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LABORATORY

MANUAL
SAI-LB-00 Rev01
ISSUE DATE: 15th Feb 2007

Executive Director & COO ____________________

Management Representative

Management Representative
Controlled Copy No. HO/SERVER/ISO DOCUMENTS/LB

SAI Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd


SAI House, Satyam Corporate Square, B/H Rajpath Club, Bodekdev,
Ahmedabad-380059, Gujarat, India. Ph. No. 079-66142600/2700, Fax No.
079-66142800,web site: www.saiindia.com ,Email: mail@saiindia.com

1
LABORATORY MANUAL

INDEX

Document No Contents Page No


SAI-LM-1.0 Activity Flow Chart 3
SAI-LM-2.0 Procedure for Laboratory 4
SAI-LM-3.0 Standard list of Laboratory Equipment 5
SAI-LM-4.0 List of IRC/IS codes required 6
SAI-LM-5.0 Master List Calibrated Equipment 8
SAI-LM-6.0 List of test to be carried out for various 9
materials
SAI-LM-7.0 Sieve Analysis 10
SAI-LM-8.0 Atterbergs limit 12
SAI-LM-9.0 Determination of Water Content 14
SAI-LM-10.0 California Bearing Ratio 16
SAI-LM-11.0 Direct Shear 20
SAI-LM-12.0 Specific Gravity 22
SAI-LM-13.0 Modified Proctor 23
SAI-LM-14.0 Field Density by Core Cutter 24
SAI-LM-15.0 Field Density by Sand Replacement Method 25
SAI-LM-16.0 Water Absorption 27
SAI-LM-17.0 Aggregate Impact Value 29
SAI-LM-18.0 Aggregate Crushing Value 30
SAI-LM-19.0 Gradation Test 31
SAI-LM-20.0 Flakiness Test 32
SAI-LM-21.0 Elongation Test 33
SAI-LM-22.0 Aggregate Stripping Value 34
SAI-LM-23.0 Determination of Gradation / Sand Content 35
Formats Annexure -I 36 onwards

2
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-1.0
Activity Flow Chart Rev. No. : 00
Date :15.02.2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

FLOW CHART FOR MATERIAL TEST

Collection of sample from local transport office


Identify the source
Scrutinize the test result
Verify the collected sample with the List/Proper storage of sample
Approach to the source

Number the sample with respect to location and project


Collect detail regarding access road to the source
Interpretation of the test result
Preparation of sample for test by coning and quartering
Estimate the available resources with quality process

Work out the lead distance to the project road Equipment used is checked for its REPORT PREPARATION
performance/validity of calibration
FULFILLING THE
Prepare drawing for location of available resources
REQUIREMENT
Test the sample as per respective code
Collect the representative sample procedure

Label the sample

Sample transport to office

Laboratory Manual

3
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-02
Procedure of Laboratory Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Procedure:
1. HOD-Material Testing shall identify the requirement of carrying out required tests for
the incoming material and by giving a proper label/identification no to the individual
test sample and enter in the incoming material register.(Register No 1)
2. Upon Identification Lab assistant shall organised to perform required test by following
applicable test procedure by using lab technician and records of such observations shall
be recorded in the appropriate register and maintained in laboratory which is mentioned
as below.
Sieve Analysis (Wet & Dry) Register No 2
Liquid Limit ,Plastic Limit & Plasticity index Register No 3
Heavy Compaction -Proctor (MDD & OMC) Register No 4
CBR Register No 5
Direct Shear Register No 6
Silt Content Register No 7
Aggregate Impact Value Register No 8
Specific Gravity & Water Absorption (for aggregate) Register No 9
Specific Gravity & Water Absorption (for Sand) Register No 9A
Flakiness & Elongation Index Register No 10
Soundness of Aggregate Register No 11
Stripping Value Register No 12
Fineness Modulus Register No 13
3. All the test records shall be entered in the under given formats for data entry and
calculation in the soft coy formats which is defined in Annexure-I. All completed filled
records needs to be filled by lab assistant and shall be checked and verified on screen
by material engineer. Upon completion of the tested soil sample needs to be segregated
at defined place for storage.
4. All test results shall in incorporated in the required report preparation of project based
on the requirement and by following SAI-QPM-7.3MT Rev01 and shall be recorded in
Soft Copy. Back up of all completed records of the project shall be stored in server.
5. All the reports pertaining to the Project requirement based on ToR shall be compiled by
HOD- Material testing by using his entire team

Laboratory Manual

4
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-03
Standard list of Laboratory Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Equipment Page : 1 OF 1

Standard List of Laboratory Equipment

Sr No. Name of Equipment No. of units


1. Sieves for Grain Size Analysis 1 Set
2. Direct Shear Apparatus 1 No.
3. Casagrande Liquid Device and Cone Penetrometer Apparatus 1 No.
4. Equipment and Accessories for Modified Heavy Compaction Test 1 Set
5. CBR Loading Frame with Other Accessories 1 No.
6. Electric Oven 1 No.
7. CBR Mould 12 Nos.
8 Pycnometer Bottle 1 No.
9. Wire Basket 1 No.
10. Metal Gauge for Flakiness and Elongation 1 No.
11. Impact Test Apparatus 1 No.
12. Riffle Sample Divider 1 No.
13. Sand Jar Apparatus 1 No.
14. Electronic Balance-10 Kg Capacity 1 No.
15. Electronic Balance-300 gm Capacity 1 No.

Laboratory Manual

5
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-04
List of IRC/IS codes required Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 3

List of IRC/IS codes required in Library

Publication
Title
MoRT&H Specification of Road and bridge work by Ministry of
Specification Road, Transport & Highway, 3rd Edition 2000.
IRC SP : 11 Hand book for construction of roads & runways
IRC SP : 21 Standard Specification and code of Practice for road
1987 bridges
IRC SP : 16 Choice of Bituminous Primer
IRC SP : 36 Wet Mix Macadam

IS No. Name

3025 1964 Quality of Water


2430-1986 Method of Sampling
4905-1968 Randomness of Selection
2410-1986 Sampling Scoop
2720-Part 2 1973 Determination of water content
2720 Part 4 Grain size analysis
2720 Part 5 Determination of liquid and plastic limit
2720 Part 7 Determination of water content / dry density relation using
light compaction.

Laboratory Manual

6
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-04
List of IRC/IS codes required Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 2 OF 3

IS No. Name

Determination of water content / dry density relation using


2720 Part 8
heavy compaction.
2720 Part 16 Laboratory determination of CBR
2720 Part 28 Determination of field dry density by sand replacement
method
1498 1979 Plan showing location of borrow area
2386 Part 1 Flakiness and Elongation index
2386 Part 2 Crushing strength
2386 Part 3 Specific gravity
2386 Part 4 Los Angeles Abrasion value, Impact Value
2386 Part 5 Soundness test
IS : 1201-1978 Methods for testing Tar and Bituminous Materials
Sampling
IS : 1202 Determination of Specific Gravity
IS : 1203 Determination of Penetration
IS : 1204 Determination of residue of Specified Penetration
IS : 1205 Determination of Softening Point
IS : 1206 (Part 3) Kinematic Viscosity
IS : 1208 Determination of Ductility
IS : 1209 Determination of Flash Point and Fire Point
IS : 1786-1985 Steel Reinforcement

Laboratory Manual

7
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-05
Master List of Calibrated Equipment Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

RECORD OF CALIBRATION OF EQUIPMENT HO/RO: __________ Department:_______________ Dated:___________

Sr. Name of Equipment Equipment Date of calibration Calibration agency Frequency of Calibration
No. I.D. No. Last Due Internal External calibration Certificate

Note: frequencies are indicative. In case of intermediate deviations or repairs, immediate calibration shall be undertaken.

Laboratory Manual

8
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-06
List of test to be carried out for Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual various materials Page : 1 OF 1

Sr No. Material List of Tests


1. Soil 1.Sieve analysis
2.Atterbergs Limit
3.Determination of Water Content
4.California Bearing Ratio
5.Direct Shear
6.Specific Gravity
7.Modified Proctor
8.Field density by core cutter and sand replacement
2. Coarse Aggregate 1.Water Absorption
2.Impact Value
3.Gradation test
4.Flakiness & Elongation test
5.Aggregate stripping value
6.Determination of Water absorption
3. Fine Aggregate 1. Gradation test
2. Determination of Water absorption

Laboratory Manual
9
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-07
Sieve Analysis Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 2

Name of Test : Sieve Analysis of Soil

I S No. : IS 2720 Part 4

Objective : To find out percentage of Gravel, Sand, Silt and Clay in soil
mass

Signification : Grain size distribution analysis expresses quantitatively the


proportions by mass of the various sizes of particles present in
the soil.

Apparatus : a Balance
b. IS 100mm, 75mm, 19mm, 4.75mm, 2.00mm, 0.425mm,
0.075mm sieve
c. Rubber pestle and mortar
d. Thermostatically controlled Oven
Procedure :

A. Analysis by Dry Sieve

i. Take 60kg to 1kg of dried soil sample according to maximum particle size`.
ii. Sieve the soil sample through the sieves 100mm, 75mm, 19mm and 4.75mm
successively.
iii. Shake each sieve separately over a clean tray until not more than a trace passes.
iv. Brush lighting on the sieves to prevent blocking of the apertures.
v. The weight of the material retailed on each sieve shall be recorded.

Laboratory Manual

10
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-07
Sieve Analysis Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 2 OF 2

B. Analysis by Wet Sieve

i. Take 500gms to 200gms of oven dried soil sample passing 4.75mm I.S. sieve.
ii. Soak sample in water (solution prepared with 2gm Sodium Hexametaphosphate/litre)
for 24 hour.
iii. Wash the soil sample through 75 micron sieve till clean water comes.
iv. Dry the fraction retained on 75 micron sieve in Oven at 105 C to 110 C.
v. Pass the Oven dried sample through 2mm and 425micron sieve.

Finding : Sample passing 75mm and retained on 4.75mm is Gravel Sample


passing 4.75mm and retained on 75mm is Sand Sample passing
75micron is Silt and Clay.

Observation Table :

I.S. Sieve Size Weight of soil Individual % of Cumulative % % of passing


retained on soil retained on of soil retained
each Sieve each Sieve
(gm)

Utility : To determine the percentage of Gravel, Sand, Silt and Clay and
thereby classification of soil.

Laboratory Manual
11
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-08
Atterbergs limit Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 2

Name of Test : Atterberg's Limits

IS No. : IS 2720 (Part 5)

Objective : To find Plasticity Index of soil

Significance : Liquid limit and Plasticity Indexes are two important properties
for the identification and classification of fine-grained soil.

Definition : i. Liquid limit may be defined as the minimum water content at


which the soil will flow under the application of very small
shearing force.
ii. Plastic limit may be defined as the minimum moisture
content at which the soil remains in a plastic state.
iii. Plasticity index is defined as the numerical difference
between liquid and plastic limit.
iv. Plasticity is a property for clayey soils which may be
explained as the ability to undergo changes in shape without
rupture.
Apparatus : i. Cone Penetrometer.
ii. Spatula .
iii. Evaporating dish.
iv. Balance.
iii. Oven.
iv. Grounded glass plate.
v. Nickle Crucible Container.

Laboratory Manual

12
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-08
Atterbergs limit Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 2 OF 2

Procedure :
For Liquid Limit Test
i. Take 425 micron passing sieve soil sample of about 120 to 150 gm.
ii. Soak it in distilled water for 24 hours
iii. Make a paste of soil specimen with help of spatula by adding necessary water and put
the sample in Cone Penetrometer. Adjust the moisture in the soil specimen such that
Penetration reading in range of 20mm to 30mm is obtained after allowing 5 second
time for penetration Take the representative of that sample in Nickle crucible and keep
in Oven at 105 to 110 C to find the moisture content.

Calculate Liquid Limit by using formula:

WL= W + 0.01 (25- ) (W +15)


WL= Liquid Limit
= Penetration
W = Moisture content of soil

For Plastic Limit Test:

Roll the same sample with palm at the rate of 80 to 90 stroke/minute on grounded glass till the
threads of 3mm starts crumbling. Take the representative sample of crumbled threads in Nickle
crucible and keep in Oven at 105 to 110 C to determine the moisture content which indicates
Plastic limit (WP) of sample.

Utility : To know the cohesive nature of soil. The plasticity index of soil
depends on clay fraction present in soil

Laboratory Manual
13
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-09
Determination of Water Content Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 2

Name of Test : Determination of Water content -Dry Density relation using


heavy compaction
I S No : I S 2720 ( Part 8 )
Objectives : To find out moisture content at which the maximum dry density
attains.
Apparatus :

(a) Cylindrical mould of 100mm dia; 1000cm volume/ 150mm dia; 2250cm volume
(b) Metal rammer of 4.90kg weight of 450mm fall
(c) Balance (1) 10kg capacity with 1gm accuracy (2) 200gm capacity with 0.01gm
accuracy
(d) Thermostatically controlled Oven
(e) Sieve 4.75mm, 19mm and 37.5mm
(f) Mixing tools, Spatula, Sample Extractor, Steel Edge 30cm long, Container

Procedure:
(A) Compaction in small size mould of 100mm dia 1000cm

(a) Take 5kg soil sample passing 19mm IS sieve


(b) Mix the soil sample with suitable amount of water
(c) Fill the soil of approximately equal mass in five layers in mould
(d) Each layer be compacted with 25 blows by 4.9kg rammer drop height of 450 mm
(e) Remove the collar and trim off the surplus soil
(f) Weigh the mould to nearest to 1gm, calculate bulk density and determine the moisture
content
(g) Repeat the procedure with addition of 2% to 3% more water up to the estimated value
of O.M.C.

Laboratory Manual

14
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-09
Determination of Water Content Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 2 OF 2

(B) Compaction in large size mould of 150mm dia 2250cm

(a) Take 10 to 12kg soil sample passing 37.5mm IS sieve


(b) Mix the soil sample with suitable amount of water
(c) Fill the soil of approximately equal mass in five layers in mould
(d) Each layer be compacted with 55 blows by 4.9kg rammer drop height of 450 mm.
(e) Remove the collar and trim off the surplus soil.
(f) Weigh the mould to nearest to 1gm, calculate bulk density and determine the moisture
content
(g) Repeat the procedure with addition of 2% to 3% more water up to the estimated value
of O.M.C.

(C) Calculation:

(a) Calculate the Bulk density, Moisture content and Dry density
(b) Draw the graph of Dry Density v/s Moisture content
(c) Locate the apex position of curve to determine Dry Density and Optimum Moisture
content

Utility : (1) To know the degree of compaction that can be achieved in


field.
(2) To cast the sample for other test like CBR and Shear Strength
at MDD and OMC

Laboratory Manual

15
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-10
California Bearing Ratio Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 4

Name of Test : California Bearing Ratio (CBR)


I.S.No. : IS 2720 Part 16
Objectives : For evaluating sub-grade strength for design of road pavement
Significance : The CBR value of soil gives index of its strength
Definition : California Bearing Ratio (CBR) expressed in percentage of force
per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with a circular
plunger of 50mm diameter at the rate of 1.25mm/minute to that
required for corresponding penetration in a standard material

Apparatus : i Moulds with base plate, stay rod, wing nut, Collar, Spacer
disc.
ii Loading machine : With a capacity of at least 5000 kg and
equipped with a movable head or base which enables the
plunger to penetrate into the specimen at a deformation rate
of 1.25mm/minute.
iii Metal Rammer, Expansion measuring apparatus, Annular
weight 2.5kg and 5kg, 50mm dia. Penetration Plunger.
vi Two no. of Dial Gauges 0.01mm with 25mm travel rod.
vii. Calibrated Proving ring of 2000kg capacity.
viii Mixing bowl, Straight edge, Scales, Soakings tank, Oven,
Filter paper, Dishes and Calibrated measuring jar, 4.75mm
and 19mm IS sieve.
Preparation of Test Specimen for Remolded Sample
i. Take soil sample passing through 19mm IS sieve.
ii. Soil shall be taken for desired density and mixed thoroughly with water equal to
optimum moisture content/field moisture content.

Laboratory Manual

16
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-10
California Bearing Ratio Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 2 OF 4

iii. Mix the soil sample with water thoroughly.


iv. Clamp the mould with extension collar attached to the base plate.
v. Place the disc of coarse filter paper on the top of the spacer disc
vi. The soil water mixture shall be compacted in to the mould
vii. Any hole that may then develop on the surface of the compacted soil by the removal of
coarse material ,shall be patched with smaller size material
viii. Remove the perforated base plate and spacer disc
ix. Find the mass of the mould and compacted soil
x. Place the coarse filter paper on the perforated base plate, the mould and the compacted
soil shall be inverted and the perforated base plate clamped to the mould with the
compacted soil in contact with the filter paper.
xi. Soak the remoulded sample in curing tank for 96 hours

Procedure for Compaction :

a. The mould of 1000 cm capacity with base plate attached shall be weighed to the
nearest 1 gm.
b. Place the mould on the solid base.
c. Compact the moist soil in 5 layers of approximately equal mass, each layer should be
given 25 blows from the 4.9 kg rammer dropped from a height of 450mm above the
soil
d. The extension removed and the compacted soil shall be leveled off carefully to the top
of the mould by means of straight edge
e. Weigh the mould with soil
f. Determine the moisture content of moist sample

Laboratory Manual

17
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-10
California Bearing Ratio Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 3 OF 4

Procedure :
i Remove the specimen from curing tank and allow to drain downward for 15 minute.
Keep the mould containing the specimen with the base plate on the lower plate of test
machine
ii Place the surcharge weight sufficient to produce an intensity of loading equal to the
weight of the base material and pavement on the specimen.
iii Place the 2.5 kg annular weight on the soil surface to prevent upheaval of soil in the
hole of surcharge weight prior to seating the penetration plunger after which the
remainder of the surcharge weights shall be placed.
iv. Apply the initial load of 4 kg to get effective contact between the specimen and the
plunger.
iv. Set the load and deformation gauges to zero.
v. Apply the load at the rate of 1.25mm per minute
vi. Note down the reading of the load at penetrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 4.0, 5.0, 7.5,
10.00 and 12.5mm.
vii. Raise the plunger and detach the mould from the loading equipment
viii. Find moisture content of specimen.

Load Penetration Curve :

i. Plot the load penetration curve


ii Due to surface irregularity, if the initial portion of the curve is convex downward, a
correction is to be applied by drawing a tangent to the point of greatest slope end then
transposing the axis of the load so that zero penetration is taken as the point where the
tangent cuts the axis of penetration.
vi. The corrected load penetration curve would then consists of the tangent from the new
origin to the point of tangency on the re-sited curve and then the curve it self.

Laboratory Manual

18
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-10
California Bearing Ratio Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 4 OF 4

California Bearing Ratio = ( Ptx100) / Ps


Where
Pt = Corrected unit (or total) test load corresponding to the chosen penetration from the
load penetration curve
Ps = Unit (or total) Standard load (kg/cm)/ Total standard load (kg) equal to 70/1370
and 105/2055 for 2.50mm and 5.00mm penetration respectively.

Utility : For computing the crust thickness for pavement.

Laboratory Manual

19
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-11
Direct Shear Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 2

Name of Test : Direct Shear


I.S.No. : 2720 (Part 13)
Objective : To find the Cohesion (c) and Angle of shearing resistance ()
Apparatus : Loading Frame, Shear Box Assembly, Weights, Proving Ring,
Dial Gauges, Stop-Clock. Sample Cutter, Constant Volume
Mould.

Procedure :

Consolidated Undrained Test

(A) Preparation of Specimen 60mm x 60mm x 25mm size in 4 cake

Undisturbed - Direct from Core Cutter


Remoulded - Mould at required Density and Moisture content

(B) Transfer the shear box with specimen, perforated grid plates and porous stone into
loading frame.
(C) Apply the normal load(0.5kg/cm) and allow the specimen to consolidate.
(D) Apply the horizontal shear load at the constant rate of 1.25mm/minute till the failure of
specimen or 20% longitudinal displacement. Record the shear load reading
corresponding to longitudinal displacement at regular displacement interval.
(E) Repeat the procedure for different specimen at different normal load at 1kg/cm,
2kg/cm and 3kg/cm

Laboratory Manual

20
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-11
Direct Shear Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 2 OF 2

Calculation :

Calculate shear stress by dividing shear load with corrected cross-sectional area of all
observation. Plot the graph of applied normal stress as abscissa v/s maximum shearing stress as
ordinate. The angle which the resulting straight line makes with the horizontal axis and
intercept which the straight line makes with the vertical axis shall be reported as the angle of
shearing resistance () and Cohesion (c) intercept respectively.

Utility : For designing the foundation of structures, earth and earth


retaining structures, embankment earth slope.

Laboratory Manual

21
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-12
Specific Gravity Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Determination of specific gravity

Ref. : IS 2720 (PART III - SEC I), 1980

Purpose : To find out specific gravity of sample.

Salient features of apparatus:

(a) Pycnometer bottle

(b) Conical brass cap and washer


Procedure:

(a) Clean Pycnometer and dry it.

(b) Find the mass (M1) of Pycnometer, brass cap and washer.

(c) Take about 500 g of oven-dried sample and put it in Pycnometer.

(d) Find the mass of Pycnometer filled with oven-dried sample (M2).

(e) Fill Pycnometer to half its height with distilled water and mix it thoroughly with
a glass rod.

(f) Add more water and stir it.

(g) Replace the screw top and fill Pycnometer flush with the hole in the conical cap.
Dry Pycnometer from outside and find the mass (M3).

(h) Empty Pycnometer, clean it thoroughly and fill it with distilled water up to the
hole of the conical cap and find the mass (M4).

Calculation:
M2 - M1
Specific Gravity (G) =
(M2 - M1) - (M3 - M4)

Laboratory Manual

22
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-13
Modified Proctor Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Dry density using proctor apparatus

Ref. : IS 2720 (PART VII) 1965, IS 9198 - 1979


Purpose : To find out moisture- density relationship of soil .
Salient features of apparatus :
(a) Mould for compaction: Diameter : 100 mm
Height : 127.3 mm
(b) Rammer : Diameter : 50 mm
Length : 310 mm
Weight : 2.60 kg + 25 g (light)
4.90 kg + 50 g (heavy)
Procedure :
(a) Weigh 5 kg of air-dried soil sample.
(b) Add 10% water less than estimated optimum moisture content (O.M.C.)
in the soil.
(c) Keep in airtight container for 16 hours.
(d) Fill the soil in mould in three layers.
(e) Each layer should be compacted with 25 blows with the help of rammer
dropped from height 310mm (light) / 450 mm (heavy).
(f) Remove the collar and trim off the surplus soil.
(g) Weigh the mould and calculate bulk density.
(h) Repeat the procedure with addition of 2% more water up to the
estimated value of O.M.C.
(i) Calculate dry density and draw a curve showing the relationship
between moisture content and dry density.
(j) Mark the points of maximum dry density (M.D.D.) and O.M.C. on the
curve.

Laboratory Manual

23
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-14
Field Density by Core Cutter Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Dry Density By Core Cutter Method


Ref. : IS 2720 (PART XXIX), 1975
Purpose : To find out the dry density of compacted soil in field.
Salient Features Of Apparatus :
(a) Dolly : Inner Diameter : 100 mm
Outer Diameter : 115 mm
Height : 25 mm
(b) Cutter : Inner Diameter : 100 mm
Outer Diameter : 106 mm
Height : 130 mm
(c) Rammer : Length : 900mm
Diameter : 140mm
Procedure :
(a) Find the volume in cm3 and weight of the cutter in gm.
(b) Expose about 30 cm2 of ground area and level it.
(c) Put the dolly on the top of the core cutter and drive assembly into the
soil with the help of the rammer until top of the dolly protrudes about
1.5 cm above the surface. Detach the core cutter from the surrounding
soil.
(c) Trim flat end of the cutter.
(d) Keep some representative specimen of soil for moisture content
determination.
(g) Find out dry density by using the following formula:
b

DRY DENSITY d = ------------


1+
Where: b = Bulk Density
= Moisture Content

Laboratory Manual
24
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-15
Field Density by Sand Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Replacement Method Page : 1 OF 2

Field Density by Sand Replacement Method

Ref : IS 2720 Part 28

Purpose : To determine field density of soils containing coarse grained


particles
Apparatus : i. Sand pouring cylinder
ii. Metal tray with hole
iii. Tools for leveling and excavating
iv. Container
v. Calibrating container
vi. Plane surface i.e. A glass for Perspex plate
vii. Balance
viii. Sand: Dry and clean test sand of uniform gradation, passing
1.0mm and retained on 0.6mm

Procedure : Calibration of Apparatus

i. Clean and dry test sand passing 1.0mm sieve and retained on
0.6mm sieve is collected in sufficient quantity (about 15 kg)
ii. Remove the top cap of sand pouring cylinder and close the shutter
iii. Fill the cylinder with dry test sand up to about 10mm from the top
and the cap is replaced
iv. Weight of the cylinder with the sand is determined W1
v. Place the sand pouring cylinder over the calibration cylinder, open
the shutter and allow the sand to flow in to the calibration cylinder
and close the shutter
vi. Place the sand pouring cylinder on a clean plane surface (glass or
Perspex plate)
vii. Open the shutter and keep it open till the sand fill up core fully and
there is no visible moment of sand as seen from the top of the
cylinder by removing the cap.
viii. Close the shutter remove the cylinder
ix. Weigh sand which occupied the cone (W2gm)
x. Refill the sand pouring cylinder find the weight w1
xi. Place the cylinder centrally on top of the calibrating container and
open the shutter
xii. When the sand fills up the calibrating container and cone
completely and there is no movement of sand, close the shutter

Laboratory Manual
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SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-15
Field Density by Sand Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Replacement Method Page : 2 OF 2

xiii. Find the weight of sand pouring cylinder and remaining sand
(W3gm)
xiv. Repeat the above procedure 3 times and determine mean values of
W2 and W3
xv. Find the weight of the sand required to fill the calibrating container
up the top level
xvi. Find the volume of the calibrating container (v) b measuring the
internal dimensions (diameter and weight) or by filling with water
and weighting
xvii. From the weight of the sand Wa and its volume V in the calibrating
container determine the density of sand.

Measurement of field density

i. The site where the field density is to be conducted is cleaned and leveled using a
scraper for an area of about 450mm square
ii. The metal tray with Central hole is placed on the prepared surface
iii. Using this central hole as pattern the soil/material is excavated using a trowel up to a
depth of 150mm
iv. Remove the loose material and collect it carefully in a metal container
v. Find the weight of metal container with soil W
vi. The sand pouring cylinder is refilled with sand such that its weight W1
vii. The metal tray with central hole is removed and the sand pouring cylinder is placed
centrally over the excavated hole
viii. The shutter is opened till the sand fills the excavated hole and the cone completely and
there is no further movement of sand in the cylinder
ix. The shutter is closed and the cylinder is weighted W4 gm
x. Find the weight of sand filling the excavated hole alone Wb
xi. Find the moisture content of the soil

Laboratory Manual
26
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-16
Water Absorption Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 2

Determination of Water Absorption of Aggregates

Ref : IS 2386 Part 3


Purpose : To determine the water absorption by aggregates
Significance : Water absorption gives an idea of strength of rock. stones having more
water absorption are more porous in nature and considered as unsuitable.
Apparatus : i A balance of capacity about 3 kg to weight accurate to
0.5gm and of such a type and shape so as to permit weigh of
sample container when suspended in water
ii. Thermostatically controlled oven to maintain temp of 100c to
110c
iii. A wire basket of not more than 6.3mm mesh
iv. Container for filling water and suspending the basket
v. An air tight container of capacity similar to that of the basket
vi. A shallow tray and two dry absorbent clothes each not less than
75 cm to 45 cm

Procedure : i. Take about 2 kg of sample


ii. Wash the sample in wire basket and in distilled water at a
temperature between 22c and 32c so that a cover of at least
5cm of water above the top of the basket
iii. Place the drained sample in wire basket and immerse in distilled
water at a temperature between 22c and 32c so that a cover of
at least 5 cm of water above the top of the basket
iv. Immediately after immersion the entrapped is removed from the
sample by lifting the basket containing it 25mm above the base
of the tank and allowing to drop 25 times at the rate of above one
drop per second
v. Keep the basket and the aggregate completely immersed in water
for a period of 24+1/2 hours
vi. Weigh the basket and sample while suspended in water at temp
of 22c to 32c (w1g)
vii. Remove the basket and aggregate from water and allowed to
drain for a few minutes
viii. Transfer the aggregate to one of the dry absorbent clothes
ix. The empty basket is then returned to the of water jolted 25 times
and weighted in water (w2g)

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Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-16
Water Absorption Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 2 OF 2

x. Aggregates placed on the absorbent clothes are surface dried till


no further moisture could be removed by this
xi. Transfer the aggregates to another dry cloth and spread them in
layer
xii. Cover the aggregates and allow them to dry for at least 10
minutes until the aggregates are completely surface dry
xiii. The surface dried aggregates is then weighted (w3g)
xiv. Place the aggregate in a shallow tray and keep the tray in oven
maintained at temp of 100c for 24 hours
xv. It is then removed from the oven, in an air tight container and
weighted (w4)

Observation Table
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3
1. Wt. Of saturated aggregates
suspended in water with the
basket w1 g
2. Wt. Of basket suspended in
water w2 g
3. Wt of saturated aggregate in
water (W1-W2) = W2 g
4. Wt of Saturated surface dry
aggregate in W3 g
5. Wt. Of oven dried aggregates
(W4 g)

Calculation
Water absorption = Percent by weight of water absorption in terms of oven dried weight of
aggregates
(W3 - W4) x 100 / W4
Limit:
1% to 2% for Road Surfacing. Up to 4% for base course. Less than 0.6% is desirable for
bituminous construction. Maximum water absorption allowed 10% as per IRC

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SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-17
Aggregate Impact Value Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Aggregate impact value

Ref. : IS 2386 (PART IV), 1963


Purpose : To determine the aggregate impact value.
Preparation of test sample:
(a) Take a sample of aggregate passing through 12.5 mm is. sieve and
retained on a 10 mm sieve.
(b) Dry the aggregate sample in an oven for a period of four hours at a
temperature of 100oC to 110oC and then cool it.
(c) Fill the measure in three layers and tamp each layer by 25 strokes of
tamping rod.
(d) Determine net weight of aggregate (A) in the measure.
Test procedure:
(a) Place the test sample in the cup.
(b) Compact the sample by subjecting it to 25 strokes with a tamping rod.
(c) Compact the sample by subjecting it to 15 blows of hammer at an
interval of not less than one second. raise the hammer 380 mm above the
upper surface of the aggregate and allow it to fall freely on to the
aggregate.
(d) Remove the crushed aggregate from the cup.
(e) Sieve the aggregate on the 2.36 mm sieve.
(f) Sieve the aggregate passing through sieve (B).
(g) Weigh the aggregate retained on the sieve (C).
(h) Discard the result if the total weight (B + C) is less than the initial
weight (A) and make a fresh test sample. Repeat the test twice.
Calculation:
B
Aggregate Impact Value (%) = x 100
A

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29
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-18
Aggregate Crushing Value Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Aggregate Crushing Value

Ref. : IS 2386 (PART IV)


Purpose : To determine crushing value of aggregate.
Significance : The aggregate crushing value gives relative measure of the
resistance to crush under a gradually applied compressive load.
Definition: It is defined as the ratio of the weight of fines to the total sample weight
expressed as a percent when tested as per the IS procedure.
Apparatus: Steel cylinder with open ends, cylindrical measure, Steel-tamping rod,
Balance, Compression testing machine
Preparation of Sample:
(a) Take a sample of about 6.5 kg aggregate for 150 mm diameter cylinder
and 1 kg for 75 mm diameter cylinder, passing through 12.5 mm and
retained on 10 mm sieve for 20 mm down aggregate & passing through
6.3 mm sieve and retained on 4.75 mm sieve for 10 mm down aggregate,
to provide two test samples.
(b) Dry the aggregate at the temperature of 100oC to 110oC and then cool at
room temperature.
(c) Fill up the cylindrical measure in three equal depth layers by tamping
each layer 25 times by tamping rod.
(d) Take weight (A) of aggregate sample.
Procedure:
(a) Add the test sample in three layers. Compact each layer by 25 strokes of
tamping rod.
(b) Level the surface of the aggregate and insert the plunger.
(c) Place the apparatus with the test sample and plunger in position between
the platens of the testing machine.
(d) Apply uniform load, so that load is reached in 10 minutes.
The total load shall be 40 tones for 20 mm down aggregate and 10 tones
for 10 mm down aggregate.
(e) Release the load and remove the whole material from the cylinder.
(f) Sieve the material on 2.36-mm sieve for 20 mm down aggregate and on
1.18-mm sieve for 10 mm down aggregate.
(g) Take weight (B) of material passing through is. 2.36 mm sieve for 20
mm down aggregate and 1.18 mm sieve for 10 mm down aggregate.
Calculation:

AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE (%) = (B / A) x 100

NOTE: IN ALL THESE OPERATIONS TAKE CARE TO AVOID LOSS OF THE FINES.
MAKE TWO SETS.

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SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-19
Gradation Test Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Determination of Gradation
(Sieve Analysis retained on 4.75mm IS Sieve)

Ref : IS 2720 Part 4

Purpose : To find out Gradation of Sample

Significance : Grain size distribution analysis expresses quantitatively the proportions


by mass of the various sizes of particles present in the soil.

Apparatus : A. Balance

B. Sieves 100mm IS sieve, 75mm IS sieve, 19mm IS sieve and


4.75mm IS sieve

C. Rubber pestle and mortar

Procedure :
a) The soil sample collected from the field shall be prepared

b) Take about 60 kgs of soil sample

c) Sieve the soil sample through the sieves 100mm, 75mm, 19mm and

4.75mm Successively

e) Shake each sieve separately over a clean tray until not more than a
trace passes Brush lighting on the sieves to present blocking of the
apertures

f) The weight of the material retailed on each sieve shall be recorded

Observation Table
I.S. Sieve Size WT of soil Individual % of Cumulative % % of passing
retained on soil retained on of soil retained
each sieve (gm) each sieve

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SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-20
Flakiness Test Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Flakiness Index

Ref : IS 2386 (part-1)


Purpose : To determine the Flakiness index of the coarse aggregate.
Significance : Coarse aggregate having more flaky particles will adversely affect the
strength of concrete.
Definition: The flakiness index of the aggregate is the percentage by Weight of
particles in it, whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three-fifth
of their mean dimension.
Apparatus : Balance, Metal Gauge, and Sieves Set
Procedure :
a) Take a sample of about 3 Kg.
b) Divide the sample into four quadrants.
c) Select two opposite quadrants and sieve them through the sieves
arranged in the following order 63 mm, 50 mm, 40 mm, 31.5 mm, 25
mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5 mm, 10 mm, 6.3 mm.
d) Take the aggregate sample sieved through 63 mm and retained on 50
mm sieve. Find the weight W1 gm.
e) Pass that sample through 63-50 mm size of thickness gauge.
f) Find the weight of the aggregate passing through the respective slot (i.e.
through 63 50 mm) of the gauge w1 gm
g) Repeat the same procedure with 50-40 mm, 40 25mm, 31.5 -25 mm,
25-20 mm, 20-16 mm, 16-12.5 mm, 10-6.3 mm, and size of the
thickness gauge.
Observation table (As per clause 4.5 & Table V of IS 2386 Part I)
Size of aggregate (I.S Individual weight (W) Weight of aggregate (w)
sieve) retained between sieves (gm) passing through respective
slot of the gauge (gm)
63 mm- 50 mm W1 = w1 =
50 mm- 40 mm W2 = w2 =
40 mm- 25 mm W3 = w3 =
31.5 mm- 25 mm W4 = w4 =
25 mm-20 mm W5 = w5 =
20 mm-16 mm W6 = w6 =
16 mm-12.5 mm W7 = w7 =
12.5 mm- 10 mm W8 = w8 =
10.0 mm- 6.3 mm W9 = w9 =
Calculation :
(w1+w2+w3+).
Flakiness Index = ------------------------------- X 100
( W1+ W2+ W3+ )

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SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-21
Elongation Test Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/02/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Laboratory Manual
33
SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-22
Aggregate Stripping Value Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/2/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Determination of Stripping Value of Road Aggregate

Ref : IS 6241
Propose : This test is conducted to determine the effect of moisture upon the
adhesion of the bituminous film to the surface provides of aggregates
Signature : This test is of significant value to suitability of the two materials i.e.
bitumen and aggregates
Apparatus : 1. Thermostatically controlled water bath
2. Breakers of capacity 500 ml

Procedure : 1. Obtain the material that passes through 25mm sieve and is
restrained on 12.5mm sieve
2. Dry, clean and heat the binder and aggregate to 150-175c and
120-150c respectively and mix with 5% binder by weight of
aggregate
3. After complete coating, allow the mixture to cool at room
temperature in clean dry beaker
4. Add distilled water to immerge the coated aggregates
5. Cover the beaker and keep it undisturbed in thermostatic water
bath at a temperature of 40c for a period of 24 hours
6. Estimate the extent of stripping by visual examination while the
specimen is still under water and expressed as the average
percent area of aggregate surface UN coated

Precautions : i. The aggregates should be thoroughly dried before mixing with


binder.
ii. Distilled water should be used for the test
iii. Mix up the two separate samples should be uniform

Observation Table :
Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3

Average Stripping Value = %

Limits : Maximum Stripping Value 25%

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SAI Consulting
Engineers Pvt .Ltd. Doc. No. : SAI-LM-23
Gradation test Rev. No. : 00
Date : 15/2/2007
Laboratory Manual Page : 1 OF 1

Determination of Gradation / Sand Content

(Sieve analysis of soil passing through 4.75mm IS sieve and retained on 75 micron IS sieve)

Ref : IS 2720 Part 4

Purpose : To find out Gradation of sample

Signification : Grain size distribution analyses express quantitatively the proportion


by mass of the various sizes of particles present in the soil

Apparatus : a. Balance
b. IS Sieves 2mm IS sieve, 425 micron IS sieve and 75 micron
c. Oven
d. Trays
e. Brushes
f. Mortar with a rubber covered pestle
g. Riffler

Reagent : Sodium Hexa meta phosphate

Procedure :
a) The soil sample collected from the field shall be prepared as follows
d) Take 200 gms of soil sample passing through 4.75mm IS sieve and shall be oven dried
at 105oc to 110oc
c) The Soil is spread out in the large tray and covered with water
d) Two grams of hexameta phosphate per litre of water is added to soil
e) The mix should be thoroughly stirred and left for soaking
f) The soil soaked specimen should be washed thoroughly over the nest of sieves
2mm, 425 micron and 75 micron IS sieves
g) Washing shall be continued until the water passing each sieve is substantially clean.
h) The fraction retained on each sieve should be emptied carefully without any loss of
material in separate trays. Oven dry those samples at 105oc to 110oc and each
fraction weighted separately and masses are recorded

Observation Table

I.S. Sieve Size Wt. Of soil Individual % of Cumulative % Percent Finer


retained on soil retained on of soil retained
each sieve each sieve

Laboratory Manual
35
Annexure -I

36

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