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Balancing and

Diagnostic Systems

Welcome to the seminar:

Basics of vibration technology


– Measurement & Analysis

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Lecturer : Roland Kewitsch

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Diagnostic Systems

Vibration analysis increases knowledge

Provides necessary information for:

Evaluation of machine condition

Recognition of on-going machine damage symptoms

Identification of the cause and the damaged components

Prognosis of remaining service life

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Machine damage in a power station

Total destruction of a
generator

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Rolling-element bearing damage

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Diagnosis methods
Vibration measurement and analysis

Displacement, expansion and


process value measurement

Temperature, speed and phase measurement

Lubricant analysis
(e.g. spectroscope, ferroscope, radionuclide)

Optical examination
(e.g. endoscope, microscope)

Non-destructive testing
(e.g. ultra-sound, X-rays)

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Vibration Measurement in the past (& still today)

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Diagnosis methods

Diagnosis
by
vibration measurement

Overall
methods

Machine
assessment using
Overall measurements

=
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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Diagnosis methods

Diagnosis
by
vibration measurement

Analytical methods
Overall
methods

Dynamic
Machine Fault identification
behaviour
assessment using using frequency
analysis
Overall measurements analysis
measurements

With self-excitation With external


methods excitation methods

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Measuring machine condition


in the past

The first portable vibration


measuring instrument from
the Schenck company

Demonstrated at an exhibition
in Leipzig / Germany in 1925

Schenck was founded in 1881

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Modern machine diagnosis

Measuring machine
condition with a
modern measuring
Instrument
(VT-60)

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Measurement types for mechanical


vibrations
Vibration displacement „s“ in µm or mil
= deviation of measured point
from rest position

Vibration velocity „v“ in mm/s or ips


= velocity with which measured
point moves about rest position

Vibration acceleration „a“ in m/s2 or g


= acceleration with which measured
point moves about rest position

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Characteristics of composite vibrations

• Narrow-band examination
- Extraction into harmonic components
(e.g. using a frequency analyser or tracking filters)

• Broad-band examination
- Through a summing formation in a defined frequency
range (e.g. 10 …. 1,000 Hz)

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Amplitude data for vibration measurement

so = speak = sm
Saverage srms = seff
speak-peak = spp
t

su = speak = sm

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Composite vibrations
X
f

X
2f

+ t

f + 2f

= t

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Vibration in Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain


x
x
t
f
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
x
x
t

f
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
x
x
t

f
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1116
Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Influence of integration - Practice


Vibration velocity spectrum

Vibration acceleration
spectrum

Vibration displacement spectrum 17


Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Selecting the measurement type


Vibration displacement:
Machines with speeds under approx. 600 rpm (10 Hz)

Structural vibrations or

Relative motions (shaft vibrations) in journal bearing


machines of any speed

Vibration velocity:
Vibrations in machines with speeds above 600 rpm
(10 … 1,000 Hz)

Vibration acceleration:
Vibrations with frequencies of interest above 2,000 Hz

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Vibration types in machines

Rotor

Relative Absolute
shaft vibrations bearing vibrations

Bearing casing

Foundation

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Measuring Absolute Bearing Vibration

General rules:

Measurement points should be


exactly defined and clearly marked

Measuring points should be


flat, clean and free of grease

Loose paint and rusted surfaces


should be cleaned or avoided

Sensor must sit securely and not


wobble

Sensor and cable should not move


during measurement
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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Acceleration sensors

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Vibration velocity sensors

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Diagnostic Systems

Measuring Relative Shaft Vibration

45° 45°
A B

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Eddy-current sensors

Discrete type:

Sensor with integral cable

Calibrated extension cable

Separate converter (oscillator)

Note:
Cable lengths may not be
altered!

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Eddy-current sensors

Integrated type:
Sensor with built-in
oscillator and extension
cable

Advice:
Cable can be extended
up to 1,000m in length
Use in temperatures
above 110°C is not
possible

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Machine assessment using the Trend

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Machine assessment acc. to Standards and Guidelines

A number of important Standards and Guidelines for


rotating masses have been replaced during the last
years by:
DIN ISO 10816, parts 1 to 6 (absolute bearing vibrations) and

DIN ISO 7919, parts 1 to 5 (relative shaft vibrations)

Reciprocating machines, including compressors, can


be assessed according to
DIN ISO 10816-6 (Reciprocating machines with > 100 kW)

DIN ISO 8528-9 (Reciprocating internal combustion machines)

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Assessment of an electric motor acc. to ISO 10816

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Assessment zones

Assessment zones according to DIN ISO 10816:


Zone A:
Vibration in newly-installed machines

Zone B:
Machines may be operated for an unlimited time without restriction

Zone C:
Machines may be operated for a limited time

Zone D:
Vibrations are at a dangerous level and may cause damage to the
machines

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

DIN ISO 10816 Part 3, Group 2

Medium-sized machines with nominal power from 15 kW to 300 kW;


Electrical machines with shaft height 160 mm ≤ H >315 mm

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Vibrations created in damaged bearings

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Impulses from a damaged bearing

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Damage frequencies in a rolling-element bearing


ß
ß Contact angle
d Rolling-element diameter
n No. of rolling elements
D N Speed of shaft

n•N
Outer race damage fo = ( 1 - d cos ß )
2 60 D
n•N d
Inner race damage fi = (1+ cos ß )
2 60 D

Rolling-element damage fr =
D•N
d 60 [ ]² cos² ß )
(1- d
D
N
Cage damage fc = ( 1 - d cos ß )
2 60 D
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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Damage frequencies in a rolling-element bearing

Ball-bearing SKF 6211

Dimensions Damage frequencies


D = 77.5 mm Fo = N/60 4.1 = 205 Hz
D = 14.3 mm Fi = N/60 5.9 = 295 Hz
n = 10 Fr = N/60 5.2 = 260 Hz
ß = 0° Fc = N/60 0.4 = 20 Hz

N = 3,000 rpm

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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

BCU signal process


X

t
f

X
t
f

X BCU

t
t
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Balancing and
Diagnostic Systems

Trend observation
Destruction
Example:
Damage progress in a rolling-element bearing

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