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Chapter-5,6 and 7-

Laws of Motion, Work- Power and

7. Refer to figure, acceleration of the rod along F1,

Energy and Rotational Motion- F1

(F1 F2 ) A

Solution a=

M T

y

1. When porcelain objects are wrapped in paper or Mass of the part (say AB) of length y,

straw, the time of impact between themselves is very B

M

much increased during jerk while transportation. m= y L

L

Dp If T is the tension in AB, then

Since F = , as Dt increases, F decreases.

Dt

Hence, force on the porcelains is reduced during M (F F ) y

F1 T = ma = y 1 2 = (F1 F2 )

transportation, and saves them from breakage. L M L F2

y y y

or T = F1 (F1 F2 ) = F1 1 + F2

p2 L L L

2. Kinetic energy, K = , \ p = 2mK .

2m 8. Here, u1 = u, u2 = 0

Since K is same for both bodies, p m , i.e., the v2 v1 v2 v1

heavier body has more momentum than the lighter \ e= =

u1 u2 u0

body.

3. The moment of inertia of a hollow sphere about its or v2 v1 = e u ...(i)

By the law of conservation of momentum,

2

diameter = MR2 ..(i) mu + m 0 = mv1 + mv2

3 or v1 + v2 = u ...(ii)

If K is the radius of gyration, then moment of inertia

Adding (i) and (ii),

of a body = MK2 ...(ii)

2v2 = u + eu = u (1 + e)

From (i) and (ii)

u(1 + e)

2 2 or v2 = ...(iii)

MR2 = MK 2 \ K = R 2

3 3

Again, from (ii),

4. Rockets are given a conical shape because conical u(1 + e) u(1 e)

shape of rockets minimize the atmospheric friction. v1 = u v2 = u = ...(iv)

2 2

It also helps to maintain its direction. Divide eqn (iii) by eqn (iv)

5. Energy liberated per second by the conversion of

v2 1 + e

4 1010 kg of matter, i.e., = .

E = mc2 =[(4 1010) (3 108)2] J = 3.6 1027 J v1 1 e

Power output of the Sun = energy (work) liberated 1

per second 9. Initial kinetic energy, K = mu2

2

= 3.6 1027 J s1 = 3.6 1027 W

6. Angular momentum of spherical body, Velocity at the highest point, u' u

= horizontal component of u = u cos 45 =

2 2 2

2

L = I w = MR2 w Q I = 5 MR Hence KE at the highest point,

5

1

4 3 3V

2 /3

K = mu 2

Also, volumeV = R or R2 = 2

3 4 2

2 /3 1 u 1 1 K

2 3V K = m = mu2 = .

\ L= M w 2 2 2 2 2

5 4

KE at highest point will be half of the initial kinetic

Q L and M do not change with temperature energy.

\ w V 2/3 1

10. Translational kinetic energy, ET = mv 2

2

dw 2 dV

100% = 100% 1

w 3 V and Rotational kinetic enegy ER = I w2

So, the angular velocity decreases by 0.67%. 2

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1 1 12.

Total energy, E = ET + ER = mv 2 + I w2

2 2

1 2 1 2 2 v2

= mv + mr 2

2 2 5 r

1 1 7

= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2

2 5 10

1 2

ER mv

2

\ = 5 = .

E 7 7

mv 2 Initial momentum of A and B along X-axis

10

OR = m 9 + m 0 = 9m ...(i)

Here, N = 1800 rpm, P = 100 hp = 100 746 W Final momentum of A and B after collision along

Angular velocity, X-axis

2 1800 = mv1 cos 30 + mv2 cos 30

w = 2 N = = 60 rad s 1

60 m 3

= (v1 + v2 ) ...(ii)

Now power = tw or 100 746 = t 60 2

From eqns. (i) and (ii),

746 100

t= = 395.9 N m m 3

60 (v1 + v2 ) = 9m

11. The free body diagram for the forces acting at O, is 2

shown here. or (v1 + v2 ) = 6 3 ...(iii)

Applying the law of conservation of momentum

along Y-axis,

mv1 sin 30 = mv2 sin 30

or v1 = v2 ...(iv)

From eqns. (iii) and (iv),

v1 = v2 = 3 3 m s 1

1 81

Initial KE = m(9)2 = m = 40.5 m

2 2

1 2 1 2 1

Final KE = mv1 + mv2 = m(v12 + v22 )

2 2 2

1 2 2

= m[(3 3 ) + (3 3 ) ] = 27m

From Fx = 0, 2

...(i) KE lost in the collision 40.5 m 27 m = 13.5 m

T2 cos T1cosq = 0

So, kinetic energy is not conserved.

From Fy = 0,

1

T1 sin q + T2 sin W = 0 ...(ii) 13. Here q = 30, v = 5 m s1, I = mr 2

From eqns. (i) and (ii), 2

(a) As the cylinder goes up the plane, it acquires

T cos q

T1 sin q + 1 sin = W potential energy at the expense of its KE of

cos translational and rotational motion. Let the cylinder

or T1 (sin q + cos q tan ) =W go up the plane upto height h. Then according to

W principle of conservation of energy, we have,

or T1 =

(sin q + cos q tan ) 1 2 1 2

mv + I w = mgh

W 2 2

Similarly, T2 =

(sin + cos tan q) 1 2 1 1 2 v2

or mv + mr 2 = mgh [... v =rw]

and T3 = W 2 2 2 r

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3 2 15. As L = mvr = mr2w,

or mv = mgh initial angular momentum of both the dumbbells of

4

total mass m, Ld1 = mr12w.

3v 2 3 (5)2

\ h= = = 1.913 m If Ls1 is the initial angular momentum of the student,

4g 4 9. 8 then initial angular momentum of the system,

Suppose that the cylinder covers a distance S along L1 = Ls 1 + Ld 1 = Ls 1 + mr12 w1

the incline in reaching height h on the plane. Then, ...(i)

h h 1.913 Final angular momentum of the system,

sin q = or S = = = 3.826 m

S sin q sin 30 L2 = Ls2 + Ld2 = Ls2 + mr22 w2 ...(ii)

(b) For a cylinder rolling down an inclined plane, From the law of conservation of angular momentum

linear acceleration. L1 = L2 ...(iii)

2 2 From eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii),

a = g sin q = 9.8 sin 30 = 3.27m s 2

3 3 Ls2 + mr22 w2 = Ls 1 + mr12 w1 ...(iv)

1 1 Since the angular momentum of the student is

Now S = v0t + at 2 = 0 + at 2 {Q v0 = 0}

2 2 proportional to his rate of spin,

2S w

\ t= = 1.53 s Ls 2 = 2 Ls 1 ...(v)

a w1

From eqns. (iv) and (v),

14. (a) While trying to pull a cart, a horse pushes the

ground backwards with a certain force at an angle. w2 2 2

The ground offers an equal reaction in the opposite w Ls 1 + mr2 w2 = Ls1 + mr1 w1

1

direction, on the feet of the horse. The forward

component of this reaction is responsible for motion w2 2 2 2 2

of the cart. In empty space, there is no reaction and or w mr1 w1 + mr2 w2 = mr1 w1 + mr1 w1

1

hence a horse cannot pull the cart and run. = 2mr12 w1

(b) This is due to inertia of motion. When the

speeding bus stops suddenly, lower part of the (Q Ls 1 = Ld 1 = mr12 w1 )

bodies in contact with the seats stop. The upper part

of the bodies of the passengers tend to maintain the 2r 2 2(0.6)2

or w2 = 2 1 2 w1 = 2 2

(0.5)

uniform motion. Hence the passengers are thrown r1 + r2 (0.6) + (0.1)

forward. = 0.97 rps

(c) While pulling a lawn mower, force is applied

upwards along the handle. The vertical component 16. Given: v = k s

of this force is upwards and reduces the effective dv k ds k k 1

= = v = k s = k2

weight of the mower, as shown in figure (i). While dt 2 s dt 2 s 2 s 2

pushing a lawn mower, force is applied downward

along the handle. The vertical component of this Force on the locomotive,

force is downwards and increases the effective dv 1 2

weight of the mower, as shown in figure (ii). As the F =m = mk

dt 2

effective weight is lesser in case of pulling than in

case of pushing, therefore, pulling is easier than dv k 2 k2

Again, = or dv = dt

pushing. dt 2 2

k2

Integrating, v = t +c

2

where c is the constant of integration.

Suppose v = 0 at t = 0. Then, c = 0

k2 ds k 2t

\ v= t or =

2 dt 2

k 2t

or ds = dt

2

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k 2t 2 \ Rate of change of momentum

Integrating, s = + c 140 kg m s-1

4 = = 140 kg m s-2

k 2t 2 1s

Suppose s = 0 at t = 0. Then, c = 0 \ s =

4 But rate of change of momentum is equal to the

Work done = Fs

applied force = 140 kg m s2 = 140 N

1 k 2t 2 mk 4t 2 By Newton's third law of motion this must also be

= mk 2 =

2 4 8 the magnitude of the force exerted by the molecules

OR on the surface.

(a) Total initial angular momentum of the discs,

\ Force exerted by molecules on surface = 140 N

L1 = I1w1 + I2w2

Moment of inertia of the two disc system = (I1 + I2) Area of surface = 14 cm2 = 14 104 m2

If w is the angular speed of the combined system, force 140

Pressure on surface = =

then, final angular momentum of the system, area 14 104

L2 = (I1 + I2)w = 105 N m2

As no external torque is acting, therefore, according

18. (a) Sam is sympathetic and also has the attitude of

to principle of conservation of angular momentum,

helping others. He has patience.

we have,

(I1 + I2)w = I1w1 + I2w2 (b) The downward force on the elevator is F= mg + f

I w +I w = (1800 10) + 4000 = 22000 N. The motor must

or w = 1 1 2 2

I1 + I2 supply enough power to balance this force.

1 1 Hence P = F.v = 22000 2 = 44000 W = 59 hp

(b) Initial KE of two discs, E1 = I1w12 + I 2 w22 (1hp = 746 W)

2 2

1 19. (a) Two external forces act on the bob are gravity

2

Final KE of the system, E2 = (I1 + I 2 )w and tension (T) in the string. At the lowest point

2

A, the potential energy of the system can be taken

1 1 1

\ E1 E2 = I1w1 + I 2 w2 (I1 + I 2 )w2

2 2

zero. So at point A,

2 2 2

Putting the value of w from part (a) and solving,

we get,

I1 I 2 (w1 w2 )2

E1 E2 = which is a positive quantity

2(I1 + I2 )

Hence the rotational KE of the combined system

is less than the sum of the initial rotational KE of

the two discs. Note that there is loss of KE in the

process. This loss of energy is due to dissipation of

energy due to frictional contact of the two discs. It Total mechanical energy = kinetic energy

may be noted that angular momentum is conserved 1

in the process as torque due to friction is only an E = mv02 ...(i)

2

internal torque. If TA is the tension in the string at point A, then

17. Let the direction in which the molecules rebound

after striking the surface be taken as positive. mv02

TA mg = ...(ii)

Momentum of each molecule after striking the L

surface =mv2 = 5 1026 kg 500 m s1 At the highest point C, the string slackens, so the

Momentum of each molecule before striking the tension TC becomes zero. If vC is the speed at point

surface = mv1 = 5 1026 kg ( 500 m s1) C, then by conservation of energy,

28 1023 molecules strike the surface per second.

1

Change in momentum of the molecules striking the E = K + U or E = mvC2 + 2 mgL ...(iii)

surface in 1 second 2

mvC2

= 28 1023 [(5 1026 500) 5 1026 ( 500)] kg m s1 Also, mg = ...(iv)

= 28 1023 5 1026 1000 kg m s1 L

2

= 140 kg m s1 or mvC = mgL ...(v)

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Using (v) in (iii),

k2

1 5 or f =m a

E = mgL + 2mgL = mgL ...(vi) R2

2 2 where k is the radius of gyration of the body about

From equations (i) and (vi), we get

its axis of rotation. Clearly

5 m

mgL = v02 or v0 = 5 gL ...(vii) k2

2 2 ma = mg sin q m a

(b) From equation (iv), we have R2

g sin q

vC = gL or a =

(1 + k 2 / R2 )

The total energy at B is

1 Let h be height of the inclined plane and s the

E = mv B2 + mgL ...(viii) distance travelled by the body down the plane. The

2

From equations (i) and (viii), we get velocity v attained by the body at the bottom of the

inclined plane can be obtained as follow:

1 2 1

mv B + mgL = mv02 v2 u2 = 2as

2 2

1 2 1 or v2 02 = 2 g sin q

mv B + mgL = m 5 gL [using (vii)] s

2 2 (1 + k 2 / R2 )

2 gh h

v B = 3 gL or v2 = 2 2 Q s = sin q

(c) The ratio of kinetic energies at B and C is 1+ k / R

1 2 2 gh

or

K B 2 mv B 3 v=

(1 + k 2 / R2 )

= =

KC 1 2 1 20. The particle of mass m is initially at A. At the point

mvC

2 P where the particle loses contact with the surface

OR

Consider a body of mass M and radius R rolling down of the sphere, normal reaction is zero and the only

a plane inclined at an angle q with the horizontal, as force acting on the particle is its weight mg acting

shown in figure. It is only due to friction at the line vertically downwards, as shown in figure.

of contact that body can roll without slipping. The

centre of mass of the body moves in a straight line

parallel to the inclined plane.

The external forces on the body are

(i) The weight Mg acting vertically downwards.

(ii) The normal reaction N of the inclined plane.

(iii) The force of friction acting up the inclined plane.

provides the necessary centripetal force,

mv 2

Let a be the downward acceleration of the body. The mg cos q =

r

equation of motion for the body can be written as or v 2 = rg cos q ...(i)

N mg cos q = 0

OQ (r h)

F = ma = mg sin q f As cos q = = ,

As the force of friction f provides the necessary OP r

torque for rolling, so v2 = (r h)g ...(ii)

a Since the velocity v has been acquired by the particle

t = f R = I a = mk2 after falling through a height h,

R

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v = 2 gh ...(iii)

From eqns. (ii) and (iii),

2gh = (r h)g

r

\ h= ...(iv)

3

From eqns. (iii) and (iv),

If a is the acceleration at this instant, then

2 gr ma = mg sin q f

v= ...(v)

3 = mg sin q 0x mg cos q

If x is the horizontal and y is the vertical distance [Q f = R = (0x)mg cos q]

covered by the particle as it hits the ground at C or a = g(sin q 0x cos q) ...(i)

after time t, dv dv dx dv

As a = = = v,

x = (v cos q)t ...(vi) dt dx dt dx

1 2 v dv = a dx = g (sin q 0 xcos q) dx

and y = (v sin q)t + gt ...(vii) or v v dv = ( g sin q) x dx (0 g cos q) x x dx

2 0 0 0

From eqns. (vi) and (vii), v 2 x 2

or = ( g sin q)x 0 g cos q

gx 2 2 2

y = x tan q + ...(viii)

2v 2 cos2 q or v2 = (2g sin q)x (0g cos q)x2 ...(ii)

r 5 If the mass comes to rest after covering a distance s,

It is clear that, y = 2r h = 2r = r ,

3 3 then if x = s, v = 0.

From eqn. (ii),

r h r r /3 2

cos q = = = , (2g sin q)s (0g cos q)s2 = 0

r r 3 or s[2g sin q (0g cos q)s] = 0

5 As s 0, 2g sin q (0g cos q)s = 0

and tan q = sec2 q 1 = (3 / 2)2 1 =

2 2 g sin q 2

or s = = tan q ...(iii)

From eqn. (viii), 0 g cos q 0

When v = vmax ,

5 5 gx 2 dv d

r =x + a= = (v ) = 0

3 2 2(2 gr / 3)(2 / 3)2 dt dt max

If x = x0, for a = 0, from eqn. (i)

or 27 x 2 + (8 5r )x (80 / 3)r 2 = 0

g(sin q x0 cos q) = 0

or x0 cos q = sin q

8 5r + 320r 2 + 2880r 2 tan q

i.e., x = or x0 = ...(iv)

2 27 0

(neglecting negative root) tan q

Putting v = vmax and x = x0 = in eqn. (ii),

17.9r + 56.6r 38.7r 0

or x= = = 0.72r

54 54 tan q tan q

2

2

If s is the distance from the initial position where vmax = (2 g sin q) (0 g cos q)

0

0

the particle strikes the ground at C,

s = BC = BD + DC = rsin q + x 2 2g g

or vmax = sin q tan q sin q tan q

0 0

5 g

=r + 0.72r = 0.75r + 0.72r 1.5r = sin q tan q

3 0

OR g

or vmax = sin q tan q

Let us consider the mass after it has slide down a 0

distance x [as shown in figure].

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