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ExtremeWireless

Student Guide
Version 6.2

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Terms & Condition of Use:

Extreme Networks, Inc. reserves all rights to its materials and the content of the
materials. No material provided by Extreme Networks, Inc. to a Partner (or
Customer, etc.) may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any
information storage or retrieval system, or incorporated into any other published
work, except for internal use by the Partner and except as may be expressly
permitted in writing by Extreme Networks, Inc.

This document and the information contained herein are intended solely for
informational use. Extreme Networks, Inc. makes no representations or warranties
of any kind, whether expressed or implied, with respect to this information and

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assumes no responsibility for its accuracy or completeness. Extreme Networks, Inc.

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hereby disclaims all liability and warranty for any information contained herein and
all the material and information herein exists to be used only on an "as is" basis.

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More specific information may be available on request. By your review and/or use of
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the information contained herein, you expressly release Extreme Networks from any
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and all liability related in any way to this information. A copy of the text of this
section is an uncontrolled copy, and may lack important information or contain
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factual errors. All information herein is Copyright Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights
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reserved. All information contain in this document is subject to change without


notice.
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For additional information refer to:


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http://www.extremenetworks.com/company/legal

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Table of Contents

Wireless Fundamentals and Solution Overview 9


Configuring the Wireless Controller 17
Controller Maintenance 37

Access Point Configuration & Management 64

ExtremeCloud 111

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ExtremeManagement Integration 121

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Virtual Network Service (VNS) Configuration 151

Hotspot 2.0 (e 209


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Application Visibility 216
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Authentication / RFC3580 Support 238


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Radar 259
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Remote Site APs 305


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Captive Portal 315


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Guest Portal 344

Mobility 364

Availability 380

ExtremeManagement Maps 407

Mesh Networks 431

Glossary 446

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Major components of a wireless network consist of these basic elements:


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Controllers: Extreme Networks Controllers provide network services and manage the APs.
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APs: Extreme Networks Access Points connect the wireless network to a wired local area
network, They also manage communication among the wireless clients by controlling which
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devices have access to the wireless channel.


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Clients: devices that connect to the network consist of mobile units (MU), BYOB (Bring Your
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Own Device), laptops, and fixed location devices like printers.


Servers: Depending on your deployment the solution may require three other components, all
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of which are standard for enterprise and service provider networks:


RADIUS Server (Remote Access Dial-In User Service) or other authentication server
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) Server for address assignment
Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server

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The IEEE 802.11 standard allows use of the following bands:


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2.4 GHz Industrial, Scientific, Medical (ISM) band


5 GHz Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) bands.
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The IEEE 802.11 specification is made up of a number of amendments summarized below:


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802.11 applies to wireless LANs and provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band
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using either frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or direct sequence spread spectrum
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(DSSS).
802.11a an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides up to 54-Mbps in
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the 5GHz band. 802.11a uses an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing encoding scheme
rather than FHSS or DSSS.
802.11b an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps
transmission (with a fallback to 5.5, 2 and 1-Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz band.
802.11g applies to wireless LANs and is used for transmission over short distances at up to
54-Mbps in the 2.4 GHz bands.

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802.11n 802.11n adds multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO). The additional transmitter


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and receiver antennas allow for increased data throughput through spatial multiplexing and
increased range by exploiting the spatial diversity. The real speed is 100 Mbit/s (250 Mbit/s in
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PHY level), and so estimated up to 4-5 times faster than 802.11g.


802.11ac 802.11ac builds upon previous 802.11 standards, particularly the 802.11n
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standard, to deliver data rates of 433Mbps per spatial stream, or 1.3Gbps in a three-antenna
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(three stream) design. The 802.11ac specification operates only in the 5 GHz frequency range
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and features support for wider channels (80MHz and 160MHz) and beamforming capabilities by
default to help achieve its higher wireless speeds.
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802.11ac Wave 2 802.11ac Wave 2 is an update for the original 802.11ac spec that uses MU-
MIMO technology and other advancements to help increase theoretical maximum wireless
speeds for the spec to 6.93 Gbps.
802.11r - 802.11r, also called Fast Basic Service Set (BSS) Transition, supports VoWi-Fi handoff
between access points to enable VoIP roaming on a Wi-Fi network with 802.1X authentication.
802.1X An IEEE standard for port-based Network Access Control that allows network
administrators to restricted use of IEEE 802 LAN service access points to secure communication
between authenticated and authorized devices.

DSP Digital Signal Processor

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The ExtremeWireless solution includes a wide variety of access points, controllers,


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management capabilities, security, as well as a unique open platform for application


integration.
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The Wireless Controller, Access Points and Convergence Software solution consists of the
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following components:
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Wireless Controllers
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Wireless APs
ExtremeManagement and ExtremeAnalytics
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Simplified AP Configuration: A new simplified user interface to the AP properties.


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New sortable and search criteria basis allows for dynamically selecting a group of
related APs, simplifying and expediting the steps required to adjust AP configuration
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for large number of APs.


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Application Visibility: Basic visibility of traffic characteristics of a WLAN service for all
users. Enhances and simplifies basic deployment by removing the need to deploy
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ExtremeAnalytics to get any visibility. Integrate with ExtremeAnalytics for full


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visibility into the traffic on the network and vital KPIs such as stream latency.

Application Policy (L7 control): Provides better granularity over network and user
traffic policy. Does not require any additional equipment to be deployed in order to
effectuate policy enforcement on the wireless networks, from a rich pool of over
2000 applications. Integrated via Extreme Management (7.0) to centrally and
consistently manage policy across several ExtremeWireless appliances. Consistent
policy is key to enable a good roaming experience across a large campus.

Device Fingerprinting: Improves visibility of traffic characteristics in the network and


improved diagnostics of client connections by exposing both the current and
historical view of traffic distribution of a device. Does not require ExtremeControl,
yet gain full visibility on device characteristics and take advantage of flexible rules-
based policy definition with ExtremeControl.

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Captive portal at AP: Data tunneling connection to the controller is no longer


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required, neither is the requirement to utilize topology change or split topology


methods for branch deployments. Captive Portal for branch clients can now be
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supported without leaving the Edge. Also removes need for PBR or DNS Proxy
methods in order to integrate with a local ExtremeControl(TM) appliance. Integrate
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with ExtremeControl for External Captive Portal offering to take advantage its
flexible rules based policy assignment to provide optimized user experience.
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Redirect Policy: Enhances understanding of policy by explicitly allowing user to


control when redirection is to take place. Redirection managed as policy supports a
more integrated management philosophy and enhances the ability to integrate with
(Mobile Device Management) MDM and BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) functions.
This new flexible feature allows redirection of any service for any user state (e.g.
redirection on only non-authenticated states)

IPv6 Tunneling and Policy: Ease of deployment. Customer can simply centralize IPv6
network access, instead of having to manage extensive set of VLANs and
corresponding complexities. It also improves security and flexibility providing the
ability to define ubiquitous role definitions for any type of network traffic.

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VNS = Virtual Network Services


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The Wireless Controller, Access Points, and Convergence Software system provides a scalable
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solution based on the license and capacity of the controller. The Wireless Controller Data Sheet
is available on the Extreme Networks website.
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The wireless architecture allows a single Wireless Controller to control many Wireless APs,
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making the administration and management of large wireless networks much easier.
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There can be several Wireless Controllers in the network, each with a set of registered Wireless
APs. The Wireless Controllers can also serve as backups to each other, providing highly available
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wireless networks.

The virtual Controller comes in two versions:


V2110, used with VMWare
HV2110, used with Hypervisor

The Controller Operating System was upgraded to 64 bit in Release 10.11.

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Elastic Hyper-V is TBD


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The Wireless Assistant GUI is the Web-based interface for configuring, managing, logging and
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monitoring of each individual controller. Because the Wireless AP does not have a user
interface the Wireless Assistant interface is used to configure and manage each AP.
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To access the EWC connect a laptop directly to the management port using a cross-over
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Ethernet Cable. Set a static IP address in the 192.168.10.0/24 subnet on the Ethernet port of
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your Laptop. Launch a web browser and make a secured http connection to the Wireless
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Controller using the factory default IP address of 192.168.10.1 and port 5825
(https://192.168.10.1:5825).
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In the User Name box type the default username of admin and password abc123 and click the
Login button.

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Once you log into the Wireless Assistant the Home Screen will appear. The home screen heading or top
menu bar displays across each page within the Wireless Assistant. Using the top menu bar, you can
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access Wireless Logs (Events), Reports, Wireless Controller, Wireless APs, VNS Configuration, Radar, and
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online help.
The graphical view of the home screen provides real-time status information of the current health of
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the wireless network from the controllers perspective. For ease of use, the live graphs and interactive
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links provide a quick launch point to reports and configuration parameters for in-depth troubleshooting,
access to logs, reports, and configuration components.
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At the foot of the Wireless Assistant home screen, important information about the controller can be
seen including error and configuration messages.
[host name | product name | up time], for example, [EWC | V2110 | 12 days, 21:16]. If the Wireless
Assistant is running the V2110 license, the footer will display V2110.
Port Status is the connectivity state of the ports.
M represents the Management interface and the numbered lights reflect the data port interfaces on the
system.
Green indicates the interface is up and running.
Red indicates the interface is down.
F icon represents the flash drive status: green if the flash drive is mounted and red if the flash drive is
not mounted

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The Topologies screen on the Wireless Controller displays both physical network ports and VNS
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topologies.
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For the Virtual Controllers physical interfaces (topologies) must be created. Once created
topologies cannot be deleted while they are active either as a Physical port on the controller or
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a Virtual Network Services (VNS) that is, referenced by a Role. Topologies can be modified by
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selecting and clicking the desired physical or VNS interface.


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Note: the 172.31.0.0/24 Network should NOT be used because of the internal WC usage.
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VLAN ID is used as a Controller wide identification of the topologies.


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Bridge Locally at EWC (B@AC)


Bridge Locally at AP (B@AP)
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The native and routed traffic on this interface is comprised of those packets which either
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originate on the port itself (i.e. ARP, SSH or HTTPS management) or are the result of a Layer 3
forwarding decision through that port (i.e. routed VNS topologies). Excluded are the packets of
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VNS topologies which are configured as B@AC, these bridged packets will have a VLAN ID tag of
their own.
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For traffic to properly to transfer onto the Enterprise Network, the Switch port must be
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configured to egress the configured VLAN tagged traffic, i.e. vlan egress 20 ge.1.13 tagged.
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VLAN ID is used as a Controller wide identification of the topologies, however the VLAN ID is
only used in the LAN for tagged topologies.

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The Layer 3 (L3) section of the Topology screen allows you to configure and modify IP address
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and DHCP options parameters.


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The Layer 3 IP address definition is only required for Physical port configuration and Routed
topologies. It is optional for B@AC topologies. L3 configuration is necessary if services such as
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DHCP, captive portal, etc., are required over the configured network segment or if you intend to
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manage the controller through the interface.


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B@AP topologies do not require the definition of a corresponding IP address since all traffic for
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WLAN clients in that VNS will be directly bridged by the Wireless AP at the local network point
of attachment.

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To allow management access (SNMPv2/v3, SSH or HTTPS) on a topology select Management


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Traffic to enable this feature. Once selected, the Internal Exception Filters will be populated to
allow traffic destined for the systems management configuration framework to enter this Port.
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AP Registration is used by the Wireless APs as part of the discovery method. Ensure that AP
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Registration is enabled so that Wireless APs can use this port for discovery and registration as
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part of the Service Location Protocol (SLP). A Wireless Controller configured as a Mobility
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Manager should also enable AP Registration since SLP will be used by the Mobility Agents to
discover the Mobility Manager.
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A default route enables the Wireless Controller to forward packets to destinations that are not
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present in the OSPF routing table. Dynamic routes take precedence over static routes unless
"Override Dynamic Routes" is checked when adding a static route.
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Open Shortest Path First (OSPF, version 2) (RFC2328) Use OSPF to allow the Extreme
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Networks Wireless Controller to participate in dynamic route selection. OSPF is a protocol


designed for medium and large IP networks with the ability to segment routes into different
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areas by routing information summarization and propagation. Static Route definition and OSPF
dynamic learning can be combined, and the precedence of a static route definition over
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dynamic rules can be configured by selecting or clearing the Override dynamic routes option
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checkbox.
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Enable OSPF by selecting the ON parameters from the OSPF Status pull down menu and ensure
that each interface that will be participating in the OSPF exchange has the Port Status field set
to Enabled. Although the Area Type, Default is selected or backbone area, you can also
configure the interface to belong in a Stub or Not-so-stubby area.

Note: Only clear text authentication is supported for OSPF.

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Synchronizing the Controller to a universal clock will ensure accuracy in WLAN client session
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information when you are using Fast Failover, Mobility Services and usage logs. Network time is
synchronized in one of two ways: Using System Time by manually setting the time on your
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Wireless Controller or using Network Time Protocol (NTP), an Internet standard protocol that
synchronizes client workstation clocks. You can specify up to 3 different Time Servers to use or
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configure your Wireless Controller to be the local NTP server on your network. The Wireless
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Controller automatically adjusts for any time change due to Daylight Savings time.
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Note: Changes to the NTP screen may cause the controller to reboot.
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Support for static LAGs at the distribution layer (controller or virtual gateway) extends high-
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availability and load balancing to the distribution/core physical connection. Grouping one or
more network interfaces into a single LAG between the controller and the distribution/core
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switch, increases bandwidth capacity for centralized deployments. LAGs also provide physical
redundancy in case of a hardware failure at the link layer on the network.
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Only ports that are not assigned to a topology can be added to a LAG, QoS scheduling is applied
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per port, not per LAG. When a LAG is disabled no traffic is forwarded on the port, if the port
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Admin status is down, the port remains a member of the LAG but no traffic is forward and the
physical link status is down. The LAG MAC address is the MAC address of the second physical
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port on the system.

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Link Aggregation L2 ports are configured via the L2 Ports screen or the CLI. To a create LAG,
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assign Physical ports to LAG.


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Some of the many benefits of IPv6



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Virtually unlimited addresses 32 bit IPv4 address fields vs 128 bit IPv6 address
fields
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Better security IPSec built in


NO NAT required Means direct connectivity, better transparency, increased
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performance
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Built in functionality for better mobility


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Built in support for multicast transmission


Much larger data field - IPv4 has 64 Kb payload vs IPv6 with up to 4Gb payload,
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significantly increases transmission rates


Flatter networks are easier to manage and troubleshoot

Gartner press release http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/3165317

Gartner, Inc. forecasts that 6.4 billion connected things will be in use worldwide in 2016,
up 30 percent from 2015, and will reach 20.8 billion by 2020. In 2016, 5.5 million new
things will get connected every day

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The Ping and Trace Route tools are available on the Wireless Controller Utilities section. This
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allows you to test the connection to a target IP address from the controller.
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The TCPdump management utility allows you to capture exception traffic that is sent to the
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management plane. Exception traffic is defined as traffic that is sent to the management plane
from the data/control plane for special handing (i.e. DHCP, OSPF and TFTP traffic). The TCP
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dump utility allows you to determine if packets are being dropped in the data/control plane.
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The captured traffic is stored in a binary tcpdump-format file on local hard-drive. The captured
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file can be exported to a local machine for packet analysis (Wireshark, etc.).
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There are some limitations. Only one traffic capture is allowed on the system at a single time
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and the controller does not permit the capture of any data plane traffic. Lastly, WDS, Mesh and
Bridge-at-AP captures are not supported.

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After a capture has completed you have the ability to Export it to a file on your desktop that
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can be opened by a traffic analyzer.


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You can upgrade the Wireless Convergence Controller Software via the Wireless Assistant GUI.
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Upgrading the WC will also update the Access Point images that are stored on the Controller.
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The Wireless Convergence Software provides two upgrade options: locally using the image file
that is located either on the local drive or flash or remotely by using an image file that is
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located on an external FTP/SCP server.


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If you choose to upgrade remotely you have the choice of running the upgrade directly from
the FTP /SCP server via the GUI or downloading the image file from a remote server to the local
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drive of the Wireless Controller, or the flash, and then run the upgrade locally.

Note: If the controller file does not exist the upgrade will not succeed.

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You can also perform the upgrade as a scheduled task, by selecting Schedule upgrade for: and
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then selecting the Month, Day, Hour and Min of the scheduled upgrade. Once you select
Schedule Upgrade you will be prompted to verify the selection.
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Once the upgrade process is completed the Controller will reboot.


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Note: When you upgrade the Wireless Software, the previous SSL configuration file is replaced
with a new one. Therefore any manual edits that were made in the previous SSL configuration
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files are lost.

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Note: You need to install the .ova file when you first install the V2110. All subsequent
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upgrades can be performed using the standard controller upgrade procedure to apply a .bge
file to the V2110.
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When you install the HV2100, you must first deploy the .ize file. All subsequent upgrades can
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be performed using the standard controller upgrade procedu4re to apply a .vhd file to the
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HV2110.
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Controllers shipped from the factory will have the Demo Mode license installed, the Demo
Mode license has limited functionality.
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New activation keys are not necessary when upgrading to a minor release within the same
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major version
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Enables management of any 39XX from any controller, anywhere in the world
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If you are upgrading to V10 from V9, you will be given a grace period of seven days to license
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the software with the permanent activation key.


During the grace period, you will be able to use all the features and connect as many Wireless
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APs to the Wireless Controller as you want, subject to the controllers limit. If you do not install
the appropriate license after the expiration of the grace period, the Wireless Controller will
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start generating event logs every 15 minutes, indicating that the permanent license key is
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required. In addition, you will not be able to edit the Virtual Network System (VNS) parameters.
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Radar and AP capacity licenses are pooled for an Availability Pair and will work regardless of the
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model or regulatory domain differences. This allows for redistribution of licenses between
appliances. Administrators can switch an AP from Foreign to Local or Local to Foreign) without
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releasing the AP. The Licenses can be installed on either member of an availability pair.
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User will be able to redistribute AP capacity and Radar licenses when AP Capacity or Radar key
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is installed. The granularity of distribution will be a license key; therefore if a controller has two
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keys of 25 APs each, then user will be allowed to transfer, 25 or 50 APs the former peer
controller
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Backing up the Wireless Controller database only involves creating a backup of specific content
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in the Wireless Controller database. You can choose to back up the whole contents of the
database or specific components such as: configuration, logs, or audit information. When a
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Wireless Controller database backup is processed, a .zip file is created. The contents of the .zip
file will vary depending on what type of database backup you process.
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When you back up the Wireless Controller database, you can choose to do the following: Back
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up the Wireless Controller database now (the file is written directly to the disk and the
Available Backups list is updated) or Initiate a scheduled backup. This feature gives you more
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flexibility in the storage as well as the time of when to initiate a backup.

You can upload an existing backup file to an FTP server. When an existing backup is uploaded to
an FTP server for storage, the files can be viewed.

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When you schedule a backup, you can either choose to save the backup to an FTP or SCP server
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or have the scheduled backup saved on your system.


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Schedule Backups only in a non busy hour. If backups are scheduled then the page will show
what will be backed up, the schedule on which it will occur and when the next backup is
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scheduled to occur. Press the Schedule Backups button to configure scheduled backups. You
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can run a Backup Now job and a scheduled backup concurrently but this is inadvisable.
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Changing a scheduled backup has no impact on a backup in progress. Only full backups are
supported.
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Note: If you do not specify a server in the Schedule Backups window when you define the
backup schedule, the backup is added to the Available Backups list on the Backup tab.

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Only local Backups can be restored. Therefore, backups that have been stored on a remote
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server need to be copied to the Wireless controller before proceeding.


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The Rescue Mode is available through console access. During the boot prompt you can make the
selection either 0: Main Mode Starts up normal system partition or 1: Rescue Mode Starts system
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into Rescue framework.


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Using the Rescue Mode from the Console you have a choice of restoring the image from the local drive,
restoring from an FTP server or using an external device like the USB.
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In order to use Rescue Mode with virtual controllers the controllers console port must first be mapped
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to that of the Appliance the controller is installed in, the process is as follows
1. You will need both a windows client with putty, and a V2110 controller both in the powered off
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state during this setup (connected to the same host)


2. Right click V2110 in vSphere Client connection and click edit settings
3. Click Add button at the top and select Serial Port, then click next
4. Select Connect via Network option then click next
5. Select server option and in the Port URL box put telnet://192.168.0.2:888 where the IP address is
that of your ESXi Host IP address and the port is an unused port on the Server. Leave the other
options as defaults and click next then finish.
6. Go through the same steps 1-4 but do so on the windows client and select Client instead of server
(using the same Port URL as well).
7. Open up putty on the windows machine and start a console session using the local com1 port (using
a detached console window in ESXi makes for easier use)
8. Power on the V2110 controller and be ready to use the arrow keys in the windows putty session to
get into the recovery menu.

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By selecting Force system recovery, you will get a list of backup images on the local drive. Select
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the backup image you want to restore and start the process. Once the procedure is started it is
irreversible. Once the recovery completes reboot the Wireless Controller. After the reboot, the
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Wireless Controller restores the backed up image with its original configuration.
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The Wireless Convergence Software enables you to recover the Wireless Controller via the
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Rescue mode if you have lost its login password or if you need to change the Radius
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Authentication back to Local Authentication.


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Your Authentication Service Management Menu options are:


1. Set Login Mode to Local Type 1 if the login authentication mode was set to RADIUS based
authentication, and you want to revert to the local login authentication mode.
2. Reset Accounts and Passwords to Factory Default Type 2 if you want to reset the login
accounts and password to factory defaults.
3. Change administrator password Type 3 if you want to change the administrators
password.
4. Return back to main menu Type B if you want to return to the main menu.

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The Wireless Controller allows customers to store upgrade and rescue backup images to USB
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Storage. The flash memory is hot-pluggable, i.e. user can plug in a USB device at any time, and
it will be recognized as additional storage for the Controller. Detection may take up 5 seconds
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and automatically mounts the device i.e. /mnt/flash.


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To protect the Flash file system, removal must be preceded by explicitly un-mounting the Flash
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card through the GUI or the CLI. This is similar to Safely Remove Hardware for un-mounting
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USB devices in Windows systems.


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If there is a USB present, the GUI or the CLI will be able to access and utilize this extra space for
controller upgrade images as well as rescue backups.

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The system stores configuration data and log files for both the Controller and the AP. These files include
event and alarm logs (triggered by events), trace logs (triggered by component activity for system
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debugging, troubleshooting and internal monitoring of the software), and accounting files (created
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every 30 minutes, to a maximum of six files). The files are stored in the operating system and have a
maximum size of 1 GB. The accounting files are stored in flat files in a directory that is created every
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day. Eight directories are maintained in a circular buffer (when all are full, the most recent replaces the
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oldest). The System Log Level for the Wireless Controller and AP are configurable in the System
Maintaince Screen.
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The administrator will have the option of enabling the streaming of mobile station (MU) events to the
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EWC event log and to ExtremeManagement regardless of the event reporting severity level setting in
the EWC GUI. Today many customers are setting the log level to INFO to collect this MU information and
as a result are having their logs flooded with largely uninteresting events.
The Wireless Controller generates three types of log messages:
Application Logs (including alarms) Messages that are triggered by events
Audits Files that record administrative changes made to the system (the GUI Audit displays
changes to the Graphical User Interface on the Wireless Controller)
Services Logs (including alarms) Messages that are triggered by events
If SNMP is enabled on the Wireless Controller, alarm conditions will trigger a trap an SNMP trap. An
SNMP trap is an event notification sent by the managed agent (a network device) to the management
system to identify the occurrence of conditions.

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The Log messages contain the time of event, severity, source component, and any details
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generated by the source component. The messages are classified at four levels of severity:
Informational - the activity of normal operation
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Minor (alarm)
Major (alarm)
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Critical (alarm)
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The alarm messages (minor, major or critical log messages) are triggered by activities that meet
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certain conditions that should be known and dealt with.


Examples of events on the Wireless Controller that generate an alarm message are: Reboot due
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to failure, Software upgrade failure on the Wireless Controller, Software upgrade failure on the
Wireless AP, and Detection of rogue access point activity without valid ID.

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The Tech Support function rolls up a collection of logs and system data into a single
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compressed file. The process takes several minutes and may affect system performance.
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Note: Because this will create additional system load, it is advised to run this only when needed
or requested by Extreme Networks technical support.
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There are multiple reports that can display Statistics and Configuration for the controller
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configuration and clients that are associated to individual APs and VNSs. The information
presented in these report can help you monitor the overall status of your wireless network.
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The Reports Section contains the OSPF Neighbor table and OSPF LinkState table.
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OSPF Neighbor Displays the current neighbors for OSPF (routers that have interfaces to a
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common network)
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OSPF LinkState Displays the Link State Advertisements (LSAs) received by the currently
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running OSPF process. The LSAs describe the local state of a router or network, including the
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state of the routers interfaces and adjacencies.


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The Extreme Networks Wireless solution optimizes distribution of the processing load between
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Access Points (APs) and Wireless controllers to deliver exceptional performance while providing
ease of management. Complex, time-sensitive functions such as QoS, encryption, policy
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enforcement and dynamic channel selection are handled by the AP, while global functions like
configuration, roaming, security management, and policy control are centralized at the wireless
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controller.
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The 3801 can achieve the following data rates but only has 1 radio.
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5GHz (Radio 1) is 2x2:2 802.11ac radio (up to 866 Mbps per radio)
2.4GHz (Radio 2) is 2x2:2 802.11n radios (up to 300 Mbps per radio)

The AP3965 weighs 2.99 Kg

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Once the Wireless AP is registered with a Controller can be configured. Since the first process
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of the of the Wireless AP is to register, we need to configure the Wireless AP Registration


options. These options define the properties that are used for the AP discovery Process.
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The approval process by the Controller is defined by the Security Mode, which defines how the
controller will handle all unknown AP devices: Allow all Wireless APs to connect or Allow only
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approved Wireless APs to connect (also referred as secure mode).


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Allow all If the Controller does not recognize the serial number of the AP, a new
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registration record is automatically created for the AP (if it is within the license limit), then
the Controller will download a default configuration to the AP. If it recognizes the serial
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number, it uses the existing registration record to authenticate the AP and existing
configuration record to configure the AP.
Allow approved - If the Wireless Controller does not recognize the serial number of the AP,
the APs registration record is placed in the pending state (if within license limits) until it is
manually approved by the administrator. If the Controller recognizes the serial number, it
automatically approves the AP and downloads the configuration for that Wireless AP. Once a
pending AP is approved the default configuration will be downloaded to the AP.
Note: During the initial setup of a large network, it is recommended to select the Allow all
Wireless APs to connect option. This option is the most efficient way to get a large number of
APs registered with the Controller.

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The AP Summary screen displays Wireless APs and their status. Just check one or more APs and
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use the drop down menus to make configuration changes.


The Actions menu:
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Image Upgrade Initiates a controlled image upgrade.


Multi Edit Multiple APs may be edited using one operation.
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Manage Certificates Opens the manage certificates page for 802.1x Authentication.
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Approve allows the AP to become active on a controller.


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Release Releases an AP from being active on a controller. Often used to failover an AP


when using Availability.
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Pending Sets the AP into a state waiting to be Approved.


Reboot Reset one or more APs.
Set Country Sets the country on the AP.
Apply to WLAN opens a list of current WLAN services that can easily be applied to the
selected AP.
Radio Menu provides direct access to the commonly used AP radio parameters
Set Tx Power
Auto Channel Select
Set Radio Mode
Set Channel Width
New
Create pre-configure an AP
Clone duplicates the configuration of an existing AP
Delete - deletes the Wireless APs entry in the Wireless Controllers database

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The AP list is categorized by APs being listed as either Local or Foreign. When you view one of
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these lists by selecting from the left menu, the status field will change to reflect whether the AP
is Pending, Active, or In-Active.
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Use the Search feature to locate a particular AP from the list.


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If the Wireless Controller is configured for the security mode (Allow only approved Wireless APs
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to connect) and it does not recognize the serial number of the AP, the APs registration record is
placed in pending state. The administrator is required to select the pending AP individually or
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by type and then manually approve it.


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The pending AP receives minimum configuration, which only allows it to maintain an active link
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with the controller for future state change. The APs radios are not configured or enabled and
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pending APs are not eligible for configuration operations (WLAN Service Assignments, default
configuration, radio parameters) until approved.
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If an AP does not get an IP address via DHCP upon boot up it will use 192.168.1.20.
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Once the Access Point obtains its IP address it will then attempt to discover Controllers to
which it can register and authenticate or if the AP was previously configured, it will check its
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configuration file for a known Controller and attempt the connection.


If this fails it will try to obtain a Controllers IP Address using the following methods in parallel:
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DHCP Option 78 (SLP Unicast)


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Domain Name Service (DNS),


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DHCP Option 60/43


Layer 2 Multicast (SLP) if L2 has Multicast enabled (Multicast and IGMP snooping should
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be enabled on the switch).


The discovery process will be repeated until an IP Address of a EWC is found and the AP is
approved and authenticated. (3 minute cycle)
Once the Wireless AP has discovered the controller addresses, it sends out connection requests
to each of them. These requests are sent simultaneously. The Wireless AP will attempt to
register only with the first which responds to its request.
When the Wireless AP obtains the IP address of the Wireless Controller, it connects and
registers, sending its serial number identifier to the Wireless Controller, and receiving from the
Wireless Controller a port IP address and binding key.

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The Static Configuration settings assist in the setup of branch office wireless APs, which are
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typically installed in remote sites, while the Wireless Controller is in a central office.
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For IP Address Assignment, the DHCP option is enabled by default. This can be change to a
static configuration once the AP has been approved by the Controller.
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The Wireless Controller Search List defines the static list of Controllers that will manage this
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Wireless AP. The Wireless AP attempts to connect to the IP addresses in the order in which
they are listed during the discovery process.
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Note: Once the IP Address Assignment (Static Values) or Wireless Controller Search List is
modified on the AP, this will interfere with the default discovery process. If it is necessary to
recover from this situation, you will need to reset the AP to its factory default settings.

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If the Controller is configured to Allow only approved Wireless APs to connect, when the
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Controller receives AP registration requests the first two requests are ignored. This is to allow
the AP to try other controllers in the network in order to be accepted by another controller.
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When an AP is in the discovery process it will send registration requests to all controllers that it
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is aware of (obtained either by DHCP, DNS, or Multicast). A controller needs to receive 3


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registration requests in order to proceed with acceptance. In the logs above you can see that
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the controller received 3 registration requests and then it authenticates and approves the AP.
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When the AP goes into the pending mode it will wait for 5 minutes for approval and then it
reboots automatically. Once the AP is approved and authenticated the software version is
checked and the AP configuration is sent to the AP.

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An alternative to the automatic discovery and registration process is to manually add a Wireless
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AP to the Controller database. This allows you to configure an AP prior to the approval process.
When the AP connects to the Controller for approval, its configuration will be downloaded
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including radio and WLAN Assignment.


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To Clone an AP configuration, Check the AP you desire to clone and then select clone from
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the menu. The new AP will have the attributes of the one cloned.
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An Access Point is connected to Controller for the purpose of receiving configuration, sending
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back statistics and logs, forwarding authentication (EAP) traffic, DHCP requests and performing
software upgrades.
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Port: 13910: Management and Data Tunnel between AP and Controller


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Port: 13907: AP Registration to Controller


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The connection between the Wireless Controller and AP is a User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
based tunneling protocol, called WASSP (Wireless Access Station Session Protocol) aka CAPWAP
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Tunnel Protocolv2 (CTP), RFC 5415, to encapsulate the packets and forward them to the
Wireless Controller except when the Virtual Network Services (VNS) is topology is configured
for B@AP.
The CTP is also created between Wireless Controllers in a Mobility domain to allow wireless
clients to roam to Wireless APs on different Wireless Controllers.

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Secure Tunnel, when enabled, provides encryption, authentication, and key management for
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data traffic between the AP and/or controllers.


You have three options:
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1. Encrypt control traffic between AP & Controller - Supports encryption between an AP and
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Controller and/or between APs.


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2. Encrypt control and data traffic between AP & Controller All control and data traffic is
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encrypted and the AP skips the registration and authentication Phases when selected.
Deployments without tunneled topologies or Sites have no benefit by enabling Data Traffic
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Encryption.
3. Debug Mode An IPSEC tunnel is established from the AP to Controller, however traffic is
not encrypted.

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ExtremeWireless allows you to secure the CTP tunnel between the AP and the Controller by
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using IKEv2 and IPSEC. This allows a connection to traverse the public internet for use cases
such as remote/cloud site controller operation or management of remote branch sites.
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IKEv2 does not have a mechanism for fragmenting large messages (in the case of X.509
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certificates).
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Wireless AP models that support external antenna configuration required selecting the
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Antennas Type for the AP. The model of the selected Wireless AP determines the available
antenna options. If an antenna type is not selected the AP will not transmit data on any Radio.
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A table of approved certified external antennas are listed in each of the Wireless Access Point
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Datasheets. Additional information can be found in the Extreme Networks Wireless External
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Antenna Site Preparation and Installation Guide.


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Note: The antenna you select determines the available channel list and the maximum
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transmitting power for the country in which the Wireless AP is deployed.

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To ease the installation process, the Transmission Power Compliance table has been
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incorporated into the Controllers GUI. The installer selects the country, antenna model, and
frequency, and the Controller automatically references its built-in Compliance Table to generate
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the allowable maximum transmission power for the regulatory domain in which the Controller
is deployed.
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The AP Default Settings will allow modification of default values for any APs that are initially
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registered to the Controller to simplify the process of adding new APs to an existing
deployment. The values that can be set as default include the WLAN assignments, static
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wireless configuration options common to all Wireless APs, and then setting for specific APs,
like the Wireless Outdoor AP.
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Once an Access Point is approved, default values can be modified for that specific AP by
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selecting the specific AP or using the Multi-Edit function. Any AP settings that are explicitly
configured override the default values. After an AP is registered, any changes to the default
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values do not affect those APs that have been configured.

The Default Common Configuration and AP Specific Configuration may play a significant role in
Availability/Mobility.

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Once a particular AP has been configured with all the settings that it needs to be deployed
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system-wide, these settings can be used as the default settings that are downloaded to newly
registered Access Points by using the Copy to Defaults feature on an individual AP Properties
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tab. The Reset to Defaults function enables APs that are already registered to use the new
default settings.
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This feature allows you to configure your first AP, test to ensure that the settings are
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appropiate, then copy the settings to the default values when satisfied. Each new AP registered
to that controller will receive these same settings. APs that are already registered can be
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deleted, so when they re-register they can pickup the new default settings.

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The Multi-edit function allows you to configure multiple Wireless APs simultaneously. To
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configure multiple APs simultaneously you need to select the Wireless APs by Hardware Type,
and then select the Wireless APs that match the hardware type individually. You can also select
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multiple hardware type and individual Wireless APs by pressing the Ctrl Key and selecting the
hardware types and specific Wireless APs. When setting values any box or option that is not
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explicitly modified or attributes that are not common to a specific AP will not be applied.
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Multi-edit becomes extremely useful for configuring the Poll-Timeout value on all APs that are
involved with Fast Failover Availability.
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In order to protect your wireless network, add a wireless device's MAC address to a Blacklists of
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WLAN clients that will not be allowed to associate with the Wireless AP. The Blacklist is
maintained by the WC but pushed to the Access Points (AP) to block the client at the edge. The
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Extreme Networks controller also allows you to manage the Blacklist by providing the Import or
Export function for a list of MAC addresses in text format.
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Note: Blacklist are not shared between Controllers. In an Availability or Mobility Configuration
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you must use the Import/Export feature to exchange Blacklist information.


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Enabling Use broadcast for disassociation in the Advanced AP Settings will cause an AP to
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broadcast a message when disconnecting all clients instead of disassociating each client one by
one.
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This will happen if the following conditions are met: If the AP is preparing to reboot, fails over
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to another Controller when using Availability without Fast Failover, enters one of the special
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modes [(DRM initial channel selection), or Auto Selection (ACS)] or if a BSSID is deactivated or
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removed from an AP.


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The benefits to this option is that it improves roaming time for the clients, provides better
broadcast/multicast performance and enhances the overall user experience. The feature also
solves the problem where clients stay associated with an AP even if there is no true data
connectivity with the AP.

This is disabled by default.

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The LEDs can be configured to provide a visual indication of status: Normal (default settings),
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Off, Identify (active blinking), and WDS signal strength. The WDS signal strength enables
installers to adjust the antennas to obtain an ideal alignment to maximize signal strength. The
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setting defined for the AP are also persistent when an AP is in Guardian mode.
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Extreme Networks Real Capture allows on-demand collection of over-the-air traffic for
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troubleshooting and problem resolution. RF performance or connectivity problems are very


dynamic and Real Capture gives administrators additional visibility into the RF environment for
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quicker problem resolution and improved customer satisfaction. Real Capture provides this
functionality on servicing APs eliminating the need to deploy dedicated sensors for this
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purpose.
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Click Start to start real capture server on the AP. This feature can be enabled for each AP
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individually. Statistics are captured using an external connection to a Windows Wireshark client.
The default capture server timeout is set for 300 seconds and the maximum configurable
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timeout is 1 hour.
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Captures statistics are found on the Active Wireless APs reports.


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When enabled and active, Real Capture runs a daemon on the AP to allow interfacing with
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WireShark. Real Capture uses ports 2002 and 2003 and puts the AP radio into promiscuous
mode (receives all packets on wireless).
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Once the Real Capture has started on the Access Point, open the Wireshark application on the
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PC. In Wireshark, select the Capture Options. Enter the remote AP IP address and Port and the
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remote daemon port of 2002. and Null Authentication and then select OK.
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Click Start in the Wireshark Capture Options window, the AP wireless information will be
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displayed.

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Once saved the Remote interface information will be populated.


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The AP captures all the wireless traffic except for management traffic originating from the AP
(Beacons, Probe Resp, ACK, Data Frame Retries).
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Note: The captured traffic is decrypted.


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The primary function of Client Balancing and Load Balancing is to distribute clients across
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multiple APs covering an open area, typical deployment scenarios are classrooms, conference
halls, and other densely populated wireless user areas.
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This feature is AP centric. Therefore, the load balancing process is transparent to the client.
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An APs response to a client request is determined by the load state of the AP and the roaming state of the client.
An AP radio can be in one of the following load states: Under-Loaded, Balanced, Loaded or Over-Loaded.
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Load Balance Group Association Rules:


AP always responds to, and accepts clients that are currently associated with that AP regardless of the load
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balance state.
In a Under-Loaded State, an AP radio will respond to all Probe Requests, and accept associating clients that are
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new to the group or are roaming.


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In a Balanced State, an AP radio will not respond to probe requests from roaming clients, and will reject
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association requests from roaming clients by responding with a unsuccessful reason code of 17 (AP is unable to
handle associated STAs) in the Association Response. It will only respond to probes and accept associations from
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clients new to the group.


In an Loaded (max load reached) or Over-Loaded state, the AP does not respond to any Probe Request, and will
reject (reason code 17) all association requests from new or roaming clients. It will continue to reject the client
until the 5 minutes timer has expired then it will treat the AP as a new Client. It is possible a Radio may go into an
Over-Loaded state, if the average load for the group drops. This can occur when one or more radios is brought on-
line and added to the group. In an Over-Loaded state, a radio reduces its load by disassociating some clients. The
number of clients removed is the amount that will bring the radio down to the Loaded state. The selection of
clients to disassociate is based on the following rules:
First remove any inactive clients
Then remove clients with the lowest signal strength
Once a client is removed, it will not be allowed to re-associate with the same radio for a period of 30 seconds. This
will cause it to roam to another radio with a lower load.
Note: A client is considered to be roaming if it is associated with a load group member and is probing or
attempting to associate with another member of the same group

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A load group is created by providing: the type of Load Group (Client Balancing or Radio
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Reference), a unique name for the group, Radio and a WLAN assignment.
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Radio Assignment Rules:


Radio are assigned by clicking the Radio Assignment tab, and selecting the radios from a list
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Radios already assigned to a different load group than the one being configured will be
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indicated with an asterisk.


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Selection of this radio is possible. If selected, the radio will be automatically


removed from the group it was previously assigned to
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Each radio can be assigned to at most one load balance group


Multiple radios on the same AP do not have to belong to the same group

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When you are configuring WLAN assignments in a load group, every radio in the load group
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must carry every WLAN assigned to the group. Thus, when you assign a WLAN to a load group
the Controller will automatically assign that WLAN to every radio in the group. Similarly, When
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you assign a radio to a load group, the controller will automatically assign every WLAN in the
group to that radio. As long as a radio is a member of a load group, it will carry all the WLANs
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assigned to the group. You can test this by deleting the WLAN from the radio on the WLAN
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Services page, saving, and then refreshing. The controller will automatically reassign the WLAN
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to the radio.
You can assign additional WLANs to radios that are participating in either a Client Balancing or a
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Radio Preference load group. The controller does NOT populate WLANs you assign to an
individual radio into the rest of the load group.
Removing an radio from a load group will result in the WLAN assignment being un-affected. i.e.,
left as it was configured while a member of the load group. After the radio is removed, WLAN
assignment will be re-enabled from all WLAN assignment pages.
For a Radio Preference load group the WLAN must be assigned to both the 11a/n and 11b/g/n
radios.

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Radio Preference load group performs both Radio band preference steering and Radio load
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control. Band preference steering is a mechanism to move 11acapable clients to the 11a radio
on the AP, relieving congestion on the 11g radio.
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Load control is disabled by default. A radio load group executes band preference steering
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and/or load control across the radios on each AP in the group. Each AP balances in isolation
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from the other APs, but all APs in the load group have the same configuration related to the
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band preference and load control.


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Load control is disabled by default. A radio load group executes band preference steering
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and/or load control across the radios on each AP in the group. Each AP balances in isolation
from the other APs, but all APs in the load group have the same configuration related to the
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band preference and load control.


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Radio preference can now enforce # of max clients in strict mode, once the limit is reached no
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additional clients will connect.


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Configure your password for SSH access to your APs in the AP>AP Registration window.
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The defaults for connecting to the AP via SSH are Username = admin / password = new2day.
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Periodically, the software used by the Wireless APs is altered for reasons of upgrade or security.
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The new version of the AP software is installed from the Wireless Controller. Part of the
Wireless AP boot sequence is to discover and install its software from the Wireless Controller.
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The Controller has a build-in TFTP Server that is used for software upgrade of the APs.
The Wireless AP keeps a backup copy of its software image. When a software upgrade is sent to
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the Wireless AP, the upgrade becomes the Wireless AP's current image and the previous image
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becomes the backup. In the event of failure of the current image, the Wireless AP will run the
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backup image.
The AP Maintenance section allows you to configure how the APs will install their software
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either using the software from the controlled upgrade or by a specific image, which overrides
the controlled software.
Always upgrade AP to default image allows for the selection of a default revision level
(firmware image) for all APs in the domain. As the AP registers with the controller, the firmware
version is verified. If it does not match the same value as defined for the default-image, the AP
is automatically requested to upgrade to the default-image.
To retrieve images not currently stored on the controller use the Download AP Images to
retrieve an image from a FTP/SCP server.
Note: The choice of upgrade method is important when running in an availability scenario.
Failover response time can be delayed if an AP is required to be upgraded when it registers on
the foreign controller.

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The Controlled Upgrade tab is displayed in the AP Maintenance tab only when the Upgrade
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Behavior is set to Upgrade when AP connects using settings from Controlled Upgrade.
Administrators decide the version of software release that the Access Point should be running.
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The Controlled upgrade allows you to individually select and control the state of an AP image
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upgrade: which APs to upgrade, which image to upgrade to or downgrade to and when the
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upgrade should be performed. When performing a bulk upgrade of Access Points the controller
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will perform the upgrade in groups of 10-15 Access Points at a time.


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This is usual for when upgrading controllers in an availability pair and where APs to drop will
dropped their clients when AP are downloaded with the new firmware.

Note: The system will prevent the wrong software being applied to the wrong platform. In the
case of forced upgrade, the correct image will be sent to the appropriate hardware platform.

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Access Point Tracing under the Logs and Reports allows messages to be displayed by
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component for system debugging, troubleshooting, and internal monitoring of software.


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Traces are combined into a single .tar.gz file and can only be viewed by saving the file to a
directory on your computer.
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The AP Inventory Report provides will a consolidated summary of all Wireless APs registered
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and configured in your domain. The AP Inventory report can be exported and save as an XML
file.
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Powered by Amazon Web Services


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No Controller, ExtremeManagement or ExtremeAnalytics are part of the offering.


Services re-implemented from the ground-up to provide a refreshed and easy-to-use
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management infrastructure.
3.1 focus on Management of APs. Future releases will expand to support management for
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Switches as well.
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The new subscription service is perfect for customers looking to deploy an enterprise-grade
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Wi-Fi solution using the latest Wave 2 technology while minimizing up-front costs for
software, controllers and licenses.
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The subscription service scales linearly as customers needs for greater coverage and
density grow, network expansion is pay as you grow, only buy what you need

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Each AP can be assigned its own site


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Accounts will allow management of several sites


Customer can apply Services across a list of sites and sub-customize parameters
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according to site-specific constraints:


AP Assignment
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Authentication Infrastructure
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Authentication infrastructure (Radius) may be local to the site or network


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reachable
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There is no AP Poll interval in connectivity with the cloud


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APs interact with ExtremeCloud to provide statistics reports and request configuration
changes on a 5 minute interval
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If 6 minutes elapses between reports, ExtremeCloud declares the device unreachable


(until new Statistics record or registration received for that device)
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ERP = Enterprise Resource Planning


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Extreme Management Center (Netsight) provides a collection of software tools that can help
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you manage networks of varying complexity. Each is designed to facilitate specific network
management tasks while sharing data and providing common controls and a consistent user
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interface. Extreme Management Center provides comprehensive remote management support


for all Extreme Networks intelligent network management devices as well as any SNMP MIB-I
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or MIB-II manageable devices.


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Extreme Management Center is a separately licensed application that provides access to web-
based reporting, network analysis, troubleshooting, and helpdesk tools.
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The Extreme Management Centers wireless dashboard streamlines network monitoring with
consolidated status of all the devices and drill down ability for more details. State-of-the-art
reporting provides historical and real-time data for high level network summary information
and/or details. The reports and other views are interactive allowing users to choose the specific
variables they need when analyzing data. Web-based FlexViews enable real-time diagnostics.

Extreme Management Centers search functionality is a powerful diagnostic tool. End systems
are searchable by port, MAC address and IP or IP/Port. The results page provides an interactive
topology map consolidating all the data sources available for that location such as performance
data and network access control data.

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Once the Device is added to Extreme Management Center, it will be displayed in the Details
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View. A green alarm icon next to the device indicates that Extreme Management Center has
been able to contact the WC (via SNMP).
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For Extreme Management Center to be able to completely manage the Wireless Controller, it requires
three different simultaneous connections:
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1. A Langley connection, which allows the Wireless Manager component of Extreme Management
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Center to poll the Controller for information


2. An SNMP connection, which allows:
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Management the Controllers configurations and images


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Enforcement of Policies/Roles on the Controller and Access Control Credentials


3. A CLI credential, which allows the Wireless Manager component of Extreme Management Center to
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push VNS configuration information to the Controller, and for the Controller to provide Client and
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Threat Reports.

Langley is an encryption algorithm that requires the use of a shared secret to verify a connection during
connection setup. The Wireless Manager component of Extreme Management Center will try to
connect to the Controller using Wireless Managers global default Langley shared secret. By default,
every Controller and every instance of Extreme Management Center ship with the same Langley shared
secret.
If the shared secrets dont match then Wireless Manager will display an event log indicating that the
shared secret must be configured before Extreme Management Center can fully manage the Controller.

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For Extreme Management Center to manage the WC, the WC must have the appropriate SNMP
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configuration.
The Wireless Controller supports Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Version 1/2c
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or 3, for retrieving Wireless Controller statistics and setting configuration parameters. The
Simple Network Management Protocol, a set of protocols for managing complex networks, is
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used by an SNMP manager to send messages to different devices in an IP network. Devices on


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the network that are SNMP-compliant, running an SNMP agent, store data about themselves in
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Management Information Bases (MIBs) and return this data to the SNMP requesters.
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SNMPv3 uses a User-based Security Module (USM), therefore before access is granted a
security user and its authentication and privacy keys must be verified by the devices SNMP
engine based on the Security Level. Every controller should have its own unique engine id.

Use the Add User Account to create users with the Security Level, Authentication Protocol,
Privacy Protocol and related passwords to match the device.
Note: Modification of the SNMP engine will cause all SNMPv3 users keys to be reset and will
need to be reconfigured.

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The controller supports Local or RADIUS Authentication mode to authenticate users that will
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have access to the GUI and CLI. Local Authentication mode is enabled by default. Extreme
Management Center uses the controllers CLI to retrieve required information, such as Client
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Reports and to configure the managed controllers.


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The Controller supports three user groups:


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Full Administrator (full administrator access rights to the user)


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Read-only Administrator (user allowed to see but cannot modify settings)


GuestPortal Manager (allows the user to manage Guest accounts only)
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Note: Rescue mode (covered in the Controller Maintance Module) allows you to deal with
forgotten passwords and to make Authentication mode changes outside of the Wireless
Assistant GUI/CLI.

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If you choose to use RADIUS to authenticate your Controllers administrative users, you must
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configure your RADIUS server with the proper Service-Type attributes for each user. For RADIUS
Authentication mode, the RADIUS Attribute Service-Type returned in an RADIUS Access-Accept
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message will determine the group rights for the user: Service-Type = NAS Prompt (Read-Only
Administrator), Service-Type = Administrative (Full Administrator) and Authentication Only
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(Guest-Portal Manager).
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The RADIUS Server that is configured via the VNS Global Setting page for clients on the wireless
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network is the same Radius Server that can be used to authenticate users to access the
Wireless Controller Configurator.
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Note: That once Radius authentication access has been configured and enabled, if the Radius
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Server is unavailable or not configured properly you may not be able to login to the Controller.
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To ensure that the Radius Server is configured properly use the Test command.
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Dual Authentication methods are supported on the Wireless Controller. By default Local
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Authentication is configured. To configure Radius Authentication or a combination of


authentication modes select the Configure button. Administrator users will be authenticated
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based on the order in the table.


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The first step to adding the Wireless Controller into Extreme Management Centers database
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is to launch Extreme Management Center and integrate the existing infrastructure device via
SNMP. It is critical that Extreme Management Center is able to manage all network devices
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involved in the network.


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Begin by launching the Extreme Management Center application. Open a WEB browser
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directed to the following URL:


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http://<ExtremeManagement_Server_IP_Address>:8080
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Select Extreme Management Center and login to the web interface. This is the primary
interface to ExtremeManagement, providing management directly in the web browser.

The remaining five clients are legacy Java-based and will initiate an automatic download of the
application: Console, Automated Security Manager, Inventory Manager, NAC Manager, Policy
Manager.

Most management operations may be performed using release 7.0 (or newer) Extreme
Management Center interface and does not require the use of the Java-based applications.

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If you select SNMPv1 or SNMPv2, the window lets you enter a community name as the
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password for this credential. If you select SNMPv3, you can specify passwords for
Authentication and Privacy.
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The CLI credentials are also used when executing scripts from Extreme Management Center to
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the managed devices. This is required for ExtremeWireless Controllers and EXOS switches.
Profiles are assigned to device models in the Extreme Management Center database. They
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identify the credentials that are used for the various access levels when communicating with
the device. When configuring profiles for ExtremeWireless Controllers, you must make sure
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that controllers are discovered using an SNMPv2c or SNMPv3 profile. This profile must also
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contain SSH CLI credentials for the controller. Wireless Manager uses the controller's CLI to
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retrieve required information and to configure managed controllers.


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When configuring CLI Credentials for ExtremeWireless Controllers, you must add the username
and password Login credentials for the controller to the Add/Edit Credential window in order
for Wireless Manager to properly connect (SSH) to the controller and read device configuration
data. The Login password must be added to the Configuration password field instead of the
Login password field. The username and Configuration password specified here must match the
username and Login password configured on the controller.

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Profiles are assigned to device models in the Extreme Management Center database. They
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identify the credentials that are used for the various access levels when communicating with
the device. When configuring profiles for devices, the profile may also contain CLI credentials.
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Extreme Management Center uses these credentials for scripting and management of specific
devices.
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The Read credential of the Extreme Management Center Administrator profile is used for
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device Discovery and status polling. All other SNMP communications will use the profiles
specified here.
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When adding a single new device it may not make sense to use the Discovery tool, use the Add
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Device from the Extreme Management Center.


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When a device or device group is selected from the left panel, the Properties tab shows a table
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listing information about your selection. Columns included here display IP Address, Display
Name, Device Type, Status, Firmware, BootPROM, Base MAC, Chassis ID, Location, Contact,
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System Name, Nickname, and Description.


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Additionally, User Data 1, User Data 2, User Data 3, User Data 4, and Notes columns can be
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edited to provide extra information about the device.


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The Network Devices tab provides you with device details for all the devices in your network
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that you are managing with Extreme Management Center. You can sort and filter relevant
information for network troubleshooting.
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You can also access FlexViews, view your interface and VLAN information, and access
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DeviceView from this screen.


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The Access Points tab display summary information for all the Access Points on your wireless
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network. Click on a single AP name link to open an in-depth AP Summary view for the selected
AP. Click on an AP status Icon to open a table listing the current alarms for the AP. Right-click
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on a single AP to access a menu of AP reports.


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You must tell Extreme Management Center which of your network devices to collect
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information on. To do so, right-click on the device(s) and choose Collect Device Statistics.
Select the Controller statistics you wish to track.
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Wireless Controller statistic collection is configured differently from other devices. When
enabled the collection will include Wireless Controller, WLAN, Topology, AP wired and wireless
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statistics and/or wireless client statistics.


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You must also enable tracking at the interface level. To do so, right-click on your devices and
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choose View Interfaces to open the Interface Summary Flexview. The Interface Summary
provides access to PortView, alarms and alarm history, interface statistic connection and other
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editable values for an interface.


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Note: PortView interface statistics will only be displayed if enabled.


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Right-click on the interfaces upon which you want to collect statistics, and select Collect
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Interface Statistics. The Collection modes can be Historical, where the statistics are saved to the
database and aggregated over time. These statistics can be used for threshold alarms
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configured in the Alarms Manager. The other option is Monitor Mode, where the statistics are
saves to a Monitor cache for one hour and then dropped. These are used for threshold alarms
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but not for Extreme Management Center reporting.


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The Extreme Management Center Wireless tab provides details, dashboards, Individual Reports, Client Event
History and Rogue APs, information to help you monitor the overall status and trends of your wireless network.
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For example, if there is a sudden spike of traffic, dip in users or saturation of an AP, there is often an indication
that there is something occurring on network.
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The Wireless Dashboard displays a selection of reports that provide highly summarized information about the
wireless network. Use the Dashboard to get a quick overview of wireless data including associated clients by
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controller, bandwidth by controller, top 10 APs by aggregate bandwidth, top 10 SSIDs by client count, Wireless
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Manager events, and a controller summary report. Interactive charts allow administrators to display data over
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various time periods using various data rollups.


Controllers by Associated Clients - This report shows the average number of associated clients and the percentage
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of total clients per controller, on an hourly and daily basis.


Controllers by Bandwidth - This report shows the average bandwidth (in bytes) and the percentage of total
bandwidth per controller, on an hourly and daily basis.
Use the drop-down menus to select the date, and whether to display Daily, Hourly, or Daily to Raw data.
Rest your mouse on the different pie slices to see a rollover that presents chart data. Click a pie slice to
see hourly data (for the Daily option) or raw data (for the Hourly and Daily to Raw options) in graph
format.
Wireless Manager Events - This report shows the last ten Wireless Manager Events. Click on the column headings
to filter and sort the events.
Controllers Summary - This report lists summary information for each controller. Click on the Controller link
to open a more detailed Controller Summary report in a new browser tab.
APs by Aggregate Bandwidth - This report lists the top ten APs by aggregate bandwidth, on an hourly or daily basis.
SSIDs by Client Count - This report lists the top ten SSIDs by client count, on an hourly or daily basis.
Use the drop-down menus to select the date, and whether to display Daily or Hourly data.

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Wireless AP History can show Client History, Wired and Wireless Bandwidth. From the AP
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History window the gear in the right hand corner will give you access to more information, as
well as the ability to start a Real Capture trace.
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Wired Statistics especially Error packets can also be compared to the switch that the AP is
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connected to this will validate if the why the errors that are seen on the AP.
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Information such as bandwidth, RSS (signal strength) and packet statistic for the client will be
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displayed.
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Click on a client MAC address link to open a Client History report displaying bandwidth, RSS,
and packet statistics for that client. From the Client History window, you can click a button to
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launch PortView for that client. A spike in dropped packets with the low RSS value could
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indicate RF interference during that particular time frame. Some RF devices such as a
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microwave will operate intermittently for brief periods, where others are continues, e.g. analog
video cameras. Interference can also occur from other Wi-Fi devices operating on the same or
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adjacent channels.

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The Client Event tab shows useful information when troubleshooting Wireless performance:
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Events are triggered by:


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Client session start and end


Inter-AP roaming
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IP address change
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Authentication state change


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Information such as bandwidth, RSS (signal strength) and packet statistic for the client will be
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displayed.

Click on a client MAC address link to open a Client History report displaying bandwidth, RSS,
and packet statistics for that client. From the Client History window, you can click a button to
launch PortView, AP Summary or AP PortView for that client. Portview will show the Overview,
Wireless Details, AP History, Client History and End-System Details is implemented.

Note: In order for Extreme Management Center to populate Client Event History, client data
collection must be enabled.

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The Threats tab shows devices that have been detected by the Radar WIDS-WIPS system as threats to the wireless network.
The recognized threat types include:
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Ad Hoc Device - A device in ad hoc mode can participate in direct device-to-device wireless networks. Devices in ad hoc
mode are a security threat because they are prone to leaking information stored on file system shares and bridging to the
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authorized network.
Cracking - This refers to attempts to crack a password or network passphrase (such as a WPA-PSK). The Chop-Chop attack
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on WPA-PSK and WEP is an example of an active password cracking attack.


Denial of Service (DoS) attacks
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External Honeypot - An AP that is attempting to make itself a man-in-the-middle by advertising a popular SSID, such as an
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SSID advertised by a coffee shop or an airport.


Internal Honeypot - An AP that is attempting to make itself a man-in-the-middle by advertising an SSID belonging to the
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authorized network.
Performance - Performance issues pertain to overload conditions that cause a service impact. Performance issues aren't
necessarily security issues, but many types of attacks do generate performance issues.
Prohibited Device - A MAC address or BSSID is detected that matches an address entered manually into the Radar database.
Spoofed AP - An AP that is not part of the authorized network is advertising a BSSID (MAC address) that belongs to an
authorized AP on the authorized network.
Client Spoof - A device that uses the MAC address of another typically authorized station.
Surveillance - A device or application that is probing for information about the presence and services offered by a network.
Chaff - An attack that overloads a WIDS-WIPS causing it to miss more serious attacks or to go out of service. FakeAP is an
example of a chaff attack.
Unauth Bridge - A device that forwards packets between networks without
authorization to do so.
Injection - The attacker inserts packets into the communication between two devices so that the devices believe the packet
is coming from an authorized device.
The data collection options for the Threats report are access from the Extreme Management Center collector options, under
Client History and Threat options.

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The search feature in Extreme Management Center allows you to search for any MAC or IP
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address, Hostname of an appliance or Serial Number of a device.


By doing the search you can get a pictorial view of where the host is connected to your
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network.
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Extreme Management Center lets you create maps of the devices and wireless access points
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(APs) on your network. Begin by selecting background image to serve as a map, such as a
building or floor plan, and then position your managed devices and wireless APs on the map.
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The Maps tab Search Field can be used to locate a wireless client, if the client is connected to
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an AP that has been added to a map. Enter a MAC Address, IP address, hostname, user name
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in the map Search box and press Enter to start a search for a wireless client. The search uses
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RSS-based (Received Signal Strength) location services to locate the wireless client and display
the approximate location of the client on the map. The map containing the AP will be displayed
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centered on the AP.

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A Virtual Network Service (VNS) provides a binding between Topologies, Class of Service, Roles
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and WLAN Services for WLAN devices. These unique set of components can be created
independently but are only applied to the WLAN connection when defined in an active VNS
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configuration.
These unique sets of policies that are applied to the WLAN connection include but are not
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limited to the following:


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Topology (Routed, B@AC, B@AP, Multicast filtering, Exception Filtering, Layer 3 addressing and
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Layer 3 services; DHCP, Next Hop Routing)


Class of Service: Ingress / Egress Rate Profiles, 802.1p, IP DSCP/TOS , Transmit Queues
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Roles (Policy Rules, CoS, and Access Control Allow, Deny, Contain to VLAN)
WLAN Services (Authentication (802.11i/802.1x, PSK, open, CP, external CP), Encryption
Methods (802.11i/AES, WPA, WEP), Radio Information (SSID name, IE types, .11h,
suppression), QoS (802.11e/WMM, U-APSD and Flexible Client Access)

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With the Wireless Bridge Locally at EWC (B@AC) or Routed topology, the WLAN client traffic is
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encapsulated and transmitted over the CTP tunnel between the AP and the Controller. The
Controller enforces system policies and filtering on the packets. Once the filtering is enforced
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the value that is defined for the VLAN ID is assigned to that packet, and the packet is bridged or
routed through the configured interface.
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To support this configuration, you must define which VLAN the VNS should bridge the traffic to.
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The network port on which the VLAN is assigned must be configured on the switch, and the
corresponding Wireless Controller interface must match the correct VLAN.
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A VNS port/virtual interface is created automatically on the Wireless Controller when a new L3
IP address is defined for a topology and selected in a Role.

If OSPF routing protocol is enabled, the Wireless Controller advertises the VNS (Layer 3) subnet
as a routable network segment to the wired network and will route traffic between the wireless
devices and the wired network.

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Bridged Traffic Locally at the AP (B@AP) WLAN client traffic is directly bridged to a VLAN at
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the AP network point of access (switch port). B@AP VNSes provide link persistence in the
event of loss of connectivity to the controller.
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In the Multiple tagged environment where one or more Bridged Locally at AP VNS topologies
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with VLAN tagging are configured, the Wireless AP has to be connected to a VLAN aware L2
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switch Trunk Port that is segmenting the network.


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Note: Extreme Networks Wireless supports IPv6 wireless communications, IPv6 wireless clients
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communicating natively to IPv6 servers in B@AP mode configurations. This first phase of IPv6
support addresses basic IPv6 connectivity requirements for early adopters of IPv6
communications and provides the foundation for future expanded IPv6 network services
support.

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In event of a link loss with the controller, the AP that has a B@AP topology VNS configured will
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remain active and continue to provide bridged services to existing associated WLAN clients.
However, AP logging, software upgrades and configuration changes will be unavailable until the
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link is re-established.
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During this state the AP will stop sending Poll_Req messages and it will stop checking for
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replies, but it will try to re-discover the Wireless Controller in the background.
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The users EAP packets request for network access along with login identification or a user
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profile is forwarded by the Wireless Controller to a Radius Server, therefore roaming is not
allowed in a 802.1x environment.

* 802.1x support for Roaming and new Client Association are only supported when the APs are
grouped in a Sites Configuration.

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Maintain client session in event of poll failure Selecting this option in the AP Properties tab
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will ensure that the Wireless AP will remain active in the event of a link loss with the controller.
This option is enabled by default on all APs.
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The Restart services in the absence of the controller should also be checked in case the AP
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reboots and the controller is still unavailable. When enabled the AP will maintain the Bridge at
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AP VNS even if the controller is still down.


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VLAN tagging a VNS topology refers to the action of assigning a VLAN-ID to all using this
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particular VNS topology before leaving the interface (either the Controller or the AP).
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ARP Proxy is enabled by default for the B@AC topology, ARP Proxy capabilities are configurable
for B@AP topologies. This feature minimizes the need of sending ARP requests over the air to
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improved performance. The AP will respond to ARP request for the particular MAC if it is
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known on the behalf of the client. This will include any VLAN on which the request was
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received include the Static Egress Untagged VLAN or any VLAN that is used for containment by
the default action or rule.
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A mechanism that supports multicast traffic can be enabled as part of a topology definition;
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this will allow multicast traffic to be. This mechanism is provided to support the demands of
VoIP and IPTV network traffic, while still providing the network access control.
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By default, all physical ports are set with multicast support disabled. Only one non-
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management plane port can be enabled for the multicast when you are supporting VoIP (i.e.
Vocera), Apple Bonjour, IPTV network traffic on Routed VNS topologies. Otherwise, the
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Controller will drop the multicast traffic.


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In a Routed VNS Topology this feature is tied to the physical interface for the use of multicast
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relay, therefore you need to enable multicast on the physical interface.


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Multicast filters control egress of multicast received by the controller or AP.


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Note: Wireless Replication allows Multicast/Broadcast messages to be sent between Wireless


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Clients. If you leave Wireless Replication unchecked, multicast clients can only communicate to
devices on the wired network.
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Note: The multicast packet size should not exceed 1450 bytes.
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Next-hop routing Use next-hop routing to specify a unique gateway to which


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(unicast/broadcast) traffic on a VNS is forwarded. Defining a next-hop for a VNS forces all the
traffic in the VNS to be forwarded to the indicated network device, bypassing any routing
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definitions of the controller's route table similar to Policy Based Routing (PBR). In a switching
environment the 802.1Q tagging can be set by the Switch/Router.
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The Next Hop Feature can be configured under the Advanced Settings in the Topology Tab of
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the DHCP Configuration for a Routed Mode VNS.


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Topology defines the traffic behavior for the VNS, answering the question of how the data is
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going to be transferred between the Wireless Client or Mobile Unit (MU) and the rest of the
network. The topology (Routed, B@AC, B@AP) decision will depend on the current network.
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Consideration must be taken when implementing a VNS. For example, Guest Network access
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via a routed or B@AC topology allows traffic to be tunneled to a single controller to by-pass the
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core network and be deposited in the DMZ. Another consideration is the location of the users
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and the number of controllers in the deployment. For example, for wireless access in a remote
site it does not make sense to tunnel all the traffic to a central controller and then back to a
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remote site. A bridged at AP topology makes more sense in this situation.

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This is useful in places like university campus or large enterprise businesses where there is a
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large broadcast domain.


When you create a Topology Group the controller will use an algorithm (located in VNS/Global)
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to decide which VLAN to use for each client, thereby reducing the broadcast domain.
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As this can only be done at the controller you cannot use a Bridged at AP topology.
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As stated above, if you delete a topology group that is the only thing that is deleted, the
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individual topologies that were members of the group remain unaffected.


In Reports in the Topology group there is an additional column in the Topology Statistics and
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Wired Topology Statistics reports giving details on the Topology Groups configured
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Class of Service (CoS) refers to a set of attributes that define the importance of a frame while it
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is forwarded through the network relative to other packets, and to the maximum throughput
per time unit that a station or port assignment to a specific role is permitted.
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The system limit for the number of CoS profiles on a controller is identical to the number of
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policies. For example, the maximum number of CoS profiles on a C5210 is 1024.
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The CoS defines actions to be taken when rate limits are exceeded.
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The EWC is pre-populated with 9 Class of Service configurations similar to the Class of Service
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Configurations defined in Policy Manager.


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All incoming packets may follow these steps to determine a CoS:


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1. Classification identifies the first matching rule that defines a CoS.


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2. Marking modifies the L2 802.1p and/or L3 ToS based on CoS definition


3. Rate limiting (drop) is set.
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Rate Control is part of CoS definition, the user can specify (default) role that includes Ingress
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and Egress rate control. Ingress rate control applies to traffic generated by wireless clients and
Egress rate control applies to traffic targeting specific wireless clients.
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Bandwidth control limits the amount of bidirectional traffic from a mobile device. A bandwidth
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control profile provides a generic definition for the limit applied to certain wireless clients'
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traffic. A bandwidth control profile is assigned on a per role basis. A bandwidth control profile is
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not applied to multicast traffic.


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For the purpose of Rate Control, the frames are classified as being associated to different flows
that are determined by the actual wireless client session. The meter checks compliance to a
defined traffic profile and passes results to policer to trigger appropriate actions for in- and out-
of-profile packets. The policer drops the out-of-profile packets, so that traffic maintains
compliance with a defined traffic role. In-profile frames are forwarded to the network.

Note: EWC does not perform rate shaping.

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The bit-rates can be configured as part of globally available profiles which can be used by any
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particular configuration. A global default is also defined.


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Bandwidth control limits the amount of traffic from a mobile device. A bandwidth control
profile provides a generic definition for the limit applied to certain wireless clients' traffic. A
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bandwidth control profile is assigned on a per role basis. A bandwidth control profile is not
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applied to multicast traffic.


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Committed Information Rate (CIR) Rate at which the network supports data transfer under
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normal operations. It is measured in kilo bytes per second(Kbps).

The Global VNS setting Bandwidth Control (traffic control) allows the configuration of Rate
Profiles which determine the amount of bidirectional traffic allowed to be transmitted to/from
a client on a VNS. Multiple Profiles can be created, each with their own unique Committed
Information Rate (CIR). Once these Profiles are created they can be associated to individual
roles.

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A Role can reference up to 64 different VLANs through any combination of Default Action, VLAN
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containment rules, static untagged egress VLAN list and RFC 3580 hybrid mode response.
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Role configuration defines the Default Access Control, Class of Service and Policy Rules applied
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to the traffic of a WLAN client. The VLAN & Class of Services component of a Policy is created
by selecting the Access Control from the drop-down list, which includes the Global Default
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Access Control or no change and the Class of Service. When the Containment VLAN option
is selected the VLAN drop-down box is visible and you may pick the VLAN/Topology to contain
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the default traffic. Note that allow is the same as Allow.


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From the Role screen both new Topologies and Class of Service configurations can be created
from the Role screen by selecting the New button.
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Role can also be created using the ExtremeManagement (Policy) and pushed to the Wireless
Controller for use by VNSes.

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A Roles default Access Control is applied in the ingress direction only (into the Bridge/AP).
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More information on the WLAN Service is discussed further in the Module.


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The VNS provides a technique to apply a role to allow different network access to different
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groups of users based on packet Filtering/Policy Rules. The EWC supports up to 2048 filters, 64
filters per Role.
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Wireless APs obtain filter information from the Wireless Controller. Applying Policy Rules at the
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Wireless AP helps restrict unwanted traffic at the edge of your network. The 3600, 3700 and
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3800 Wireless APs will support up to 64 rules.


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When a filter is added to the list it is placed as the first rule. The filtering rule sequence must be
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arranged in the order that you want them to take effect.

Filtering at the Wireless AP is automatic when at least one Access Control, Egress VLAN or Rule
references a Bridged at AP topology (VLAN). Therefore the Role is automatically enforced to
the AP.

AP Filtering is optional if role uses only routed or Bridged at Controller topologies.

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Filtering provides the ability to create bidirectional filters. As traffic enters either the AP or
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Controller parts of the IP header are examined for a match.


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The Wireless Controller is pre-populated with a number of Ethertype, Port and Protocol
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selections to ease the configuration of creating Classification rules.


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Note: Do not use MAC address rules as alternative to MAC blacklist/whitelist, blacklist/whitelist
processing is more efficient and blocks access sooner and more thoroughly.
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Direction: Be sure to configure the correctly as an in (into the AP from Wireless) or out filter
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(out to the wireless LAN). The default is set in such a way that the traffic destination
generated from the wireless clients will be defined (e.g. a web site location). Likewise, traffic
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coming from a particular source on the wired network.


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Layer2: specify the from the menu one of the many Ethertypes.
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The example shown here are the options for IPv4 Layer 3,4 filters. You can specify by IP
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Address, Port or Protocol shown in the menus on the right.


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Layer 7 Classification is new in Software Release 10.11


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Application Policy (L7 control) provides better granularity over network and user traffic policy.
Does not require any additional equipment to be deployed in order to effectuate policy
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enforcement on the wireless networks, from a rich pool of over 2000 applications. Integrated
via Extreme Management (7.0) to centrally and consistently manage policy across several
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ExtremeWireless appliances. Consistent policy is key to enable a good roaming experience


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across a large campus.


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The example above shows that selecting group Travel will then provide the names of a
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number of travel applications/sites.

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The Controller gives you the ability to filter Bonjour traffic advertisements.
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With Bonjour, every service automatically advertises itself. For example, if a student has an
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iPhone that is running iTunes, part of the process is for iTunes to advertise itself as a service
using Bonjour. In a classroom this can result in a lot of bandwidth consumption: 25 students
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advertise iTunes, which consumes airtime on that access point; the AP forwards the
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advertisement into the wired network, which forwards those advertisements out all the other
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APs on the VLAN.


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Filtering Bonjour traffic advertisements can conserve all of that backend bandwidth.

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mDNS-SD Multicast Domain Name System Service Discovery, this is used to resolve host
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names to IP addresses within small networks.


Simple Service Discovery Protocol - is a network protocol based on the Internet Protocol
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Suite for advertisement and discovery of network services and presence information. It
accomplishes this without assistance of server-based configuration mechanisms, such as DHCP
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or the DNS.
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Local Link Multicast Name Resolution - Allows both IPv4 and IPv6 hosts to perform name
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resolution for hosts on the same local link


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The mDNS-SD Query refers to the service advertisement. Configure a filter on this Application
to limit which devices can advertise services.
The mDNS-SD Response refers to the request for service. Configure a filter on this application
to limit which devices can access services.

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Splitting a single stations IPv4 traffic across multiple VLANs needs to be done with extreme
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care. In the worst case it could cause a forwarding loop or duplicate delivery of multicast &
broadcast traffic.
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This use of policy only makes sense in the context of a carefully planned network. This is not
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something that can be dropped into an existing network without careful network
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engineering.
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Stations and Apple TVs dont have to be on the same subnet to permit discovery; each lecture
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room or building could contain a distinct VLAN to limit scope of multicast discovery to what is
available locally.

Multicast Rules can be used to Contain Bonjour traffic to a specific VLAN/Topology, therefore in
a Education Environment each Classroom can have its own Apple TVs.

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List those VLANs (multicast, broadcast, unicast) that a station assigned to a role receives from,
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even if it hasnt sent on it.


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Note: Egress VLAN list cannot contain the same topology at the Default Access Control and
multiple VLANs cannot be selected in the Untagged VLAN list.
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Note: In the out direction Allow and Contain to VLAN mean to forward to the station/mobile
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unit untagged. The Contain to VLAN can be used for traffic analysis and to separate local
multicast protocols.
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The WLAN service represents unique RF, authentication, encryption and QOS attributes of a
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wireless access service (802.11) for the VNS. Using the SSIDs as a service differentiation for
wireless client to connect to, APs have the ability to advertise several SSIDs. Each AP supports
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up to 16 SSIDs per Access Point, 8 per Radio.


The WLAN Service can be one of four basic types. Once the Service Type is selected and Saved
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the other tabs for this WLAN Service will be displayed based on the Service Type selected.
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Standard A conventional service. Only APs running Wireless software can be part of this
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WLAN Service. This type of service is useable as B@AC, B@AP, or Routed VNS.
WDS/Mesh This represents a group of APs organized into a hierarchy for purposes of
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providing a Wireless Distribution Service/Mesh Network. This type of service is in essence a


wireless trunking service rather than a service that provides access for stations. As such this
type of service cannot have policies attached to it. It allows APs to use RF to provide both
network access and data backhaul to locations without cable or fiber.
Third Party AP A wireless service offered by third party APs.
Remote - A service that resides on the edge (foreign) Wireless Controller. This service is
paired with a remotable service on the home Wireless Controller and should have the same
SSID name and privacy as the home remotable service.

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A WLAN service uses the topology and CoS assigned to the VNS. There may be cases where a
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default topology or CoS will be used for a specific SSID by-passing the Authenticated Role or
CoS assigned by the Radius Server. This allows Roles (Filters/Cos) to be applied without
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assigning a topology. This provides a better integration with ExtremeManagement Policy,


therefore the topology is assigned based on the WLAN Service or SSID that the end-system
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associates to.
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Since the WLAN Service is treated like a port it is reasonable to assume that the WLAN Service
has a VLAN ID. The VLAN ID of a WLAN Service is the VLAN assigned by the WLAN Services
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Default Topology. IF the WLAN Service does not have an explicitly assigned default topology
then its VLAN ID is the VLAN assigned by the Global Default Role.

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The Service Set Identifier (SSID) will be the name of the Broadcast Service Set Identifier (BSSID).
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The BSSID is a 48-bit binary identifier that distinguishes it from other BSSes throughout the
network. The BSSID is the MAC address of the wireless interface in the access point creating
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the BSS.
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The WLAN Services tab displays the list of APs that have been registered and approved on the
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Wireless Controller. If two controllers have been paired for availability, each EWCs registered
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Wireless APs are displayed as foreign in the other EWCs AP list. This list is used for the
assignment of WLAN services to individual APs, as well as to radios on each AP (Individual
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BSSIDs).

The following characters are not supported in the WLAN/VNS fields \, ', "

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Once the configuration has been written to the AP, the VNS SSID (BSSID) assigned to an AP
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Radio is displayed in the Wireless AP Radio settings.


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N/A: indicates that the WLAN Service has been created however it has not been assigned to a
VNS or the Radio is not enabled.
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BSSID: indicates that the WLAN Service and VNS has been created and it assigned to that
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particular Radio.
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The Advanced Settings of the WLAN Services for Timeout parameters define the following
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components:
Idle: (pre) The amount of time in minutes that a WLAN client can have a session on the
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controller in pre-authenticated state but no active traffic is passed. The session will be
terminated if no active traffic is passed within this time. The default value is 5 minutes.
e
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Idle: (post) The amount of time in minutes that a WLAN client can have a session on the
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controller in authenticated state but no active traffic is passed. The session will be terminated if
no active traffic is passed within this time. The default value is 30 minutes. This value also
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represents the amount of time the PKMID is cached on the AP.

Session The maximum number of minutes of service to be provided to the user before
termination of the session. Once terminating the user will re-authenticate on the network.

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802.11k allows the Mobile User (MU) to quickly identify nearby APs that are available as
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roaming targets. When the signal strength of the current AP weakens and your device
needs to roam to a new AP, it already knows which AP is the best choice.
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The Wireless Controller provides basic standard wireless network security authentication
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methods for WLAN clients for protection such as IEEE 802.1x, Captive Portal, MAC
Authentication or Guest Portal. Authentication method will depend on multiple criteria, such
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as roaming, Availability, Mobility, ExtremeManagement or Guest Access Services.


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The Auth & Acct defines the parameters to setup the Authentication and Accounting for a
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WLAN Service. If the network assignment is 802.1x authentication, the users request for
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network access along with login identification and a user profile are forwarded by the Wireless
Controller to a RADIUS Server. The following types of authentication methods are supported:
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Extensible Authentication ProtocolTransport Layer Security (EAP-TLS), EAP with Tunneled


Transport Layer Security (EAP-TTLS), and Protected EAP (PEAP).

Note: The RADIUS server must support RADIUS extension (RFC2869) for 802.1x Authentication.

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You can select various combinations of privacy and authentication on any WLAN. However,
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802.1x authentication combined with WPA2 encryption provides you the greatest level of
security.
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As part of a proactive approach to Wireless Security, WLAN Service password or network


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passphrases and SSIDs are evaluated when saved. If the password or SSID does not meet the
recommended security criteria a warning box will be displayed.
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Privacy is a mechanism that protects data over wireless and wired networks, usually by encryption techniques.
Wireless Controller, Access Points and Software supports:
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Static Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)


Dynamic Keys (WEP)
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Note: WEP Encryption has been deprecated, and should only be used for privacy if client devices do not
support stronger privacy method
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Wi-Fi Protected Access Privacy (WPA v.1 and v.2) - Encryption is by Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) or by
m

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP).


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Two modes are available:


Enterprise - Specifies 802.1x authentication and requires an authentication server
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Pre-Shared Key (PSK) Privacy in PSK mode, using a Pre-Shared Key (PSK), or shared secret for authentication.
WPA-PSK is a security solution that adds authentication to enhanced WEP encryption and key management.
WPA-PSK mode does not require an authentication server. It is suitable for home or small office.
The PSK is a shared secret (pass-phrase) that must be entered in both the Wireless AP or router and the WPA
clients.
When you select WPA, the Controller chooses WPAv2 by default. This is the strongest encryption method available
on the Controller.
Note: Regardless of the Wireless AP model or VNS type, a maximum of 112 simultaneous clients, per radio, are
supported by all of the data protection encryption techniques listed above.
WLAN Service configuration now receives additional validations to ensure that SSIDs and pre-shared keys do not
suffer from security weaknesses. The administrator will be allowed to configure services with weak keys and SSIDs
but will be warned that stronger ones should be considered.

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802.11r
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When the Mobile User roams from one AP to another on the same network, 802.11r
streamlines the authentication process using a feature called Fast Transition (FT). FT allows
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MUs to associate with APs faster. FT works with both Pre-Shared Key (PSK) and 802.1X
authentication methods.
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The main application for 802.11r is VOIP so that the call will not drop due to lengthy re-
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negotiation of EAP packets.


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This only applies to the 37xx and later APs.


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Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other WLAN devices using 802.11 wireless local area
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networks require constant transmission rates and timely packet transmission.


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The Extreme Networks wireless solution provides end to end packet prioritization using Quality
of Service (QoS) capabilities in order to provide voice data or time sensitive traffic types priority
e

over all other traffic. Examples of this include: Wireless QOS mode WMM (Wi-Fi Multimedia),
m

802.11e, 802.1p or DSCP (DiffServ Codepoint).


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QoS policies are configured for each WLAN Service and it can be applied to most all VNS
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topology types. That means that every WLAN client is treated with unique QoS settings based
on the WLAN Service to which they associate even from the same AP.

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The WLAN distinguishes between two levels of QoS treatment applied to the client traffic:
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wireless and wired. Wireless QoS is applied at the APs, while the wired QoS is applied at both
the APs and the Wireless Controller. QoS definition and configuration are part of the WLAN
W

Services specifications.
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On the wired side, a class of service can define DSCP and IP/TOS markings that can overwrite
m

the markings in the ingress frame. A class of service can specify the transmission queuing
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behavior that is applied to frames. Rate limiting can also be considered part of overall QoS
specification. Rate limiting/control is applied to all traffic assigned to a role.
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QoS is configured for each VNS and it can be applied to Routed, B@AP and B@AC topologies.
Therefore every user associated with the VNS there will be a different behavior on the wireless
traffic depending on the client that is connected.

Quality of Service (QoS) management is also provided by: Assigning high priority to an SSID,
Adaptive QoS and support for legacy devices that use SpectraLink Voice Protocol (SVP) to
prioritizing voice traffic.

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Packet Fairness is the default 802.11 QoS setting, whereby clients are provided with equal
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opportunity to send a packet, regardless of their bit rate capabilities. Therefore slower clients
will occupy the RF channel for longer durations than faster clients, causing the throughput on
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faster clients (802.11n) to be reduced.


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Flexible Client Access ensures equal airtime for all clients, as opposed to equal number of
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packets. This is essential for achieving the best performance of 802.11n client on a VNS WLAN
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Service that supports both 802.11n and legacy clients on the same network.
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Once enabled, Flexible Client Access (FCA) comes into play once traffic/load exceeds the
medium capacity on an 11n AP.

Airtime Fairness 802.11n clients will see the same throughput that they would if it they were
connected to an 802.11n only network and legacy clients will behave as if connected to a
legacy network because client are provided with equal channel usage.

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Flexible Client Access (FCA) can adjust the client QoS in multiple steps between packet fairness
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and airtime fairness. FCA can be enabled or disabled for any given WLAN Service in its QoS
Settings tab. The level at which it is applied (between 100% Airtime Fairness and 100% Packet
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Fairness) is a global parameter that is set under VNS Configuration -> Global -> Wireless QoS.
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FCA should not be enabled on WLAN services that is configured to use 802.11e/WMM voice
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queue to preserve the quality of Voice over WLAN.


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The VNS binds the WLAN Service and Role. When creating a VNS, a single overall filtering policy
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applies to all the wireless devices within that specific VNS configuration. The filtering selection
will depend on the type of filtering that will be applied to that VNS and at what state (Non-
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Authenticated or Authenticated). For example, with Guest Portal and Captive Portal
(Internal/External) the Non-Authenticated Role will be applied to the users before
e

authentication. Once the user has been authenticated the user will be assigned the
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Authenticated Role that is assigned to the VNS or a Role that is returned in the Filter-ID from a
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RADIUS server.
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When the Wireless Controller creates this VNS, it also creates a virtual IP subnet for that VNS
where user traffic is tunneled to the Wireless Controller. Packets will undergo the enforcement
of system policies or filtering before finally being VLAN tagged and bridged through the
configured interface. In a Routed VNS, this will be the address that the controller will advertise
to the network, so that packets can be routed to the network.

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The Global Default Role definition provides a placeholder for completion of incomplete policies
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for initial default assignment. If a role attribute is defined as no change, the attributes are
inherited from Global Default Role definitions.
W

The Wireless Controller ships with a Global Default Role that specifies a default Access Control,
e

Policy Rules and Rate Profile.


m
tre

The Global Default Role parameter values are:


Default Action/Access Control = Bridged at AP untagged
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Rate Profile = Unlimited or no rate control


Filter Rules = Allow All filter

The attributes of the Default Global Role can be modified to define more permissive filter sets
or a more restrictive Rate Control profile or a different topology.

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The All Active Client, Active Clients by Wireless AP and Active Clients by VNS reports show
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similar information about the clients that have been associated to the AP via the SSID.
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The Clients by AP will show your active Clients and the number of Clients associated to that AP.
e
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ANQP = Access Network Query Protocol - is a query and response protocol that defines
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services offered by an access point, typically at a Wi-Fi hot spot


HS2 = Hotspot 2.0
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RFC 5227 = IPv4 Address Conflict Detection


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Online SignUp is where a customer does not have access to a HotSpot can create their own
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credentials to the HotSpots in there area. Obviously the AAA servers for the HotSpots would
have to be available
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Depending what option is selected from the Venue Info drop down shown in the slide there will
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be different options on the second drop down menu to the right


Example:
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If you selected Institutional on the left the options on the right are
Hospital
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Long-Term Care Facility


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Alcohol and Drug Rehabilitation Centre


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Group Home
Prison or Jail
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If you selected Vehicular on the left the options on the right are
Automobile or Truck
Airplane
Bus
Ferry
Ship or Boat
Train
Motor Bike

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Saves on CAPEX - These deployment options do not use or require an ExtremeAnalytics Sensor
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or Engine.
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ExtremeWireless access points use a flow based architecture that performs deep packet
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inspection (DPI) to provide visibility and control for over 3,000 applications, without impacting
AP traffic processing. You may now identify what applications are passing through the access
W

points and then set controls to provide preference for critical business applications, and rate
limit or deny nonbusiness applications.
e

The flow-based architecture allows for faster data processing verses packet processing because
m

the AP does not need to look at every packet. Once the initial flow is established the flow is
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kept in a flow table which makes look ups much faster for subsequent packets.
Ex

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Application Visibility is enabled by selecting the Application Visibility checkbox in the WLAN
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Services window. Application Visibility allows the controller to capture throughput and byte
statistics for 31 pre-selected application groups per client. The data is refreshed every 2
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minutes. Enabling this option increases CPU load. Clear this option when Application Visibility
and Application Enforcement is not required.
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The Wireless Assistant Home Screen provides real-time status information on the current state
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of the wireless network. Applications by WLAN provides visibility into how the network is being
utilized. Updates will be provided periodically by the display automatically cycling through the
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list of those WLANs that have Application Visibility enabled.


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Open the detailed view of the applications by clicking on Application by WLAN on the Home
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Screen.
These charts are generated from an aggregate of all clients data that using the WLAN service, in
W

this case WGuest.


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Throughput charts provide additional historical information providing insight into how the
ire

network is being utilized.


Numerous categories are available easily accessed using the pulldown menu.
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Traffic received at the controller (Controller to wireless client) if received with VLAN tags, will
ire

retain VLAN on mirroring.


Traffic received from devices (wireless client to Controller) will be mirrored without VLANs.
W

Flow Manager is used on the AP when using a Bridged@AP topology and is there to relay either
just the N-Mirror packets or the N-Mirror packets and the NetFlow records to the Wireless
e

Controller via the WASSAP tunnel, depending on Configuration


m

Flow Manager on the Wireless Controller is used to relay the N-Mirror packets and the NetFlow
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records to the Extreme Application Analytics Sensor.


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Flow counts considered only in relation to N-Mirroring and Flow Reporting. Flow counts do not
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impact data forwarding.


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Policy Role Assignments defines how the WLAN client traffic is handled (topology, filtering rules
ire

and Class of Service (CoS)). Each VNS is configured with two Role assignments, the Non-
Authenticated and the Authenticated. When a WLAN client associates to an SSID, it will be
W

assigned the Non-Authenticated Role associated to that VNS until it is Authenticated by the
Controller. Once the WLAN client is authenticated it will receive either the same Policy/Role or
e

a different role based on the Authenticated Role assignment defined for the VNS. The WLAN
m

client will maintain the same authentication/privacy and QOS parameters that were defined in
tre

the WLAN service for that VNS.


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If a RADIUS Server is used for authentication (such as in 802.1x, MAC Authentication or Captive
Portal) the Filter ID value defined in the Remote Access Dial-in User Service (RFC2865) response
from the RADIUS Server can be used to override the default Authenticated Role assignment. If a
Filter-ID value is returned with the RADIUS Access-Message to the Controller and matches a
configured Role, the controller will assign the specified role to that user.

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Authentication controls the access of connecting end systems to the network based on supplied
credentials. For Extreme Networks Wireless, the controlling of access to the network is more than
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authenticating users that are connected based on the passing or failing of authentication by an end
W

system. Authentication methods vary in order to cater to the types of devices that may connect to the
network. For example, although PCs allow humans to input personal credentials such as username and
e

password through a keyboard (Captive Portal, 802.1x (PEAP)), an IP Phone may not provide the same
m

interface for a human to input personal credentials, i.e. 802.1x w/Certificate or MAC based
Authentication.
tre
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Upon passing authentication, Extreme Networks Controllers and APs have the capability to properly
allocate network resources to authenticated users/devices aligned with their business role. Therefore,
authentication is used in conjunction with the granular control of network resources supported through
Extreme Networks Policy implementation to automatically allocate network resources to an
authenticated user/device independent of their location.

Captive Portal and 802.1x authentication has evolved from a means to authenticate a user onto the
network to provide dynamic network assignments (Topology/VLAN) and packet filtering (Role). RFC
3580 specifies the standard attributes currently used for VLAN assignment (tunnel-type, tunnel-
medium-type, private-tunnel-group-id) and for Role (filter-id) and Quality of Service information.

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A high level overview of how Extreme Networks Wireless Devices accomplish this goal is
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explained as follows:
An authentication method is implemented between the user device connecting to the network
W

and the Network Access Server (NAS) in order to acquire credentials from the user/device for
validation on the network.
e
m

The Wireless Controller or the Access Point (when configured using Sites) acts as the NAS. The
tre

NAS is responsible for communicating via a RADIUS Access-Request, the authentication


credentials from the user device along with a number of RADIUS Attribute Value Pairs (AVP)
Ex

and Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSAs) that can be used to help the RADIUS server with its
decision on how to handle the authentication. The RADIUS server authenticates/validates the
credentials, the Server contains a database of valid users and corresponding credentials, it can
either accept or reject the based on the comparison of the credentials. If the credentials are
correct, a RADIUS Access-Accept is returned to the NAS, and if the credentials are invalid, a
RADIUS Access-Reject is returned to the NAS.

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The Authentication component includes the definition of the RADIUS servers on the enterprise
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network. The controller will contact up to 3 RADIUS Servers. The servers defined here will
appear as available choices when you set up the authentication mechanism for a WLAN Service
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and when you create a Site. During the configuration a Hostname (FQDN) for a RADIUS server is
allowed. However, you must configure the Host Attributes setting for your reachable DNS
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server.
m
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When using MAC Authentication, the MAC Address Format can be selected to match how the
entry is created on the RADIUS Server.
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Strict Mode enables the ability to change the RADIUS server setting per WLAN service.

Note: The Wireless Controller must be configured properly via ExtremeManagement, i.e.
SNMPv3 and CLI access.

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You have the option to have the controller periodically check to see if the primary RADIUS
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server has recovered from a failure and, if so, move client authentication back to the primary
server.
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This feature is only supported for RADIUS authentication, not accounting.


There are two methods supported to check if the primary RADIUS server has recovered:
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Authorize an actual new user


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Use RFC 5997 Status-Server Request


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This can include to allow Service-Type attributes in the Client Request Messages, permits these
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attributes to be sent to the RADIUS server. (e.g. RFC3580).


If you have multiple RADIUS servers, how will they be utilized, options are:
1. 1st option is use primary RADIUS server until it fails, then only use the backup until that fails.
2. 2nd option if the RADIUS server fails use the backup but when the primary comes back on
line requests will go back to it.
Enable RADIUS Accounting.

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MAC-based authentication enables network access to be restricted to specific devices by MAC


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address. The Wireless Controller queries a RADIUS server for a MAC address when a wireless
client attempts to connect to the network.
W

To set up a RADIUS server for MAC-based authentication, you must set up a user account with
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UserID=<MAC address> and Password=MAC (or a password defined by the administrator) for
m

each user configured on your RADIUS Server. If the Password box is left empty, the MAC
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address will act as the default password.


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MAC-based authentication responses may indicate to the Wireless Controller what VNS role
should be assigned to the user when used with the Filter-ID RADIUS attribute.

Enable MAC-based authorization on roam, if you want your clients to be authorized every time
they roam to another AP. If this feature is not enabled, and MAC-based authentication is in
use, the client is authenticated only at the start of a session.

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The RADIUS Attribute Value Pairs (AVP) and Vendor-Specific Attributes (VSA) carry data in both
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the request and the response for the authentication, authorization, and accounting
transactions. These Attributes can determine: a) how the user is authenticated, i.e.
W

authentication method supported; and b) Attributes returned via the authentication process,
i.e. Filter-ID, VLAN attributes, and the Organization Group that the end-system is defined as
e

belonging to in the Active Directory database.


m

Extreme Access Control gateways require that the SSID Attribute be selected if the
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ExtremeManagement Rule uses the Location SSID.


If the Zone is configured for either Sites or Location-Based Policy, the Zone name can be used as
Ex

the Called Station ID attribute that is sent with the Radius Access Request message. Normally,
the Controller uses the BSSID that the client connects to as the Called Station ID attribute.
Session-Timeout (RADIUS Standard option 27) the session timeout variable can be returned
by the RADIUS server to place an absolute time limit on the status of authenticated on the
WLAN client. After time (in minutes) has expired the client session is automatically marked as
non-authenticated; their filter set changes back to Non-Authenticated and they are subject to
captive portal authentication again.

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In Microsoft IAS/Network Policy Server (NPS) the Radius Attributes can be used for Conditions
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that must be matched for a particular Policy. For example, the Wireless Controller sends the
Access-Request Message to the RADIUS server, the Attribute Value Pairs are specified including
W

the Vendor Attributes or VSA. In the Network Policies defined in the Network Policy Server, this
particular request is going to match the Authorized Wireless Users Policy , where the conditions
e

are the User Groups (Locally defined on the RADIUS Server, the Attribute User-Name is
m

compared to the Employees User Group), and the NAS Port Type is equal to Wireless IEEE
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802.11. Based on the match, the Settings are further defined and returned to the NAS; this
includes the Authentication that is supported as well as Attributes such as Filter-ID and VLAN-ID
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attributes. If this same user attempted to be authenticated by a Switch or Wired Network


device this Policy would not be used.

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RFC 3580 Attributes can be returned in the RADIUS Access-Accept packet to the NAS during the
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authentication process. Therefore, each user configured on the RADIUS server can be
associated to a NSP policy that is configured with either a RADIUS Filter-Id that matches the
W

name of the Role on the Controller that the user will be assigned for the proper allocation of
network resources or VLAN Attributes to defined the network or Topology or both.
e
m

VLAN assignment allows an end-user device to be dynamically placed on a VLAN based on the
tre

response from the RADIUS server. The Extreme Networks Controller supports the Tunnel-
Private-Group-ID (81) which defines the topology name of the VLAN, i.e. Engineering. When
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the Controller or AP receives this response it will tag all incoming traffic to that particular VLAN
defined in the Topology.

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The RFC3580 (ACCESS_ACCEPT) Options defined how the Controller or AP (Sites configuration)
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will assign the Role and Topology for the Controller. This is a Global Setting, therefore it is
applied to all VNSes that are created.
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The RADIUS Filter-ID attribute is the default value and the VLAN ID Role Mapping table will not
e

be displayed. If both RADIUS Filter-ID and Tunnel-Private-Group-ID attributes are selected the
m

VLAN ID Role Mapping table should not contain any entries, otherwise the VLAN ID returned
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from the RADIUS server will be matched to the VLAN ID Role Mapping table and not the Filter-
ID that is returned in the RADIUS-Access-Accept message.
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Note: Topology (PVID) is set either Default Global Role/WLAN Default Topology or Role Access
Control (VLAN Containment).

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Zones are used to define APs to a specific area. The Zone identifies a logical AP group, which in
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turn can be used for area-based policy/Role assignments. Area-Based policy allows existing
Wired customers using RFC3580 assignment to extend into the Wireless Environment, as well
W

as to deploy the same roles across all sites, while maintaining the specific topology.
e

When you check Replace Called Station ID with Zone name in RADIUS requests, the Controller
m

uses the Zone Name youve assigned the AP, instead of the BSSID the user connects to, as the
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Called Station ID in the RADIUS Access Request. You can configure your RADIUS server to
assign either Role, or Role and topology, based on that Called Station ID value.
Ex

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For example, say that you want to give User A access to the Inventory network when they are
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working in the Warehouse, but not when they are working in the office. You would place all of
the APs in the warehouse in a zone called BuildingA.
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When User A connects to the ProdWireless SSID in the office, the Controller forwards User
As login credentials along with the Basic Service Set ID (BSSID) of ProdWireless to the RADIUS
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server. You configure the server in that case to return a Filter-ID of Employee, which does not
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give User A access to the Inventory network.


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On the other hand, when User A connects to the same SSID - ProdWireless in the warehouse,
the Controller forwards User As credentials along with the BSSID of BuildingA to the RADIUS
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server. You configure the server in that case to return a Filter-ID of Warehouse Employee,
which does give User A access to the Inventory network.

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The Operator Name attribute allows the Controller to use RADIUS to authenticate a user that does not
belong to your network; that is, a user whose authentication information is housed in a server
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maintained by another access provider. It carries the operator namespace identifier and the operator
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name in the RADIUS Access Request message to that provider. The operator name is combined with the
namespace identifier to uniquely identify the owner of an access network.
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The Controller supports the four standard protocols for exchanging Operator information:
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TADIG, the Transferred Account Data Interchange Group codes, are defined by the GSM. TADIG codes
are assigned by the TADIG Working Group within the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
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Association. The TADIG code consists of two fields, with a total length of five ASCII characters consisting
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of a three-character country code and a two-character alphanumeric operator (or company) ID.
TADIG is used to test a roaming agreement between two providers, typically for a cell service. It
allows a provider to test the billability of calls to/from a Mobile Station that is using a visited
network.

REALM can be used to indicate operator names based on any registered domain name. This operator is
limited to ASCII, so any registered domain name that contains non-ASCII characters must be converted
to ASCII.
REALM is used when you have multiple domains with users in each domain needing access to
the same devices.

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E212 can be used to indicate operator names based on the Mobile Country Code (MCC) and
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Mobile Network Code (MNC) defined in ITU212. The MCC/MNC values are assigned by the
Telecommunications Standardization Bureau (TSB) within the ITU-T and by designated
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administrators in different countries. The E212 value consists of three ASCII digits containing
the MCC, followed by two or three ASCII digits containing the MNC.
e
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ICC can be used to indicate operator names based on International Telecommunication Union
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(ITU) Carrier Codes (ICC) defined in ITU1400. ICC values are assigned by national regulatory
authorities and are coordinated by the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB) within
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the ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T). When using the ICC namespace,
the attribute consists of three uppercase ASCII characters containing a three-letter alphabetic
country code, followed by one to six uppercase alphanumeric ASCII characters containing the
ICC itself.

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During the Authentication Process the RADIUS server may return a role for the user that is not
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configured on the Controller. The Controller considers this an Invalid Role. When the
Controller receives an Invalid Role, your options are:
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Have the Controller apply the Default Role (Authenticated Role)


Deny all traffic
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Allow all traffic


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This is a global decision on the Controller.


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When you are using Authentication types that do not require RADIUS access, i.e. WPA-PSK or
Guest Portal, use the default Apply VNS Default Role

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Note: The 3705, 3801 and 3805 entry-level APs may be limited in the maximum throughput it
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can process in conjunction with Radar compared to the rest of the product line.
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Roles:
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Guardian An AP that is dedicated to performing ExtremeWireless Radar WIDS-WIPS


Forwarder An AP that is dedicated to forwarding traffic between wired and wireless media
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Forwarder + in-service Radar A forwarder that simultaneously performs Radar WIDS-WIPS on


the channels that it is using for forwarding
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AP role is visible on: Single AP edit page, Active APs report & Radar / Maintenance / Scanning
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APs List
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Radar requires that a single controller must be delegated to host the Analysis Engine. A data
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collector application, installed on each controller, receives and manages the RF scan messages
sent by each AP. The data collector forwards to the Analysis Engine lists of all connected
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Wireless APs, third-party APs and RF scan information collected from participating APs.
The Analysis Engine processes the scan data from the data collectors through algorithms that
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make decisions about whether any of the detected APs or clients are threats or are running in
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an unsecure environment (for example, ad-hoc mode).


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APs must be part of a Radar scan profile to participate in WIDS-WIPS activity. A scan profile is a
collection of WIDS-WIPS configuration options that can be assigned to appropriate APs. The
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actual configuration options depend on whether the profile is an In-Service, Guardian or Legacy
scan profile.
The Analysis Engine relies on a database of connected devices on the ExtremeWireless system.
The database is basically a compiled list of all APs and clients connected to the controller. The
Analysis Engine compares the data from the data collector with the database of known devices.

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APs are labeled as belonging to one of the following categories when they are added to the Analysis
Engine database:
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Scanning APs This is the subset of authorized APs configured to provide WIDSWIPS services.
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Friendly APs These are APs that are not part of the authorized network, but they operate in the
vicinity of the authorized network. Friendly APs are operated by a neighboring enterprise for their
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own use. Authorized APs based on the AP37xx, AP 38xx, 39xx architecture can prevent authorized
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devices from using friendly APs.


Uncategorized APs APs discovered by scanning APs and which do not fall into any other category.
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Authorized APs APs that can be used by devices authorized to use the network. APs can be added to
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the list automatically (for example, if the APs are active on the current host or the hosts availability
partner) or manually.
Prohibited APs These are APs that have been manually added to the Radar database so that the
Radar WIDSWIPS system will detect them and, if so configured, protect against them. An example of
manually prohibited APs might be APs that were stolen from the authorized network and now could
be used to generate a security breach.

Friendly or uncategorized APs can be reclassified as Authorized APs or Prohibited APs.


Uncategorized, Authorized or Prohibited APs can be reclassified as Friendly APs.

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A station is considered Defendable, if it meets at least 1 of the following criteria:


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Successfully completed association to a BSSID of a WLAN Service that has WEP or Dynamic
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WEP
Successfully completed the WPA-PSK (v1 or v2) exchange
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Successfully completed 802.1x, WPA (v1 or v2) authentication


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Successfully completed MAC-based authentication, IF MAC-based authentication (MBA) is


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the only authentication for the WLAN OR the RADIUS response for MAC-based
authentication sets login-lat-port =1 (fully authenticated)
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Successfully completed any form of captive portal authentication, excluding Guest-splash


Controller has received a CoA (Change of Authorization) request or an approval.php request
that declares the station authorized (login-lat-port or equivalent set)
Stations with sessions managed by the Home Controller or availability partner that meet the
above criteria and only when Fast Failover is enabled

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Radar identifies and deals with threats to the EWCs APs and their stations. For example, rather
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than implementing a mechanism to detect spoofing of any AP in the area, Radar concentrates
on detecting spoofing of the EWCs APs.
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Encryption Cracking Attempts to recover an encryption key or encryption key stream.


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Allowing transmission of messages into the authorized network.


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Denial of Service - Sending a flood of de-authentication messages to a station or AP. These


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attacks prevents the victim from giving or getting service.


Ad-Hoc Networks Device forwards unauthorized packets between networks, wireless to
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wired or wireless and wireless.


Surveillance Surveyor, like Radar, that listens (Passive) and transmits (Active) 802.11 frame
to discovers network.
Honeypot AP that advertises an SSID belonging to the authorized network without
authorization (Internal) or an AP that advertises a popular SSID that stations have a high
probability of searching for and associating to (External), e.g. default SSID Linksys or a
HotSpot SSID.
Rogue AP attached to your wired network that advertises a non-approved SSID. For
example, an AP attached to your network that advertises the same Coffeeshop SSID as the
caf across the street.
Spoofing Where a device pretends to be another, by advertising a BSSID (MAC address) of
an authorized AP, or another authorized station or Client.

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It is important to understand that a stations network access will only be removed automatically
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in the event that removing access thwarts the attack. This is most effective against active
encryption cracking since it can prevent the station from discovering the encryption key. In
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most cases blacklisting the attacker is not done because doing so would not mitigate the attack.
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Many DoS attacks consist of flooding a specific type of frame to an AP or station. Not only can
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this result in an AP being put out of service but it could result in a back end server (such as a
RADIUS server) being overwhelmed and being put out of service.
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Note: It is possible that some frames of the same type sent by authorized stations will
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be dropped in the interest of reducing the overall load on the network.


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Note: 3705 cannot run Guardian scans. All other models 38xx and 39xx are capable.
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Channels to Monitor:
Lists all possible 2.4GHz & 5 GHz channels.
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AP automatically skips over the prohibited channels.


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Must select at least 1 channel or assigned APs will not scan.


No channels are selected by default.
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Tradeoff: The more channels selected the less time can be spent on each one.
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Guardians cant defend DFS channels:


Must listen continuously for 1 minute before transmitting.
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Guardians are likely to be jumping around channels very many times per minute.

Guardians will not monitor prohibited channels regardless of whether they are selected in its
profile.
Configuration changes for a Guardian can only be activated on the Guardian when it is
connected to its home controller.

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The List of Assigned APs is a complete list of APs local to the controller and automatically
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appear once a scan profile is created. You can select the APs and each individual Radio that will
be part of the scan profile.
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Note: If a Wireless AP is part of a WDS/Mesh you cannot configured it to act as a scanner in


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Radar.
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Switch to Guardian
Stops it from participating in Load Groups
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Stops it from exchanging site protocol with other site-based APs at its location
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Stops it from serving VNSs


Dialog box lists the APs that will stop service and lists some of the services that will
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be affected by the change to Guardian


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Can cancel or allow


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Mirror warning for APs being removed from Guardian role


Controller remembers the pre-Guardian configuration (plus changes made to
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configuration while AP was a Guardian) and immediately applies these settings to the
selected APs

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Discovered APs are displayed in the Uncategorized APs table, where they can be reclassified as
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Authorized, Friendly or Prohibited.


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Log messages will be generated when the threat is first detected and when the threat stops or
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it is aged.
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A Site can use any Role or CoS defined on the ExtremeWireless Appliance. A Site can also use
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any Bridged at AP, Bridged at Controller or Routed Topology defined in the controller. Once an
AP is assigned to a Site, the controller will preload the AP with Topologies, Roles, CoS and
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RADIUS server configuration used by the Site. The AP will then be able to use these
configuration items
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even when the controller is unreachable.


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The following guidelines are recommended to configure a secure and easytomaintain Site:
Use 802.1x and WPA2 Enterprise authentication and privacy.
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Do not use MACbased authentication (MBA) unless absolutely required.


Do not use more than 32 policy rules within a single AP filter.
Do not configure a Sites AP Session Availability function without an APtocontroller link.
Do not configure the following features in a Sites configuration since they rely on a
consistent APtocontroller link:
Tunneled/Routed topologies
RADIUS accounting
Captive Portal

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Sites is also supported in ExtremeCloud with 39xx APs. We are now in a position to draw
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distinctions between Sites, and Zones. This table identifies their major differences.
Sites are also a way for a building management company to offer wireless access to its tenants.
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Zones are a standard RADIUS attribute; use Zones when you are having the client authenticate
against RADIUS.
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Use Locations when you want to apply different policies to the same user based upon where
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that user connects, and you want to track each users location on an ongoing basis.
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Site Name Enter a name to assign to this Site. The name is unique among Sites on the
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controller. AP load group names and Site names are part of the same space so a load group
and a Site cannot have the same name.
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Local Radius Authentication: Select this checkbox to choose a local RADIUS Server for login
credentials and authentication.
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Default DNS Server: This field is used to resolve RADIUS server names to IP addresses if
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necessary.
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Roles to download to member APs: Select roles that will be applied to APs with this specific
Site configuration. Physical topologies and third party AP enabled topologies cannot be
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assigned to a Site.
CoS to download to member APs: Displays the Class of Service that will be applied to APs
with this specific Site configuration.
RADIUS Server used: Displays the list of available RADIUS servers used for this Site. The
RADIUS servers assigned to a Site override the list of RADIUS servers in the WLAN Service
definition for APs that are part of the Site.

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All options selected and configured in the Sites will be applied to all APs defined within the
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Sites.
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Advanced Features such as Load Control and Tunnel Encryption are also defined on a per Sites basis.
When you assign an AP to a Site, it inherits the Load Control and Tunnel Encryption configurations of the
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Site itself.
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Secure Tunnel, when enabled, provides encryption, authentication, and key management for data traffic
between the AP and/or controllers. You have three options:
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Encrypt control traffic between AP & Controller - Supports encryption between an AP and Controller
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and/or between APs.


Encrypt control and data traffic between AP & Controller All control and data traffic is encrypted and
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the AP skips the registration and authentication Phases when selected. Deployments without tunneled
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topologies or Sites have no benefit by enabling Data Traffic Encryption.


Debug Mode An IPSEC tunnel is established from the AP to Controller, however traffic is not
encrypted.

AP registration and authentication messages (UPD13907) are merged with the IKE negotiation when
Debug Mode and Encrypt control and data traffic between AP & Controller modes are selected.

Note: When enabled, Secure tunnel has performance degradation of 5% on the WASSP Data
Throughput and Secure Tunnel does not increase significantly AP registration time, i.e. a 5210
Controller with 500 APs will take less than 5 minutes to register all APs.

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WLAN Assignments define the VNS that will be broadcasted by the Site; the details of the VNS
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are configured using the individual tabs on the left pane.


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Captive Portal deployments enable WLAN clients by allowing them to obtain an IP address and
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to associate to their respective AP. Upon initial AP association, the client session is said to be in
a non-authenticated state, and the client receives the treatment specified by the Non-
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Authenticated Role. While in this state, users are typically allowed to browse a small subset of
sites that advertise products or services local to that area. This is referred to as the client being
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in a walled garden since it is an area that users are forced to play in what is considered safe
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from the point of view regarding the security of the network. Once the user attempts to access
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an area outside of the walled garden, the user is then redirected to another site that forces
the user to authenticate to the network in order to move outside the secure environment.
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If you use Internal or External Captive portal, the Controller must be in communication with a
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RADIUS server. The RADIUS Server configuration information is found under the Global Settings
of the VNS Configuration.
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There are four authentication types supported for Captive Portal authentication:
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Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)


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Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP RFC2484)


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Window-specific version of CHAP (MS-CHAP RFC2433)


MS-CHAP v2 (Windows-specific version of CHAP, version 2 RFC 2759)
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The Shared Secret or key on the client (Controller) must be the same as the one configured on
the RADIUS server. The shared secret consists of up to 15 printable, non-space, ASCII
characters. The key itself is used to encrypt data within the RADIUS packets.

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There are some topology restrictions with Captive Portal. Prior to release 10.11 Captive Portal
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required the topology on your Non-Authenticated role to pass through the Controller, so it can
apply the redirect to present the log-in webpage.
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Extreme Wireless Software Release 10.11 now supports Captive Portal on the AP as an
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extension of the controller based Firewall Friendly Captive Portal. Bridge@AP topology is used
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for the AP to redirect traffic directly without the use of the controller (B@AC or Routed
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topologies).
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When the server authenticates the user, you have the option of configuring the server to return
a user role. This allows you the same flexibility for placing users in different topologies that you
get using 802.1x authentication.

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For Captive Portal on the Controller:


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The initial mechanism used by the internal captive portal solution is a component called the
redirector. The job of this component is to evaluate data streams originating from
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unauthenticated client sessions and watch for HTTP GET commands from the WLAN client. For
the redirector component to function properly the clients original destination site needs to be
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blocked by the filter set for non-authenticated sessions.


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Further, since most user homepages are stored as URLs and not IP addresses, the WLAN client
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also requires the ability to resolve DNS names. If the internal captive portal uses external html
links, then the server hosting those files must also be available in the filter set.
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The Internal Captive Portal feature utilizes an integrated web server, including several options
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customizable by the system administrator, that provides simple authentication against an


existing external RADIUS database. Complex portal requirements that utilize multiple RADIUS
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attributes or heavy customization are best handled by the External Captive Portal feature.
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Authentication is performed to collect user information, have the user agree to a set of terms
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and conditions, or to gather payment for the service. Attempts to direct traffic outside the
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walled garden results in traffic being dropped or web sessions returning to the login/payment
page. The walled garden may also provide a series of help pages to assist the user in signing up
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for or paying for the service. Once the user has passed whatever criteria is established for
access to the service they are moved to the authenticated state.

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The Authenticated Role will define the Filters/Rules that the WLAN client will obtain once
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authenticated on the Network. A different Authenticated role can also be defined by the Filter-
ID returned by the RADIUS authentication request message. The Filter-ID must match a Role
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that is pre-defined on the Controller.


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Note: When applying CoS to a filter, AP Filtering must also be enabled.


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When the WLAN client associates to the network it receives an IP address according to the topology of the
Captive Portal VNS. The users initial filter set is called non-authenticated. This filter set is defined in such
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a way to allow the WLAN client access to the portal page and to DNS resolution but little else. By default, all
non-authenticated users that are participating in a network that are using either the internal or external
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captive portal have their blocked traffic checked by a module called the redirector. This component reads
the clients stream of data, specifically looking for a HTTP GET request to a resolvable IP address. When this
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is located, the client is redirected to the web server that will be used for authentication.
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In the case of the internal captive portal, once at the redirected site the WC integrated web server will
present the user with a form that is accessed through either HTTPS or HTTP, depending on how you
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configure it. If you use HTTPS, the user will receive a certificate error. The user is prompted to enter their
credentials and submits them to the web server, where they are then passed to a Network Access Server
(NAS) located within the WC. In turn, the NAS sends a RADIUS Access Request (which includes the WLAN
clients credentials) message to the primary RADIUS server configured on the Controller. The RADIUS server
validates the credentials and in response it sends either a RADIUS Access-Reject message or RADIUS Access-
Accept message to the NAS. The client is then bound by the Default authenticated Role (Access
Control/Filter Rules) defined for the VNS. At this point the client is typically sent to their original destination
or to a Redirection URL.
The RADIUS server could potentially return the RADIUS FILTER-ID attribute in the Access-Accept message
back to the WC, which would when specify a different Role (access control/filter rules) that would be applied
to the WLAN client.

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In the Auth & Acct tab screen the RADIUS server that was created under the VNS Global setting,
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will be used as part of the authentication process. Selecting the Configure button will display
the information that will be used to contact the RADIUS Server, such as the authentication type,
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Authentication port and NAS information. The NAS information can be used in the RADIUS
server as attributes to determine how the RADIUS Server processes the RADIUS Accept
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message.
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Encryption Select the data encryption to use. Options are:


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None
Legacy
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AES
Shared Secret Type the password common to both the ExtremeWireless Appliance and the
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external Web server if you want to encrypt the information passed between the
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ExtremeWireless Appliance and the external Web server.


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Redirection URL Type the URL to which the wireless device user will be directed to after
authentication.
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Note: The Redirection URL does not support IPv6.


Add EWC IP & Port to redirection URL Select the checkbox to enable redirection.

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Requires AP38xx or later.


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To configure an External Captive Portal on an AP, the following is required:


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1. The WLANS topology must be VLAN B@AP.


2. You must configure specific policy rules that define which traffic is allowed, which
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traffic is denied, and if using Rule-based Redirection, which traffic is redirected.


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3. The Captive Portal must be configured as External Firewall Friendly.


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When implementing Captive Portal on an AP, the AP will require additional IP addresses
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provided by the DHCP Server. The AP will create a virtual interface on each non-
authenticated policy VLAN and will need an IP address to assign to it.

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The Extrernal CP can be configured using Rule or non-Rule-based Redirection.


Rule-based Redirection relies on policy rules that are defined for HTTP(S)
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redirection.
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Non-Rule-based Redirection automatically redirects the un-authenticated client to the


ECP when a deny action occurs on HTTP(S) traffic. With Non-Rule-based
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Redirection, you can configure Deny policy rules that take effect after authentication,
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denying access to client traffic. The option to disable Rule-based Redirection is


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available for backward capability only.


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Rule-Based Redirection is enabled by default for new installations of ExtremeWireless v10.11.


When upgrading from an earlier version of ExtremeWireless, this option is cleared by default.

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Create a Rule for TCP and HTTP, and specify HTTP redirect. This will redirect traffic to the URL
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specified in the Redirection URL Table.


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Firewall Friendly External Captive Portal is designed for situations where you wish to
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authenticate the client against a server that is on the other side of a firewall from the
Controller.
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Firewall Friendly Captive Portal Use Cases:


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Social login: verifying users against their already-existing social media accounts
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Pay-per-use
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Marketing analytics
Location tracking
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The Firewall Friendly Captive Portal option allows you to minimize the need to open firewall
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ports when your Controller and the portal server are on opposite sides of the firewall.
Configure your portal according to the fields below.
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Identity: Type the name common to both the ExtremeWireless Appliance and the external Web
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server if you want to encrypt the information passed between the ExtremeWireless Appliance
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and the external Web server.


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Shared Secret: Type the password common to both the ExtremeWireless Appliance and the
external Web server if you want to encrypt the information passed between the
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ExtremeWireless Appliance and the external Web server.

EWC Connection: In the drop-down list, click the IP address of the external Web server. and
then enter the port of the Extreme Wireless Appliance. If there is an authentication server
configured for this VNS, the external Captive Portal page on the external authentication server
will send the request back to the Extreme Wireless Appliance to allow the Extreme Wireless
Appliance to continue with the RADIUS authentication and filtering.
Select Enable https support if you want to enable HTTPS support (TLS/SSL) for this external
captive portal.

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The Redirection URL options allow you to configure which options will be included in both the URL the
Controller sends the client, and the encrypted URL the server sends the client.
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The options in the Redirect to External Captive Portal field are:


Identity: the name of this Controller on the External Captive Portal server
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Shared Secret: the key the two devices use in the signature process, should be between 16 and 64
characters long
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Redirection URL: the URL of the External Captive Portal server


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EWC IP and Port: necessary if the ECP interacts with more than one Controller; it specifies the IP address
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the ECP will redirect the client to. Use the IP address the Controller has on the Captive Portal VNS.
Replace EWC IP with EWC FQDN: enter the FQDN of the EWC if you use this option
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AP name and serial number: include this if the ECP server needs it to establish the correct role for the
user according to location
Associated BSSID: include this if the ECP server needs it to establish the correct role for the user; fulfills
the same function as the Called-Station ID RADIUS TLV
VNS Name: include this if the ECP server needs it to establish the correct role for the user
Stations MAC address: include this if the ECP server needs it to establish the correct role for the user;
fulfills the function of the Calling Station-ID RADIUS TLV
Currently assigned role: contains the name of the clients current (unauthorized) role
Containment VLAN (if any) of assigned role: included if the current role has a default action of Contain to
VLAN
Timestamp: required to avoid Controller interaction with RADIUS server
Signature: required to avoid Controller interaction with RADIUS server

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The options in the Redirect From External Captive Portal field are:
Enable https support: check this box if you want to use https in your communication with
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your clients. This is the default, and the most secure option. The Controller will use a self-
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signed certificate by default; most browsers will warn the user of this fact. If this service is to
be used by large numbers of users or by casual users it is best to obtain a certificate from a
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CA that is trusted by all browser vendors, and install it on the topology that stations have
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direct access to.


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Send Successful Login to: choose where you want the client to land. You can send the client
to the Captive Portal Session Page, a custom URL, or the clients originally requested page.
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Select Enable https support if you want to enable HTTPS support (TLS/SSL) for this external
captive portal.

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On the Auth & Acct tab select Configure after selecting Internal in the Authentication Mode
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drop-down box. Select either to upload the Captive Portal content or select Manual Setting for
the Web Page formatting. The Captive Portal Settings page prepares the Web Page that will be
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presented to the WLAN client for authentication.


Some important configuration requirements include:
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References to images within an external html files need to be formatted like this: <img
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src=http://10.170.1.15/mypicture.gif> in order for them to operate correctly when used in


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conjunction with the captive portal page. The html file must only contain html code. Javascript,
redirects or dynamic CS is not permitted.
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Note: If Fully Qualified Domain Names (FQDNs) are used within the external html file then the
WCs primary and/or secondary DNS settings must be set under the Wireless Controller Host
Attributes Settings or the WC will not be able to resolve the hostnames.

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Configuration informational and error messages can be customized. All URLs referenced in the
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Captive Portal setup must also be specifically identified and be allowed in the VNS default non-
authenticated Role.
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The elements that make up the Captive Portal Web Page (Login and Index, Topology Changes),
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allow administrators to customize the internal Captive Portal page, this same Editor can be
used for Guest Portal and Guest Splash.
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Note: The Captive Portal Editor page supports one administrator editing a captive portal page
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at one time. The total storage for all portal data is 25MB.
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Once the Captive Portal configuration has been completed, it can be displayed to view how the
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Captive Portal web page will look to users by clicking on the Preview button in the Design
Management section.
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The Message Box will be displayed above the Login box to greet the user. The message could
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explain why the Captive portal page is appearing, and provide instructions for the user or
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support information.
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Create the VNS, which pulls together all the components that make up this Captive Portal VNS.
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Once the WLAN Service, Non-Authenticated Role, and Authenticated Role are selected from
the down-down boxes, Save the configuration. Once the VNS is saved the configuration will be
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propagated to the selected APs configured within the WLAN Server. The SSID will then be
broadcasted to available WLAN clients and the Virtual Interface will be created and assigned
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the Layer 3 IP address which was defined in the topology section.


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As part of the RADIUS Accept message there are several standard attributes that can be
returned which can assist in altering a WLAN clients behavior after the authentication process
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has concluded.
Filter-ID (RADIUS standard option 11) the Filter ID attribute can be returned by the RADIUS
server to assign the authenticated session a filter/role other than Default. The return value is
an ASCII string that matches a Role Name defined in the VNS configuration. For example, the
Filter-ID:Employee or Filter-ID: Extreme Networks:version-1:policy=Employee will assign the
Access Control and Filter Rules that correspond to the Employee role.

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In the example above, the WLAN client had requested a web site outside of the non-
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authenticated filter and has been redirected to the Internal Captive Portal page for
authentication where the WLAN client credentials are entered for authentication purposes.
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Reports: Active Clients by VNS shows that the WLAN client was given an IP Address and
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assigned the Non_Authenticated Role, the non-authenticated filter.


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Note: If DNS is not able to resolve the requested Web site the redirection will not occur.
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As displayed within this example, the Extreme Networks WC: Events Logs display user Student
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was properly authenticated and was assigned the Default Authenticated Role Student
therefore the user will be able to access the network with restrictions. The Report: Active
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Clients by VNS shows that the Auth/Priv is equal to Int. Captive Portal (CP), the authenticated
user Student and the Role Student, the Default Authenticated role defined for the Captive
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Portal VNS.
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As displayed within this example, the WC: Events and Report: Active Clients by VNS show that
the user Faculty was authenticated successfully and the Filter-ID Guest was returned from
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the RADIUS server during the authentication process therefore the Faculty was assigned the
Guest Role.

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GuestPortal is similar to internal Captive Portal, where it provides WLAN clients temporary
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guest network services, except that User Account information is stored in a database on the
Controller instead of an external authentication server. The database is administered through a
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simple, user-friendly graphical user interface that can be used by a non-technical staff member.
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When the WLAN client associates to the network it receives an IP address according to the topology of
the Guest Portal VNS. The users initial filter set is called non-authenticated. This filter set is defined
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in such a way to allow the WLAN client access to the portal page and to DNS resolution but little else.
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By default, all non-authenticated users that are participating in a network that are using either the
internal or external captive portal have their blocked traffic checked by a module called the
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redirector.
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This component reads the clients stream of data looking specifically for a HTTP GET request to a
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resolvable IP address. When this is found the client is redirected to the web server that will be used for
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authentication.

In the case of Guest Portal, once at the redirected site the WC integrated web server will present the
user with a form that is accessed through HTTPS or HTTP, depending on how you configure it. If you use
HTTPS, the user will receive a certificate error. The user enters their credentials and submits them to
the web server, which passes them to the WC for authentication. If the WLAN client credentials are
successfully authenticated, the client is then bound by the Default authenticated role (access
control/filter rules) defined for the VNS. At this point the client is typically sent to their original
destination or to a Redirection URL.

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The GuestPortal administrator is assigned to the GuestPortal Manager login group by the
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Administrator. The GuestPortal administrator can only create and manage guest user accounts.
Any user who logs on to the Wireless Controller and is assigned to this group will only be
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allowed access to the GuestPortal Guest Administration page of the Wireless Assistant if there
is a GuestPortal WLAN Service configured.
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A GuestPortal administrator cannot access any areas of the Wireless Assistant and CLI other
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than the GuestPortal User Administration Page. From the GuestPortal Guest Administration
page of the Wireless Assistant you can add, edit, configure, and import and export Guest
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Accounts.
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GuestPortal account ticket can be viewed and printed from the GuestPortal Guest
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Administration screen. A GuestPortal account ticket is a print-ready form that displays the guest
account information, system requirements, and instructions on how to log on to the guest
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account.
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The Extreme Networks WC is shipped with a default template for the GuestPortal account
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ticket. The template is an html page that is augmented with system placeholders that display
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information about the user.


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The GuestPortal Virtual Network Service (VNS) can be created as a new VNS or can be
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configured from an already existing VNS. The Wireless Controller is allowed only one
GuestPortal-dedicated VNS at a time. Under the Guest Portal configuration section of the VNS
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you can perform the following functions outside of configuring the page itself:
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Manage Guest Users - allows you to add and configure guest user accounts, this can
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only be done after the full creation of the GuestPortal VNS


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Configure Ticket Page - allows you to upload a custom GuestPortal ticket template,
which is the ticket that is printed and given to the guest.
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You can configure a Guest portal limit for concurrent sessions per account. The option is
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configured globally for the guest portal. You can define between 1-10 or unlimited concurrent
sessions, defined as the number of sessions established using the same user name. If you are
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having all your guests use the same account, leave this value set to unlimited.
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This option allows you to reduce the number of non-authenticated portal connections on the
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Guest Portal, a symptom with Apple devices that have multiple connections before
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authentication. HTTP requests coming from non-authenticated clients are redirected to the
internal/external/guest portal page if and only if the HTTP "User- Agent" header data field in
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the request contains a keyword.

The Maximum Concurrent Session setting can also limit the number of devices a Guest can
authenticate onto the network.

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By selecting the Add Guest Account button the Add Guest User screen is displayed. Create the
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credentials for the user including the Username, User ID, Password and description. A User ID
prefix is added to all guest account user IDs. The default is Guest and the password is auto-
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generated; however, the default password and User ID prefix can be modified.
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Other values of interest include the Account Lifetime, which specifies the number of days that
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the account will be active. Maximum Session Lifetime is the allowed cumulative total in hours
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spent on the network during the account lifetime (0 indicates there is no session lifetime
restriction).
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Lastly, specify a Start time for the session for the new guest account and the End Time. For
example, in a Hotel environment this would be the check-in date and the check-out date for a
guest.

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A Guest Account must be enabled in order for a wireless device to use the guest account to
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obtain guest network services. When a guest account is disabled, the account will continue to
remain in the database. However, the account will not provide access to the network.
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When creating the .csv file for importing use the format above, Columns A D are the User
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Credentials (User ID, User Name, Password and Description), Column E specifies the Account
Activation Date, and Columns F and G are reserved for the Account Lifetime (Days) and Session
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Lifetime (Hours). The data in Column H will enable or disable the account and other
parameters also include the (I) Time of Day, start time, and (J) Time of Day, duration.
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The Values of Column K to L are reserved for the Controller, so these values should be left as
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(0).
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To help administrators manage large number of guest accounts, you can import and export .csv
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(comma separated value) guest files with the Wireless Controller. To import the .csv files select
the Import Guest File from the GuestPortal Guest Administration screen. In the File
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Management Section, click to Import Guest files. The Import Guest File dialog will be
displayed; browse to navigate to the location of the .csv file and select it to Import.
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To export a guest file, select File Management, Export, select the location and file name then
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save .
The default, exported file is named exportguest.csv.
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Once you select the Auth and Acct tab, in the Authentication Mode drop-down list, select
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GuestPortal, then Save the configuration. Once the settings have been saved you can then
Configure the Captive Portal/GuestPortal setting for access.
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The configuration screen allows the administrator to create the Web Page using the Captive
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Portal editor or a .zip file can be updated.


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When uploading custom Captive Portal content via a .zip file, the contents of the zip must
adhere to the following file format and structure.
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The zip file must have a flat structure and cannot contain any sub-directories.
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The Captive portal login page must be in a file named login.htm


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The Captive portal index page must be in a file named index.htm


The number of graphics and the size of the graphics is unlimited, and can be either
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.gif, .jpg, or .png.

Once the zip file has been Save, remember to Save the setting on the Auth and Acct page to
save the information that was applied in the Captive Portal Settings screen to the WLAN
Service.

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Create the GuestPortal VNS by specifying the VNS Name, WLAN Service, the Non-Authenticated
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Role, and the Authenticated Role. Enabling the VNS will add the VNS to the database and VNS
information will be pushed down to the APs you specified when you configured the WLAN
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service.
A Wireless Controller is allowed only one GuestPortal dedicated VNS at a time.
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The WLAN client in this example has selected a website (http://www.ExtremeNetworks.com). A


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FQDN can be used if DNS is properly configured in your environment, otherwise the Controller
will not redirect to the login screen. The default certificate installed on the Wireless Controller
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will display a security warning. To avoid this install a customized certificate on the Controller.
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Guest Splash provides minimal authorization. Login information is not required, however an
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email address can be collected to provide identify information about the user, when the user is
re-directed to the authorization Web page. The user is only required to select a button to agree
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to the terms and conditions to be allowed access to the network.


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The Authentication request is logged by the Controller. Here you can see that the user Guest-
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Student has authenticated successfully. GuestPortal start and end sessions are logged. The logs
are only available to Controller administrators; Guest Manager administrators do not have
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access to this information. The GuestPortal login events are displayed in chronological order.
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The Active Clients report shows the User that has been authenticated.
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The wireless system allows multiple Wireless Controllers (up to 12) to discover to each other
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and exchange information about a client session for true mobility. This feature enables a
wireless device to roam seamlessly between different wireless APs on different Wireless
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Controllers. Mobility is especially important in a routed environment where the user will be
able to roam and continue to use the original IP address that it received from its Home
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Controller.
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The wireless device retains its Role assignment (access control, IP address, rate profiles and
filtering rules) it received from its home Wireless Controller - the Wireless Controller that it first
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connected to. The VNS components on each Wireless Controller must have the same SSID and
RF privacy parameter settings so that it can be supported in a Local or Branch Office Setting and
it easy to deploy on an existing IP network.

The goal of Mobility is to provide the user with a seamless mobility experience in a Multiple
Controller deployments by sharing session registration information.

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The solution introduces the concept of a Mobility Manager and Mobility Agents. One Wireless
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Controller within the network is designated as the Mobility Manager and all others are
designated as Mobility Agents.
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The Mobility Manager is a single system identified by the administrator that will manage the
state of the mobility domain. Once identified, the Manager will accept Mobility Control session
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connection attempts from Mobility Agents. The Manager is responsible for the management,
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aggregation and distribution of client session information to all Agents.


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Once configured, the Mobility Agent will locate the Manager either using SLP Unicast or a static
configuration and will establish a Mobility Control session (TCP port 60606) with the Manager.
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The Agent also processes the client session updates provided in the regular heartbeat
messages sent by the controller so that it can build a complete list of controllers in the mobility
domain by membership/location. The Backup Mobility Manager runs as an agent, but monitors
the Mobility Control Session to the manager status.
Once the Mobility Session is established the Agent will then retrieve the list of all other
controllers in the domain and proceed to set up the mobility data network by initiating a Data
Tunnel (13910/UDP) to each one of its peers. This data network will become a full-mesh once
the mobility domain is up and will be used as a tunnel to forward a roaming clients packets
between the foreign and home controller.

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In addition to managing roaming activity across APs associated to a single controller, mobility
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extends this service to multi-Controller deployments or the Inter-Controller Mobility scenario.


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When a MU (MU1) starts a new session with a mobility domain, the first controller it connects
to is identified as its Home Controller (Controller1).
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When an Mobility Agent (Controller 2) receives a new MU/wireless association request, it will
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first check in its local table to determine if the MU already has a session and then determines
whether this client belongs to a controller within the mobility domain and determines its Home
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Controller. If a session does exist, the Mobility Agent accepts the client and then updates the
Mobility Manager with the new whereabouts over the Mobility Control Session tunnel and
begins tunneling the clients data to and from its Home Controller over the CTP tunnel that is
established between the Controllers.

The WLAN client/MU will continue to maintain its network point of presence and all of its
session properties (VNS, IP, authentication state) and all traffic will flow through the Home
Controller.

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If an Agent fails, the Manager drops its wireless clients from the Mobility Information Tables
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and updates the remaining Agents. Since there is no longer a Home Controller where to tunnel
the clients data, these clients will be disassociated by their current Controller. The dropped
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clients will have to associate again and become local on that new Controller.
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If the Manager fails, the Backup Manager, if defined will assume the role of the Mobility
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Manager. The TCP control tunnels will be renegotiated between the Backup Manager and the
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Agents. Once the Primary Manager comes back online, the Backup Manager will go back to its
Agents role.
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If there is not Backup Manager, the Agents will freeze their current copies of the Mobility
Information Tables and proceed to drop/disassociate the clients homed on the Manager. The
remaining clients included in the mobility tables will continue to have roaming capabilities since
the data tunnels between the agents are still operational even though the control tunnels to
the manager are down. Any new client received from this point will only be local to that
Controllers domain and not be able to roam within the mobility domain.

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Because of the tight interaction between the Mobility Controllers, different versions of
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software are NOT supported. This means that all Wireless Controllers in the mobility domain
must be running the same Wireless Convergence Software release and the Controllers in the
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Mobility Domain should also be using a common source for time synchronization (an NTP
server).
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At least two controllers at a minimum are needed to set up a mobility domain. One of them
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should be setup as the Mobility Manager and the other a as Mobility Agent. The Mobility
settings in the GUI are found under the Wireless Controller > Mobility Manager. To enable
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Mobility check the Enable Mobility checkbox on the potential Mobility Manager.
On the Mobility Manager, select This Wireless Controller is a Mobility Manager option. Select
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the Port through which to listen for Agent connections. Select the Security Mode to Allow all
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mobility agents to connect, then save your settings. Mobility will be activated.
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In a protected domain, select Allow only approved mobility agents to connect. When new
Agents attempt to connect to the Mobility Manager they are placed in the pending state until
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they are approved by the administrator; you can also add new Agents manually during
configuration time. Administrators may also remove any controllers from the domain by
deleting the record from the Permission List.
Note: Care should be taken to load balance the Wireless APs and Mobility through the same
port. For large deployments, balancing Wireless AP/Client traffic, Mobility Tunnel traffic,
gateway/internet traffic through the different available esa/PC ports requires the analysis of
network usage forecasts (or current traffic statistics) against port line rates in order to
determine the best configuration.

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To enable Mobility check the Enable Mobility checkbox on the potential Agent. On the Mobility
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Agent check the Enable Mobility checkbox, select This Wireless Controller is a Mobility Agent
option. Select the Port through which to reach the mobility Manager. Then select the
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Discovery Method to be Static Configuration and enter the Mobility Manager Address. Save
your settings. The Mobility Subsystem will be activated and a tunnel will be created between
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the Manager and Agent. If a Backup Manager is configured by the Mobility Manager it will be
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displayed.
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Centralized mobility is a means of ensuring that a single specific controller in a mobility zone
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hosts the sessions of all stations accessing the network via a specific WLAN Service/SSID. This is
useful in cases in which you do not want to offer the back-end portion of the service on
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multiple controllers in the mobility zone or when you cant do so. Centralized mobility is
particularly useful for guest portal services in a mobility zone, since you only have to maintain
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the guest registrations on one controller.


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Centralized mobility and standard mobility both work with bridged at AP, bridged at controller
and routed topologies. The choice between centralized and standard mobility has no effect on
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whether a stations traffic is tunneled back to the controller, only the choice of topology
determines that.

Note: If using any type of Captive Portal with centralized mobility, be sure that the number of
concurrent sessions expected on the remotable WLAN Service is no greater than the
controllers session system limit.

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An administrator designates one or more WLAN Services on one or more controllers as


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remotable, thereby making a VNS available for centralized mobility instead of for standard
mobility.
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The Mobility Manager in the mobility zone gets the list of remotable WLAN Services (SSIDs)
from each controller in the mobility zone. The Mobility Manager pushes/updates the
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consolidated list to each Mobility Agent in the mobility zone.


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The administrator will then define a remote WLAN service on each Mobility Agent that will
provide APs for the remotable service:
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Administrator assigns privacy & QoS settings to the WLAN Service locally
Privacy settings MUST match across all WLAN services on which the service is
remote
QoS settings should match across all WLAN services on which the service is remote

You must also configure a VNS and assign the WLAN service to it

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The Remotable VNS Information list all SSID exported as remotable by any controller in the
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mobility zone.
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The administrator then picks the SSID for the remote WLAN Service from the list of remotable
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WLAN Services maintained by Mobility Manager.


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After saving, configure the remote settings, the settings must match those of the remoteable
WLAN Service on the host WC.
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Assign APs
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QoS
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Privacy
Advanced Settings RF Settings (Suppress SSID, Enable 11h support, Process client IE
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requests or Energy Save Mode)


Auth & Acct options are not available, since they can only be configured on the home
controller.

A Remote WLAN Service can be in an active or inactive state, a service becomes inactive when
the connection to the mobility zone is lost. When the service is inactive, it is removed from APs
to avoid creating a black hole for roaming clients. When a tunnel becomes available the
service is re-activated at the WC and APs.

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Mobility Tunnel Matrix provides a cross-connection view of the state of inter-controller tunnels,
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as well as relative loading for user distribution across mobility domain.


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Green The mobility manager is in communication with an Agent and the data tunnel
has been successfully established
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Yellow The mobility manager is in communication but the data tunnel is not yet
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successfully established.
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Red The mobility manager has no communication with an Agent and there is no data
tunnel.
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This report also provides a view of the tunnel uptime, the number of the clients roamed and
the Mobility membership list.

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In a typical failure AP to WC communication is interrupted, by either the failure of the network


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or by WC failure. Depending on the topology of the VNS configuration, once the connection
has been determined to be down the AP will start the discovery process. The discovery process
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will continue for 5 minutes and if there is no success in connecting to the controller the
Wireless AP will reboot and all WLAN client sessions will terminate, as shown in the case of
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AP1.
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If the AP is configured for a VNS with a B@AP topology associated to it, and if the Maintain
client sessions in event of poll failure option is enabled in the Advanced AP Properties or AP
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Default Settings screen, all client sessions will be maintained and traffic will continue to flow for
that specific AP; in this case AP2.

If the AP is configured for a VNS with either a B@AC topology or a Routed topology associated
to it, all client sessions in those VNSs will fail.

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The purpose of the Availability feature is to provide a controlled means for Access Points to find
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an alternate controller in the event of controller or network failure. The Access Point will
connect to the alternate controller and restore the service with minimal disruption to a WLAN
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client.
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All thin APs monitor the status of their CTP tunnel connection to their home/local controller.
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However, if the connection to the controller fails the AP will establish a new data channel or
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CTP tunnel to the secondary or foreign controller.


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The two Controllers in an Availability Pair provide backup for each others Access Points (APs).
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One controller is defined as the Primary and the other as the Secondary or Backup Controller.
The Primary controller is the owner of the Availability tunnel and is responsible for establishing
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communication to the Secondary Controller. This tunnel is used to pass control and
configuration information (information on all registered APs and about each interface that is
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active), thereby synchronizing Wireless AP membership information between the two


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controllers. Heartbeat messages are also communicated over the tunnel. As Wireless APs are
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added or deleted from each Controller, updates are synchronized between the controllers.
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The Availability tunnel connection is usually established through one of the routable interfaces
but the management interface can also be used.

Note: The port selected should be chosen based on the most reliable link between the two
controllers. The Availability protocol is light on the use of bandwidth with an average load of 1
packet/sec and will not affect a load-sharing network design.

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During the failover event, Foreign APs and Sensors do not count as Active APs in regards to the
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WC license. The maximum number of failover APs the secondary controller can accommodate
is equal to the maximum number of APs supported by the hardware platform, not the value of
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the installed license for the Local Controller. Controller Deployments with un-matched
controller attributes (Max AP capacities) may cause problems.
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Software versions on controllers and AP must match, otherwise, failovers may result in
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automatic AP firmware upgrades which will introduce a significant service interruption.


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For maximum deployment flexibility and lower deployment costs, cross-regulatory domain
redundancy is supported. Allowing a controller deployed in the US with an FCC regulatory
domain license the ability to back up a controller located in Germany with an ETSI regulatory
domain license. This flexibility allows for disaster recovery designs that can expand across the
globe while reducing CAPEX/OPEX costs by as much as 50%.

Note: Foreign APs cannot be reconfigured and continue to operate with the powers/channels
prescribed from the home controller.

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Therefore, since there is a version incompatibility, do not mix versions. Plan using an upgrade
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strategy that eliminates older AP hardware models.


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Using a B@AC topology with the same VLAN ID on both Local and Foreign controller reduces
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the impact of a fail-over event. WLAN clients will retain their IP addresses as their DHCP scope
is the same.
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To ensure that Failover will work properly without impacting users you will need to ensure
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network accessibility for the Availability tunnel (UDP 13911) between the two Controllers. Also,
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to ensure that the failover performs seamlessly, configure the DHCP server in the environment
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with the DHCP Option 78 (SLP) configured to include the IP addresses of the physical interfaces
on both the local and foreign Wireless Controllers.
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Setting the Wireless APs setting Registration Mode to Allow only approved wireless APs to
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connect creates a secured environment so that no Wireless APs can register unless they are
approved by the administrator and it allows you to select the APs for each controller.
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Note: If two Wireless Controllers are paired and one has the Allow all wireless AP to connect
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option set for Wireless AP registration, all Wireless APs will register with that Wireless
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Controller.
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In Fast Failover Scenario the AP stores the configuration from the Home Controller and the
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Foreign Controller. The Wireless APs connect to both the primary and secondary Wireless
Controllers. The connectivity to the primary Wireless Controller is via the active tunnel; the
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connectivity to the secondary Wireless Controller is via the backup tunnel.


The Wireless AP establishes the active tunnel to connect to the primary Wireless Controller.
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The Wireless Controller sends the configuration to the Wireless AP. This configuration also
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contains the port information of the secondary Wireless Controller. On the basis of the
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secondary Wireless Controllers port information, the Wireless AP connects to the secondary
controller via the backup tunnel. After the connection is established via the backup tunnel, the
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secondary Wireless Controller sends the backup configuration to the Wireless AP. The Wireless
AP receives the backup configuration and stores it in its memory to use it for failing over to the
secondary controller. All the while, the Wireless AP is connected to the primary Wireless
Controller via the active tunnel. The deployment is designed in such a way that the services
provided to the Wireless Client (such as DHCP services) should not be dependent on the
Wireless Controller the APs associate with. Therefore service downtime can be reduced
significantly, independent of the number of APs. This deployment will provide a failover fast
enough to preserve voice calls.
Note: When Secure Tunnel enabled the tunnel key information is not shared between the
Primary and Foreign Controller.

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Fast failover works equally well in network and controller failures. If the Primary or Local
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Controller goes down, the Foreign controller detects the loss (Link Timeout) of its Availability
Peer and sends a WASSP-PEER-DOWN packet to the AP.
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If the Link between the Primary and Local Controller goes down, the AP will wait until the Poll
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Timeout expires. The AP will then initiate the Failover without the help of the Foreign
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Controller.
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In both cases once the AP receives the WASSP-TNL-ACTIVATE-RESP the AP applies the backup
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configuration and starts sending data.

After a loss of three CTP polls the Wireless AP will move into the failover state and attempt to
connect automatically to one of the interfaces that were exchanged by the Availability Tunnel.

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Session Availability feature preserves client sessions (e.g. voice calls) through a failure of the
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controller in an availability pair. In session availability, users do not have to have to re-
authenticate after the failover and they retain their IP addresses.
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Session availability is enabled automatically when Fast Failover is enabled between the primary
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and backup controller. The Session Availability feature is an attribute of a VNS; therefore it is
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configured in the topology section of the VNS. Only the Bridged VLAN configuration is
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recommended for use Session Availability because during a failover scenario the client will not
have to obtain a new IP address. DHCP addresses should be provided by the external DHCP
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server and both VNS topologies must be mapped to the same VLAN on both controllers.

You must always use the following authentication mechanism for the fast failover w/ session
availability configuration:

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)


Wi-Fi Protected Access Privacy-Pre-Shared Key (WPA-PSK)

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The Availability Screen allows the administrator to manually configure availability or to use the
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Availability Wizard. On the Availability screen under the Wireless AP tab, set the Controller
settings to Paired. This will enable the availability pair and create the availability tunnel
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between this Controller and the IP Address specified in the Wireless Controller IP Address.
Selecting the Current Wireless Controller is primary connection point and indicates that this
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controller will send a connection request to the non-primary Controller.


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Availability can be configured by using the Availability Wizard or by manually creating the
availability pair. Start the Availability Wizard on the Controller that will be the primary
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connection point in the Availability Tunnel.

GuestPortal and Availability are both supported to allow guests to access the network when the
home controller fails. The guest accounts are synced automatically between the availability pair
if Synchronize Guest Portal Account is enabled.

The GuestPortal VNS and accounts must be similar to prevent overwriting of account records. If
on one controller the GuestPortal VNS is removed it will be removed on both Controllers when
Synchronized Guest Portal Account is enabled.

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The Global Synchronize Option Synchronization System Configuration, if enabled, will push the
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VNS components from the primary controller to the peer controller when VNSs are configured.
To change this default behavior on a per VNS definition basis uncheck the Synchronize box in
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the individual VNS component.


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The Synchronize Guest Portal Accounts will synchronize Guest Portal Accounts when
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modifications are made to the User database (Add, Edit, Delete).


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VNS components on the Controller Peer and modified the Layer 3 IP addresses to match the
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unique controller, using the Availability Wizard will update automatically.


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The Global VNS Sync Summary screen provides an overview of the synchronization status of
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paired controllers. The screen is divided into 4 sections: Virtual Networks, WLAN services,
Policies and Topologies. Each section lists the name of the corresponding configuration object,
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its synchronization mode, and the status of last synchronization attempt.


Sync Summary option is only displayed in the Global VNS Configuration when Availability is
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enabled.
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The Synchronize Status Field can have one of the following options: Synchronized, Not
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Synchronized, Failed, Conflict (with a button called Resolved).


Conflict status will be displayed if there was an update on a controller, but the availability link
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was down between the controllers. The Resolve button lets you choose which version of the
object should be taken, local or remote, once the availability link is active.
The Administrator can also change the global Synchronize System Configuration parameter and
the Synchronize option on a per VNS component.

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Availability relies on the Poll Timeout configured on the AP Properties. When the Poll Timeout
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expires the AP will then re-attempt to establish a link to the primary Wireless Controller.
The Detect link failure value specifies the time period within which the system detects
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Availability link failure after the link has failed.


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To obtain the optimum results in Failover, the timeout used for APs should be in range of 1.5-2
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times of Availability Detect link failure timeout.


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If the Poll Timeout value is less than 1.5 to 2 times the Detect link failure value, the Wireless AP
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failover will not succeed because the secondary controller will not be 'ready' to accept the
failover APs.

On the other hand, if the Poll Timeout value is more than 1.5 to 2 times of Detect link failure
value, the Wireless APs failover will be unnecessarily delayed, because the Wireless APs will
continue polling the primary controller even though the secondary controller is ready to accept
them as failover APs.

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The quick deployment and matching of APs to VNS Assignments can be accomplished through
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the use of AP Default Settings to ensure the same set of corresponding VNSs on both
controllers. The default AP Settings template is used to provide initial configurations for APs.
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If a system default AP configuration does not exist for the controller (and the administrator has
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not assigned the failover Wireless APs to any VNS), the APs will not be assigned to any VNS
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during the failover.


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When the failed Wireless Controller recovers, each Wireless Controller in the pair goes back to
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normal mode. The exchange information includes the latest lists of registered Wireless APs. The
WC administrator controls the fail-back You must release the Wireless APs manually on the
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secondary/backup Wireless Controller, so that they may re-register with their home Wireless
Controller. Wireless users will experience a short interruption while their session is
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reestablished on the Local Controller.


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Foreign APs can be released at once by using the Foreign in the APs menu and then select all
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foreign APs. From the Actions dropdown menu select Release. In a load balancing situation,
Foreign APs may also go back to the Local Controller if there was a failover situation that occurs
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on the Foreign controller.


Note: The Controller system has been optimized to react quickly in the event of a failover. The
release of APs after the fail-over is expected to be a supervised operation and may take
noticeably longer time than the fail-over.
At start-up both Wireless Controllers will move into failover mode temporarily while the
systems finish booting and all application services are started. The primary Wireless Controller
periodically re-polls the secondary Wireless Controller and will re-establish the connection
when both systems become operational. However, if Wireless APs have roamed to a foreign
controller during this brief interval manual intervention is required to send them back to their
home connection point Wireless Controller.

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You can switch an AP from foreign to local (or local to foreign) to help you balance your AP
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deployment as the system grows. The AP will continue providing service without interruption
while you re-balance the deployment.
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Both conversions can be performed even when the connection between controllers in your
availability pair is down. If the availability link is down at the time you click the button, the
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conversion will be completed when link is established.


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The conversion is always done in the background.


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The controller displays a rehoming in progress indicator until the process completes. You must
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manually refresh your screen to see the results.


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To verify the Availability feature is configured correctly: From the main menu of either of the
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two controllers, click Reports and Displays. The Reports & Displays screen is displayed. From
the Reports and Displays menu, click Wireless AP Availability. The Wireless Availability Report is
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displayed.
When looking at the Report if the statement reads Availability Link is Up, the availability feature
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is configured correctly and both Controller are active. If a Controller goes down the status will
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change to Availability Link is Down. Information about each AP that is connected to the Primary
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and Secondary Controller is displayed, as well as the AP Name, Serial Number, MAC Address, IP
Address and Uptime of the AP.
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Fast Failover maintains an active and backup tunnel. Therefore, when Fast Failover is enabled
tunnel connections are displayed in the reports. The larger pane of the box respresents the
state of the tunnel that is established to the current WC (local). For example, the Wireless AP
Availability report is showing that all APs are currently being managed by their Local Controllers
and have connected backup tunnels. In a non-failover situations Foreign APs should have a
Blue box; a Green box would indicated a Failover situation.
If the Availability Link is Down then the status to the backup/secondary conntroller will display
no info.

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Keeping in mind that only Controllers that have active tunnels to the AP can display the
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statistics of APs and their WLAN connections. During a failover situation the Active Wireless
APs Report will display statistics from both the Local and Foreign Access Points and their client
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connections.
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If one of the Wireless Controllers in a pair fails, the connection between the two Wireless
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Controllers is lost. This triggers a failover mode condition, and a critical message appears in the
information log of the remaining Wireless Controller: Availability: Moving into failover mode.
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ExtremeManagement Maps lets you create maps of the devices (wired and wireless) on your
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network. The typical map represents an office or building floor map.


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A NMS-XXX license provides access to basic map creation and allows the addition of devices
and APs to a map. No additional editing capabilities are provided. A NMS-ADV license provides
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access to the advanced map features. This includes the ability to create floor plans with
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drawing tools, display of client location by triangulation and wireless coverage.


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This site planning tool is initially available just the Extreme Networks partners. This will help
Extreme sales and partners design the best locations for APs in an installation and determine
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how many they will need.


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This does not take the place of a site survey, which is highly recommended for larger
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installations.
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Extreme Management Center lets you create maps of the devices and wireless access points
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(APs) on your network. Begin by selecting background image to serve as a map, such as a
building or floor plan, and then position your managed devices and wireless APs on the map.
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The Maps tab Search Field can be used to locate a wireless client, if the client is connected to
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an AP that has been added to a map. Enter a MAC Address, IP address, hostname, user name
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in the map Search box and press Enter to start a search for a wireless client. The search uses
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RSS-based (Received Signal Strength) location services to locate the wireless client and display
the approximate location of the client on the map. The map containing the AP will be displayed
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centered on the AP.

Time-lapse location provides the historical time point for a particular device on the map. You
can use time-lapse location to go back in time and see where a device has been. It does not
provide a full path of travel, but you can see where the device was at each time point in which
the devices location was reported. Time-lapse location requires you to enable location
tracking on your Wireless Controller.

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The AP collects Probe Requests from the clients, once the information is received it will average
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the RSS value obtained from the Client and then pass the RSS values to the Location Engine
located in the Controller. The Location Engine processes all the RSS values from APs (home and
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foreign) and estimates the client location. The location engine analyzes the data using the
Heatmaps for AP (placement of the AP by location), triangulates the Client position based on 3
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separate AP readings for a single Client or if only a single AP reports it will estimate based on
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only that single AP. Results are sent to the Extreme Management Center or transferred to
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Extreme Management Center during a Location Query for a single MAC address.
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Note: Using a single AP for location services is not accurate, there is no accounting for any
obstacle or other interference.

For each tracked MAC Location engine collects RSS reading from the APs, in run-time execute
the location estimation based on the reading and off-line prepared RF maps. RF maps are
created based on the provided floor plan and AP location/orientation.

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Precision of the RSS based location depends greatly on the number of APs that report the RSS
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and number of AP that have line of site to the station. To locate a particular MAC, the location
algorithm requires RSS of the packets received from that source MAC address reported by
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multiple APs, within a short time window. For reasonable location accuracy, RSS values need to
be reported by 3 or 4 APs, additional AP reporting does not significantly improve the accuracy.
e
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The process of determining the area of wireless coverage essentially utilizes the same data and
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logic as that to determine client location. A clients location is determined by the computing
the intersection of the probable client location relative to multiple access points. Coverage is
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determined by computing the approximate radio signal strength (RSS) at fixed distances from
the access point. Again, the wall information in the floor plan is used to provide accuracy in the
signal strength computation, because radio signal strength is affect by obstacles (i.e. reflections
and absorption of materials), interference and antenna type. Furthermore if less than 3 APs see
the wireless devices the location will be shown as a circle.

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The map import function gives you the ability to import Ekahau maps into Extreme
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Management Center floor plan maps, as well as the ability to import floor plan maps that have
been previously exported from ExtremeManagement maps. When Ekahau maps are exported,
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all the maps in the system are combined into a single Zip file. When the Ekahau Zip file is
imported into Extreme Management Center, each Ekahau map is recreated into an individual
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map again.
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When a map is imported, it is added as a child map of the World map. If the map's name is not
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unique, a number will be added after the name. After the map is imported it can be moved and
renamed, if desired.
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Selecting Create New Map from either the right-click menu of a node adds a new empty map
object to the tree.

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Once you have created you new map, you can add information to it. Click on the new map,
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click File, and click Properties to open up the Map Properties window. In the Map Properties
window, specify your map type.
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For example, if you want to create a map based upon a floor plan, choose Floorplan as your
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map type, then browse to the floorplan image you wish to use.
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Once you have imported your map, open your editing options by clicking File>Edit.
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The map scale is displayed in the lower left corner of a map and it should be changed to
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accurately reflect your map image. To open the Set Scale window click Select Items>Set Scale.
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To set the scale, you must measure something in the map using the scaling line, and then set
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the measurement for the line. For example, in an office floor plan you could measure a scaling
line on the opening or wall of an office.
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Click one on the map to mark the start of the scaling line. Move the cursor and click again to
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mark the end of the scaling line. Once the Starting and Ending Position values are populated in
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the Set Map Scale window select the Line Length and Users, in this example the hallway was 70
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feet. When completed the map scale is automatically adjusted and the map is saved.
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Floor plan design allows the user to create a floor plan using map editing tools. These tools can be used
to draw walls over an existing map image or on a blank canvas. The tools allow the user to specify wall
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thickness, wall material and to customize the appearance of the floor plan using Colors.
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A floor plan can be created with or without a reference background image. However, it is much easier
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to use the drawing features with an existing image. A user can use either menus or buttons to access
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specific drawing tools for creating lines and shapes and to apply styles to those drawings.
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Once the drawing tool is enabled, the user clicks on a point to start editing, then moves the cursor to
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the next point in the line. The user clicks again to create a new line point. This typically occurs at a wall
intersection when the user needs to change the direction of the line. If the user needs to move to
different area of the map to draw a new, disconnected line segment, the user ends editing by either
double clicking or pressing the escape key.
The line tool creates a multi-segment line. The user starts a line by enabling the tool then clicking on
the map. Segments are created by clicking on the map. When the line drawing is complete, it can be
ended by double-clicking for the last point or pressing the escape key.
The square and triangle tools allow creation of regularly shaped polygons with a fixed number of sides.
To draw a square or triangle, the user enables drawing by clicking on the appropriate button. Then the
user clicks on the map to start drawing and, while still holding the left mouse button, drags away from
the starting point. When the shape reaches the desired size, the user releases the left mouse button.

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Triangulated client location detection passes the information from a user defined floor plan to
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the location engine on the server. Based on floor plan data, a single clients location can be
triangulated based on the clients contact with multiple access points in the covered area. The
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wall information from the floor plan is used to help determine the degradation of signal
strength that occurs as a wireless radio signal passes through the walls. This, in turn, helps
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define the probable distance of a client from a given access point. ExtremeManagement will
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display the clients location and, in the small box on the right hand side of the display, specify
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the part of the map it is showing you.


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If only one access point can see the client, as in this example, ExtremeManagement will give
you its best estimate of the clients location.

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The Location Engine needs to be enabled on the Controller to complete the


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ExtremeManagement Maps functionality.


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All area changes are subject to a 5 second smoothing period


Once an area change is detected a timer starts
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Multiple area changes can occur while the timer is active


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If the client returns to the original area before the timer expires, the timer is stopped
and no update is sent
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When the timer expires an update is sent containing the clients current area
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Here is the encoding of the RADIUS request


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Encoding of Area Object into Access-Request:


Location-Info.Code = 0 (civic location profile)
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Location-Info.Entiry = 0 (describes the location of the user's client device)


Location-Info.SightingTime = now() - TS (sec)
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Location-Info.Time-To-Live = 300sec (fixed value)


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Location-Info.method=triangulation | 802.11
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Location-Data.location.Catype=22
Location-Data.location.Cvalue=Floor.Name+Area.Name ("location", CAtype 22 is
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an unstructured string specifying additional information about the location, such


as the part of a building or other unstructured information)
For the Location-Info.method:
Triangulation means Location Engine Area Notification
802.11 mean Roaming Area Notification

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Wireless coverage is a selectable display mode for the map. When the feature is activated, the
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map will display color information for radio signal strength based on distance from APs included
on the map. That is, the map is divided into squares that will be assigned a color based on the
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radio signal strength at that location. The exact color that will be assigned to a square will be
determined by the wireless controller based on the AP location and the material of any walls
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between the square and the AP.


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Dynamic Mesh, a proprietary solution aligned with 802.11s Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol
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(HWMP) , non-register, proactive mode but is not fully 802.11s compliant, is extension of the
WDS capabilities.
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Static Mesh or Wireless Distribution System (WDS) is part of the IEEE 802.11 specification that
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allows APs to use RF to provide both network access and data backhaul, making it possible to
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extend the traditional network to less traditional locations without installing additional cable or
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fiber.
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The AP supports links on either the 5 GHz or 2.5 GHz frequency bands. Therefore they can be
leveraged, yielding better overall performance and creating a far more scalable network. The
Mesh network is secure as it automatically negotiates pair-wise master keys to encrypt data
using AES and to secure links between each node so that data is never transmitted in the clear.
Lastly, it is completely integrated into Wireless framework (VNS, Availability, etc.)

Note: Dynamic Mesh is supported on all AP3xxx models, excluding the AP3x05 models.

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A Simple Mesh configuration is used when a Wireless AP is installed in a remote location and cant be wired
to the distribution system (DS). A Root or Mesh Portal Wireless AP is connected to the distribution system
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via an Ethernet link. This intermediate Wireless AP forwards and receives the user traffic from the remote
Wireless AP, also called a Satellite or Mesh AP, over a radio link.
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If there is a Wireless AP between the Root/Mesh Portal and Satellite/Mesh AP, it is used to relay the user
traffic; this AP acting as a Repeater. A Repeater AP relays the user traffic between the Root/Mesh Portal and
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the destination Mesh AP/ Satellite AP is acting as both a child and a parent, thus increasing the WLAN range.
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When configuring WDS in a Wireless Repeater configuration, you should limit the number of repeaters to 3
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for optimum performance.


In the Wireless Bridge configuration, the traffic between wireless APs that are connected to two separate
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wired LAN segments is bridged via a Mesh link; this is also referred to Workgroup Bridge. To avoid loops,
make sure that it the remote wired LAN is a truly isolated segment with no other connections to the wired
network since the Mesh solution does not offer protection from loops.
Mesh AP is connected only to one parent/Root AP at a time, a Repeater and Satellite AP may connect an
isolated Ethernet segment to the wired network, limiting the number of hops in the tree reduces the latency
and provides better performance because packets are duplicated on each hop.
Note: For WDS it is recommended to limit 8 APs per tree (including the root) for DATA and use only 2 APs
per tree (including the root) for VOICE.

Note: The limit of APs participating in a Mesh tree is 50.

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The Wireless APs in a Mesh Network configuration form a tree-like structure. The tree builds in a top
down manner with the Root / Mesh Portal Wireless AP being the tree root, the Mesh AP / Satellite
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Wireless or Repeaters being the tree leaves. The Wireless AP that provides the Mesh service to the
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other Wireless APs in the downstream direction is called a parent. The Wireless APs that establish a link
with the Wireless AP in the upstream direction for Mesh service are children. The Controller can be set
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up with either a single WDS/Mesh VNS or multiple WDS/Mesh VNSs. If a VNS shares a single
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WDS/Mesh, it uses the same SSID and a single pre-shared key for the links. The tree can have multiple
roots. In a multi-Mesh environment two independent WDS/MESH trees will be created and each tree
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will operate on separate SSIDs and use separate pre-shared keys.


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The Parent AP enables WDS IE in the beacon once it is connected to the Controller and announces its AP
Name using a proprietary IE (SSID is not suppressed). The child AP scans for the preferred parent
and/or backup parent on the radio defined in the WLAN Service. When found it will connect to the
parent AP using a proprietary protocol and establish a WDS/Mesh link.
When an AP starts the discovery process in a Mesh environment the AP will obtain its IP address using a
DHCP Request that is broadcasted through the link until it reaches the controller. The DHCP response
will be transmitted down through the Mesh link until it reaches the AP. The AP will register to the
Controller over the Mesh link and then the Controller manages the Mesh AP as any other AP. The
Repeater AP tunnels traffic through the Mesh bridge, not through its own tunnel to the Controller.

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Once the Mesh/WDS link has been established between the parent and client, the link is
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monitored.
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In a WDS environment, heartbeat messages are exchanged in the form of Poll_Req messages
are sent from the client AP to the parent AP. The parent is responsible for responding to the
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polls with a Poll_Resp. The parent AP will disconnect the WDS link if no traffic or no
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Poll_Requests are received for 20 seconds. Once the link is broken between the parent and
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child the child will attempt to automatically discover its backup parent by performing a full scan
of the (2.4 or 5GHz) band. In the Static Mesh configuration or WDS, if a backup parent is not
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defined, the child AP will be left stranded.


Mesh AP uses the Beacons from the parent to detect its presence. Mesh AP monitors other
potential parents while connected to the current parent. Mesh AP changes to another parent
either because parent is lost (Consecutive Beacon loss) or there is a parent with significantly
better link quality (self-healing). In the both cases, the Mesh AP transfers to the new parent
without a need for a full scan. The Mesh AP does a full scan if there is no other available parent
or on the startup.
During the transition from parent to backup parent service to clients is lost.
Mesh can co-exist with WDS WLAN (used with statically defined).

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The Mesh tree operates on the channel determined by the Root/Mesh Portal AP radio.
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Therefore, the Mesh/Satellite AP channel is determined by parent radio. A Wireless AP may


connect to its parent Wireless AP and children Wireless APs on the same radio or on different
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radios. Similarly, a Wireless AP can have two children operating on two different radios.
Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) should be avoided when using radio A (region and country
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dependent) in a Mesh environment. When DFS is enabled prior to establishing a Mesh link and
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transmitting over any channel, the child AP will perform a 60 second scan to check for the
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presence of radar signals on the channel. During operation, the WDS AP continues to monitor
for radar and if radar is detected on an AP, the AP dissociates clients and signals radar to its
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parent and child APs.


Changes to the radio channel or power on the child AP may cause the AP to become
inaccessible. During deployment, if the child AP rejects changes to a channel or power for the
radio used for the link connection to the parent AP, an alarm will be generated.
To reduce interference, radio hopping may be used where neighboring links are on different
radio; however, channel planning is difficult. WDS (only) backhaul can co-exist with client VNSs
on same radio. However, the best performance is achieved when client VNSs are on a different
radio than the WDS backhaul..

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To achieve a balance of stability, throughput, and latency the 5.2 GHz band should be used for the Mesh
backhaul, using a non-DFS channel for the Mesh Portal (Root).
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Other guidelines that are recommended are:


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40Mhz Channel Width


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ATPC disabled
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Beacon Period should be 100 msec


DCS disabled
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Disable Optimized for Power Save


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Short Guard Interval


Disable Aggregate MSDUs
Enable Aggregate MPDUs
Enable ADDBA support
The settings on the Radio configuration page should be all the same for all APs in the Mesh

DFS Dynamic Frequency Selection


MSDU MAC Service Data Unit
MPDU MAC Protocol Data Unit
ADDBA Add Block Acknowledgement
ATPC Automatic Transmit Power Control
DCS Dynamic Channel Selection

Mesh APs are always communicating about the mesh, a new feature in Release 10.11 allows you to
hides the SSIDs so that it is not constantly being communicated between APs.

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You must connect the Mesh Wireless APs to the enterprise network so they are active on the
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Controller, once they have obtained their configuration they can be disconnected and placed in
there location.
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Once the backhaul radio is selected and saved, you cannot change it. It must be deleted and re-
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added.
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Similar to the Mesh Service Type, you must connect the Wireless APs to the enterprise network
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in order for them to obtain their configuration from the Wireless Controller. There is no
manual process supported to initially configure the AP over the Wireless link.
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When configuring the WDS deployment you first define the WDS subnet in WLAN Services and
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specify the topology as Service Type: WDS. Once the type is selected, the screen allows the
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user to set the pre-shared key and assign the Wireless APs roles.
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WDS is secure as it automatically negotiates pair-wise master keys (PMK) used to encrypt using
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AES and to secure links between each node so that data is never transmitted in the clear.
Changing the pre-shared key after the WDS is deployed is not encouraged due to its lengthy
process in forming the tree.

Select Suppress SSID to prevent this SSID from appearing in the beacon message sent by the AP.
The wireless device user seeking network access will not see this SSID as an available choice,
and will need to specify it.

Note: If a Wireless AP is configured as a Guardian, it cannot be used in a WDS/Mesh tree.

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A wireless AP in WDS mode can be configured to provide parent and/or child service. Wireless
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AP services are configured on a per radio basis. Radio a and Radio b/g can be configured
independently. Each child AP must have at least one mandatory parent AP (preferred parent or
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Any Parent) and an optional backup parent. Enabling WDS bridge indicates that the Satellite
Wireless AP will be connected to the wired network. A Repeater is configured as both parent
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and child, because it is a child of a parent and a parent to a child.


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Auto Parent Selection:


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WDS Auto Parent Selection allows Child WDS APs to select the best parent out of the all
available parents based on the Rx strength and number of hops. A child WDS AP that needs to
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do parent auto selection is configured with ANY Parent in the preferred parent selection.
Auto Selection is in addition to static defined primary and backup parent.
This feature is applicable to user cases when the parent AP is not known or the child WDS AP is
frequently relocated but stationary during usage (as in cart based operation). Only child WDS
APs are allowed to be configured with Any Parent in the Primary Parent / Backup Parent
Name.
Note that if you want a WDS AP to function in Work Group mode - that is, to use its radio to
bridge traffic it receives on its wired Ethernet port - check the WDS Bridge checkbox.

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Maximum Distance is used to configured the maximum link distance between APs that
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participate in WDS backhaul on a per radio basis. By default the ACK packet between APs is
designed for links up to 100m/300ft. This value allows the Atheros chipset to be modified in
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order to accommodates links/coverage beyond the 100m/300ft to the maximum distance up


to 150,000m/4990ft.
e
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For the AP38xx, this setting is only available on Radio 2. This setting is not applicable on either
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radio for the AP39xx.


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Note: Do not change the default setting for the radio that provides service to 802.11 clients
only.

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Once the tree is defined, the Wireless APs radios need to be assigned to VNS service unless
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you are configuring a Mesh bridge. In Bridged at Controller or Routed VNS mode the data
traffic from the client is encapsulated and de-capsulated at the Satellite AP and at the
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Controller. In Bridged at AP VNS mode traffic from the clients is VLAN marked on the Satellite
AP; this marking is preserved through the repeater AP and Parent/Root/Mesh Portal AP.
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Once the Configuration has been saved and each AP has received its configuration you can
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disconnect the Wireless APs from the enterprise network and move them to the target
location. Once the Wireless APs are connected to a power source they will start the discovery
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and registration process. As the APs connect to their parent APs (Mesh Portal) a tree is
established; you can monitor the tree using the Mesh Statistics report.
e
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The Wireless reports for APs will display the Wireless APs in the domain, the WDS Children and
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the number of clients associated to each child. The Mesh Statistics report will show only the
active members of the Mesh and their roles. The backup root bridge (AP2) is shown in the
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table, but is not active.

Mesh statistics are collected every 30 sec; the Mesh Report shows uplink Mesh statistics and
the Mesh AP roles. The Quality of the link is reflected by the Average Tx and Rx rate and Tx
Errors.

Note: The Rx RSSI value on the Mesh Statistics display represents the received signal strength.
The minimum value is 1 and maximum value is 60. The higher the RSSI value, the stronger the
received signal.

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Glossary

dB Decibel is a unit of power measurement change so its a relative unit of


power.
dBi - decibels (isotropic) relative to a theoretical isotropic radiator antenna
used to indicate passive antenna gain.
dBd - decibels (dipole) relative to an half-wave dipole antenna used as a real
measurement of antenna gain, 0 dBd = 2.14 dBi. dBd is a value calculated
against the input power of an antenna to determine its directional output
power.

k)
dBm - Decibels/Meter is a logarithmic value of power equal to one (1) mW,

oo
therefore 1 mW = 0 dBm, .1 mW = -10 dBm, .01 mW = -20 dBm, as so on,

B
while on the positive side 10mW = 10 dBm. The relationship between dBm
and mW is logarithmic.
(e
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Rule of 10s and 3s. A loss of 3 dB is 1/2 the original power. and a gain of 3 dB
is double the power. A loss of 10 dB is 1/10 the original power and a gain of
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10 dB is 10 times the original power.


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EIRP - Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power is the theoretical power that is


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delivered by an intentional radiator to an imaginary isotropic antenna that


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would produce an even distribution of RF power with the same amplitude


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actually experienced in the preferred direction of the actual antenna.


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The FCC (or other local regulatory agency) sets the rules regarding the power
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that can be delivered to an antenna and also radiated by the antenna


IR - Intentional Radiator, in a wireless LAN transmission system, is the point at
which the antenna is connected back to the radio itself
MCS - Modulation and Coding Schemes were introduced with the 802.11n
amendment to the 802.11 standard.
mW milliWatt is a measurement of power: 0.001 Watt
Noise Floor a consistent background radio frequency noise caused by
systems or naturally in an electromagnetic spectrum.

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Glossary
Receiver Sensitivity - RF sensitivity thresholds indicate lower limit of received
power required to support operations of a station.
RSS The Received Signal Strength is the power of a radio signal received.
Often measured is in dBm instead of watts for simplicity. For example, -20
dBm is excellent RSS and -110 dBm is extremely poor RSS. The RSS is affected
by many factors, including:
The antenna signal strength.
Distance between the receiving and transmitting devices

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Wi-Fi antenna type of the devices transmitting and receiving the signal

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Physical obstructions in proximity of the devices transmitting and
receiving including walls and people

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(e
Reflective properties of the materials in the area
ss
RSSI - The Received Signal Strength Indicator is the vendor specific relative
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power indicator of a radio signal received. Arbitrary correlation to dBm and


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varies by vendor. Its an 8 bit value (0-255) defined by the IEEE 802.11-2012
standard and often measured during the reception of the frame preamble.
W

SNR Signal to Noise Ratio, is the difference of desired signal to unwanted


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noise (or interference). > 25 dB SNR is good while < 15 SNR is poor. Using the
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formula SNR = n-s where n is the noise floor, s is the signal strength, for
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example -90 dBm - - 60 dBm = 30 SNR.


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IETF RFC 2865 RADIUS - used for carrying authentication, authorization, and
configuration information between an authenticator (controller or AP) and
authentication server (AS). The controller or AP authenticates users against
the AS user database, and the AS may then return role-based information
(VLAN, group membership, etc.) back to the authenticator for access-control
purposes.
802.1X protocol for wireless networks involves a supplicant (wireless client),
an authenticator (Controller or AP), and an authentication server (AS).
EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol is used to authenticate users.

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