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International Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science

Vol. 4(2), pp. 215-224, June, 2017. www.premierpublishers.org. ISSN: 2167-0449


IJPBCS

Research Article

Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and


yield related traits in common bean genotypes
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern
Ethiopia
Ejigu Ejara1*, Wassu Mohammed2 and Berhanu Amsalu3
1YabelloPastoral and Dry Land Agriculture Research Centre, Oromia Agricultural Research Institute, Yabello, Ethiopia.
2Schoolof Plant Science, College of Agriculture, Haramaya University, Dire dawa, Ethiopia.
3Malkassa Agriculture Research Centre, Ethiopian agricultural Research Institute, Melkassa, Ethiopia.

Common bean is among the major crops grown in southern Ethiopia including Borana zone
where the majority of the farmers are Agro-pastoralist and produce the crop mainly for home
consumption. However, scarcity of varieties that fit to the environment is one of the major
production constraints. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to evaluate 36 common bean
genotypes in triple lattice design to generate information on the association of yield and yield
related traits, and to determine the direct and indirect effects of yield related traits on grain yield.
Thousand seeds weight, seed number per plant, seed number per pod and number of primary
branches per plant showed positive and highly significant correlations with grain yield. Moreover,
thousand seed weight, seeds per plant and seeds per pods had high positive direct effects on
grain yield both at genotypic and phenotypic levels. This suggested the importance of
considering these traits during selection to improve grain yield in subsequent generations. In
contrast, the negative direct effects of days to flowering and maturity as well as the negative
indirect effects of these traits via other traits on grain yield suggested the need to select
genotypes for early flowering and maturity for the study area.

Keywords: Direct effect, genotypic path coefficient analysis, indirect effects, phenotypic path coefficient analysis,
Residual effect

INTRODUCTION

Common bean is a diploid (2n = 2x = 22) and extent of environmental influence on the expression of
predominantly self-crossing species although 3% or more these characters are necessary (Yad, 2009). Yield is the
out crossing rate has also been observed (Ibarra-Perez et principal factor for determining improvement of a crop. Like
al., 1997). It is the worlds second most important pulse other crops, seed yield in common bean (Phaseolus
after soybean (Parades et al., 2009). Common bean is vulgaris L.) is a quantitative character and influenced by a
regarded as Grain of hope as it is an important number of yield contributing traits.
component of subsistence agriculture and feeds about 300
million people in tropics and 100 million people in Africa *Corresponding Author: Ejigu Ejara, Yabello Pastoral
alone (Sofi et al., 2011). and Dry Land Agriculture Research Centre, Oromia
Agricultural Research Institute, Yabello, Ethiopia. P.O.
For effective selection, information on characters Box: 85, Email: ehordofa@gmail.com, Fax:
association with yield and among themselves and the +251464460663
Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Ejara et al. 216

The selection of desirable types should therefore be based Individual plot size was 2.4 m x 4 m=9.6 m 2 and 1m and
on yield as well as on other yield components. Information 1.5m between replication and sub block, respectively.
on mutual association between yield and yield Fertilizer was applied as nationally recommended for the
components is necessary for efficient utilization of the crop at the rates of 46 kg P2O5 and 18 kg N /ha (100kg/ha
genetic stock in the crop improvement program (Nechifor DAP) at the time of planting.
et al.,2011) To achieve significant progress in breeding
programs, it is essential to know the relationship between Association of characters
seed yield and its components (Assady et al., 2005).
Phenotypic and genotypic correlations between yield and
Correlation and path coefficient analysis could be used as yield related traits were estimated using the method
an important tool to bring information about appropriate described by Miller et al. (1958).
cause and effects relationship between yield and some Phenotypic correlation coefficient (rp xy) between character
yield components (Khan et al., 2003). Although correlation x and y
estimates are helpful in determining the components of Covpx y
complex trait such as yield, they do not provide an exact rp x y
picture of the relative importance of direct and indirect Vp xVp y
influences of each of the component characteristics of this
trait. Path coefficient analysis provides more effective Where: Covpxy = Phenotypic covariance between
means of separating direct and indirect factors, permitting character x and y
a critical examination of the specific forces acting to Vpx = Phenotypic variance for character x
produce a given correlation and measuring the relative Vpy = Phenotypic variance for character y
importance of the causal factors. Correlation and pass co- Genotypic correlation coefficient (rgxy) between character
efficient analyses of traits studies have been also x and y
conducted by considerable number of researchers on
Covg xy
common bean, for instance, Gonalves et al. (2003),
Karasu and Oz (2010), Salehi et al. (2010), Dursun (2007), rg xy
Daniel et.al. (2015), Alamayehu, (2010), Barecha (2015), Vg xVg y
Kassaye, (2006), Bhushan (2007) and etc. Most of the
studies on common bean correlation and path analyses of Where: Covgxy = Genotypic covariance between
traits were conducted in other parts of the country not in character x and y
Borena zone (southern Ethiopia) where moisture stress is Vgx = Genotypic variance for character x
a major crop production problem and the agriculture Vgy = Genotypic variance for character y
production is dominated by pastoralist and agro-
pastoralist. Moreover, information is lacking on the The coefficient of correlations at phenotypic level was
potential of common bean genotypes in southern Ethiopia tested for their significance by comparing the value of
in general and Abaya, and Yabello district of Borana zone correlation coefficient with tabulated r-value at g-2 degree
in particular. Hence the present study was undertaken with of freedom. However, the coefficient of correlations at
the following objectives. (i) To determine associations genotypic level was tested for their significance using the
among yield and yield related traits in common bean formula described by Robertson (1959) indicated below:
genotypes. (ii) To determine the direct and indirect effects
of yield related traits on grain yield of common bean Genotypic correlation coefficient was tested with the
genotypes following formula suggested by Robertson (1959).

(rg xy )
MATHERIAL AND METHODS t
SEg xy
The experiment was conducted at Yabello and Abaya the calculated t value was compared with the tabulated t
during 2015 cropping season. The two locations are the value at g-2 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance,
research sites and sub- sites of Yabello Pastoral and where, g = number of genotypes
Dryland Agriculture Research Center, respectively (Table
(1 r 2 g xy )
1). SEg xy
2hx .h y
The experiment was laid out in 6 x 6 triple lattice design.
Each entry was planted in a plot having 6 rows of 4-meter Where: SEgxy= Standard error of genotypic correlation
length. Four rows were harvested and two border rows coefficient between character x and y
were left to exclude border effect. The row and plant hx = Heritability value of character x
spacing was kept at 40 cm and 10 cm, respectively. hy = Heritability value of character y
Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 217

Table 1: Description of the study area

Variables Yabello Abaya


Soil type sandy Sandy clay loam
Altitude (m.a.s.l.) 1631 1442
Latitude 02o88006"N 06o43520"N
Longitude 038o14761"E 038o25425"E
Annual Temperature 0C
Minimum 14.5 12.6
Maximum 26.3 29.9
Annual rainfall (mm)
Minimum 400 500
Maximum 700 1100

Table 2: Genotypic (above diagonal) and phenotypic (bellow diagonal) correlation coefficients of yield and yield related traits of 36
common bean genotypes tested at Abaya in 2015 cropping season

Variable FD MD PH (cm) NPB PL PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) GY(t/ha)


FD 0.330* 0.319 -0.249 -0.362* 0.040 -0.361* -0.435** -0.638** -0.531**
MD 0.187 0.279 0.035 -0.550** 0.155 -0.363* -0.344* -0.522** -0.448**
PH(cm) 0.221* 0.150 0.060 -0.160 -0.270 0.052 -0.140 -0.124 -0.059
NPB -0.110 0.003 -0.174 0.059 0.018 0.391* 0.452** 0.369* 0.449**
PL(cm) -0.077 -0.321** -0.074 0.070 0.022 0.354* 0.375* 0.469** 0.374*
PPP -0.017 0.141 -0.245** 0.071 -0.051 -0.476** 0.045 -0.015 -0.007
SPP -0.229 -0.245** 0.063 0.283** 0.332** -0.504** 0.839** 0.718** 0.781**
SPNT -0.323** -0.225* -0.106 0.382** 0.294** 0.061 0.804** 0.829** 0.887**
TSW(g) -0.381** -0.408** -0.094 0.360** 0.436** -0.039 0.657** 0.748** 0.935**
GY(t/ha) -0.307** -0.336** -0.044 0.430** 0.349** -0.062** 0.731** 0.801** 0.915**
* & **, significant at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively, FD= days to flowering, MD= days to 90% maturity, PH= plant height, NPB= number
of primary branch, PL= pod length, PPP= pod per plant, SPP= seed per pod, SPNT= seed per plant, TSW= thousand grain weight, GY=
Grain yield per hectare at 10% moisture content.

The calculated absolute t value was tested against the RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
tabulated t-value at g-2 degree of freedom for both
phenotypic and genotypic correlations. Environmental Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlation Coefficients
correlation coefficients were tested at [(g-1) (r-1)-1)]
degree of freedom, where g is the number of genotypes. Correlation of yield with other traits
Path coefficient analysis was worked out using the method
suggested by Dewey and Lu (1959) at phenotypic as well Grain yield had negative and highly significant (P<0.01)
as genotypic level to determine the direct and indirect correlation with days to flowering and days to maturity at
effect of yield related traits (yield components) on yield. For Abaya (Table 2) both at genotypic and phenotypic levels,
this purpose, seed yield is used as dependent variable and but it showed positive non-significant correlation at Yabello
other characters were used as independent variables. (Table 3). This indicates that early maturing plants could
rij = Pij + rik Pkj provide higher grain yield ha-1 than late maturing plants. It
Where: rij= mutual association between the independent is also suggesting that selection of genotypes for high
(i) and the dependent character (j) as measured by the performance of these traits reduce grain yield. Bhushan
correlation coefficient. Pij= component of direct effects of (2007) also reported negative and significant association
independent character (i) on dependent character (j) as of grain yield with days to flowering and days to maturity
measured by the path coefficient and, rikpkj= summation period in common bean. Alemayehu (2014) reported
of components of indirect effect of a given independent negative association of grain yield with days to flowering
character (i) on the given dependent character (j) via all and days to maturity at both genotypic and phenotypic
other independent characters (k). level in common bean. Nchimbi and Mduruma, (2007),
Onder (2013), and Kasaye (2006) also reported negative
The contribution of the remaining unknown factors association of days to flowering with grain yield. in
(effects) will be measured as the residual effect (RE) which contrast, Ahmed and Kamaluddin (2013) and Bagheri et
is calculated as: al. (2015) reported positive and significant association of
days to flowering with grain yield in common bean.
, R2 = pijrij Over location correlation analysis indicated that grain yield
had positive and highly significant (P<0.01) genotypic
Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Ejara et al. 218

Table 3: Genotypic (above diagonal) and phenotypic (bellow diagonal) correlation coefficients of yield and yield related traits of
36 common bean genotypes tested at Yabello in 2015 cropping season

Variable FD MD PH(cm) NPB PL(cm) PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) GY(t/ha)


FD 0.354* 0.460** -0.066 0.208 0.134 0.164 0.249 0.113 0.187
MD 0.289** 0.765** -0.050 -0.425** 0.389* -0.107 0.029 -0.098 0.082
PH(cm) 0.424** 0.670** -0.008 -0.204 0.422* -0.112 0.049 0.087 0.141
NPB -0.026 -0.015 0.054 -0.076 -0.024 0.073 0.065 0.111 0.173
PL(cm) 0.174 -0.340** -0.137 -0.014 -0.226 0.033 -0.08 0.038 -0.105
PPP 0.039 0.254** 0.249** 0.015 -0.171 -0.609** -0.23 -0.283 -0.173
SPP 0.152 -0.029 -0.065 0.095 0.051 -0.609** 0.900** 0.812** 0.802**
SPNT 0.195* 0.080 0.051 0.119 -0.053 -0.136 0.847** 0.871** 0.897**
TSW(g) 0.100 0.014 0.117 0.150 0.048 -0.194* 0.735** 0.823** 0.911**
GY(t/ha) 0.158 0.142 0.160 0.202* -0.059 -0.122 0.747** 0.860** 0.901**

Table 4: Genotypic (above diagonal) and phenotypic (bellow diagonal) correlation coefficients of yield and
yield related traits of 36 common bean genotypes tested across the two locations in 2015 cropping season

Variable PH (cm) NPB PPP SPP SPNT TSWT(g) GY (t/ha)


PH (cm) 0.012 0.21 -0.160 -0.098 -0.146 -0.075
NPB -0.330** 0.011 0.273 0.350* 0.352* 0.451**
PPP -0.041 0.073 -0.654** -0.338* -0.349* -0.273
SPP -0.185** 0.251** -0.527** 0.921** 0.804** 0.823**
Splnt -0.257** 0.337** -0.014 0.835** 0.845** 0.901**
TSWT(g) -0.234** 0.352** -0.079 0.705** 0.797** 0.909**
GY (t/ha) -0.264** 0.419** -0.054 0.747** 0.845** 0.915**
* & **, significant at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively, FD= days to flowering, MD= days to maturity, PH (cm)=
plant height in centimetre, NPB= number of primary branch, PL (cm)= pod length in centimetre, PPP= pods per
plant, SPP= seeds per pod, SPNT= seeds per plant, TSW (g)= thousand seed weight in gram, GY= Grain yield
per hectare in ton per hectar

correlation with seed per pod, seed per plant thousand these traits reduce grain yield. Hossein et al., (2012) and
seed weight and number of primary branches that ranged (Kulaz Ciftci, 2013) also reported negative phenotypic and
from rg= 0.45 to 0.91 (Table 4). Therefore, any genotypic correlations of grain yield with plant height in
improvement of these traits would result in a substantial common bean.
increment on grain yield. These results are substantiated
with those of Cokkizgin (2013) and Karasu and Oz (2010) Grain yield showed positive and highly significant (P
who reported positive and highly significant genotypic 0.01) environmental correlation with all crop growth traits
correlation of grain yield with seed per pod, seeds per plant and yield components except plant height were it showed
and thousand seed weight in common bean. significantly negative correlation. This showed that
environment factor that favour yield related traits also
Grain yield showed positive and highly significant (P<0.01) favours grain yield performance. Carlos et al. (2014)
phenotypic association with number of primary branches, suggested that environmental correlations between
seeds per pod, seeds per plant and thousand seeds weight descriptors with differences in magnitude and sign, in
that ranged from rp= 0. 419 to 0.915 (Table 4). The perusal relation to the respective genotypic correlation, revealed
of the correlation coefficient results suggested that these that the environment favoured one character over another
traits should be given prime importance due to their and that the genetic and environmental causes of variation
contribution to grain yield they had. Therefore, the positive have different physiological mechanisms, defaulting the
association of grain yield with these traits suggested the indirect selection.
possibility of simultaneously improving grain yield through
indirect selection of these traits. Other authors also Correlation coefficient among other traits
reported positive and significant phenotypic association of
grain yield with seeds per plant (Cokkizgin, 2013), seeds Positive and highly significantly (P< 0.01) genotypic and
per pod (Roy, et al 2006), thousand seeds weight (Karasu, phenotypic correlations were observed between days to
2010) and number of brunches per main stem (kulaz and flowering and plant height at Yabello indicating that
Ciftci, 2013). Grain yield showed negative and significant genotypes taking longer to flower also has taller plant
phenotypic association with plant height. This suggested height. Bhushan (2007) also reported positive and strong
that selection of tall genotypes for high performance of association of days to flowering with plant height. Days to
Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 219

Table 5. Phenotypic path coefficient analysis (direct effects underlined diagonal and indirect effects are off
diagonal) of yield and yield related traits in 36 common bean genotypes tested at Yabello in 2015 cropping season

FD MD PH(cm) NPB PL(cm) PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) rp


FD 0.014 0.021 -0.003 -0.002 -0.009 0.009 0.066 -0.002 0.063 0.158
MD 0.004 0.072 -0.005 -0.001 0.017 0.060 -0.012 -0.001 0.009 0.142
PH(cm) 0.006 0.048 -0.008 0.004 0.007 0.059 -0.028 0.000 0.073 0.160
NPB 0.000 -0.001 0.000 0.065 0.001 0.003 0.041 -0.001 0.094 0.202*
PL(cm) 0.003 0.024 0.001 -0.001 -0.049 -0.040 0.022 0.000 0.030 -0.059
PPP 0.001 0.018 -0.002 0.001 0.008 0.236 -0.264 0.001 -0.121 -0.122
SPP 0.002 -0.002 0.000 0.006 -0.002 -0.144 0.433 -0.007 0.460 0.747**
SPNT 0.003 0.006 0.000 0.008 0.003 -0.032 0.367 -0.008 0.515 0.860**
TSW(g) 0.001 0.001 -0.001 0.010 -0.002 -0.046 0.319 -0.006 0.625 0.901**
Residual effect = 0.477

flowering and days to maturity had negative and strong (P< plant height were observed at phenotypic level. Cokkizgin
0.01) associated with seeds per plant and thousand seed (2013) also reported similar results in common bean.
weight at both genotypic and phenotypic level at Abaya.
Bhushan (2007) also reported similar results in common Path Coefficient Analysis
bean.
Pod length had positive and highly significant phenotypic Association of character determined by correlation
correlation with seeds per pod, seeds per plant and coefficients may not be sufficient to indicate the
thousand seed weight at Abaya. In contrary to this, pod contribution of traits to yield. Therefore, it is necessary to
length had negative and highly significant (P< 0.01) understand the relative importance of direct and indirect
phenotypic correlation with days to maturity which agree effects of each trait on yield. Association study with path
with the result reported by Roy et al (2006). Genotypic coefficient analysis gives detailed information on the
association of pod length with thousand seed weight was causal factors as direct and indirect effect through others,
positive and highly significant (P< 0.01) but significant (P< on target trait (Adefris et al. 2000). Such analysis leads to
0.05) with seeds per pod and seeds per plant at Abaya. identification of important component traits useful in
Pod length had positive phenotypic correlation with indirect selection for complex traits like yield.
flowering date, seeds per pods and thousand seed weight
at Yabello though the association is not significant. The Phenotypic path coefficient analysis
results of genotypic correlation analyses at Yabello
indicated that the association of pods length with days to The phenotypic direct and indirect effects of different
maturity was negative and highly significant but negative characters on seed yield are presented in Table 5, 6 and
and not significant with plant height, number of primary 9. Days to flowering and days to maturity exerted positive
branches, pods per plants and seed per plants (Table 3). phenotypic direct effect on grain yield at Yabello, but these
Roy et al (2006) also reported negative phenotypic traits exerted negative indirect effect on grain yield through
association of pod length with pod per plant, seed per pod, plant height, number of primary branch, pod length and
days to flowering and plant height in common bean. seed per plant (Table 5). At Abaya, days to flowering
exerted positive direct effect on grain yield, but negative
Phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients for indirect effect of days to flowering on grain yield was
combined analysis across two locations are presented in exerted through days to maturity, number of primary
Table 4. The results indicated that number of seeds per branches, pods per plant, seeds per pod and thousand
pod was strongly (P< 0.01) and positively correlated with seeds weight (Table 6). The total contribution of these two
seed per plant both at phenotypic (rp=0.835) and traits was positive but non-significant at Yabello but
genotypic (rg=0.921) level. Number of seeds per pod was negative and significant at Abaya. Kassaye (2006)
also exhibited positive and significant phenotypic and reported positive direct effect of days to flowering and days
genotypic correlation with thousand seed weight and to maturity on grain yield. Roy et al. (2006) and Kulaz and
number of primary branches. Alemayehu (2014) and Ciftci, (2013) also reported similar results in common
Cokkizgin (2013) also reported negative phenotypic and bean. The direct contribution of pods length was negative
genotypic correlations of number of seeds per pod with at both Locations both at phenotypic and genotypic level
pods per plant and plant height, respectively. and had positive and significant correlation with grain yield
Number of seeds per plant was positively and strongly (P< at Abaya but negative and non-significant at Yabello
0.01) correlated with thousand seed weight, number of (Table 5 and 6). This result is in agreement with the result
primary branches and seeds per pod both at genotypic and reported by Salehi (2010) and Dursun (2007).
phenotypic levels, but negative and strong associated with

Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Ejara et al. 220

Table 6. Phenotypic path coefficient analysis (direct effects underlined diagonal and indirect effects are off diagonal)
of yield and yield related traits in 36 common bean genotypes tested at Abaya in 2015 cropping season

FD MD PH(cm) NPB PL(cm) PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) pr


FD 0.036 -0.005 0.008 -0.010 0.007 -0.004 -0.116 0.053 -0.276 -0.307**
MD 0.007 -0.025 0.006 0.000 0.027 0.033 -0.124 0.037 -0.296 -0.336**
PH(cm) 0.008 -0.004 0.037 -0.015 0.006 -0.058 0.032 0.017 -0.068 -0.044
NPB -0.004 0.000 -0.007 0.087 -0.006 0.017 0.144 -0.062 0.261 0.430**
PL(cm) -0.003 0.008 -0.003 0.006 -0.085 -0.012 0.169 -0.048 0.316 0.349**
PPP -0.001 -0.004 -0.009 0.006 0.004 0.236 -0.256 -0.010 -0.029 -0.062
SPP -0.008 0.006 0.002 0.025 -0.028 -0.119 0.508 -0.131 0.476 0.731**
SPNT -0.012 0.006 -0.004 0.033 -0.025 0.014 0.409 -0.163 0.542 0.801**
TSW(g) -0.014 0.010 -0.004 0.031 -0.037 -0.009 0.334 -0.122 0.724 0.915**
Residual effect=0.449
* & **, significant and highly significant at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. FD= days to 50% flowering, MD= days to 90%
maturity, PH (cm) = plant height in centimetre, NPB= number of primary branch, PL= pod length, PPP= pod per plant,
SPP= seed per pod, SPNT= seed per plant, TSW (g) = thousand seed weight in gram

The combined path coefficient analysis at phenotypic level yield was exerted by pods number per plant through seeds
revealed that high positive direct effect on grain yield was per pod (-0.226) followed by plant height through thousand
exerted by thousand seed weight (0.635), number of seeds weight. Kulaz and Ciftci, (2013) also reported
seeds per pod (0.43) and pod number per plant (0.215) negative phenotypic indirect effect of plant height via
(Table 10). Trait with high positive direct effects implies thousand seeds weight and pods number per plant via
that these characters are the major contributors for the seeds number per pods in common bean.
improvement of grain yield at phenotypic level given that
the relations of other traits are kept constant. Increasing Genotypic path coefficient analysis
one of the characters that had positive direct effect with
seed yield will result in increased seed yield. These traits The path analysis revealed positive genotypic direct effect
are also showed positive and highly significant correlation of days to flowering and days to 90% maturity on grain
with grain yield except number of pod per plant which yield (0.014 and 0.072, respectively) at Yabello, but both
showed negative correlation with grain yield. Negative traits exerted negative indirect effect via plant height,
correlation of pods per plant with grain yield might be due number of primary branches, and seeds number per plant
to high negative indirect effect of pods per plant via seeds which consequently reduced the correlation of these traits
per pod (-0.226) and pods per plant via thousand seeds with grain yield (Table 7). At Abaya, days to flowering
weight. The presence of positive direct effect of thousand exerted positive direct effect on grain yield, but negative
seeds weight, seeds number per pod and pods number indirect effect on grain yield via days to maturity, number
per plant on common bean was reported by many of primary brunches, seeds per pod and thousand seeds
researchers (Kulaz and Ciftci, 2013; Hossein et al., 2012; weight (Table 8). The total genotypic contribution of these
Dursun, 2007 and Roy et al. 2006). traits was negative and significant at Abaya indicating the
Seeds per plant had high negative direct effect on grain direct contribution of these traits on grain yield was offset
yield at phenotypic level (-0.048) but positive and highly by their indirect effects via other traits. Ahmed and
correlated with grain yield (rp= 0.845). This negative direct Kamaluddin (2013), Roy et al. (2006) and Kulaz and Ciftci,
effect of seed per plant was minimized through high (2013), Onder et al. (2013) also reported similar results in
positive indirect effect of seed per plant via thousand seed common bean.
weight (0.506) and seeds per plant via seed per pod
(0.359). Plant height also showed negative direct effect (- The path coefficient analysis at genotypic level on the
0.011) on grain yield and negatively and significantly basis of combined analysis for those traits that exhibited
correlated (rp=-0.264) with grain yield. In agreement with homogenous error variances revealed that the maximum
this finding, Cokkiznk (2013) reported negative direct positive direct effect on grain yield was exerted by
effect of seed per plant and plant height. Karasu and Oz thousand seeds weight (0.513) followed by number of
(2010) reported negative phenotypic direct effect of seed seeds per plant (0.256) and number of seeds per pod
per plant. (0.242) (Table 9). These three traits had high positive and
significant correlations with grain yield at genotypic level.
High positive indirect effect on grain yield was exerted by This high genotypic positive direct effect associated with
seeds number per plant through thousand seeds weight strong positive and highly significant (P < 0.01) correlation
(0.506); seeds per pod through thousand seeds weight with grain yield indicates an increase in thousand grain
(0.447) and seeds per plant through seeds number per pod weight, seeds per plant and seeds per pod will increases
(0.359). High negative phenotypic indirect effect on grain grain yield. Similar result was reported by Datt (2011) and
Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Int. J. Plant Breed. Crop Sci. 221

Table 7: Genotypic path coefficient analysis (direct effects underlined diagonal and indirect effects are off
diagonal) of yield and yield related traits in 36 common bean genotypes tested at Yabello in 2015 cropping
season.
FD MD PH(cm) NPB PL(cm) PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) rg
FD 0.031 0.061 -0.059 -0.005 -0.010 0.034 0.074 -0.017 0.079 0.187
MD 0.011 0.172 -0.098 -0.004 0.021 0.099 -0.048 -0.002 -0.068 0.082
PH(cm) 0.014 0.132 -0.129 -0.001 0.010 0.108 -0.050 -0.003 0.061 0.141
NPB -0.002 -0.009 0.001 0.079 0.004 -0.006 0.033 -0.005 0.077 0.173
PL(cm) 0.006 -0.073 0.026 -0.006 -0.048 -0.058 0.015 0.006 0.027 -0.105
PPP 0.004 0.067 -0.054 -0.002 0.011 0.256 -0.274 0.017 -0.197 -0.173
SPP 0.005 -0.018 0.014 0.006 -0.002 -0.156 0.450 -0.063 0.565 0.802**
SPNT 0.008 0.005 -0.006 0.005 0.004 -0.061 0.405 -0.069 0.606 0.897**
TSW(g) 0.004 -0.017 -0.011 0.009 -0.002 -0.072 0.365 -0.060 0.696 0.911**
Residual effect= 0.416

Table 8: Genotypic path coefficient analysis (direct effects underlined diagonal and indirect effects are off
diagonal) of yield and yield related traits in 36 common bean genotypes tested at Abaya in 2015 cropping season.
FD MD PH(cm) NPB PL(cm) PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) rg
FD -0.022 -0.031 0.020 -0.012 0.050 0.014 -0.235 0.089 -0.403 -0.531**
MD -0.007 -0.094 0.017 0.002 0.075 0.055 -0.237 0.070 -0.330 -0.448**
PH(cm) -0.007 -0.026 0.062 0.003 0.022 -0.096 0.034 0.029 -0.078 -0.059
NPB 0.005 -0.003 0.004 0.048 -0.008 0.006 0.255 -0.092 0.233 0.449**
PL(cm) 0.008 0.052 -0.010 0.003 -0.137 0.008 0.231 -0.076 0.297 0.374*
PPP -0.001 -0.015 -0.017 0.001 -0.003 0.357 -0.311 -0.009 -0.009 -0.007
SPP 0.008 0.034 0.003 0.019 -0.049 -0.170 0.653 -0.171 0.454 0.781**
SPNT 0.010 0.032 -0.009 0.022 -0.051 0.016 0.547 -0.204 0.524 0.887**
TSW(g) 0.014 0.049 -0.008 0.018 -0.064 -0.005 0.469 -0.169 0.632 0.935**
Residual effect = 0.347
* & **, significant and highly significant at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. FD= days to 50% flowering, MD= days to 90%
maturity, PH (cm) = plant height in centimetre, NPB= number of primary branch, PL= pod length, PPP= pod per plant, SPP=
seed per pod, SPNT= seed per plant, TSW (g) = thousand seed weight in gram

Table 9. Genotypic path coefficient analysis (direct effects underlined diagonal and indirect effects are off diagonal) of
yield and yield related traits in 36 common bean genotypes tested across the two locations in 2015 cropping season

PH(cm) NPB PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) Rg


PH(cm) 0.033 0.001 0.030 -0.039 -0.025 -0.075 -0.075
NPB 0.000 0.113 0.002 0.066 0.090 0.181 0.451**
PPP 0.007 0.001 0.143 -0.158 -0.086 -0.179 -0.273
SPP -0.005 0.031 -0.094 0.242 0.236 0.413 0.823**
Splnt -0.003 0.039 -0.048 0.223 0.256 0.434 0.901**
TSW(g) -0.005 0.040 -0.050 0.195 0.216 0.513 0.909**
Residual effect=0.513

Table 10. Phenotypic path coefficient analysis (direct effects underlined diagonal and indirect effects are off diagonal) of yield
and yield related traits in 36 common bean genotypes tested across the two locations in 2015 cropping season.

PH(cm) NPB PPP SPP SPNT TSW(g) Rp


PH(cm) -0.011 -0.028 -0.009 -0.079 0.012 -0.149 -0.264**
NPB 0.004 0.084 0.016 0.108 -0.016 0.224 0.419**
PPP 0.000 0.006 0.215 -0.226 0.001 -0.050 -0.054
SPP 0.002 0.021 -0.113 0.430 -0.040 0.447 0.747**
Splnt 0.003 0.028 -0.003 0.359 -0.048 0.506 0.845**
TSW(g) 0.003 0.030 -0.017 0.303 -0.038 0.635 0.915**
Residual effect = 0.458
* & **, significant and highly significant at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively PH (cm) = plant height in centimetre, NPB= number of primary
branch, PPP= pod per plant, SPP= seed per pod, SPNT= seed per plant, TSW (g) = thousand seed weight in gram.

Karasu and Oz (2010), Raffi and Nath (2004) and Roy et.al thousand seed weight (0.434) followed by seed per pod
(2006). via thousand seed weight. The results of this study are in
agreement with the result reported by Karasu and Oz
On the other hand, seed number per plant exerted high (2010) in common bean. High negative indirect effect was
positive genotypic indirect effect on grain yield via exerted by pod per plant through thousand seeds weight.
Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Ejara et al. 222

Pod per plant had positive genotypic direct effects on grain Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, pp.
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Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia
Ejara et al. 224

APPENDIX TABLE 1

Appendix Table 1 Description of the new common bean entries and released varieties

S.No. Genotype Pedigree Source


1 ALB58 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
2 ALB36 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
3 ALB25 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
4 ALB61 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
5 ALB167 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
6 ALB163 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
7 ALB212 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
8 ALB204 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
9 ALB145 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
10 ALB133 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
11 ALB151 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
12 ALB149 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
13 ALB179 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
14 ALB209 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
15 ALB207 SER 16 x G35346 CIAT
16 G21212 - CIAT
17 BFS 27 SBCZ16257-33/-MC-2P-MQ-1D-MC CIAT
18 BFS 320 - CIAT
19 BFS 34 SBCF16231-002/-MC-8P-MQ-4D-MC CIAT
20 BFS 24 SBCZ16253-040/-MC-23P-MQ-6D-MC CIAT
21 BFS 55 SBCZ16234-004/-MC-1P-MQ-12D-MC CIAT
22 BFS 35 SBCF16231-002/-MC-8P-MQ-5D-MC CIAT
23 BFS 10 SBCZ16245-01/-MC-4P-MQ-2D-MC CIAT
24 BFS 30 SBCZ16257-33/-MC-2P-MQ-5D-MC CIAT
25 BFS 39 SBCF16231-005/-MC-2P-MQ-5D-MC CIAT
26 BFS 18 SBCZ16253-040/-MC-12P-MQ-9D-MC CIAT
27 SX b 412 BM14524-16/-MQ-MQ-25C-MC-MC-2 CIAT
28 BFS 23 SBCZ16253-040/-MC-23P-MQ-5D-MC CIAT
29 BFS 33 SBCF16231-002/-MC-8P-MQ-3D-MC CIAT

Appendix Table 2. list of released varieties used as a check

Yield ton /ha


Year of Farmers Recommendedaltitude Days to
Variety release On station field (masl) maturity Breeding center
30 NASIR 2003 2.3 2.03 1200-1800 86-88 MARC
31 ROBA-1 1990 2.0-2.4 1.9-2.1 1400-1800 75-95 MARC
32 Awash 1 1989 2.0-2.4 1.8-2.1 1400-1800 90 MARC
33 Awash Melka 2.5 2.0-2.3 MARC
1999 1400-1900 88-95
34 Awash 2 2.8-3.1 1.8-2.2 MARC
2013 1300-1700 85-90
35 Mexican-142 MARC
1973 2.1 1.3 1400-1800 95-100
36 Chorie 2.3 1.9 MARC
2006 1300-1950 87-109
Source: MARC

Correlations and pass coefficient analyses of yield and yield related traits in common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at Abaya and Yabello, Southern Ethiopia