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THROUGH GEOMETALLURGICAL MODELLING

AUTHORS: D. BULLED AND C. MCINNES

ABSTRACT production forecast. The main sources chemistry parameters. A key to practical

of error are in the flotation test itself, the geometallurgical modelling is having a

The key to successful flotation plant geostatistical error (related to sample proven and affordable test that provides

design, production planning and mine/ density), and the model calibration error. the required data from small amounts of

mill optimisation is a solid understanding The latter is determined through plant available exploration drill core. This 3

of the resource to be processed. benchmarking. makes it possible to conduct enough

As advocated by the authors of this tests to attain metallurgical validity for

paper, the main components of INTRODUCTION insertion in the geological model. The

geometallurgical modelling of an orebody first section of the paper covers the

and its associated flotation plant are: Many mineral extraction operations are various modes for carrying out the

an ore sampling program and challenged on a daily basis with feed ore MinnovEX Flotation Test (MFT) and the

subsequent laboratory testing of these variability that impacts the throughput of information attained from these tests.

samples in order to extract process the grinding section and the subsequent

model parameters, concentrate grade and recovery that can Furthermore, the authors recognise that

geostatistical distribution throughout be produced. A key to maximising the a flotation circuit does not operate in

the resource model of the process value of a mining and processing facility isolation, but rather is strongly influenced

parameters, is to develop a prior understanding both by the feed ore delivered to the

calibration of the plant via of the characteristics of the feed ore mill and by the manner in which the

benchmarking (for existing operations), over the lifecycle of the operation from preceding grinding circuit processed that

and design and financial evaluation of the ore. In other words, a link is required

plant simulation using a system of project, through to monthly and yearly through geometallurgically enabled

process models and the distributed production forecasts and on-going circuit comminution and flotation simulation

metallurgical parameters (from step b) troubleshooting and optimisation. This tools. Considering just the flotation

as the data set. is achieved through the application of characteristics of the feed ore presents

geometallurgical modelling of an ore body. a partial picture; also of significant

It is important that the grinding and importance is knowledge of how the

flotation models are linked. For example, The main components of geometallurgical rock behaved in the grinding circuit from

a laboratory test conducted on a drill modelling are: a throughput and grind perspective.

core sample, intended to represent a an ore sampling program and Section 2 of the paper demonstrates this

portion of the orebody, is conducted at subsequent laboratory testing of these concept through a step-bystep example

a specific grind (represented by a P80). samples in order to extract process that tracks various blocks of ore from pit

However, when that ore is actually model parameters, through grinding to flotation feed.

processed through the plant it may geostatistical distribution throughout

well be (and in many cases most likely the resource model of the process The third of the paper section briefly

will be) at another P80-. Additionally, the parameters, discusses precision analysis. A benefit

flotation plant residence time will often calibration of the plant via of a statistical approach to geometallurgical

be determined solely by the 2 grinding benchmarking (for existing operations), modelling is that the precision of

circuit capacity and feed slurry density. and a design or production plan can be

In the case of SAG mill ball mill circuits, plant simulation using a system

the fluctuations in tonnage and grind of proven process models and the

are known to be high. The modelling distributed metallurgical parameters

approach described in this paper allows (from step b) as the geometallurgical

for changes in the measured flotation data set.

kinetic parameters in order to reflect the

expected grind as determined by the This paper will focus on the application

comminution process. of geometallurgical modelling concepts

to flotation circuit design and production

A valuable aspect of the geometallurgical forecasting.

modelling approach is the ability to

identify and quantify sources of error The first section of this paper describes

to obtain the precision of a design or the method of quantifying pulp

SGS MINERALS SERVICES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 2005-3 2

quantified through error analyses. With program that is simple, quick and can The pulp kinetic parameters are

modelling tools, laboratory tests and be done at the lowest possible cost determined from the MFT results by

geostatistics, there are quantifiable therefore allowing as many tests as applying a comprehensive parameter

sources of error at each step. This possible to be performed on individual extraction methodology that decouples

section of the paper provides an overview drill core samples to characterise the true flotation and entrainment, and

of error sources in each step of the flotation properties of the ore. then models the MFT according to

geometallurgical modelling process fundamental flotation principles [Dobby,

[Lozano, Bennett, 2003]. The objective of the MFT is to measure Savassi, 2005]. The analysis of each MFT

the pulp kinetics for each of the yields the following information, for each

bench-scale flotation tests mineral species in the ore at a set (pre- mineral (or minor element) of interest:

determined) reagent suite. The MFT is The maximum recovery (Rmax) and

Geometallurgical modelling can be designed to determine the kinetics cumulative frequency distribution of

defined as an approach that measures of mineral separation in the pulp phase rate constants for each mineral species

metallurgical variability within an ore exclusively, while froth effects in the at the test grind (described by Kavg and

body and quantifies the effect of this plant are later accounted for through alpha, the latter being a descriptor of

variability on the comminution and FLEET (Flotation Economic Evaluation the spread of rate constants).

metallurgical response of the ore, as it Tool) modelling. Further details on the The quantitative effect of grind on Kavg

pertains to full-scale production. The MFT can be found elsewhare [Dobby, and Rmax.

geometallurgical approach surpasses the Kosick, Amelunxen, 2002; Dobby, A standard set of Rmax and Kavg values

resource model as it encompasses not Savassi, 2005]. at a single grind-size2 common for the

only the variability of alteration, lithology full set of drill core samples, together

and metal grades, but also metallurgical In order to perform multiple tests in a with Rmax-slope parameters, all of which

process specific characteristics that quick and cost-effective manner, the may be distributed across the mine

influence the grinding and mineral MFTs are carried out in two forms: the block model (Rmax-slope is the change in

recovery characteristics of the ore full MFT and the mapping MFT. Once Rmax per one micron change in P80).

[Bennett, Lozano, 2004]. sufficient information about the kinetics

of the mineral components in the ore Table 1 summarises an example set

Since the success of the approach body is known (through completion of of pulp kinetic parameters that would

hinges on how well the variability of the sufficient full MFTs), then the method be determined for a typical copper

ore is represented, it is obvious that, for can be simplified for mapping purposes. porphyry material. A typical set of pulp

geometallurgical modelling purposes, The simplification resides mainly in kinetic parameters derived from an MFT

many data points from small scale reduced degree of screen analysis, performed on a drill core sample ground

tests are more valuable than a small which thereby reduces the number to 128m is shown on the left side of

number of detailed investigations. of samples submitted for chemical the table. The kinetic parameters from

Therefore, a standard low-cost test analyses. This can significantly lower the each MFT need to be reconciled to a

that can be performed on a small mass overall test cost, with little compromise standard grind before the parameters

of drill core material is essential. In in the quality of the results. Hence, more are distributed across a mine resource

4 order to maintain the integrity of drill core samples can be tested at the model. Therefore, the terms Rmax-slope

the geometallurgical model, it is also same project cost - ultimately leading to and Kavg-slope are used to correct the set

important that the parameters from each overall better accuracy in both design and of test kinetic parameters to a set of

test are primary1 characteristics that can production forecasting. standard kinetic parameters, as shown

be distributed across an ore block model on the right side of the table.

using standard geostatistical methods. At the commencement of a drill core test

Describing the floatability of an ore program, a decision would be made on

through a set of pulp kinetic parameters the proportion of full MFTs and mapping

for each of the mineral component of MFTs. This decision is based on the

the ore means that both the concentrate prerequisite that sufficient full tests are

grade and recovery can be calculated performed per mineralogy/ore type, in

simultaneously using fundamental order to calibrate the key interpolation

flotation modelling methods. relationships needed for the mapping

MFT parameter extraction. When the

The MinnovEX Flotation Test (MFT) has mineralogy/ore type is simple, the split

been developed to satisfy both of the is typically around 15 % full MFTs to

above requirements. It is a standard 85 % mapping MFTs. In more complex

bench-scale test that is used to measure ore-bodies, with more variable lithology, 1

Primary data is defined as ore-specific parameters,

which in the case of flotation describe the inherent

the primary floatability characteristics of alteration and/or mineralogy, the floatability of the ore regardless of the plant

proportion of full tests to mapping tests flowsheet, equipment or operating targets and

a sample of ore. The philosophy behind conditions.

MFT work for samples is to have a test has to be increased. 2

Described by P80 and the Rosin-Rammler slope, or

m value

SGS MINERALS SERVICES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 2005-3 3

P80 = 128 for fleet simulation P80 = 100

kinetics at testwork conditions kinetics at standard grind

MINERAL Rmax Kavg ALPHA MINERAL Rmax Kavg ALPHA Rmax SLOPE Kavg SLOPE

CuSulph 91.7 1.5 1.3 CuSulph 92.9 1.5 1.3 -0.041 -0.004

Pyrite 96.0 2.8 3.2 Pyrite 95.8 2.8 3.2 0.002 0.004

Au 71.5 1.0 1.2 Au 73.6 1.0 1.2 -0.058 -0.002

Ag 80.0 0.6 4.3 Ag 81.9 0.6 4.3 -0.065 -0.001

NSG 3.9 0.3 10.0 NSG 2.8 0.3 10.0 0.023 0.001

STEP 1

Selecting the Drillcore samples for Metallurgical testwork

STEP 2

Communition and Flotation testwork

STEP 3

Extraction of ore-specific primary parameters for

geostatistical distribution

STEP 4

Population of the mine block model using Geostatistics to

distribute the extracted parameter

STEP 5 STEP 6

CEET simulation to predict TPH FLEET simulation to predict final

and P80 on a block-by-block basis concentrate grade and recovery

on a block-by-block basis

Mine / Plant

Production planning /

Design Mode Optimisation

forecasting Mode

Mode

SGS MINERALS SERVICES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 2005-3 4

RECONCILIATION BETWEEN DRILLCORE TESTWORK AND FLOTATION Although a standard grind of 100m had

CIRCUIT SIMULATION been selected, it can be seen that the

actual grindsizes (P80) at which the three

The Rmax-slope and Kavg-slope parameters presented in Table 1 provide the link between tests were performed were 65, 108 and

drill core flotation testwork results and FLEET flotation circuit simulation on a block-by- 128m, respectively. DC-1 is the softest

block basis for design and/or production forecasting studies. of the three samples and as a result, the

laboratory mill over-ground this sample.

A geometallurgical model is created by following the steps outlined in Figure 1 Likewise, DC-3 is a much harder sample,

[Dobby, Bennett, Bulled, et al, 2004]. and the desired grind was not attained in

the specified grinding time. Even when

The importance of accounting for the effect of grind-size on recovery from the initial attempts are made to account for the

grind at which the MFT test is performed to the ultimate prediction of flotation circuit Bond value in selecting the lab grind time,

recovery and grade per ore block is illustrated in a step-by-step example. these differences often occur. However,

a unique aspect of the MFT is that the

STEP 1 The drill core samples for metallurgical testwork are selected over the region kinetic parameters measured at each test

of interest within the resource. A grid pattern over the area of interest (for example, grind can be reconciled to the standard

the first five years of operation) is preferred, ensuring, as a minimum, that all major grind through the Rmax_slope function.

geological features of the resource are represented. More complex geological conditions

will dictate a greater number of samples. Clearly, the joint involvement of geological, STEP 4 The grindability parameters and

mineralogical and metallurgical staff in sample selection is required. floatability parameters at standard grind

are distributed throughout the blocks

STEP 2 Bench-scale laboratory testwork is carried out on each of the drill core samples. in the region of interest in the mine

For SAG hardness tests (MinnovEX SPI) typically 2 kg of drill core is required. For ball resource model using geostatistical

mill hardness measurements, 1.2 kg for MinnovEX Modified Bond tests or 10 kg for full techniques (involving the consideration

Bond tests is required [Kosick, Bennett, 1999]. Since full Bond tests are only carried out of sample location, ore type and grade).

on 5 to 10 % of the samples, with Modified bond tests performed on the remaining An outcome is illustrated in Figure 2.9

samples, the core requirement is 12 kg for up to 10 % of the samples and only about Early in a project development, often

4 kg for the other 90 %. there will be insufficient samples tested

to develop a geostatistical distribution.

The MFT requires no additional drill core as this test is performed on the products from In this situation, the distribution of

the SPI and Bond dry grinding tests. At the outset of the testwork program, a standard parameters is made along either a

grind-size for the feed for the MFT is selected. Based on initial hardness information regional basis or ore type basis.

for each drill core sample (SPI and BWi), an estimate is made of the required grinding

time to attain the standard grind-size for the MFT, and each sample is wet ground in Figure 2 is a sample region of a mine

a laboratory mill for the 8 specified length of time. MFTs are then carried out on all resource model, demonstrating areas

samples, with product streams analysed either according to the full MFT or mapping of higher and lower theoretical recovery

MFT protocols. of copper sulphide minerals, after

geostatistical distribution of the

STEP 3 The primary ore parameters, shown in Table 1, which describe fundamental Rmax_cusulph parameter across the

grindability and floatability of the ore samples, are extracted from the lab data according resource model.

to model fitting techniques [Dobby and Savassi, 2005]. Table 2 provides a Case Study

selection of typical parameters measured for three random drill core samples (we will

follow the three samples through the next few steps of the process). Note that this table

does not show the complete set of parameters, but only a selection for illustrative

purposes - the full set of floatability parameters per sample would be as per Table 1.

core [min] [KWh/t] grind cusulf cusulf cusulf

LABEL (at Test (at Std Slope

grind) grind) #

[%] [%]

DC-1 28 12.4 65 81.0 77.6 -0.090

Figure 2: Sample region of a mine resource model

DC-3 91 15.0 128 91.7 92.9 -0.041

Table 2: A selection of typical grindability and floatability parameters for three random drill core samples.

Note: A standard target grind of 100 m had been selected.

SGS MINERALS SERVICES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 2005-3 5

Step 5 At this stage, each block in the geometallurgical model has been attibuted the The kinetic parameters at standard grind

interpolated ore-specific parameters, necessary for grinding simulation. Within (100 m) are distributed through the

a web-based simulation platform, the grinding simulation software mines the mine block model. However these values

resource model on a blockby-block basis, calculating the grinding circuit throughput are adjusted on a block-by-block basis

(TPH) and product grind (P80) for each block. Example grinding simulation results for according to their Rmaxslope values and

the three blocks of ore (samples) listed in Table 2 are given in Table 3. (In this table is is the P80 value calculated for that block.

assumed that DC-1 was located in Block 1, DC-2 in Block 2 and DC-3 in Block 3, and a The slope values are also distributed

typical SAG ball mill circuit was used for the simulation.) across the block model and are therefore

available on a block-by-block basis. The

Spatial spi bwi tph P80 case note actual Rmax values used in the FLEET

location [min] [microns] simulation are adjusted according to the

[kWh/t]

difference in P80 between the standard

BLOCK 1 x1 y1 z1 28 12.4 5185 120 Ball-mill (i) grind and the block grind and the slope

limited for that block.

BLOCK 2 x2 y2 z2 35 11.7 5250 109 Down (ii)

It is important to make the correction for

stream

the difference in grind-size between that

Limited

produced in the MFT to that attributed

BLOCK 3 x3 y3 z3 91 15.0 4436 89 SAG (iii) to each block of ore, to achieve accurate

Limited design and production forecasting.

Table 3: Typical CEET simulation results for three blocks of ore Table 5 highlights this by showing the

original test grind for a drill core sample

Note the following: compared to its associated block grind,

i. In this scenario, Block 1 comprises soft ore, therefore affording the opportunity and the impact that this has on the

to maximise tons by producing a coarser grind. A limit of 120 m (based on coarse prediction of ultimate recovery (Rmax)

fraction results of flotation tests) has been set on how coarse the grind is allowed for that block. Modelling is conducted

to become, thereby limiting the throughput for Block 1 to 5185 tph. by utilising the kinetic parameters of all

ii. For Block 2, neither the SAG mill nor the Ball mill has become the limiting element minerals.

due to this blocks lower BWi. Throughput therefore can be maximised up to a limit

typically set by some constraint external to the grinding circuit (typically tailings

pumps or concentrate filter capacity dictates this limit on maximum throughput). At

this maximum throughput of 5250 tph the grinding circuit can produce a grind of

109 m.

iii. Block 3 comprises the hardest ore and the grinding circuit is SAG mill limited. The

maximum tonnage that can be treated through the SAG mill is only 4436 tph before

the mill would overload. At this lower tonnage, the ball mill circuit produces the finer

grind of 89 m.

STEP 6 The tonnage and P80 results from the grinding simulation become input values

to the flotation circuit simulation. Similar to Step 5, the FLEET software tool calculates

final concentrate grade and recovery on a block-by-block basis based on the tonnage

and grind feeding the flotation circuit for the block, and the floatability characteristics

attributed to that block. Table 4 provides the set of feed parameters for the same three

blocks of ore discussed in Step 5.

location [microns] CuSulf CuSulf CuSulf

(at Std SLOPE used in FLEET

grind) simulation

[%]

BLOCK x1 y1 z1 5185 120 77.6 -0.090 75.8

1

BLOCK x2 y2 z2 5250 109 94.6 -0.023 94.3

2

BLOCK x3 y3 z3 4436 89 92.9 -0.041 93.4

3

Table 4: Typical FLEET feed values for three blocks of ore

SGS MINERALS SERVICES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 2005-3 6

Grind at which MFT Rmax_CuSulf value Grind-size attributed to the Actual Rmax_CuSulf

test was performed extracted from MFT block of ore after CEET value for that block,

[microns] test results [%] simulation [microns] used in FLEET simulations

[%]

BLOCK 1 65 81.0 120 75.8

(DC-1)

BLOCK 2 108 94.3 109 94.3

(DC-2)

BLOCK 3 125 91.7 89 93.4

(DC-3)

Table 5: The actual Rmax_cusulph used in FLEET simulations, compared to the values established from the MFT test

Ore type Std error % in CuSulf

GEOMETALLURGICAL MODELLING operators is shown in Table 6.

estimate

Standard error on the CuSulph Rmax is

A statistical approach to geometallurgical less than 1% and on the NSG Rmax R max k avg

modelling presents the user with an about 0.5%. This could obviously 1 2.3 0.9

opportunity estimate precision on plant improve with operator experience. 2 1.3 0.9

circuit design or production forecasts. 3 1.7 0.8

For the model to be used for production

OPERATOR 1 2 3 Table 7: Standard errors in block parameter estimates

planning and/or design purposes, it can

only be considered rigorous and CuSulf

definitive if accompanied by an Rmax 90.5 91.2 89.5 These figures can be reduced by

associated precision model.

Kavg 1.6 1.6 1.6 applying geostatistical methods, such

ALPHA 2.4 2.2 1.9 as Kriging, for distribution of data

A complete geometallurgical modelling

NSG across the mine blocks. Such methods

study comprises the following main

would involve the determination of

components [Dobby et al, 2004]: Rmax 6.5 6.9 5.7 variograms to establish the range of

A bench-scale laboratory testwork Kavg 0.4 0.3 0.3 influence of each sample to

program, neighbouring mine blocks. Any

ALPHA 10 10 10

Geostatistical distribution over the significant reduction in the number of

resource model of the parameters Table 6: Reproducibility of MFT parameters

samples or increase in the variability of

extracted from the bench-scale test, the ore will naturally result in an

Plant benchmarking for model increase in the estimated standard

calibration (for existing operations), errors. Distribution of data across

In the study of a copper porphyry ore

and the mine blocks is usually the greatest

body where full MFTs were conducted

Circuit simulation using the source of error in forecasting due to

on 15% of the samples, with mapping

distributed metallurgical parameters insufficient samples and testing.

MFTs on the remainder, the

and a system of process models, The precision of the process model

estimation of CuSulph kinetics for the

calibrated according to plant is obtained from plant calibration

mapping tests was found to introduce

measurements. work. The model error is the difference

a standard error of 1.5% for Rmax and

0.1% for Kavg. This could be improved between the measured values of

Each of these steps presents a source plant concentrate grade and recovery

by the development of the estimation

of error that can be accounted for and and the forecast values determined

techniques used in the mapping MFTs.

can be summarized as: by application of the model to the MFT

160 MFTs were conducted on drill core

1. Measured (test) precision and parameters of the feed. The standard

samples to represent the approximately

kinetics estimation precision error has been shown to be within 1%

1.5 million tons of ore to be treated

2. Distribution (geostatistical) precision on large copper operations. The higher

in 1 year in a large copper plant. The

3. Model calibration precision the number of benchmark calibration

kinetics data was distributed across

the mining blocks with respect to feed surveys carried out, the more accurate

The authors have considered the the process calibration becomes.

grade and ore type of the blocks. The

precision associated with each of these

standard error in estimating the

steps. Selected examples follow: The total standard error on the kinetics

individual block values of the

A comparison of the extracted parameter estimation can be determined

distributed data for CuSulph is shown

parameters from testing a single by normal statistical methods for error

in Table 7.

SGS MINERALS SERVICES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 2005-3 7

accumulation and the FLEET model is The success of CEET led to the CONCLUSIONS

then run as a Monte Carlo simulation to development of FLEET and the MFT

estimate precision on the projected plant for the application of geometallurgy It is the authors belief that the

results. Model precision must then be to industrial flotation. The final step to geometallurgical modelling approach

accounted for to give an overall picture of link SPI, Bond, CEET, FLEET, the MFT for flotation circuits, as described in this

the precision of the technique. and future process models, was an paper, is the leading scientific method

Internet portal that could host a common to quantify the impact of ore variability

Finally, however precise, the process geometallurgical dataset for any on the metallurgical performance of

model must be geometallurgically particular project or resource. This was industrial flotation circuits. The

enabled in order to generate meaningful important from two perspectives. First, quantification of ore variability linked

results, i.e. it must be capable of inputs from a common geometallurgical with geometallurgically enabled process

automatically processing all the blocks dataset for a particular project would be models opens the opportunity for more

in the resource model and therefore used by all geometallurgically enabled accurate circuit design and the most

able to optimise designs or forecast models. Also, the output from any reliable production forecasting method

results based on the complete resource particular run of one process model that is currently available. Finally, there is

or geometallurgical model. The process would form part of the input for the considerable opportunity to apply these

model must also be capable of process model for the subsequent geometallurgical technologies to

accommodating variations in grind downstream process, and the data optimisation studies and advanced

and tonnage for each block in the transfer and integrity had to be handled process control to maximize the value

geometallurgical model. If the process through this common dataset. Second, from mine to mill.

model is not geometallurgically enabled, by configuring this interface and dataset

then it becomes relatively ineffective handling ability through the Internet, on- REFERENCES

for industrial design or production line support worldwide could be made

forecasting. available continually and inexpensively. Bennett, C, and Lozano, C, 2004.

This Internet portal and interface was The Architecture of the Geometallurgical

PROGRESS OF GEOMETALLURGICAL developed in 2002 for the mining Model, in Proceedings Procemin, 2004,

MODELLING FOR FLOTATION industry and is called Process Access pp T 1-8, 2004, Santiago

[Kosick, Bennett and Dobby, 2002].

The first holistic use of geometallurgical It is anticipated that as more mining Dobby G, Bennett C, Bulled D, and

modelling began in 1999 when the companies become aware of Process Kosick G, 2004 Geometallurgical

process model CEET was developed. Access, it will become a standard Modelling The New Approach to Plant

Prior to CEET there was no mechanism interface method for facilitating Design and Production Forecasting/

for exploiting the block comminution data geometallurgical work worldwide. Planning, and Mine/Mill Optimization,

in a resource model for optimisation of in Proceedings 36th Annual Meeting of

plant design or production forecasting Since the completion of FLEET in 2002 the Canadian Mineral Processors, 2004,

and planning. CEET was developed using and until the time of writing this paper pp 227-240 (The Canadian Institute

a geometallurgically enabled structure FLEET geometallurgical modelling of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum:

in order to utilize the SPI and Bond studies have found wide application in a Ottawa)

data block by block throughout the range of mineral processing plants and

resource model to design and optimise projects world-wide for copper, lead, Dobby G, Bennett C, and Kosick, G, 2001

comminution circuits. zinc, nickel, gold, coal, molybdenum and Advances in SAG Circuit Design and

iron ore flotation. FLEET has been used Simulation Applied to the Mine Block

The development of a geometallurgically for circuit design, flotation plant Model, in Proceedings SAG 2001, pp

enabled comminution process model troubleshooting, optimisation, and IV 221-234 (Department of Mining and

was one of the critical steps required to production forecasting. Over 100 Mineral Process Engineering, University

facilitate the development of an accurate calibration-benchmarking surveys have of British Columbia: Vancouver)

geometallurgically enabled process been carried out in 17 concentrators.

model for flotation. Knowledge of the Dobby G, Kosick G, and Amelunxen

throughput and grind parameters per Due to the limitation on paper length, R, 2002 A Focus on Variability within

block (which translate to residence time case studies using FLEET will be the Ore body for Improved Design

and liberation in the flotation circuit) is presented in a subsequent paper. of Flotation Plants, in Proceedings

very important if the geometallurgically 34th Annual Meeting of the Canadian

enabled flotation process model is to Mineral Processors, 2002, pp 77-90 (The

be accurate enough to use for design Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy

or production forecasting (which is and Petroleum: Ottawa)

the ultimate test of a geometallurgical

approach).

SGS MINERALS SERVICES TECHNICAL BULLETIN 2005-3 8

Advanced Modelling Technique for Geometallurgical Modelling Applied to

Scale-up of Batch Flotation Results to Production Forecasting, Plant Design and

Plant Metallurgical Performance, in Optimization, in Proceedings Procemin,

Proceedings Centenary of Flotation 2003, pp T11 1-11, 2003 (Universidad de

Symposium, 2005, in press (The Chile: Antofagasta)

Australasian Institute of Mining and

Metallurgy: Melbourne)

Value of Orebody Power Requirement

Profiles for SAG Circuit Design, in

Proceeding 31st Annual Meeting of the

Canadian Mineral Processors,1999, (The

Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy

and Petroleum: Ottawa)

G, 2002 Managing Company Risk by

incorporating the Mine Resource Model

into Design and Optimization of Mineral

Processing Plants, in Proceeding 104th

Annual General Meeting of the CIM,

2002, (The Canadian Institute of Mining,

Metallurgy and Petroleum: Vancouver)

CONTACT INFORMATION 2011 SGS. All rights reserved. The information contained

herein is provided as is and SGS does not warrant that it

will be error-free or will meet any particular criteria of per-

formance or quality. Do not quote or refer any information

Email us at minerals@sgs.com herein without SGS prior written consent. Any unautho-

rized alteration, forgery or falsification of the content or

www.sgs.com/minerals appearance of this document is unlawful and offenders

may be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.

SGS Technical Paper #2005-03

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