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Fatigue
CIE5126, General information
2016/2017 Q3 (update 2017-02-14)
M. Veljkovi, Section: Structural and Building Engineering
Group: Steel, Timber and Composite Structures

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TIME SCHEDULE CIE 5126 (Gebouw 26 Zall 2)
2017 Date: Lecture
Week 7 Tue. 14/02 Basic introduction to fatigue (MV)
Thu. 16/02 Effects of workmanship on fatigue strength (MV)
Week 8 Tue. 21/02 Improvement techniques for welded joints (MV)
Thu. 23/02 No lectures
Week 9 Tue. 28/02 Cyclic counting, Bolted connections (MV)
Thu. 02/03 Numerical examples - bolted connections (MP)
Week 10 Tue. 07/03 Hollow section joints hot spot stress (MV)
Thu. 09/03 Numerical examples - hollow section joints (MP/WW)
Week 11 Tue. 14/03 Orthotropic plates, numerical examples (MV/WW)
Thu. 16/03 Fracture mechanics (RP)
Week 12 Tue. 21/03 Fracture mechanics, examples (RP)
Thu. 23/03 No lectures
Week 13 Tue. 28/03 Concrete (YG)
Thu. 30/03 Concrete structures (YG)

(update 2017-02-14) 2
LECTURERS
TU Delft - CITG:
Prof. dr. M. Veljkovic (Milan)
m.veljkovic@tudelft.nl (room 2.52 Stevin II)
Dr. M. Pavlovic (Marko)
m.pavlovic@tudelft.nl (room 2.58 Stevin II)
Dr. ir. Y. Yang (Yuguang)
yuguang.yang@tudelft.nl (room 1.03 Stevin II)
W. Wu (Weijian)
w.wu-1@tudelft.nl (room 2.60 Stevin II)

Guest lecturers:
TNO: Dr. ir. R.J.M. Pijpers (Richard)
richard.pijpers@tno.nl

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GENERAL REFERENCES
Codes:
EN 1993-1-9
NEN 2063
Arc welding - Fatigue loaded structures - Calculation of welded joints in unalloyed and low-alloy steel
up to and including Fe 510

Blackboard:
ESDEP lectures: 12-1, 12-2, 12-3, 12-4.1, 12-4.2, 12-5, 12-6
IIW: Improvement techniques
Solved examples
FAQ

Course book:
ECCS Eurocode Design Manuals, 2011
Fatigue design of Steel and Composite structures

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2017: Part 1, Lecture 1
Basic Introduction to Fatigue of Steel
Strucutres
- Literature, Eurocode for fatigue resistance
Content:
Introduction (Eurocodes,type of structures and loadings)
Fatigue strength
Classification of details
Types of cyclic loading
Calculation of damage
Concluding summary
Home assignment 1

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EUROCODE

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INTRODUCTION

Typical fatigue loaded structures


In all cases: Live loading is a higher proportion of the total load

Traffic Waves

Variable water

Lifting
weight
Wind
vehicles
gust
vehicles

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INTRODUCTION

Classic definition of fatigue (ASM handbook, 1990)


FATIGUE is the progressive, localized, and permanent
structural change that occurs in a material subjected to repeated
or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum
values less than (and often much less than) the tensile strength
of the material.
Fatigue may culminate into cracks and cause fracture after a
sufficient number of fluctuations.

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INTRODUCTION - LOADING TYPES

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INTRODUCTION CRACK DEVELOPMENT

Stage I: Crack initiation


Stage II: Propagation of one
dominant crack
Stage III: Final fracture

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INTRODUCTION PLAIN MATERIAL

Fracture is the result of propagation of existing defect in the


material.

Plain (smooth) specimen, crack initiates in the microscopic defects


in the grain scale or in defects on the surface due to flame cutting
or drilling,
All materials have defects which can propagate under action of
cyclic (repeated) loads and can produce fracture when they are
large enough.

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INTRODUCTION

Crack Growth History


Cracks speed most of their life propagating, i.e. getting longer

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INTRODUCTION NOTCHED MATERIAL

The fatigue life-definition (N number of cycles)


Nf = Ni + Np
subcripts: ffailure, iinitiation, ppropagation

a/ Notched specimen
Ni 10% Nf
Np 90% Nf
b/ plain machined specimen
Ni 90% Nf
Np 10% Nt

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INTRODUCTION - WELDED DETAIL

In welded structures, crack starts to


grow from weld, because:
Most welding process leave minor
metallurgical discontinuities from
which cracks may grow.
Most structural welds have a rough
profile. Sharp changes of direction
generally occur:
at toes, roots (and underbead)
of fillet welds
at the toes (and roots) of butt
welds

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INTRODUCTION

Local stress concentration and stress distribution

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INTRODUCTION - BRITTLE VS. DUCTILE FRACTURE

Ductile materials - extensive


plastic deformation and large
energy absorption (toughness)
before fracture.
Brittle materials - little plastic
deformation and low energy
absorption before fracture.

A. Very ductile: soft metals at


room temp., polymers, glasses at high temp.
B. Moderately ductile fracture typical for metals.
C. Brittle fracture: ceramics, metals at low temp.,

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INTRODUCTION - BRITTLE VS. DUCTILE
FRACTURE, MILD AND HSS

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INTRODUCTION - DUCTILE FRACTURE
(DISLOCATION MEDIATED)

(a) Necking,
(b) Cavity Formation,
(c) Cavities coalesce form crack
(d) Crack propagation,
(e) Fracture

Cup-and-cone fracture
(Aluminium specimens)
Similar shape are for mild
steels. 18
INTRODUCTION - BRITTLE FRACTURE
(LOW DISLOCATION MOBILITY)

Crack propagation is fast


Propagates nearly perpendicular
to direction of applied stress
Often propagates by cleavage -
breaking of atomic bonds along
specific crystallographic planes
No appreciable plastic
deformation

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INTRODUCTION

Typical fatigue cracks in welded structures tubular joints

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INTRODUCTION

Typical fatigue cracks in welded structures - attachments

Unnecessary
stiffening of the
web stiffener.

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INTRODUCTION

Typical fatigue cracks in welded structures - attachments

Striation formation

brittle

brittle

Striation formation

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INTRODUCTION

Typical fatigue cracks in welded joints with bad quality

Undercut at the Incomplete and


toe Porosity problem
excessive penetration appears when gases
are trapped in the weld
metal during welding.

Stop-start positions in longitudinal welds are points


of stress concentration
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INTRODUCTION

Typical fatigue cracks in bolts

Striation formation

Zone of brittle
failure

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SOME FATIGUE CRACKS IN REAL
STRUCTURES
Fatigue cracking caused
by the secondary restraint
forces generated by
(deformation induced
fatigue cracks):
- unintentional interaction
The I-95 over Rappahannock
between main and
River, Virginia, USA, built 1961
secondary members
- abrupt changes in stiffness
also contributed to fatigue
cracking in most details.

Yellow Mill Pond Bridge,


Connecticut, USA, built
1957/58, crack in1970 25
SOME FATIGUE CRACKS IN REAL
STRUCTURES
- A change in the cross-
section of the element gives
rise to a complex state of
stress

The Tokaido Shinkansen


bullet train system, built
1964, crack 1994

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VARIOUS WELDED DETAILS IN
ORTHOTROPIC DECK BRIDGES
After 1970
1950/60

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FATIGUE STRENGTH
Definition of Fatigue Strength and Fatigue Life
Fatigue testing of a specific steel detail (and is defined by the
parameter A ) shows that a relation exist between the fatigue life
of the detail and the stress range at which the tests is performed.
m is often equal 3
The stress range (r)
at the location of crack initiation

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FATIGUE STRENGTH

It was also recognized that for a specific detail tested with a


constant amplitude fatigue loading, there is a stress range below
which no fatigue damage takes place: The Constant Amplitude
Fatigue Limit (CAFL).

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FATIGUE STRENGTH
A fatigue design curve is
obtained from fatigue testing of
a specific detail at different
stress ranges.
A sufficient number of tests
should be performed at each
stress range to allow for a
statistical evaluation.
The design curve is derived
from test results taking into
account the standard deviation
in the fatigue strength (or life):
Ex: 75% confidence level of
95% probability of survival.

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CHARACTERISTIC S-N CURVE

X n

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FATIGUE STRENGTH
Fatigue design curves (EC3), details
subjected to normal stress
The fatigue strength of the detail which
is also called the fatigue category is
defined at a stress range C and N = 2
mil. cycles.
Change in slope change from 3 to 5 is
at 5 mil. cycl. The corresponding stress
range is D
A cut-off limitis defined at a stress range
and N = 100 million cycles. No fatigue
damage takes place below this limit L

The Constant Amplitude Fatigue Limit (CAFL).

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FATIGUE STRENGTH
Fatigue design curves (EC3), details
subjected to shear stress
Two fatigue lines are used

m=5
No fatigue limit, just a cut-off limit

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FATIGUE STRENGTH- FATIGUE DESIGN CURVE

1. Constant amplitude
A specific detail will fail after
Ni loading cycles when
loaded at a stress range i

A relation between the stress


range and the number of
cycles to failure for a specific
detail

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FATIGUE STRENGTH- FATIGUE DESIGN CURVE

2. Constant amplitude
Fatigue life of a specific
detail fatigue life will be
infinite if the stress range
does not exceed the CAFL
Otherwise, fatigue analysis is
made using a single slope of
m=3

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FATIGUE STRENGTH- FATIGUE DESIGN CURVE

3. NON constant amplitude


If, in a variable amplitude
loading, some of the loading
cycles exceeds the CAFL
loading cycles below CAFL
also contribute to the fatigue
damage
No CAFL

Continue with slop m = 5

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FATIGUE STRENGTH- FATIGUE DESIGN CURVE

4. NON constant amplitude


In a loading history, the loading
cycles which do not exceed the
cut-off limit do not cause any
fatigue damage

If all cycles are below the cut-off


limit
No fatigue damage will take place
The fatigue life is infinite
No fatigue check is needed

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FATIGUE STRENGTH

Effect of Mean Stress


In none-welded details the endurance is reduced as the mean
stress is higher in tension.
In welded details the endurance is not influenced by the mean
stress.

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FATIGUE STRENGTH

Effect of Mean Stress Welded details


The weld shrinkage stresses often attend tensile yield
The crack cannot distinguish between applied and residual
stress
The S-N curve always assumes that the maximum stress in the
cycle is at yield point in tension
It means that fatigue cracks can grow in parts of members
which are nominally in compression

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FATIGUE STRENGTH
Effect of mechanical strength, no positive effect of HHS on notched
specimens

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CLASSIFICATION OF DETAILS

14 detail classes Eurocode 3

1: Detail category c
2: Constant amplitude fatigue limit D
3: Cut-off limit L

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LOADINGS FOR FATIGUE

Reservoir method

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LOADINGS FOR FATIGUE

Typical load spectrum for design

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CALCULATION OF DAMAGE

Simplification of stress spectrum

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CALCULATION OF DAMAGE

Duration of endurance for each band

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CALCULATION OF DAMAGE

Palmgren-Miners Rule ni = required number of


cycles at a stress range level
Si during design life

Ni = endurance at that stress


range level Si

Damage per stress range


level is ni / Ni

Total damage < 1

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CONCLUDING SUMMARY

Fatigue failure level compare to the static failure:


Whole service loading sequence
No improvement by better mechanical properties of steel (HSS)
Sensitive to the geometry of details and welding technology
Requires accurate prediction of elastic stress
Demands on workmanship and inspection (more information to
come)

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PRELIMINARY HINTS FOR DESIGN

Check in an early stage of the design whether fatigue is likely to be


critical
Areas with high live/dead stress ratio and low category 36 details
should be checked first
Simplicity of detail and smoothness of stress path if fatigue is
critical
Fatigue critical structures cost more, attention to detailing (more
information to come).

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2017: Part 1, Lecture 1
Basic Introduction to Fatigue of Steel
Strucutres

Questions to be answered after the 1st lecture:


How a crack appears and propagate to the macro-crack that causes fracture of a
structural element?
What is difference between ductile and brittle zone of the fracture surface?
How fatigue life data are obtained?
What is influence of the mean stress level on the plane steel specimen
compared to a notched specimen?
What is influence of the regular cyclic loading compared to stochastic fatigue
loading
How to estimated remaining life time of a detail exposed to fatigue?

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HOME ASSIGNMENT 1

Consider a hypothetical structural detail in which the S-N curve is


linear from a value equal to the fracture stress at one cycle, falling to a
value of one half of the fractures stress at 5*106.
The structural detail has been subjected to n1 = 105 load cycles at a
level of 60% of the fracture stress.
How many cycles n2 the structural detail can withstand if the nominal
stress is raise to the load causing 70% of the fracture stress.

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