Captain with Battery D,
ico and commander of the III th AAA
later relieved from active duty in 1947. 5th AAA AW Battalion, Doxey designed
Brigade, was recently promoted to the
Soon thereafter he was appointed brig- and used such switches in target prac-
grade indicated.
adier general to command the 211 th tice in Germany and submitted for ap-
AAA Brigade, Nl\/ING. During the last proval the plans for the same.
several years General Sage has been a'
prominent national leader in National
Guard Affairs. He also serves now as the Recent Assignments
National Guard member of the Execu- MAJOR GENERAL

tive Council of the U. S. Antiaircra~Hewett, Hobart, to Western Army AAA Com.


Association. mand.
\Var Decorations: DS1\I, BSM, PH; BRIGADIER GENERAL

Presidental Unit Citation with two clu~ Case, Homer, to Walter Reed Arm}'Hospital.
ters.
COLONELS
General Drowne Retires ~dams, Arthur A., to USAFFE.
B'd' GIll R II D /' .#\Ibergotti, J. A., to AA&GM Br., TAS-Bliss.
nga ler enera -. usse rowne/ Alfrey, John, to PMS&T,Tex. Western Col.
former commander of the 300th AAA Anderson, C. A., to Fla. Mil. Dist., Jackson-
Brigade, USAR, New York City, and ville, Fla.
the USAR member of the Executive Bane,J. G., to OCAFF, Ft. Monroe, Va.
C ounci '1, U .. S f\ n t"lalfcra ft A SSOCia. t'
lOn,
Bowers,A. T., to Ft. Totten, N. Y.
I P IW . d ~f 4
. Co e, au ., retIre 31 "' ay 195 .
recently transferred to the Renred Re- Comstock, R. H., to ROTC, Cornell Univ.,
serve on his own application after more N. Y.
General Sage's army service dates back
than 35 vears service. Conell, J. c., to USAREUR.
to vVorld War I, when he enlisted in the
I C o Ione'I J 0h n S . 1\'I
ayer,)t
30- h AAA Couch, F. V. B., to USAFFE.
Duff, C. B., to S&FIndus. Co., Ft. McNair.
ranks and won his commission in the
Field Artillery. Group, New York City, has been elected Edwards, P. W., to Fla. Mil. Dist., Jackson-
to succeed General Drowne on the Asso- ville, Fla.
Serving in the Guard between the
ciation Executive Council. Ellis, W. F., to TAGO-CMD, Pentagon.
Wars, he climbed to command of the Farnsworth, E. E., to OCAFF, Ft. Monroe.
Illth Cavalry, NMNG. With his regi- Colonel Frank L. Lazarus succeeded Gerhardt, H. A., to 19th AAA Gp, Wash.,
ment converted to Antiaircraft in 1940, General Drowne in command of the D. C.
Gibbs, G. G., retired 31 July 1954.
he took the famous 200th Coast Artillery 300th AAA Brigade. The Brigade and its Greenlee, H. R., Jr., to 35th Brig., Ft. Meade.
(AA) to the Philippines late that year subordinate units in New York go to Hanson, C. c., to USAFFE.
JULY-AUGUST, 1954 43
Harwell. M. H .. to Carlisle Bks., Penna. Hart, J. E., to L'SAFFE. Carroll, H. J .. to USAFFE.
~askell, H. G., to G3, Pentagon. Hickey, T. J., to Hq., 4th Army, Ft. Sam {:onerly, U. E., to 758th FA Bn., Ft. Bragg.
Hennessy, H. P., to Fort Myer, Va. Houston, Texas. Cornwell, B. R., to AA&GM Qr., Ft. Bliss.
Hill, C W., to USAREUR. Hutchinson, G. 'IX'., to USAFFE. Crews, D. J., to USAR Adv. Gp., Rock Islane,
Lamer, T. M., to 22nd AAA Gp., Chicago. Jackson, J. M., to XVIII Corps, Ft. Bragg. Illinois.
Linderer, 1. W., to 82nd Abn. Div/Arty. Janowski, R. A., to 18th AAA Gp., Broughton. Default, R. C, to Adv. Cse., Ft. Sill, Okla.
Martin, M. J., retired 31 May 1954. Jeffries, J. C, Jr., to USAFFE. Duke, T. A., Jr., to USARCARIB.
Martin, R. J., to ROTC, Univ. of Cincinnati. Johnson, B. H., to Hq., 2nd Army, Ft. Meade. Elliott, D. E., to 526th AAA Msl. Bn., Fon
Kelley, S. R., to 45th AAA Brigade, Belleville, Hancock, N. J.
McComsey, J. A., to S&F, West Point, N. Y.
Michigan. Fox, Wm. M .• to Ar. Adv. Gp., Pittsburgh, P.
McCormick, G. E., to USAFFE.
Kirby, 1. M., to OCofS, Washington, D. C Gadd, R. G., to Hq., 1st Army, N. Y.
Mellnik, S. M., to 18th AAA Group.
Kravits, James, to USARAL. Gallant, F. J., to USAREUR.
Murray, D. B., to SOth AAA Group.
Krisman, M. J., to 82nd Abn. Div., Ft. Bragg. Gardner, R. V., to USAREUR.
Peca, P. S., to USARCARIB.
Kuziv, Michael, to 38th AAA Bn., Ft. Story, Genero, P. P., to Hq., ArAAC, Ent AFB, Colo
Pryor, R. H.. to AA&GM Br., TAS-Bliss.
Va. Hamilton, R. B., to Hq., ARAACOM, Ent AFB,
Rehkop, Russell, to USAREUR.
Lagasse, F. J., to USAREUR. Hartwell. V. J., to USAFFE.
Rothgeb, C E., retired 30 June 1954.
Leek, C B., to USAREUR. Jacobs, H. J., to 1st GM Brig., Ft. Bliss.
Rumph, R. W., to USAREUR.
Lewis, J. 1., to USMA, West Point, N. Y. Kanof, 1. 1., to USAREUR.
Samuels, Andrew, Jr., to MAAG, Saudi Arabia.
Lonsinger, R. W., to Hq., 2nd Army, Ft. Meade. Kenny, Wm. D., to 326th AAA Det., Ft. To!.
Shaver, M. P., to JAMMAT, Ankara, Turkey.
Lowrie, T. W., Sr., to USAREUR. ten.
Shunk, Peter W., retired 31 July 1954. Malone, A. G., to Hq., 3rd Army, Ft. McPher- King, Randolph, to 2216th ASU, LaCarne, O.
Thompson, M. H., to Hq., 6th Army, Presidio son. Kolesar, A. M., to 531st AAA Bn., S. Dak.
of San Francisco, Calif.
May, Samuel, to USAREUR. Ladner, G. J., to 31st Inf. Div., Cpo Carson.
Thompson. E. A.. to USAR, Adv. Gp., DuBois,
Maynard, J. B., Jr., to 531st AAA Bn., S. D. Kehmann, K. W., to 22nd AAA Gp., Chicago.
Pa.
McCracken, R. J., to 14th AAA Bn., Ft. Myer. Lindsey, R. E., to AA&GM Ctr., Ft. Bliss.
Thompson, M. R., to 56th AAA Brigade.
McFadden, D. B., Jr., to AFF Bd. No.4-Bliss. Malsam, W. R., to 30th AAA Gp., Ft. Barry.
Utke, R. 0., to Field Office, OTIG, Detroit.
McGrath, D. B., to Ariz. NG Instr Gp.-Mesa. Mann, J. H., to USARA1.
Vail, Wm. H., Jr., to 5th AAA Gp., Cpo Han-
ford. McLauchlin, H. H., Jr., to USARA1. Marye, R. V., ]r., to USAREUR.
Vickers, 1. T., to Jt. Air Def. Bd., Ent AFB. Meadham, J. R., to USAREUR. McKinney, W. P.. Jr., to USAREUR.
Ward, E. R. C, to RTC, Ft. Bliss. Meisner, A. E., to USAREUR. Meyer, G. C, ]r., to AAARTC, Ft. Bliss.
Wrean, J. T.. to USAREUR. Moyer, M. G., to USAREUR. Miss, D. C, to USAREUR.
Myers, G. E., to OACofS, Gl, Pentagon. Moore, H. F., to WARAAC, Ft. Baker.
LIEUTENANT COLONELS Olhausen, J. H., to 540th FA Bn., Ft. Bragg. Morles, R. V., to USARA1.
O'Reilly, C A., to USAREUR. Penrod, eM., to USAREUR.
Abbott, A. E.. to USAFFE. Paciorek, S. J., to USAREUR. Peterson, T. W., to USARAL.
Alba, B. M., to USAREUR. Page, B. N., to 606th AAA Bn., Grand Island, Plant, O. M., G-2, Pentagon.
Andrews, C 1., to Hq., 3rd Army. New York.
Powers, R. M., to USAREUR.
Arnold, S. M., to USAFFE. Parker, J. C, to S&E, TAS, Ft. Bliss.
Price, T. A., ]r., to ROTC, Univ. of Chatta.
Banks, eM., to USAREUR. Perry, B. W., to USAREUR. nooga, Tenn.
Barber, J. T .. retired 31 May 1954. Perryman, T. D., to TAC, Ft. Sill, Okla. Ricco, J. A., to Hq., 1st Army, N. Y.
Baron, A. S., to Pres. of San Francisco. ~idgeon, J. J., to USAREUR. Rogers, T. 0., to USAR Adv. Gp., Knoxville.
Bates, J. 1., to USAR Adv. Gp .• Denver. Pratt, F. E., to USAREUR. Smith, 1. A., to USAREUR.
Bendler, F. D., Jr., to USAREUR. Quist, F. F., to USAREUR. Speshock, E. J., to 749th AAA Bn., N. ].
Bigelow, A. E., to OCAFF, Ft. Monroe. Redd, 1. B., to USAREUR. Sprigg, W. H., to USAREUR.
Blue, D. 1., to 563rd FA Bn., Ft. Bragg. Redd, H. M., to USAREUR. Swick, 1. B., to USAREUR.
Bolton. J. C, to USAREUR. Roy, J. W., to USA Element, Allied Forces, Trussell, A. R., to USAREUR.
Bradley, F. X., to USAREUR. Southern Europe, Naples, Italy.
Twining, E. E., to USAREUR.
~rassel, A. 1., to USAFFE. Schuman, F. 1., to Hq., 5th Army, Chicago.
Vaughn,]. E., to AA&GM Br., TAS, Ft. Bliss.
Brown, B. 0., to USAREUR. Shugart, R. T., to USAREUR. Waters, F. D., to Det. 3, 6400 ASU, Portland.
Burt, R. E., to 5th Armd. Div., CpoChaffee. ~tewart, C W., to USAREUR. Oregon.
Cassidy, R. T., to WESTARAAC, Ft. Baker. #" Stewart, J. C, to OCAFF, Ft. Monroe. Weeks, R. 1., to USAREUR.
Chittenden, A. 0., retired 30 June 1954. Tawes, J. P., to AFF Bd. No.4, Ft. Bliss. Wood, Franklin, to Co. A, Stu. Regt., 8622
Clanton, Henry M., to USAFFE. Wainhouse, E. R., to Office, Chief of Psy-War, AAAU, Adv. Course, Ft. Devens, Mass.
Washington, D. C Youngberg, Wm. A., to 1st GM Brig.-Bliss.
Cochran, J. M., to DA Comptroller, Pent.
. Wahlgron, N. C, to USAREUR.
Conelly, R. J., to 8th Inf. Div., CpoCarson.
Wantuck, 1. G., to USAREUR
Cooke, 1. G., to USAFFE. TO ASSOCIATE OFFICERS COURSE, C&GSC
Ward, 1. P., to OACofS, G4, Pentagon.
Cushing, C B., Jr., to USAREUR.
Werner, F. E., to USAREUR. Lieut. Colonels:
Douglas, M. B. to ARAAC, Ent. AFB, Colo.
Wilkins. G. R., to USAREUR.
Ellis, B. J., to 514th AAA Bn., Ft. Banks. Wilmer R. Behrend
Evans, J. T., to 79th AAA Bn, Chicago. Joseph H. Doyle
Fernstrom, C H., to USAREUR. MAJORS Howard F. Ewing
Fitzgerald, E. W., to OCAFF, Ft. Monroe. Aleef, K. G., to USAREUR. Richard M. Gardner
Forman, R. C, to 602nd AAA Battalion. Anderson, G. K., to Cours Pratique de Tiv, Leo F. Horowicz
Fox, E. W., Jr., to USAREUR. anti-aereen. Nimes, Fr. Arthur G. May
Frith, R. F., to Log. Comd., Ft. Bragg. Arnold, E. D., to USAREUR. _ Charles W. Stewart
Fuller, C. W .• to AAARTC, Ft. Bliss, Tex. Bishop, R. C, to USAFFE. Maynard P. Wood
Graham, H. E., to 5th Armd. Div., CpoChaffee..... Bjorkland, F. N., to USAREUR.
Grendlach, P. J., to USAREUR. Bly, S. R., to USAREUR. Majors:
Guth. H. T., to Army Sect., MAAG, Formosa. Boaz, R. A., to Army Sect., US Forces, Azores. Ranson B. Cribbage
Hale, H. R.• to USAFFE. Boiles, D. J., to Adv. Cse., Fort Sill, Okla. Joseph T. Gillen
Hall, R. E., to LTSAFFE. Breitenbach, F. P., to 12th AAA Bn., Miller Lewis C Miller
Harmon, P. A., to USAREeR. Field, S. 1., N. Y. Vincent G. Oberg
Harvey, A. W., to ROTC JSTC, Jacksonville. Carpenter, R. R., to VSAREeR. Frederick 1. Schumm
44 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
---
~::::::::::============================:-; A SOLDIER'S RECORD. By Field Mar-
shal Albert Kesselring. William Mor-
row & Co., 1954. 381 Pages; illus-
trated; Maps; Index; $5.00.

Reviewed by
?ARATROOPER. By Lt. Col. Francis X. planes which carry the trooper into bat-
Sradley and Lt. Col. H. Glen Wood. tle. on the equipment he uses in battle, MAJ. GEN. AARONBRADSHAW
!he Military Service Publishing Com- on aerial supply and airborne doctrine,
pany, 1954. 96 pages. Illustrated; on the risks of jumping and the camara- This is the intimate story, frankly
derie of life in the airborne. The action told, of a distinguished German soldier
53.50.
shots of American airborne units in ac- who kept his sense of balance during
Reviewed by
tion in Africa, Europe, and the Pacific many critical years. He was a great sol-
LIEUT. GENERAL L. L. LEMNITZER dier who had the character and integrity
in World \-Var II and in Korea add a
GS, Dpy CIS for Plans and Research to be great, both in victory and defeat.
grim note to a generally lighthearted
Paratrooper captures in picture and treatment of an airborne soldier's life In 1936 Kesselring was made Chief of
:extthe spirit of the American Paratroop- and will arouse twinges of nostalgia in Staff of the Luftwaffe. But he later had
er. It highlights by means of many ex- many a veteran trooper. disagreements with Milch (Secretary of
cellent photographs the story of the State and Deputy to Goering in the
The text that accompanies the pictures
U. S. Army's airborne soldier-his train- Ministry). As a result, he asked for and
is clear and brief and to the point. In
ing,his history, his traditions-all done was given a field command. This was a
terse, straightforward language touched
\lith skill and warmth by two outstand- very important step in Kesselring's ca-
with humor and insight the authors de-
ingairborne officers. This book will be reer as it gave him an opportunity to ex-
scribe what it means to sweat out a jump,
ofabsorbing interest to the airborne vet- ercise command and also placed him in
show the almost indescribable feelinaI:> of
eranof \-Vorld \-Var II and Korea as well a position where he was immediately
exhilaration that accompanies the open-
as to the young trooper just finishing available to take a large air command
ing shock of the parachute, or explain
jump school, and will prove a great at- when hostilities commenced.
the purpose of our modern airborne
~rraction to the family and friends of It is particularly interesting to read the
equipment. Each caption is written so
thosewho wear the parachute badge. Field Marshal's comments with respect
as to be fully intelligible to the non-
Parachute jumping is an inherently to the attitude and the actions of the
military reader, and techniCal language
dramatic subject and offers many oppor- Russians along the German-Russian bod-
is held to the minimum-features which
tunities for eye-catching photographs. der after the Polish campaign. He says
make this book an excellent gift and
The authors have done an excellent job the Russian fighters fired on German air-
souvenir for the folks back home. Of
of selecting striking and informative craft; they showed little friendliness even
special interest to readers of the ANTIAIR-
~shotsaround which to weave a picture to the point of withholding necessary
CRAFT JOURNAL is the fact that the
history of the airborne. In fact, this is weather reports. In other words, the Rus-
authors, Colonel Bradley and Colonel
probablythe finest collection of airborne sians have a "form," and they run true
Wood, both served as antiaircraft artil-
photographs ever published in one handy to form at all times.
lery officers during \-\Torld War II. They
rolume.
have done an excellent job of capturing The Field Marshal pays a great deal
Beginning with the volunteer report-
the essence of what gives a paratrooper of attention to an explanation of the
ing to jump school, the first section of
his esprit de corps and aggressiveness and bombing of Rotterdam. In his explana-
the book carries the would-be trooper
what makes our airborne units such tion, a failure of certain communications
through the various phases of his train-
splendid fighting organizations. at important moments is brought out.
ing. The physical toughening exercises
Paratrooper fully lives up to its prom- All in all, his story is convincing and if
andthe mental hazards of the mock tow-
ise in the opening paragraph to tell you accept the premise Kesselring was an
er and the 250 foot tower are demon-
"the story of a man, a rugged fighting honorable general, you may accept his
strated in pictures which are artistically
man-the most modernly equipped, fast- statement as being the picture as he
~xcellent as well as being exciting and
est moving, hardest hitting soldier in the saw it.
mformative. Finallv, the climax of the
airborne training, ;he jump itself, and world." This is a book which once The Battle of Britain is not given
thetriumphant moment when the wings opened will keep you browsing until much space in the book. It was a failure
each page is thoroughly explored. In the and he discusses the various facets of the
~e pinned on are effectively depicted
In word and picture.
process you will understand and admire battle to make it clear that there were
After this introduction to airborne life our American soldiers who jump to fight, reasons for the failure. He points out that
Paratrooper ranges in an orderly se: and will comprehend something of the Goering initially wanted air warfare
qUenceover subjects which explain the rugged life and great accomplishments banned by international law, and he
appeal and adventure of airborne service which give them their fierce pride. These makes the argument that the air raids on
and the proud traditions which have pages will also help explain why the Na- open cities were first flown by the RAF.
already been established in less than fif- tion can place such great confidence in One of the interesting things about
teen years. There are sections on the the U. S. Army and the fighting men Kesselring is that he apparently thinks
history of famous airborne units, on the who compose it. in terms of all three services, Army,

JULY-AUGUST, 1954 45
~avy and Air, having in mind the im- against Eisenhower). situation was 55 German divisions ill'
portance of balanced forces and co- Once a landing was made at Salerno, various states of depletion opposed IG
ordinated offensives-something a great Kesselring gave his attention to his with- 85 Allied divisions. The Luftwaffe ill
many people think about but not many dra\val up the boot with stands at the the west was not under his immediate
practice. better topographical lines. At the same command, but operated from a high
Throughout the story of the various time he had to set up an Italian gm'ern- command in the rear. The enemy Was
campaigns, Kesselring mentions that Hit- ment, and as it finally worked out Kes- not only superior in numbers and ma-
ler greatly underrated the importance of selring feels it would have been simpler teriel but much superior in the air.
the Mediterranean Theater possibilities; to have fought the war in Italy without OKW must have been in desperalt
in fact, Kesselring often points out the any Italian government. straits because all the additional strength
great importance he placed on that area. The Field Marshal goes into some de- they could turn over to Kesselring was
The author stresses the great impor- tail in discussing the battle along the one "full division!" However, Kesselring
tance of the capture of Malta in order Cassino line and he rightly concludes did not expect any sudden collapse. He
to strangle the Allied line of communica- that it was a German success. Consider- apparently was dumbfounded when the
tions through the Mediterranean. On ing the relative forces involved, he can Americans crossed the Rhine at Oppen-
the other hand, there was Rommel and take much satisfaction in this determined heim, as he had warned his army com-
OKW backers who felt that Egypt was fight by the Germans. mander of the possibility of that attempt.
the target. At any rate, Kesselring did The Field Marshal makes a good case This crossing left the way to Frankfurt
put an air attack on Malta which he says for fighting the battle for Italy. His open and permitted the decisive blow at
was completely successful and that a principal point is that with the battle Aschaffenberg, 27-28 March, to take
landing could have been made there on not fought as it was, the heart of Ger- place. Following that, there was a cross.
10 May, and it was a grave mistake not many would have been seriously threat- ing by the French of the lower Rhine.
to have made such a landing. In fact, ened by the capture of the Brenner Pass With the Rhine breached in the north,
he feels that Italy should have taken area. the center and the south, the story from
Malta at the outset of the war. At the The Field Marshal's comments on the then on is one of constant reverses. Dur-
time Kesselring got started in the North partisan war in Italy are written quite ing his attempts to re-form in the midst
African campaign in early 1942, Rom- feelingly. He refers to it as guerrilla war- of such reverses, Kesselring even gave
mel had just had some success and fare and to indicate more clearly its thought to a counterattack on Patton's
wanted to go on to Cairo, saying he could implications he states that their strength left flank!
make it in ten days. So Malta was was between 200,000 and 300,000 men When it came time to surrender, Kes-
shelved in favor of Cairo. Kesselring toward the end of the war. He gives a selring's last thoughts were for his troops.
feels that was a decisive action. very good description of the partisan or- He thanked them and asked them to
The Field Marshal's estimate of the ganization and in well-selected words conduct themselves properly.
situation as given in his book (regardless describes the nature of their operations It is difficult in this short review to try
of what he may have actually estimated including the professionally trained re- to describe Kesselring's feelings at the
it in 1942) is a very fine bit of G2 work. connaissance group at one extreme, and final moments of surrender; a most dif.
However, Hitler and his Wehrmacht the riffraff of murderers and robbers at ficult time for his human emotions.
operation staff (1) never gave sufficient the other end.
The charges on which Kesselring was
importance to the Mediterranean Thea- There is no escaping Kesselring's in- tried, the new rules of international law
ter, and (2) misjudged the objective of tention to place part of the blame for that were applied ex post facto, the lack
the Allies' invasion (North Africa). Kes- what he calls "a violation of all the rules of attention to the accused's rights or the
selring makes two comments that are of law" on the Allied high command and sentence itself can give little satisfaction
interesting: he says Montgomery "played on the Italian government of General to anyone connected therewith. It is a
for safety," and was methodical; he also Badoglio. matter that might well be made a study
says Rommel should have been removed The Field Marshal describes in some for joint understanding by statesmen and
because of the disharmony that existed detail the steps he took and had to take defense officials, for in the future if the
between Rommel and the Italians. as a commander of a force from the men in arms are to be held responsible
Kesselring states his strategic objective theater of war to protect his men from to the new rules followed in the courts
was to keep Eisenhower's armies separate this guerrilla warfare, and he says, "Un- of Niirnberg and some of the other post.
from Montgomery's. His problems were less one wanted to commit suicide, he war trials, there is only one place for
many and most difficult and even with had to reverse his natural feelings." It the American soldier to be, and that is
complete cooperation and resources he would be profitable to military men of on the winning side. Particularly im-
would have had a job on his hands. But countries who may get into civilized portant is the new rule under which a
during this important campaign Kessel- war in the future to read his chapter on soldier must be responsible for the politi-
ring surprisingly enough complains that this very distasteful and critical part of cal orders of his government and must
Rommel was dispirited and his heart was his service. decide when to follow them and when
not in the job, and there was a certain The transfer of Kesselring to Com- to oppose them! In other words, when
pig-headedness on the part of both Rom- mander-in-Chief, West, came rather sud- does he disobey an order given by his
mel (who was opposite Montgomery) denly, having been precipitated by the government, and when does he carry it
and von Arnim (who held the front fall of Remagen. Kesselring's immediate out? Kesselring's discussion of this whole

46 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAL
subject of the trials and the legal statns of private fortune to avoid field service offers unusually great rewards to the
of an officer is very well done. Or per- in the colonial conflicts and border wars military reader.-LmuT. COL.JOlIN B. B.
haps all the above may be pure theory, which occurred. Such a system led to TRUSSELL. JR.
sincethe Communists follow no cidlized the selection of top commanders who, if
rules of war or court trials. courageous, were hopelessly incompetent FROM THE DANUBE TO THE YALU. By
It might be well to close this review when they finally went into action in a General Mark Clark. Harper & Bros.
with an extract from his closing pages, full-Hedged war. 369 Pages. $5.00.
J statement in regard to himself wherein In one sense, The Reason Why is dis- This is General Clark's personal story
he walks out at the end of the book with appointing. No effort is made to examine of his years of experience with the com-
his head held high and a philosophical the Crimean War as a stage in the de- munists. His two years in Austria served
attitude towards life. "The condemna- velopment of warfare as a whole. Such to alert him to the coldblooded, persist-
tion by Pharisees cannot touch a man analysis would be of particular interest, ent, calculating, and eternal struggle
who has or has had some self-respect. especially by way of comparison with which the Kremlin directs toward world
;\lv life has been rich because it was the American Civil War, which began subjugation. That is background. This
filledwith work and cares and responsi- only five years later. However, the au- book is devoted to General Clark's ex-
bilities. It was not my doing that it had thor does present a clear picture of what perience in the Far East. He writes of
to end in suffering, but if in this situa- happens to an army which, while strong the main stream of events, which he
tion I can and may still be something in discipline and drill, is lacking in understands well and discusses in pun-
to my comrades, if men of standing are competent and understanding leader- gent manner.
still glad to have a talk with me, this is ship and cursed with inept staff work, The theme of his story: "I believe
a great grace." especially in the field of logistics. we could have obtained better truce
THE REASON WHY. By Cecil Wood- Undoubtedly, the lessons of the Cri- terms quicker, shortened the war and
ham-Smith. New York: McGraw-Hili mean War had a great impact upon the saved lives if we had got tough faster."
BookCompany, Inc. 287 pages. $4.00. British Army, as the author points out, And now we could add "and stayed
and very likely upon European armies tough, period."
While few American soldiers are fa- as well. The statement that it resulted The book includes an excellent story
I miliar with the Crimean War, it would
in sweeping reforms in the United States of the incredible events in the POW
be difficult to find a war which, in its Army's system for procuring and pro- compounds on Koje incident to the kid-
negative examples, is more instructive. moting officers, organizing and operat- napping of General Dodd. But like
Therefore, the author of The Reason ing administrative services, and provid- others, he fails to stress that General
Why has performed a service of real ing higher level training is not based on Dodd and other local POW authorities
value in producing a book which is so any knowledge of American military de- simply did not have anything like ade-
interesting and well written that it is velopment. The fact is that the first quate force for the job.
bound to reach a wide audience and American Army service school-the Ar- General Clark's complaint that he was
thereby focus attention upon an un- tillery School of Instruction at Fort Mon- denied the logical military step of bomb-
deservedly ignored episode. roe-antedated the Crimean War by ing Chinese targets beyond the Yalu is
The Reason Why, however, is not more than thirty years. The American the same as was MacArthur's, perhaps
primarily about the Crimean War. Es- system of procuring potential officers less pointed, even if far more generally
sentially, it is a biographical study of from the country at large, with regard accepted now as the perspective clears.
the two men, the Earls of Lucan and both to geography and socio-economic His comments throw some light on the
Cardigan, through whose mutual an- standing, had been formally in opera- study of the proper relationship between
tipathy and psychological deficiencies tion since the establishment of West the military and the civil authorities, and
the tragic Charge of the Light Brigade Point in 1802. True, the American Army therefore has particular interest in its
ultimately took place. Through the story had many deficiencies, but they were bearing on the current trend toward
ofthe lives of these two, the British Army not the same as those of the British closer civil control of the Armed Forces.
of the first half of the last century is as- Service. General Clark is frank enough about
sessed, and the fallacies of its adminis- his troubles with ROK President Syng-
The army of any nation, of course, is
tration and organization are brought into man Rhee. He found this venerable and
a reflection of the social pattern of that
clear focus. wily politician a complicated sum of
nation. Thus, in a Britain in which vir-
The basic fault was the concept of tually all positions of influence and re- violent hatred for anything Japanese,
maintaining the officer corps of what distaste for communism-both under-
sponsibility were reserved for the aristoc-
I were considered the "best" regiments-. standable enough-self-aggrandizement,
racy, the Army was aristocratic as well
the units which provided virtu,ally the solicitude for his na~ive land, and pure
as well as hierarchical. It is as an exami-
only route to senior rank and higher guile.
nation of the military aspects of that In the agonizing period during which
command-as the exclusive preserves of
the aristocracy. The direct consequence social pattern that The Reason Why is efforts were being made to arrive at an
was the system of promotion by pur- of such interest. This is an aspect of armistice with the Reds, says Clark, "like
chase, used not only to permit rapid ad- military study which has been less thor- a lighted fuse sputtering toward the
vancement for the well-ta-do but also, oughly examined than it deserves. In powder barrel, President Syngman Rhee
quite shamelessly, as a means for officers the light of that fact, The Reason Why threatened to wreck any. armistice we
JUt Y-AUGUST, 1954 47
signed. And he very nearly did so when into a sort of mopping-up operation, like ion during the period, 1915 to 1951-
he ordered his ROK army to release Arab women and pariahs cleaning up They typify the efforts of the resolUlt
27,000 Korean prisoners in the U. N. after a battle." leader and politician in a practical world,
compounds." To us Rhee's action was * * * * yet one guided by lofty purpose and in-
quite logical. Mr. Shields traces the development of spired with hope.
And finally Clark's solution for occu- the army rifle continually in comparison
pation in Korea is to get out. Then he THE AIRCRAFT OF THE WORLD. By
with the hunter's firearms, in which he
would have us carry out our obligations Wm. Green and Gerald Pollinger.
stresses his idea that the huntsman was
to our friends in Korea by the threat of Random House. $5.95.
usually far ahead. He also amazes us
Massive Retaliation. Which leads us to when he tells of a number of im- Over 1000 superb illustrations. Every
doubt that the author has yet worked out provements having been introduced by aircraft in Hight today, with specifica-
the solution for the .very vital problem obscure gunsmiths entirely unaware of tions and performance data. For students
we have in Korea and South East Asia. the importance of their contribution. in airc:aft recognition and trends in de-
It will take more than the atom bomb. This work is attractively presented sign.
with liberal use of sketches and with en-
gaging stories to provide clear perspective THE FUNDAMENTALS OF WORLD
FROM FLINTLOCK TO M 1. By Joseph
of the Army tactics and the life of the PEACE. By A. Hamer Hall. Philo-
W. Shields, Jr. Coward-McCann, Inc. sophical Library. 112 pages; $3.00.
period.
220 pages. $7.50.
A thoughtful and historical study by
The author sketches in the develop- FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT: THE OR- an author and student of the principles
ment of the U. S. Army rifle from the DEAL. By Frank Freidel. Little Brown. of peace and government.
erratic U. S. Flintlock Musket, Model 320 Pages; $6.00.
THE RECAPTUREOF GUAM. By Ma.
1795 of the Revolution down to the M1
This is the second volume of a pro- jor O. R. Lodge, U.S.M.C. Presented
of today. This he does in a very readable
jected six-volume life of the late Presi- by the Historical Branch, G-3, Head.
manner and on the illuminating and
dent. The first volume, The Apprentice- quarters United States Marine Corps,
fascinating background of the history of
ship, brought us through World War 1. 214 pages and excellent maps.
our country and its Army. He manages
The Ordeal covers those years from the The twelfth in a series of operational
to put the soldier's basic weapon and
end of his career as assistant Secretary monographs presented by the U.S.M.C.
the basic soldier back of the weapon in
of the Navy till his election as Governor to provide an accurate and detailed ac-
perspective.
of New York in 1928. count,
* * * * This includes his 1920 campaign as
the Vice Presidential candidate with AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONAL CUS.
"And yet, A-bomb or no A-bomb, the
Cox; the brief career on Wall Street; TOM: A FORGOTTEN FACTOR IN THE
rifleman is the keystone about which
the beginning of polio; the concentra- FOUNDING. By Burleigh Cushing Rod.
all military operations are constructed.
tion on the cure; and all the while his ick. Philosophical Library. 244 pages.
Every large-caliber weapon is designed
dealings with party leaders and bosses $4.75.
to support him, and similar enemy weap-
and his build-up as a national figure in
ons are directed towards killing him. U. S. ARMY IN WW II: European Thea.
Democratic circles. All culminating in
Why, then, should a dwarf be the target ter of Operations; Logistical Support
his spectacular election as Governor.
of a battle among giants?" of the Armies, Volume 1. By Roland
It is an authoritative and sympathetic
G. Ruppenthal. U. S. Government
* * * * study, well documented and in delight-
Printing Office. 616 pages. $4.50.
''The limits of an entire nation's power ful narrative. But it is far from hero
are delineated, not by how far its bomb- worship; along with the triumph of ASIA AND WESTERN DOMINANCE.
genius, we get to see the other side, too. By K. M. Panikkar. John Day Pub.
ers penetrate, nor by where its guided
missiles land, but by where its infantry- We also see some choice bits of F.D.R.'s Co., New York. 530 pages. $7.50.
men are. Not until a rifleman plants private correspondence.-C.S.H.
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF WORLD
his G.!. boots on a piece of soil and be-
REBIRTHAND DESTINY OF ISRAEL.By PEACE. By Hamer Hall. Philosophical
gins to dig in do we hold that piece of
David Ben Gurion. Philosophical Li- Library. 112 pages. $3.00.
ground."
brary. 539 pages. $10. NUCLEAR PHYSICS. By W. Heisen-
"The drift of the matter is that rifle The author has recently laid down the berg. Philosophical Library. 539
development is an incalculably important reins of office as the Prime Minister of pages. $4.75.
military issue even today, and since those Israel and retired. For years he has per-
CLIMATE, VEGETATION & MAN. By
armed with it do most of the dying, their sonified the Jewish struggle for inde-
Leonard Hadlow, B.A. Philosophical
need for the newest and best weapon pendence and a homeland.
Library. 288 pages.
hardly seems excessive. The rifle is not The book is no autobiography nor is
a combat relic, despite the idea, which it a connected narrative of the struggle. .THE NEMESIS OF POWER. By J. W.
periodically becomes accepted as dogma, for Israel. Rather it is a collection of the Wheeler-Bennett. St. Martins PresS.
that ground fighting will soon dwindle addresses and essays of David Ben Gur- 829 pages. $12.00.

48 ANTIAIRCRAFT JOURNAl
UNITED STATES ARMY
THE CHIEF OF STAFF

TO THE MEMBERS OF THE UNITED STATES ARTILLERY

On behalf of your fellow soldiers, I extend congratulations to the members of


the Artillery on the occasion of the 179th anniversary of the establishment of your
arm as a basic element of the United States Army.

As the only part of the Army with an unbroken record of active service from
the Revolution to the present, the Artillery may justly take pride in a long and
honorable tradition. Its gallant actions against enemies on ground, on sea, and in
air are brilliant parts of the splendid history of the United States Army.

The valor, the competence, and the devotion to duty which have characterized
the United States Artillery during all the years since its establishment assure the
quality of its performance in any trials ahead.

1\1. B. RIDGWAY

General, United States Army


Chief of Staff

HONOR ROLL
Continued from cover 2

512th AAA Det Opns


738th AAA Gun Bn 951st AAA Gun Bn Calif.
It. Col. M. C. Johnson Copt. T. E. Amlong
It. Col. J. B. Lindemon
739th AAA Gun Bn 51 3th AAA Det Opns
Operations Detachments Maj. R. G. Tippet, Jr.
Moj. R. D. Fobes
514th AAA Det Opns
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Copt. P. E. Brumley
Col. K. S. Groy Maj. J. Sweryda
517th AAA Det Opns
747th AAA Gun Bn Mass. 114th AAA Det Opns Dela.
Copt. R. W. Monroe
Lt. Col. J. F. Kone Moj. G. F. Kelley, Jr.
131st AAA Det Opns S. C. 525th AAA Det Opns
d5 AAA Gun Bn

l£ Col. D. T. Chapmon
53rd AAA Gun Bn
Lt. Col. B. H. Johnson
764th AAA Gun Bn
Maj. W. C. Fore
1 51st AAA Det Opns Penn
Moj. F. J. Slivka
177th AAA Det Opns
Copt. J. J. Niehoff
JOURNAL
Maj. l. D. Fournier

HONOR ROLL CRITERIA


I. Brigades, groups, battalions and other units of
It. Col. E. D. Winsteod 184th AAA Det Opns Calif. comparable size with 80% subscribers among the
865th AAA AW Bn SP Capt. M. C. Teschendorl officers assigned (exclude Medicos, Chaplains, and
Moj. F. R. Whiteheod 327th AAA Det Opns
Moj. W. R. Webster
those on DS) are eligible for listing.
870th AAA Bn N. Y.
Moj. J. T. Blow 501st AAA Det Opns 2. To qualify or to requalify for a listing on the
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JOURNAL Honor Roll, units submit the names of
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950th AAA AW Bn Ga. 509th AAA Det Opns 3. Units remain on the Honor Roll for one year
Lt. Col. J. P. Wallis Maj. J. P. Bodkin after qualification or requalification.
TODAY'S
MILITARY PROBLEMS
Demand

To advance you must keep abreast of the


times-and the requirements get tougher
every day.

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