Sie sind auf Seite 1von 44

Based on RCC design B.C. punmia example 23.

1
DESIGN OF REACTANGULAR OVER HEAD WATER TANK

Name of work :- pkn


1 Tank size L= 8.00 x B= 8.00 x H= 4.50 m 288000
2 Height of tower from G.L. = 6.00 m Foundation from G.L. 1.00 m
3 Saturated soil unit wt 17.00 kN/m3 N/m3
4 Wind pressure = 1.00 kN/m 2
Nomber of colums 4.00 No.
5 Size of columns = 0.30 x 0.30 m Height of Braces 3.00 m
6 Permissible stress:-
7 Conrete M 20 concrete unit wt. 24 kN/m3 24000
scc 5 N/mm 2
m 13.33
scbc 7 N/mm2 Q 0.669
8 Steel fy 415 J 0.903
ssc 190 N/mm2 (Columns) ssc 150 N/mm2
9 Nominal Cover 30 mm Water unit wt 9.80 kN/m3
10 Wall Thickness 350 mm Bottom Slab thickness 450 mm
11 Reinforcement
(A) For Water Tank
Long wall
In side near corner Horizont 20 mm F bars 70 mm c/c 1.00 m height
above the base, near corners.
in side middle horizontal 20 mm F bars 70 mm c/c upto top
Out side middle horizontal 20 mm F bars 140 mm c/c upto top
Short wall
In side near corner Horizont 20 mm F bars 70 mm c/c upto top
Out side middle horizontal 20 mm F bars 140 mm c/c, upto top
Distribution 10 mm F bars 140 mm c/c vertical
Slab
Short span mm F bars mm c/c
Long span mm F bars mm c/c,
(B ) For Ring Beam
Bottom main 1st tier mm F bars Nos.
Bottom main 2nd tier mm F bars Nos.
Top main mm F bars Nos.
distribution 2 ldge strirrups mm F bars mm c/c
(C) For columns mm F bars mm c/c
Main vertical
Leteral distribution mm F bars mm c/c
(D) For Braces
Main mm F bars mm c/c Both top and bottom
Distribution mm F bars mm c/c
(E) For Bottom Beam
Main
Distribution
(F) For Raft foundation
Main
Distribution
12 Base 8 mm f bars #REF! mm c/c in both direction
C
20 mm f 20 mm f
70 mm c/c 70 mm c/c

350 8.00
20 mm f 140 mm c/c mm
20 mm f 20 mm f
A 20 mm f 70 mm c/c 140 mmc/c 10 mm f 140 mmc/c
20 mm f 140 mm c/c 140 mmc/c
20 mm f 140 mm c/ (d)
10 mm f 140 mm c/c both side 10 mm f 20 mm f 10 mm f
20 mm f 70 mm c/ (d+e) 70 mmc/c 140 mmc/c 70 mmc/c
B
Bars(c) 20 mm f ### mmc/c

450

Section plan at depth of H/4 or 1 mt. Section on CD


D
350 8.00
mm

Bar(a) 20 mm f 140 mm c/c


20 mm f 280 mm c/c
10 mm f 140 mm c/c Bar(b) 20 mm f 140 mm c/c
4.50
10 mm f 140 mm c/c Bar(c) 20 mm f 140 mm c/c
20 mm f 140 mm c/c
8 mm f ### mm c/c both way Bar(d) 20 mm f 140 mm c/c

450
Bar F Bar(e) 10 mm f 140 mm c/c
Section on AB
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
288000 Itr

24000 N/m3

(water tank)

0.45 m
mmc/c

mmc/c

mmc/c

mm c/c

mm c/c

mm c/c

mm c/c

mm c/c
15 115 20 45 33 44 18 40 20 41 20 40 18 40 ### 34 ###

DESIGN OF REACTANGULAR OVER HEAD WATER TANK


Name of work:- pkn
1 Tank size 8.00 x 8.00 x 4.50 m ### cum 288000
2 Height of tower from G.L. 6.00 m Foundation from G.L. 1.00 m
3 Satureted soil unit wt. 17.00 kN/m3 17000 N/m3
4 Wind pressure 1.00 Noumber of columns = 4.00
5 Size of columns 0.30 x 0.30 height of braces = 3.00 m
6 Permissible stress:-
Concrete M 20 Unit wt of cocnrete = ### N/m3
scc 5 m = 13.33
scbc 7 N/mm2 Q = 0.669
Steel (HYSD) fy 415 N/mm2
J = 0.903
ssc 190 N/mm2 (Columns) ssc = 150 N/mm2
9 Nominal cover 30 mm unit wt. of water = 9.80 N/mm3
=
1 Design Constants:- For HYSD Bars Cocrete M = 20 wt. of concrete = 24000 N/mm
scbc = 7 N/mm2 m = 13.3
sst = 150 N/mm2 sst = 190 N/mm2 sst = 230
k = 0.384 k = 0.329 k= 0.289
j = 0.872 j= 0.890 j = 0.904
R = 1.171 R= 1.026 R = 0.913

2 Design of vertical wall


(A) Determination of B.M. for horizontal bending :--
L/B = 8.00 / 8.00 = 1.00 < 2
Hence Both long and short walls will bend horizontally for upper portion, upto poin D, where horizontal water
pressure is p=w(H-h).
Here h = H/4 or 1 m which ever is greater \ h = 1.00 m
Thus top 3.50 m height of walls will be bend horizontally while the bottom 1.00 m will bend a
vertical cantilever . The bending moments for horizontal bending may be determined by moment
distribution by considering tank as continuos frame of unit height at level of D.
Water pressure p at point D is given by =p= w (H - h ) = 9800 ( 4.50 - 1.00 )= 34300
PL 2
P x 8.00 '=2
The Fixed end moments for long wall = = 5.33 P N-m
12 12
PB2 P x 8.00 2'=
Fixed end moments for short wall = = 5.33 P N-m
12 12
Refer fig 1. Consider quarter frame FAE with joint A rigid. Taking clock wise moment as positive and anticlock
wise moment as negative, the fixed end moment M AF for long wall will be + 5.33 P while the fixed end
end moments MAF for short wall will be - 5.33 P Considreing Area A and moment of inertia l for
both the walls to be the same, the stiffness of walls will be inversely proportional to these length.
Thus we have following table.
Member Stiffness Relative stiffness Sum Distribution factor
1 1 2.667
AE x 8.00 = 2.667 = 0.4
3 3 6.667
6.66666667
1 1 4
AF x 8.00 = 4 = 0.6
2 2 6.667

The moment distribution is carried out in the following table.


Joint A
Member AE AF
Distribution facvtor 0.4 0.6

Fixed end moments + 5.33 p - 5.33 p

Balancing moments - 0.667 p - 1 p

Final moments + 4.67 p - 6.33 p

Hence moment at supports, Mf= 4.67 x 34300 = 160067 N-m/m


This support moment will cause tension at the water force.
p L2 ### x 8.00 2
B.M. at the center long span = - Mf "= 160067 = 114333
8 8
This bending moment cause tension at outer face.
p B2 ### x 8.00 2
B.M. at the center short span = - Mf "= 160067 = 114333
8 8
This will cause tension at the water face. \ Max. design B.M. = 114333

(B) Design of section :- Considring bending effect alone,

1E+05 x 1000
Required depth = = 313 mm
1.171 x 1000
Provide total depth T= 320 + 30 = 350 mm so that available d = 320 mm

(C) Determination pull :-


Direct tension on Long wall = PL = P x B/2 = 34300 x 8.00 / 2 = 137200
Direct tension on short wall = PL = P x B/2 = 34300 x 8.00 / 2 = 137200

(D) Cantilever Moment :- Cantilever moment atb the base, per unit length .
h2 9800 x 8.00 x 1.00 2
= wH x = 13067 N-m
6 6
This will cause tension at water face.
(E) Reinforcement at corners of long walls.:- The upper portion of long walls is subjected to both bending i
horizontal direction as well as pull. The reinforcement for both will be in horizontal direction. Hence
reinforcement has to be provided for a net moment (M F - Px ), where Mf is the moment at ends (causing
tension on water face). Similarly vertical section of unit height ( 1 m) of long wall, at its end, at the level of
1.00 m above the base , where reinforcement is provided at the water face.
T 350
x= d- = 320 - = 145 mm
2 2
Mf - Pl x 2E+05 x 1000 ) - ### x 145
Ast for B.M. = = = 3348 mm2
sst.j.d 150 x 0.872 x 320
PL ###
Ast for pull = = = 915 mm2
ss 150
Total Ast = 3348 + 915 = 4263 mm2 per meter height.
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 20 x 20
using 20 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 314 / 4263 = 74 say = 70 mm
Hence Provided 20 mm F bar, @ 70 mm c/c. The above reinforcement is to be provided at
inner face, near the corners, and at a height 1.00 m above the base. For other height the above spacing
may be varied, since bending moment will reduce.

(F) Reinfocement at the middle of long wall. :-


Tension occurs at outer face. However, since distance of corner of steel from
water face will be less than 225 mm, permissible stress will be 150 N/mm2 only. Design constants
will be k= 0.384 j= 0.872 R= 1.171
Design B.M. = 114333 N-m per meter height. Also PL = 137200 N
M - Pl x 1E+05 x 1000 ) - ### x 145
Ast for B.M. = = = 2256 mm2
sst.j.d 150 x 0.872 x 320
PL ###
Ast for pull = s = = 915 mm2
s 150
Total Ast = 2256 + 915 = 3171 mm2 per meter height.
3.14xdia 2
3.14 x 20 x 20
using 20 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 314 / 3171 = 99 say = 90 mm
This is very near to the reinforcement provided at ends.Hence provided 20 mm f bars
c/c. Bend half the bars provided at ends, outwards.at distance L/4 = 2.00 m form ends.
This reinforcement is to be provided at outer face. The additional 20 mm f bars provided @
are continued upto the end.

(G) Reinforcement for shorts walls.:-


B.M. at ends=Mf = 160067 N-m Direct pull pu = 137200 N
M - PB x 2E+05 x 1000 ) - ### x 145
Ast for B.M. = = = 3348 mm2
sst.j.d 150 x 0.872 x 320
PL ###
Ast for pull = = = 915 mm2
ss 150
Total Ast = 3348 + 915 = 4263 mm2 per meter height.
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 20 x 20
using 20 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 314 / 4263 = 74 say = 70 mm
Hence provide 20 mm f bars @ 70 mm c/c at inner face near the ends of short span.
The B.M. at the center of short walls cause tension at water face (unlikethat in the center of long walls where
tension is produced at outer face ).since this B.M. is small, only nominal reinforcement is required. Similarlly,
we have to provide nominal reinforcement at outer face,. Hence bend half bars outward at distance B/4=
m from each end, and continue remaning half tjrought. Thus at the center of span, the reinforcement on each
face will consist of 20 mm f bars @ 140 mm c/c.

(H) Reinforcement for cantilever moment and distribution reinforcement.:-


max. cantilever moment= 13067 N-m
13067 x 1000
Ast = = 312 mm2
150 x 0.872 x 320
0.3
But minimum reinforcementin vertical direction = x( 350 x 1000 )= 1050
100
Since half of this area of steel can reist cantilever momnt, we will provide = 525 mm2 steel area vertica
on the inner face and remaining area i.e.= 525 mm vertically at outer face to serve as distribution
2

reinforcment. \ Area of steel on each face = 525 mm2.


3.14xdia2 3.14 x 10 x 10
using 10 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Spacing of Bars = 1000 x 78.5 / 525 = 150 say = 140 mm
Hence Provided 10 mm F bar, @ 140 mm c/c on out side face, at bottom of long wall

2 Design of Horizontal slabe :-


(A) Loading and B.M. :-
Ratio of l/b = 8.00 / 8.00 = 1.00 < 2Two way slab
Let the thickness of slab (for purpose of calculating the self weight) = 450
Load due to self weight of Slab = 1 x 1.00 x 0.45 x ### = 10800
Load due to water = 1 x 1.00 x 4.50 x 9800 = 44100
Super imposed live load = 1 x 1 x 2000 = 2000
\ Total load per meter run = 56900
Taking effective depth = 450 - 30 = 420 mm we have
Ly = 8.00 + 0.45 = 8.45 m and lx = 8.00 + 0.45 = 8.45
\ r = ly / lx = 8.45 / 8.45 = 1.00
This is case 9 of table 10.6, from which a x = 0.089 and ay = 0.056
Mx = ax.wlx
2
= 0.089 x 56900 x 8.45 =2
361590 = 361590000
My = ay.wlx
2
= 0.06 x 56900 x 8.45 =2
227517 = 227517000

(B) Design of section taking 1.0 m width for calculation purpose.an B.M. = 361590
for short span :- Assuming bearing = 300 mm
BM 361590000
Effective depth required = = = 630
Rxb 0.913 x 1000
From point of stiffness (deflection)point of veiw, span / effective depth Ratio = 20
For a balanced design, k. scbc 0.289 x 7
= x 100 = x 100 = 0.44
percentage reinforcement 2sst 2 x 230
However using under reinforcement section, and taking p = 0.4 %
We have from modification factore = 1.4 for HYSD bars
span span 8450
= 20 x 1.4 hence, d = = 302
depth 28 = 28
Hence provided total thickness = 660 mm using 8 mm F bars and a nomonal cover 30
Available depth for short span = 660 - 30 - 4 = 626
for long span = 626 - 8 = 618
for short sapn, width of middle strip = 3/4 ly = 3 / 4 x 8.45 = 6.34 m
width of edge strip = 0.500 x( 8.45 - 6.34 ) = 1.06 or
BM 361590000
(Ast)x = = = 2779 mm2
sst x j x D 230 x 0.90 x 626
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 16 x 16
using 16 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Pitch s = = 1000 x As / A = 1000 x 201 / 2779 = 72.3 say =
Hence Provided 16 mm F bar, 70 mm c/c for middile strips of width 6.34 m
bent half bars at distance = 0.15 l = 0.15 x 8.45 = 1.268 or 1260 mm
from the center of support, or at a distance of 1260 + 150 = 1410 mm from the edge of the slab
Available length of bars at the top 1260 - 150 - 30 = 1080 mm from the center of support,
assumming bending of the bars at 45 dgree the length is > than 0.1xlx = 0.1 x 8450 =
Hence length of top bars from edge of slab 1080 + 150 = 1230 mm edge strip length
The reinforcement of edge strip is given Ast @.12% = 0.12 / 100 x 1000 x 660 =
3.14xdia 2
3.14 x 8 x 8
using 8 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Pitch s = = 1000 x As / A = 1000 x 50 / 792 = 63.4 say =
Hence Provided 8 mm F bar, 60 mm c/c

(C) Design section for long Assuming Beam width = 300 mm


span
BM 227517000
(Ast)x = = = 1771 mm2
sst x j x D 230 x 0.90 x 618
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 12 x 12
using 12 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Pitch s = = 1000 x As / A = 1000 x 113 / 1771 = 64 say =
Hence Provided 12 mm F bar, 60 mm c/c for middile strips of width 6.34 m
for the edge strip of widtg 8.45 / 8 = 1.056 m provide ### mm f bars @
bent half bars at distance = 0.15 l = 0.15 x 8.45 = 1.268 or 1260 mm
from the center of support, or at a distance of 1260 + 150 = 1410 mm from the edge of the slab
Available length of bars at the top 1260 - 150 - 30 = 1080 mm from the center of support,
assumming bending of the bars at 45 dgree the length is > than 0.1xlx = 0.1 x 8450 =
Hence length of top bars from edge of slab 1080 + 150 = 1230 mm edge of slab

(D) Check for shear and development length in short span


S.F. at long edge = wlx r/2+r = 56900 x 8.45 x 1.00 /( 2.00 + 1.00 )=
\ nominal shear stress at long edges = 160268 /( 1000 x 626 )= 0.256
At the long edges, the diameter of bars should be so restricted that the following requirement is satisfied ;
1.3 xM1 1000 x 113
+ L0 > Ld Ast at supports = =
V 60
Let us check development length at the ends of supports M1 = sst .Ast. Jc d
where MB = 1884 x 230 x 0.904 x 626 = 245162505 v = 160268
Lx 300
Lo = -x =( - 30 )= 120
2 2
1.3 xM1 245162505
+ L0 = 1.3 x + 120 = 2109 mm
V 160268
f s st 12 x 1884
Devlopment length Ld = = = 4416 mm
4 tbd 4 x( 1.6 x 0.8 )
Alternatively, Ld = 58.3F = 58 x 12 = 700 mm
M1
Thus = 1.3x + L0 > Ld
V
= 2109 > 700 Hence Code requirement are satisfied
Note . The code requires that the positive reinforcement should extention to support at least by Ld/3
hence minimum support width = Ld/3+x'= 700 / 3 + 30 = 264 mm <

(E) Check for shear and development length in long span


S.F. at long edge = 1/3wlx = 0.33 x ### x 8.45 = 160268
\ nominal shear stress at long edges = 160268 /( 1000 x 618 )= 0.259
At the long edges, the diameter of bars should be so restricted that the following requirement is satisfied ;
1.3 xM1 1000 x 113
+ L0 > Ld Ast at supports = =
V 60
Let us check development length at the ends of supports M1 = sst .Ast. Jc d
where MB = 1884 x 230 x 0.904 x 618 = 242029438 v = 160268
Lx 300
Lo = -x =( - 30 )= 120
2 2
1.3 xM1 242029438
+ L0 = 1.3 x + 120 = 2083 mm
V 160268
f s st 12 x 1884
Devlopment length Ld = = = 4416 mm
4 tbd 4 x( 1.6 x 0.8 )
Alternatively, Ld = 58.3F = 58 x 12 = 700 mm
M1
Thus = 1.3x + L0 > Ld
V
= 2083 > 700 Hence Code requirement are satisfied

(F) Torsional reinforcement at corners


Size of torsional mesh =lx /5 = 8.45 / 5 = 1.69 + 0.15 = 1.84 m from slab edge
Area of torsional reinforcement =3/4 (Ast)x = 3 / 4 x 2779 = 2085 mm2
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 10 x 10
using 10 mm bars A = = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Pitch s = = 1000 x As /A = 1000 x 79 / 2085 = 37.6 say =
Hence Provided 10 mm F bar, 30 mm c/c
However it is prferable to use the same spacing as provided for main reinfrcement in
the short span, main reinforcement in the middle strip has been provided @ 70 mm c/c
while for edge strip it is provided @ 60 mm c/c
Hence provide 10 mm f bars @ 70 mm c/c in the short span direction.
In long span, main reinforcement is @ 60 mm c/c
Hence provide 10 mm f bars @ 60 mm c/c in the long span direction.

3 Design of ring Beam :- For Long span


(A) Bending moment and shear force:-
Effective span of beam = 8.00 + 0.30 = 8.30 m
Assume Total depth of Beam = 0.60 m for computation of dead weight Increase depth of bea
Let width of Beam = 0.30 m
self Load of Beam per meter run = 0.60 x 0.30 x 1 x ### = 4320
load from water tank = 56900 N/m
\ Total load per meter run = 4320 + ### = 61220 N/m
WL 2
61220 x 8.30 x 8.30
M= = = 527200 N-m
8 8
= 528 x 10 3 N-m or 528 x 10 6 N-mm
wl 61220 x 8.00
F= = = 244880 N
2 2

(B) Moment of resistance M1and reinforcement Ast1


Let us assume that center of tensile reinforcemet will be at = 30 + 20 = 50
\ d = 600 - 50 = 550 mm
nc = kcd = 0.289 x 550 = 159 mm
For singly reinforcement balance section, M1 = Rcbd2 = 0.913 x 300 x 550 =
2
82850420
82850420
Area of tensile reinfocement is given by Ast1 =
230 x 0.904 x 550
= 725 mm2

(C ) Moment of resistance M2and reinforcement Ast2


M2=M-M1 = 527200000 - 82850420 = 444349580 N/mm
This remaining B.M. gas to be resisted by a couple providedby tensile and copressive rinforcements.
Let the center of compressive reinforcement be placed at 30 + 20 = 50 mm
444349580
Area of tensile reinfocement is given by Ast2 = = 3864 mm2
230 x 550 - 50
Total Ast = 725 + 3864 = 4589 mm2

(D) Compressive reinforcement Asc

m (d - nc)
\ Asc = Ast2 where nc = 0.289 x 550 = 159
(mc-1)(nc-dc)

13.3 x( 550 - 159 )


= x 3864 = 10015
1.5 x( 13.33 - 1 )x( 159 - 50

(E) Reinforcing bars


Ast = 4589 mm2
using 16 mm bars = 3.14xdia2 3.14 x 16 x 16
A = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Nomber of Bars = Ast/A = 4589 / 201 = 22.83 say = 23 No.
Hence Provided 15 bars of 16 mm F bar, placed at bottom and 8 nos. rest bar placed at top tier,
keeping a clear distance of 25 mm between the two tier , keep a nominal cover ,
Use 25mm f spacer bars at 1 m c/c

10015 mm2
Ast =
using 20 mm bars
= 3.14xdia2 3.14 x 20 x 20
A = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Nomber of Bars = Ast/A = 10015 / 314 = 31.89 say = 32 No.
Hence Provided 32 bars of 20 mm F bar, at top , in one tier, keep a nominal cover ,

pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
(F) Curtailement of reinforcement
The bending at any point distance x meters from the center of the span is given by
wL2 wx2 wx2 where the moment M1
M1 = x1000 = M1 - x 1000
8 2 2 and M are in N-mm unit
At the point where compressive reinfrocement is not required, the bending moment should be equal to M
wx2
\ M1 = M - x 1000
2
2(M1 -M) 2M2 2 x 444349580
\ x = = = = 3.90
1000w 1000w 1000 x 61220
Hence at x = 3.90 m from the center, copmressive reinforcement is no longer required and
it may, there fore , curtailed. However, curtail only 16 bars and continue ###bars upto supports
At this section bending moment M1 on;y. Hence tensile reinforcement required =A st1 = 725
which will need only 15 bars . Hence curtailed 8 bars of 2nd tier at this point and continue rest of the
bars at supports.

(G) Shear reinforcement


Near the support, where the S.F. is maximum, the section is singly reinfoced
(since the two compressive reinforcing bars serve as holding bars of the strirrups)
Available effective depth = 600 - 30 - 8 = 562 mm
V 244880
tv = = = 1.45 N / mm2
bd 300 x 562
Available Ast = 15 x 201 = 3081 mm2
100Ast 100
\ = x 3081 = 1.83 %
bd 300 x 562
Hence from Table permissible shear (tc)= 1.83 % steel = 0.47 N/mm2 < 1.45
which is < than the nominal shear stress hence shear reinforcement is Required
Vc = Tc.b.d = 0.47 x 300 x 562 = ### N
Vs = V -Vc = 244880 - ###= ### N
3.14xdia 2
3.14 x 10 x 10
using 10 mm 2 leg strirrup Asv = = 2 x =
4 x100 4 x 100
ssv x Asv x d 230 x 562.0 x 157.0
\ Sv = = = 123 mm say
Vs ###
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
However, minimum shear reinforcement is governed by expression
2.175 x Asv x fy = 2.175 x 157.0 x 415 = 472 mm
Sv =
b 300
Subject to maximum of 0.75d or b which ever is less.= 0.75 x 562 = 421.5 > 300 min.
Hence provide the 10 mm strirrups @ 120 mm c/c
(H) Check for devlopment length :-
The code stipulates that at the simple supports, where reinforcement is confined
1.3xM1
by a compressive reaction, the diameter of the reinforcement be such that + L0 >
V
M1 = moment of resistance of section, assuming all reinforcement stress to sst
230 x 3081 x 0.904 x 562
= = 360 x 10 6 N-mm
1000000
V = 244880 N and L0 = Sum of anchore value of hooks
Let us provide a support equal to width of wall - cover, i.e. 300 - 30 = 270 mm
Let the clear side cover x' = 30 mm . For a angle 90 bend having anchorege value of 8
0

ls 270
we have, L0 =( - x' ) =( - 30 ) = 105 mm
2 2

1.3 xM1 360 x 10 6


+ L0 = 1.3 x + 105 = 2016 mm
V 244880
f s st 16 x 230.0
Devlopment length = = = 719 mm
4 tbd 4 x( 1.6 x 0.8 )
Alternatively, Ld = 45 F = 45 x 16 = 720 mm
M1
Thus = 1.3x + L0 > Ld
V
= 2016 > 720 Hence Code requirement are satisfied

4 Design of Ring beam For short span


(A) Bending moment and shear force:-
Effective span of beam = 8.00 + 0.30 = 8.30 m
Assume Total depth of Beam = 0.60 m for computation of dead weight Increase depth of bea
Let width of Beam = 0.30 m
self Load of Beam per meter run = 0.60 x 0.30 x 1 x ### = 4320
load from water tank = 56900 N/m
\ Total load per meter run = 4320 + ### = 61220 N/m
WL2 61220 x 8.30 x 8.30
M= = = 527200 N-m
8 8
= 528 x 10 3 N-m or 528 x 10 6 N-mm
wl 61220 x 8.00
F= = = 244880 N
2 2

(B) Moment of resistance M1and reinforcement Ast1


Let us assume that center of tensile reinforcemet will be at = 30 + 20 = 50
\ d = 600 - 50 = 550 mm
nc = kcd = 0.289 x 550 = 159 mm
For singly reinforcement balance section, M1 = Rcbd2 = 0.913 x 300 x 550 =
2
82850420
82850420
Area of tensile reinfocement is given by Ast1 =
230 x 0.904 x 550
= 725 mm2

(C ) Moment of resistance M2and reinforcement Ast2


M2=M-M1 = 527200000 - 82850420 = 444349580 N/mm
This remaining B.M. gas to be resisted by a couple providedby tensile and copressive rinforcements.
Let the center of compressive reinforcement be placed at 30 + 20 = 50 mm
444349580
Area of tensile reinfocement is given by Ast2 = = 3864 mm2
230 x 550 - 50
Total Ast = 725 + 3864 = 4589 mm2
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
(D) Compressive reinforcement Asc

m (d - nc)
\ Ast = Ast2 where nc = 0.289 x 550 = 159
(mc-1)(nc-dc)

13.3 x( 550 - 159 )


= x 3864 = 10015
1.5 x( 13.33 - 1 x( 159 - 50

(E) Reinforcing bars


Ast = 4589 mm2
using 16 mm bars = 3.14xdia2 3.14 x 16 x 16
A = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Nomber of Bars = Ast/A = 4589 / 201 = 22.83 say = 23 No.
Hence Provided 15 bars of 16 mm F bar, placed at bottom and 8 nos. rest bar placed at top tier,
keeping a clear distance of 25 mm between the two tier , keep a nominal cover , mm f bars @
Use 25mm f spacer bars at 1 m c/c

10015 mm2
Ast =
using 20 mm bars = 3.14xdia2 3.14 x 20 x 20
A = =
4 x100 4 x 100
Nomber of Bars = Ast/A = 10015 / 314 = 31.89 say = 32 No.
Hence Provided 32 bars of 20 mm F bar, at top , in one tier, keep a nominal cover ,

(F) Curtailement of reinforcement


The bending at any point distance x meters from the center of the span is given by
wL2 wx2 wx2 where the moment M1
M1 = x1000 = M1 - x 1000
8 2 2 and M are in N-mm unit
At the point where compressive reinfrocement is not required, the bending moment should be equal to M
wx2
\ M1 = M - x 1000
2
2(M1 -M) 2M2 2 x 444349580
\ x = = = = 3.90
1000w 1000w 1000 x 61220
Hence at x = 3.90 m from the center, copmressive reinforcement is no longer required and
it may, there fore , curtailed. However, curtail only 16 bars and continue ###bars upto supports
At this section bending moment M1 on;y. Hence tensile reinforcement required =A st1 = 725
which will need only 15 bars . Hence curtailed 8 bars of 2nd tier at this point and continue rest of the
bars at supports.

(G) Shear reinforcement


Near the support, where the S.F. is maximum, the section is singly reinfoced
(since the two compressive reinforcing bars serve as holding bars of the strirrups)
Available effective depth = 600 - 30 - 8 = 562 mm
V 244880
tv = = = 1.45 N / mm2
bd 300 x 562
Available Ast = 15 x 201 = 3081 mm2
100Ast 100
\ = x 3081 = 1.83 %
bd 300 x 562
Hence from Table permissible shear (tc)= 1.83 % steel = 0.47 N/mm2 < 1.45
which is < than the nominal shear stress hence shear reinforcement is Required
Vc = Tc.b.d = 0.47 x 300 x 562 = ### N
Vs = V -Vc = 244880 - ### = ### N
3.14xdia2 3.14 x 8 x 8
using 8 mm 2 leg strirrup Asv = = 2 x =
4 x100 4 x 100
ssv x Asv x d 230 x 562.0 x 100.5
\ Sv = = = 78.41 mm say
Vs ###
pk_nandwana@yahoo.co.in
However, minimum shear reinforcement is governed by expression
2.175 x Asv x fy = 2.175 x 100.5 x 415 = 302 mm
Sv =
b 300
Subject to maximum of 0.75d or b which ever is less.= 0.75 x 562 = 421.5 > 300
Hence provide the 8 mm strirrups @ 70 mm c/c

(H) Check for devlopment length :-


The code stipulates that at the simple supports, where reinforcement is confined
1.3xM1
by a compressive reaction, the diameter of the reinforcement be such that + L0 >
V
M 1
= moment of resistance of section, assuming all reinforcement stress to sst
230 x 3081 x 0.904 x 562
= = 360 x 10 6 N-mm
1000000
V = 244880 N and L0 = Sum of anchore value of hooks
Let us provide a support equal to width of wall - cover, i.e. 300 - 30 = 270 mm
Let the clear side cover x' = 30 mm . For a angle 90 0 bend having anchorege value of 8
ls 270
we have, L0 =( - x' ) =( - 30 ) = 105 mm
2 2
1.3 xM1 360 x 10 6
+ L0 = 1.3 x + 105 = 2016 mm
V 244880
f s st 16 x 230.0
Devlopment length = = = 719 mm
4 tbd 4 x( 1.6 x 0.8 )
Alternatively, Ld = 45 F = 45 x 16 = 720 mm
M1
Thus = 1.3x + L0 > Ld
V
= 2016 > 720 Hence Code requirement are satisfied

3 Design of tower:-
(A) Loading and moments:- Refer to fig.1
Wind load on tank 8.00 x 4.50 x 1.00 = 36.00 kN

(B) Load on coloumns:-


Asumption Tank wall Thickness = 0.45 m
Size of column = 0.30 x 0.30 m
Dead weight of tank 2 x 8.00 x 4.50 x 0.45 x 24 =
2 x 8.00 x 4.50 x 0.45 x 24 =
Sub Total =
Weight of water 288.00 x 9.80 =
Self weight of columns 4 x 0.30 x 0.30 x 6.00 x 24 =
Self weight of Braces` 2 x 0.30 x 0.30 x 6.00 x 24 =
2 x 0.30 x 0.30 x 6.00 x 24 =
Total dead load=

Dead load per column = 4482 / 4 = 1121 kN


Shear force in each column due to wind = 36.00 / 4 = 9 kN
Bending moment in column = 9 x 2.25 = 20.25 kN.m
If v = direct laod due to wind, taking moment about B, we have
2 v x 8.00 + 20.25 x 4.00 = 36.00 x 9
\ v =( 324 - 81 )/ 16 = 15.19 kN
(C ) Design of column section
Size of column 300 x 300 mm
Axial load = p = 1121 + 15.19 = 1136 kN
Bending moment =M = 20.25 kN-m
Eccentricity e = 20.25 x 1000 x 1000 = 18 mm
1136 x 1000
The load and eccentricity is small try 0.8 % steel of concrete section
Ast = 0.8 x 300 x 300 = 720 mm2
100
Provide 16 mm f bars Nos of bars = 720 / 201 = 4 Nos.
Atcual Ast provided = 804 mm2
Ac =( 300 x 300 )+( 1.5 x 13.33 x 804 )'= ### mm2
300 x 300 + 3
1.5 x 13.33 x 804 x 100 2
le =
12
= 835759800 mm4 or 8.358 x 10'8 mm4 Using cover 50 mm
(D) Stress in concrete
1136 x 1000
compressive stress = = 10.71 N/mm2
106075.98

20.25 x 1000 x 1000 x 150


Bending stress = = 3.63
835759800
s'cc s'cb 10.71 3.63
\ + < 1 = + = 2.661 > 1 Fail
scc scb 5 7
(E) Lateral reinforcement:-
Diameter of tie = 16 / 4 = 4 mm
Use = 5 mm F bars for tie
Picth shall be at least of
(a) Least lateral diamention of columns = 300 mm
(b) 16 time of longitudinal bars 16 x 16 = 256 mm
48 time of lateral reinforcement 48 x 5 = 240 mm
Using 5 mm tie @ 240 mm c/c
(F) Design of braces
Moment in brace = 2 x 9 x 1.5 = 27 kN-m
Moment in brace 27
Shear force in brace = = = 6.75 kN
half length of brace 4
Size of braces asume '= 300 x 300 mm cover = 30
M 27.00 x 1000 x 1000
Ast = = = 583
sst.j.d 190 x 0.903 x 270
But minimum area of steel is given by
0.85 bd 0.85 x 300 x 270
Ast = = = 166
fy 415
Provide 12 mm f bars Nos of bars = 583 / 113 = 6 Nos.
Atcual Ast provided = 678 mm 2
Both at top and bottom with cover mm
% of steel provided 678 x 100 / 300 x 270 = 0.84 %
V 6.75 x 1000
Nominal shear stress tv= = 0.083
bd 300 x 270
From table Tc = 0.36 N/mm2 0.083 < 0.36
Nominal shear reinforcement are provided
use 6 mm 2 legged strirrups , the spacing is given by,
Asv x fy 2 x 28.26 x 415
sy = = = 190 mm <
0.4 x b 0.40 x 300
Provide 6 mm 2 Legged F bars @ 190 mm c/c

4 shown in drawing.
34 26

288000 Ltr

(For Tank)
9800 N/m3

N/mm2

N/mm2

ere horizontal water

m will bend as
d by moment
of D.
34300 N-m

L2
P
###
A E B
tive and anticlock
while the fixed end p
nt of inertia l for

F B
ution factor p p

D L C
Fig 1
114333 N-m/m

114333 N-m/m

114333 N-m/m

mm

137200 N
137200 N

d to both bending in
on. Hence
at ends (causing
nd, at the level of
water face.

314 mm2

mm
s to be provided at
the above spacing

ner of steel from


Design constants
314 mm2
mm
70 mm
form ends.
140 mm c/c.

314 mm2
mm
of short span.
long walls where
quired. Similarlly,
istance B/4= 2.00
orcement on each

mm2
m2 steel area vertically
e as distribution

78.5 mm2

mm
of long wall

o way slab
mm
N/m
N/m
N/m
N/m

(see table)
361590000 N-mm
227517000 N-mm

N-mm

mm
= 20

mm

30 mm
mm
mm
m
1056 mm

201 mm2

73 mm
m
mm
edge of the slab
center of support,
845 mm
1056 mm
792 mm2

50 mm2

60 mm

113 mm2

64 mm
m
120 mm
mm
edge of the slab
center of support,
845 mm

160268.333
N/mm2
nt is satisfied ;

1884 mm2

160268 N

mm

mm

are satisfied
by Ld/3
300 mm

N/mm2
nt is satisfied ;

1884 mm2

160268 N

mm

mm

sfied

m from slab edge

78.5 mm2

38 mm
reinfrcement in

n direction.

n direction.

Increase depth of beam

N/m

N-m
N-mm

mm above

82850420 N/mm

N/mm
cements.

mm2

201 mm2
No.
placed at top tier,
30 mm

314 mm2

No.
30 mm

given by
moment M1
e in N-mm unit
be equal to M 1

equired and
supports
mm2
ue rest of the

N/mm2

157.0 mm2

120 mm

min. 300
s confined
Ld

mm
value of 8F,
mm

mm

Increase depth of beam

N/m

N-m
N-mm

mm above

82850420 N/mm

N/mm
cements.
mm2

201 mm2

No.
placed at top tier,
mm f bars mm@

314 mm2

No.
30 mm

given by
moment M1
e in N-mm unit
be equal to M 1

equired and
supports
mm2
ue rest of the

N/mm2
100.5 mm2

70 mm

min. 300

s confined

Ld

mm
value of 8F,
mm

mm

thickness of wall
9.00 m

Length
8.00 m
8.00 m width
778 kN
778 kN
1556 kN
2822 kN
52 kN
26 kN 4.50 m height
26 kN
4482 kN

8.00
36.00 4.50 m
Water tank

w/4 3.00 m
w/4
D Braces C

w/4 3.00 m
1.5 w/4
A B

8.00
h = 100

8.00 m

N/mm2

Fail
wind pressure 36.00
Wind load analyssis of water tank

Fig 1

mm
mm
mm

kN-m

kN

mm2

mm2

with cover mm 30
%
N/mm2

are provided

202.5
VALUES OF DESIGN CONSTANTS
Grade of concrete M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 Grade of concrete
Modular Ratio 18.67 13.33 10.98 9.33 8.11 7.18
scbc N/mm2 5 7 8.5 10 11.5 13
m scbc 93.33 93.33 93.33 93.33 93.33 93.33
kc 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
(a) sst =
jc 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867 0.867
140
N/mm2 Rc 0.867 1.214 1.474 1.734 1.994 2.254
(Fe 250)
Pc (%) 0.714 1 1.214 1.429 1.643 1.857
kc 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329 0.329
(b) sst = jc 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89
190
Rc 0.732 1.025 1.244 1.464 1.684 1.903
N/mm2
Pc (%) 0.433 0.606 0.736 0.866 0.997 1.127
kc 0.289 0.289 0.289 0.289 0.289 0.289
(c ) sst =
jc 0.904 0.904 0.904 0.904 0.904 0.904
230
N/mm2 Rc 0.653 0.914 1.11 1.306 1.502 1.698
(Fe 415)
Pc (%) 0.314 0.44 0.534 0.628 0.722 0.816
kc 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.253 0.253
(d) sst =
jc 0.916 0.916 0.916 0.914 0.916 0.916
275
N/mm2 Rc 0.579 0.811 0.985 1.159 1.332 1.506
(Fe 500)
Pc (%) 0.23 0.322 0.391 0.46 0.53 0.599

Permissible shear stress Table t v in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


100As Permissible shear stress in concrete tv N/mm2
bd M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40
< 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.25 0.22 0.22 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23
0.50 0.29 0.30 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.32
0.75 0.34 0.35 0.36 0.37 0.37 0.38
1.00 0.37 0.39 0.40 0.41 0.42 0.42
1.25 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.46
1.50 0.42 0.45 0.46 0.48 0.49 0.49
1.75 0.44 0.47 0.49 0.50 0.52 0.52
2.00 0.44 0.49 0.51 0.53 0.54 0.55
2.25 0.44 0.51 0.53 0.55 0.56 0.57
2.50 0.44 0.51 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.60
2.75 0.44 0.51 0.56 0.58 0.60 0.62
3.00 and above 0.44 0.51 0.57 0.6 0.62 0.63

Maximum shear stress tc.max in concrete (IS : 456-2000)

Grade of concrete M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40


tc.max 1.6 1.8 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.5
Shear stress tc Reiforcement %
100As 100As
M-20 M-20
bd bd
0.15 0.18 0.18 0.15
0.16 0.18 0.19 0.18
0.17 0.18 0.2 0.21
0.18 0.19 0.21 0.24
0.19 0.19 0.22 0.27
0.2 0.19 0.23 0.3
0.21 0.2 0.24 0.32
0.22 0.2 0.25 0.35
0.23 0.2 0.26 0.38
0.24 0.21 0.27 0.41
0.25 0.21 0.28 0.44
0.26 0.21 0.29 0.47
0.27 0.22 0.30 0.5
0.28 0.22 0.31 0.55
0.29 0.22 0.32 0.6
0.3 0.23 0.33 0.65
0.31 0.23 0.34 0.7
0.32 0.24 0.35 0.75
0.33 0.24 0.36 0.82
0.34 0.24 0.37 0.88
0.35 0.25 0.38 0.94
0.36 0.25 0.39 1.00
0.37 0.25 0.4 1.08
0.38 0.26 0.41 1.16
0.39 0.26 0.42 1.25
0.4 0.26 0.43 1.33
0.41 0.27 0.44 1.41
0.42 0.27 0.45 1.50
0.43 0.27 0.46 1.63
0.44 0.28 0.46 1.64
0.45 0.28 0.47 1.75
0.46 0.28 0.48 1.88
0.47 0.29 0.49 2.00
0.48 0.29 0.50 2.13
0.49 0.29 0.51 2.25
0.5 0.30
0.51 0.30
0.52 0.30
0.53 0.30
0.54 0.30
0.55 0.31
0.56 0.31
0.57 0.31
0.58 0.31
0.59 0.31
0.6 0.32
0.61 0.32
0.62 0.32
0.63 0.32
0.64 0.32
0.65 0.33
0.66 0.33
0.67 0.33
0.68 0.33
0.69 0.33
0.7 0.34
0.71 0.34
0.72 0.34
0.73 0.34
0.74 0.34
0.75 0.35
0.76 0.35
0.77 0.35
0.78 0.35
0.79 0.35
0.8 0.35
0.81 0.35
0.82 0.36
0.83 0.36
0.84 0.36
0.85 0.36
0.86 0.36
0.87 0.36
0.88 0.37
0.89 0.37
0.9 0.37
0.91 0.37
0.92 0.37
0.93 0.37
0.94 0.38
0.95 0.38
0.96 0.38
0.97 0.38
0.98 0.38
0.99 0.38
1.00 0.39
1.01 0.39
1.02 0.39
1.03 0.39
1.04 0.39
1.05 0.39
1.06 0.39
1.07 0.39
1.08 0.4
1.09 0.4
1.10 0.4
1.11 0.4
1.12 0.4
1.13 0.4
1.14 0.4
1.15 0.4
1.16 0.41
1.17 0.41
1.18 0.41
1.19 0.41
1.20 0.41
1.21 0.41
1.22 0.41
1.23 0.41
1.24 0.41
1.25 0.42
1.26 0.42
1.27 0.42
1.28 0.42
1.29 0.42
1.30 0.42
1.31 0.42
1.32 0.42
1.33 0.43
1.34 0.43
1.35 0.43
1.36 0.43
1.37 0.43
1.38 0.43
1.39 0.43
1.40 0.43
1.41 0.44
1.42 0.44
1.43 0.44
1.44 0.44
1.45 0.44
1.46 0.44
1.47 0.44
1.48 0.44
1.49 0.44
1.50 0.45
1.51 0.45
1.52 0.45
1.53 0.45
1.54 0.45
1.55 0.45
1.56 0.45
1.57 0.45
1.58 0.45
1.59 0.45
1.60 0.45
1.61 0.45
1.62 0.45
1.63 0.46
1.64 0.46
1.65 0.46
1.66 0.46
1.67 0.46
1.68 0.46
1.69 0.46
1.70 0.46
1.71 0.46
1.72 0.46
1.73 0.46
1.74 0.46
1.75 0.47
1.76 0.47
1.77 0.47
1.78 0.47
1.79 0.47
1.80 0.47
1.81 0.47
1.82 0.47
1.83 0.47
1.84 0.47
1.85 0.47
1.86 0.47
1.87 0.47
1.88 0.48
1.89 0.48
1.90 0.48
1.91 0.48
1.92 0.48
1.93 0.48
1.94 0.48
1.95 0.48
1.96 0.48
1.97 0.48
Table 10.6Bending moment cofficientsfor rectangular Panels supportedon four sid
1.98 0.48
1.99 0.48 short span cofficie
2.00 0.49 case No.
Type of paneland moment
2.01 0.49 1 ###
2.02 0.49
2.03 0.49 Interior panels
2.04 0.49 1 Negative moment at continuous edge 0.032 0
2.05 0.49 Positive moment at mid span 0.024 0
2.06 0.49 One short edge discontinuos
2.07 0.49 2 Negative moment at continuous edge 0.037 0
2.08 0.49 Positive moment at mid span 0.028 0
2.09 0.49 One long edge discontinuos
2.10 0.49 3 Negative moment at continuous edge 0.037 0
2.11 0.49 Positive moment at mid span 0.028 0
2.12 0.49 Two adjacent edge discontinuos
2.13 0.50 4 Negative moment at continuous edge 0.047 0
2.14 0.50 Positive moment at mid span 0.035 0
2.15 0.50 5 Two short edge discontinuos
2.16 0.50 Negative moment at continuous edge 0.045 0
2.17 0.50 Positive moment at mid span 0.035 0
2.18 0.50 6 Two long edge discontinuos
2.19 0.50 Negative moment at continuous edge - -
2.20 0.50 Positive moment at mid span 0.035 0
2.21 0.50 7 Three edge discontiuos
2.22 0.50 one long edge continuos
2.23 0.50 Negative moment at continuous edge 0.057 0
2.24 0.50 Positive moment at mid span 0.043 0
2.25 0.51 8 Three edge discontiuos
2.26 0.51 one short edge continuos
2.27 0.51 Negative moment at continuous edge - -
2.28 0.51 Positive moment at mid span 0.043 0
2.29 0.51 9 four edge discontinuos
2.30 0.51 Positive moment at mid span 0.056 0
2.31 0.51
2.32 0.51
2.33 0.51
2.34 0.51
2.35 0.51
four edge discontinuos
2.36 0.51 positive Long span
2.37 0.51 moment at cofficiet ay
ly / lx mid span for all value
2.38 0.51
2.39 0.51 ax of ly/lx

2.40 0.51 1 0.056 0.056


2.41 0.51 1.1 0.064 0.056
2.42 0.51 1.2 0.072 0.056
2.43 0.51 1.3 0.079 0.056
2.44 0.51 1.4 0.085 0.056
2.45 0.51 1.5 0.089 0.056
2.46 0.51 1.75 0.1 0.056
2.47 0.51 2 0.107 0.056
2.48 0.51
2.49 0.51
2.50 0.51
2.51 0.51
2.52 0.51
2.53 0.51
2.54 0.51
2.55 0.51
2.56 0.51
2.57 0.51
2.58 0.51
2.59 0.51
2.60 0.51
2.61 0.51
2.62 0.51
2.63 0.51
2.64 0.51
2.65 0.51
2.66 0.51
2.67 0.51
2.68 0.51
2.69 0.51
2.70 0.51
2.71 0.51
2.72 0.51
2.73 0.51
2.74 0.51
2.75 0.51
2.76 0.51
2.77 0.51
2.78 0.51
2.79 0.51
2.80 0.51
2.81 0.51
2.82 0.51
2.83 0.51
2.84 0.51
2.85 0.51
2.86 0.51
2.87 0.51
2.88 0.51
2.89 0.51
2.90 0.51
2.91 0.51
2.92 0.51
2.93 0.51
2.94 0.51
2.95 0.51
2.96 0.51
2.97 0.51
2.98 0.51
2.99 0.51
3.00 0.51
3.01 0.51
3.02 0.51
3.03 0.51
3.04 0.51
3.05 0.51
3.06 0.51
3.07 0.51
3.08 0.51
3.09 0.51
3.10 0.51
3.11 0.51
3.12 0.51
3.13 0.51
3.14 0.51
3.15 0.51
Permissible Bond stress Table t bd in concrete (IS : 456-2000)
Grade of concrete M-10 M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40 M-45
tbd (N / mm2) -- 0.6 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

Development Length in tension

Grade of Plain M.S. Bars H.Y.S.D. Bars


concrete tbd (N / mm2) kd = Ld F tbd (N / mm2) kd = Ld F
M 15 0.6 58 0.96 60
M 20 0.8 44 1.28 45
M 25 0.9 39 1.44 40
M 30 1 35 1.6 36
M 35 1.1 32 1.76 33
M 40 1.2 29 1.92 30
M 45 1.3 27 2.08 28
M 50 1.4 25 2.24 26

Permissible stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)


Permission stress in compression (N/mm2) Permissible stress in bond (Average) for
Grade of Bending acbc Direct (acc) plain bars in tention (N/mm2)
concrete
(N/mm2) Kg/m2 (N/mm2) Kg/m2 (N/mm2) in kg/m2
M 10 3.0 300 2.5 250 -- --
M 15 5.0 500 4.0 400 0.6 60
M 20 7.0 700 5.0 500 0.8 80
M 25 8.5 850 6.0 600 0.9 90
M 30 10.0 1000 8.0 800 1.0 100
M 35 11.5 1150 9.0 900 1.1 110
M 40 13.0 1300 10.0 1000 1.2 120
M 45 14.5 1450 11.0 1100 1.3 130
M 50 16.0 1600 12.0 1200 1.4 140

Permissible direct tensile stress in concrete (IS : 456-2000)

Grade of concrete M-10 M-15 M-20 M-25 M-30 M-35 M-40


sct.max 1.2 2.0 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4
Value of angle
Degree sin Degree cos tan cot
1 0.017 1 1.000 0.017 57.295
1.5 0.026 1.5 1.000 0.262 56.300
2 0.035 2 0.999 0.035 28.644
2.5 0.044 2.5 0.999 0.044 22.913
3 0.052 3 0.999 0.052 19.083
3.5 0.061 3.5 0.998 0.061 16.362
4 0.070 4 0.998 0.070 14.311
4.5 0.078 4.5 0.997 0.079 12.707
5 0.087 5 0.996 0.087 11.437
5.5 0.096 5.5 0.995 0.096 10.385
6 0.104 6 0.995 0.105 9.563
6.5 0.113 6.5 0.994 0.114 8.777
7 0.122 7 0.993 0.123 8.149
7.5 0.131 7.5 0.991 0.132 7.597
8 0.139 8 0.990 0.140 7.119
8.5 0.148 8.5 0.989 0.149 6.691
9 0.156 9 0.988 0.158 6.315
9.5 0.165 9.5 0.986 0.168 5.963
10 0.174 10 0.985 0.176 5.673
10.5 0.182 10.5 0.983 0.185 5.396
11 0.191 11 0.981 0.194 5.142
11.5 0.199 11.5 0.980 0.203 4.915
12 0.208 12 0.978 0.213 4.704
12.5 0.819 12.5 0.976 0.839 1.192
13 0.225 13 0.974 0.231 4.332
13.5 0.233 13.5 0.972 0.240 4.166
14 0.242 14 0.970 0.249 4.011
14.5 0.250 14.5 0.968 0.259 3.867
15 0.259 15 0.966 0.268 3.732
15.5 0.259 15.5 0.964 0.269 3.723
16 0.276 16 0.961 0.287 3.488
16.5 0.284 16.5 0.959 0.296 3.376
17 0.292 17 0.956 0.306 3.272
17.5 0.301 17.5 0.954 0.315 3.172
18 0.309 18 0.951 0.325 3.078
18.5 0.317 18.5 0.948 0.335 2.989
19 0.326 19 0.946 0.344 2.905
19.5 0.334 19.5 0.943 0.354 2.824
20 0.342 20 0.940 0.364 2.747
20.5 0.350 20.5 0.937 0.374 2.674
21 0.358 21 0.934 0.384 2.605
21.5 0.367 21.5 0.930 0.394 2.539
22 0.375 22 0.927 0.404 2.475
22.5 0.383 22.5 0.924 0.414 2.414
23 0.391 23 0.921 0.424 2.356
23.5 0.399 23.5 0.917 0.435 2.300
24 0.407 24 0.924 0.440 2.271
24.5 0.415 24.5 0.910 0.456 2.194
25 0.422 25 0.906 0.466 2.148
25.5 0.431 25.5 0.905 0.476 2.103
26 0.438 26 0.898 0.488 2.049
26.5 0.446 26.5 0.895 0.499 2.006
27 0.454 27 0.891 0.510 1.963
27.5 0.462 27.5 0.887 0.521 1.921
28 0.469 28 0.883 0.532 1.881
28.5 0.477 28.5 0.879 0.543 1.842
29 0.485 29 0.875 0.554 1.804
29.5 0.492 29.5 0.870 0.566 1.767
30 0.500 30 0.866 0.577 1.732
30.5 0.508 30.5 0.862 0.589 1.698
31 0.515 31 0.857 0.601 1.664
31.5 0.522 31.5 0.853 0.613 1.632
32 0.530 32 0.848 0.625 1.600
32.5 0.537 32.5 0.843 0.637 1.570
33 0.545 33 0.839 0.649 1.540
33.5 0.552 33.5 0.834 0.662 1.511
34 0.559 34 0.829 0.675 1.483
34.5 0.566 34.5 0.834 0.679 1.473
35 0.573 35 0.819 0.700 1.429
35.5 0.581 35.5 0.814 0.713 1.402
36 0.588 36 0.809 0.726 1.377
36.5 0.595 36.5 0.804 0.740 1.351
37 0.602 37 0.799 0.754 1.327
37.5 0.609 37.5 0.793 0.767 1.303
38 0.616 38 0.788 0.781 1.280
38.5 0.623 38.5 0.783 0.795 1.257
39 0.629 39 0.777 0.810 1.235
39.5 0.636 39.5 0.772 0.824 1.213
40 0.643 40 0.766 0.839 1.191
40.5 0.649 40.5 0.760 0.854 1.171
41 0.656 41 0.755 0.869 1.150
41.5 0.663 41.5 0.749 0.885 1.130
42 0.669 42 0.743 0.900 1.111
42.5 0.676 42.5 0.737 0.916 1.091
43 0.682 43 0.731 0.933 1.072
43.5 0.688 43.5 0.725 0.949 1.054
44 0.695 44 0.719 0.966 1.036
44.5 0.701 44.5 0.713 0.983 1.018
45 0.707 45 0.707 1.000 1.000
45.5 0.713 45.5 0.701 1.018 0.983
46 0.719 46 0.695 1.036 0.966
46.5 0.725 46.5 0.688 1.054 0.949
47 0.731 47 0.682 1.072 0.933
47.5 0.737 47.5 0.676 1.091 0.916
48 0.742 48 0.669 1.109 0.902
48.5 0.749 48.5 0.663 1.130 0.885
49 0.755 49 0.656 1.150 0.869
49.5 0.760 49.5 0.649 1.171 0.854
50 0.766 50 0.643 1.192 0.839
50.5 0.772 50.5 0.636 1.213 0.824
51 0.777 51 0.629 1.235 0.810
51.5 0.786 51.5 0.623 1.262 0.792
52 0.788 52 0.616 1.280 0.781
52.5 0.793 52.5 0.609 1.303 0.767
53 0.799 53 0.602 1.327 0.754
53.5 0.804 53.5 0.595 1.351 0.740
54 0.809 54 0.588 1.376 0.727
54.5 0.814 54.5 0.581 1.402 0.713
55 0.819 55 0.574 1.428 0.700
55.5 0.824 55.5 0.566 1.455 0.687
56 0.829 56 0.559 1.483 0.675
56.5 0.834 56.5 0.552 1.511 0.662
57 0.839 57 0.545 1.540 0.649
57.5 0.843 57.5 0.537 1.570 0.637
58 0.848 58 0.530 1.600 0.625
58.5 0.853 58.5 0.522 1.632 0.613
59 0.857 59 0.515 1.664 0.601
59.5 0.862 59.5 0.508 1.698 0.589
60 0.866 60 0.500 1.732 0.577
60.5 0.870 60.5 0.492 1.767 0.566
61 0.875 61 0.485 1.804 0.554
61.5 0.879 61.5 0.477 1.842 0.543
62 0.883 62 0.470 1.880 0.532
62.5 0.887 62.5 0.462 1.921 0.521
63 0.891 63 0.454 1.963 0.510
63.5 0.895 63.5 0.446 2.006 0.498
64 0.899 64 0.438 2.051 0.488
64.5 0.903 64.5 0.431 2.097 0.477
65 0.906 65 0.423 2.145 0.466
65.5 0.910 65.5 0.415 2.195 0.456
66 0.914 66 0.407 2.246 0.445
66.5 0.917 66.5 0.399 2.300 0.435
67 0.921 67 0.391 2.356 0.424
67.5 0.924 67.5 0.383 2.414 0.414
68 0.927 68 0.375 2.475 0.404
68.5 0.930 68.5 0.819 1.136 0.880
69 0.934 69 0.358 2.605 0.384
69.5 0.937 69.5 0.350 2.674 0.374
70 0.940 70 0.342 2.747 0.364
70.5 0.943 70.5 0.556 1.696 0.590
71 0.946 71 0.326 2.904 0.344
71.5 0.948 71.5 0.317 2.989 0.335
72 0.951 72 0.309 3.078 0.325
72.5 0.954 72.5 0.301 3.172 0.315
73 0.956 73 0.292 3.271 0.306
73.5 0.959 73.5 0.284 3.376 0.296
74 0.961 74 0.276 3.488 0.287
74.5 0.964 74.5 0.267 3.606 0.277
75 0.966 75 0.259 3.732 0.268
75.5 0.968 75.5 0.250 3.868 0.259
76 0.970 76 0.242 4.011 0.249
76.5 0.982 76.5 0.233 4.209 0.238
77 0.974 77 0.225 4.332 0.231
77.5 0.976 77.5 0.216 4.511 0.222
78 0.978 78 0.208 4.705 0.213
78.5 0.980 78.5 0.199 4.915 0.203
79 0.982 79 0.191 5.145 0.194
79.5 0.983 79.5 0.182 5.396 0.185
80 0.985 80 0.174 5.673 0.176
80.5 0.986 80.5 0.165 5.977 0.167
81 0.988 81 0.156 6.315 0.158
81.5 0.989 81.5 0.148 6.691 0.149
82 0.999 82 0.139 7.178 0.139
82.5 0.991 82.5 0.131 7.597 0.132
83 0.993 83 0.122 8.145 0.123
83.5 0.994 83.5 0.113 8.777 0.114
84 0.995 84 0.105 9.517 0.105
84.5 0.995 84.5 0.096 10.389 0.096
85 0.996 85 0.087 11.431 0.087
85.5 0.997 85.5 0.078 12.716 0.079
86 0.998 86 0.070 14.302 0.070
86.5 0.998 86.5 0.061 16.362 0.061
87 0.999 87 0.052 19.083 0.052
87.5 0.999 87.5 0.044 22.913 0.044
88 0.999 88 0.035 28.637 0.035
88.5 1.000 88.5 0.026 38.299 0.026
89 0.9998 89 0.017 57.295 0.017
89.5 0.9999 89.5 0.009 114.931 0.009
90 1.000 90 0.000 1.000 0.000

ctangular Panels supportedon four side with provision for torsion at corners (IS456 - 2000)
short span cofficient axfor value of Ly/Lx
Long span
cofficiet ay
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2 for all value
of ly/lx

0.043 0.047 0.051 0.053 0.06 0.065 0.032


0.036 0.039 0.039 0.041 0.045 0.049 0.024

0.048 0.051 0.055 0.057 0.064 0.068 0.037


0.036 0.039 0.041 0.044 0.048 0.052 0.028

0.052 0.057 0.063 0.067 0.077 0.085 0.037


0.039 0.044 0.047 0.051 0.059 0.065 0.028

0.06 0.065 0.071 0.075 0.084 0.091 0.047


0.045 0.049 0.053 0.056 0.063 0.069 0.035

0.052 0.056 0.059 0.06 0.065 0.069 -


0.04 0.043 0.044 0.045 0.049 0.052 0.035

- - - - - - 0.045
0.051 0.057 0.063 0.068 0.08 0.088 0.035

0.071 0.076 0.08 0.084 0.091 0.097 -


0.053 0.057 0.06 0.064 0.069 0.073 0.043

- - - - - - 0.057
0.059 0.065 0.071 0.076 0.087 0.096 0.043

0.072 0.079 0.085 0.089 0.1 0.107 0.056

Modification factore
% steel Fy=415
fe= 240
0 -
0.1 2
0.15 1.9
0.2 1.8
0.25 1.7
0.3 1.6
0.35 1.5
0.4 1.4
0.45 1.35
0.5 1.3
0.55 1.25
0.6 1.2
0.7 1.15
0.8 1.12
0.9 1.1
1 1
1.1 0.95
1.2 0.93
1.3 0.91
1.4 0.9
1.5 0.9
1.6 0.89
1.7 0.89
1.8 0.88
1.9 0.88
2 0.86
2.1 0.86
2.2 0.85
2.3 0.85
2.4 0.84
2.5 0.84
2.6 0.83
2.7 0.83
2.8 0.82
2.9 0.82
3 0.81
M-50
1.4