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Q: What is crime? Describe the type of crime?

Crime: Crime is a violation of criminal law for which some governmental authority applies
formal penalties. Laws divide crimes into categories depending on the severity of the offence
the age of the offender the potential punishment & the court hold justification over the case.
Crime represents a deviation from social norms administered by the state.

Types of crime:

1.Victimless Crime: Sociologist use the term victimless crime to describe the willing
exchange among adults of widely desired but illegal goods and services. Examples: prostitution,
drug abuse, gambling are the examples of victimless crime.

2.Professional crime: A professional criminal is a person who pursues crime as a day to day
occupation skilled techniques & enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.
Some professional criminals specialized in burglar hijacking of cargo pick pocketing and
shoplifting. Such people has acquired skills that reduce the likelihood of arrest convicting &

3.Organised crime: organized crime is the way of a group that regulates relation among
criminal enterprise involved in illegal activities including prostitution, gambling, the smuggling &
sale of illegal drugs. Organized dominates the world of illegal business just as large corporations
dominate the conventional business world. It allocates territory sets prices and acts.

There has always been a global element in organized crime. Transnational

organized crime includes drug and smuggling money laundering and trafficking in illegal
immigrant and stolen goods.

4.white collar technology based crime: in white collar technology based crime illegl acts
committed in the course of business activities often by affluent respectable people. Example:
income tax evasion, stock manipulation, consumer brand, bribery and extraction of kickback

A new type of white-collar crime has emerged in reseeds computer crime.

The use of high technology allows crime to carry outs electronic brand.

The term recently include offences by businesses and corporations. Corporate crime or any act
by a corporation that is punishable by the government. Corporations may engage in
anticompetitive behavior environment pollution tax brand, the production of unsafe goods
bribery and corruption, health and safety violations.
5.Translational Crime: Translational Crime occur across multiple national boarders. In the
20th century translational crime grow to embrace trafficking in endangered spices, drugs stolen
and antiquities.

Types of transnational crime:

1. Computer crime
2. Environmental crime
3. Hijacking of air plane
4. Illegal drug trade
5. Networking of criminal organizations
6. Sea piracy
7. Terrorism
8. Theft of art and cultural objects
9. Trafficking in body parts
10. Trafficking in human beings
Q:What Is Social Mobility?
Social mobility: the term social mobility refers to the movement of individuals or groups from
one position to another. The ascent of a person from a poor background to a position of
prestige, power or financial reward is an example of social mobility.

Q: What is culture? Descrive the elements of culture?

Culture : culture is the totally of learned , socially transmitted customs, knowledge material
objects and behavior. It includes the ideas, values, and artifacts of groups of people. Sometimes
people refers to a particular person as very cultured or to a city as having lots of culture.

In sociological term, culture does not refer solely to the fine arts and refined
intellectual taste. It consists of all objects and ideas within a society including slag
words, ice cream corns, and rock music. Sociologists consider both a potential by
Rembrandt and the work of graffiti spray painters to be aspects of culture.

Each people has a distinctive culture with its own characteristic ways of gathering
and preparing food, constructing homes, structuring the family and promoting
standards of right and wrong.

Elements of culture: there are some elements of culture. These are

given bellow:
1. Language
2. Norms
3. Non-varbals
4. Values
5. Sanctions

1.Language: language is one of the major elements of culture that underline cultural is also an important component of cultural capital. It is the foundation of every
culture. language is an abstract system of word meanings and symbol of all aspects of
includes speech, written characters, numerals, symbols and nonverbal gestures and expressions
because language is the foundation of every culture.the ability to speak other language is
crucial to intercultural relations.

Language does not more than simply describe reality it also serves to shape the reality of a
culture. For example, most people in the united states cannot easily make the verbal
distinctions concerning snow and ice that are possible in the sami culture. As a result they are
less likely to notice such differences.

2.norms: norms are the established standards of behavior maintained by a society. For a norm
to become significant, it must be widely shared and understood. For example, in movie theaters
in the United States, we typically expect that people will be quiet while the film is shown. Of
course, the application of this norm can vary, depending on the particular film amd tyoe of
audience. People who are viewing a serious artistic film will be more likely to insists on the
norm of silence them those who are watching a slapstick comedy or horror movie.

Types of norms: sociologists distinguish between norms in two ways. first, norms are classified
as either formal or informal.

Formal norms: formal norms are generally have been written down and society strict
punishment for violators. In the United States, we often formalize norms into laws, which are
very precise in defining proper and improper behavior. Laws are just one example of formal

Informal norms: Informal norms are generally understood but not precisely recorded.
Standards of proper dress are a common example of informal norms. Our society has no specific
punishment or sanction for a person who cones to school, say, wearing a monkey suit. Making
fun of the nonconforming student is usually the most likely response.

Norms are also classified by their relatives importance to society. When classified in thes way
they are known as mores and folkways.
Mores: mores are norms deemed high necessary to the welfare of a society often because
they embody the most cherished principle of a people. Each society demands obedience to its
mores, violation can lead to severe penalties. Thus the United States has strong mores against
murder, treason and child abuse, which have been institutionalized into formal norms.

Folkways: Folkways are norms governing everyday behavior. Folkways play an important role
in shaping the daily behavior of member of a culture. Society is less likely to formalize folkways
then mores and their violation raises comparatively little concern. For example, walking up a
down escalator in a department store challenges our standards of appropriate behavior.

Values: values are these collective conceptions of what is considers good, desirable and proper
or bad, undesirable and improper in a culture. They indicate that what people in a given culture
prefer as well as what they find important and morally right.

Values influence peoples behavior and sever as criteria for evaluating actions of others.
The values norms and sanctions of a culture are often directly related. For example, if a culture
places a high value on the institution of marriage , it may have norms that prohibit the act of
adultery or make divorce difficult. If a culture views private property as a basic value. It will
probably have stiff laws against theft and vandalism.

Sanctions: Sanctions are penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm. the
concept of rewards is in this definition. Conformity to a norm can lead to positive sanctions such
as a party raise, a medal, a word of gratitude, or a pat on the back. Negative sanctions include
fines, threats, imprisonment and stares of contempt.