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# FRACTILES

LESSON OBJECTIVES:
Learn and apply the other statistcal
measures (Fractiles) to a given data.

1. Quartiles.

2. Deciles.

3. Percentiles.
FRACTILES
INTRODUCTION

## Fractiles are measures of location or position which

include not only central location but also any position
based on the number of equal divisions in a given
distribution. If we divide the distribution into four equal
divisions, then we have quartiles denoted by Q1, Q2, Q3,
and Q4.The most commonly used fractiles are the
quartiles, deciles, and percentiles.
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

1. QUARTILES:
Quartiles divide a distribution ino four equal parts. For example, Q1 ,
or the first quartile, locates the point which is greater than 25% of the items
in a distribution.
3N
Q3 is the 3rd quartile, Q3 th item
4
This means that 75% of the observations lie below this value.
2N
Q2 is the 2nd quartile, Q2 th item or the median
4
1N
Q1 is the 1st quartile, Q1 th
4
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

2. DECILES:
Deciles are values that divide thea distribution into 10 equal parts.
N
D1 is the 1st decile, D1 th item
10
3N
D3 is the 3rd decile, D3 th item
10
5N
D5 is the 5th decile, D5 th item ot the median
10
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

3. PERCENTILES :
Percentiles are values that divide the distribution into 100 equal parts.
P10 or the 10th percentile means the 10th item in the distribution which is
10% higher than the rest of the items.
N
P1 is the 1st percentile, P1 th item
100
25 N
P25 is the 25th percentile, P25 th item or Q1
100
50 N
P50 is the 50th percentile, P50 th item or Q 2 or the median
100
67 N
P67 is the 67th percentile, P67 th item
100
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

EXAMPLE1 :

## Calculate Q1 , Q 2 , Q 3 , D1 , D 4 , D 5 , D 7 , P10 , P25 , P50 , P70 for the following IQ scores'

87 90 95 96 97 98 98 99
100 100 100 100 100 101 101 102
102 102 103 104 105 107 110

Solution :
N 23
Q1 th th 5.75th item, which is 98
4 4
Note : For odd number of observations, which the item number is fractional, take the
next higher item. Since the 5th item is 97, the 5.75th item is the next value which is 98.
This means that the score of 98 is higher than 25% of the items in the distribution. If the
number of cases is even, take the point midway between the two items located at the
middle of the distribution.
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

## continuation of solution to example 1 :

2N 2(23) 23
Q2 th th th 11.5th item, which is 100.
4 4 2
This means that the score of 100 is higher than 50% of the item in the
distribution.
3N 3(23) 69
Q3 th th th 17.25th item, which is 102.
4 4 4
N 23
D1 th th 2.3th 3rd item, which is 95.
10 10
4N 4(23) 92
D4 th th th 9.2th item, which is 100.
10 10 4
5N 5(23)
D5 th th 11 .5th 11.5th, which is 100.
10 10
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

## continuation of solution to example 1 :

7N 7(23) 161
D7 th th th 16.1th item, which is 102.
10 10 10
10N 10(23) 23
P10 th th th 2.3th, which is 95.
100 100 10
25N 25(23) 23
P25 th th th 5.75th item, which is 98.
100 100 4
50N 50(23) 23
P50 th th th 11.5th, which is 100.
100 100 2
70N 70(23) 1,610
P70 th th th 16.1th, which is 102.
100 100 100

## Note : that the median is equal to Q 2 , D 5 , and P50 .

FRACTILES FOR GROUPED DATA

1. QUARTILES:
kN
4 CFb
Q k L Qk i
f Qk

where :
Q k kth quartile
L Qk Lower class boundary of the kth quartile class
CFb cumulative frequency below the kth quartile class
f Qk frequency of the kth quartile class
i class size
N total number of observations
FRACTILES FOR GROUPED DATA

2. DECILES:
kN
10 CFb
D k L Dk i
f Dk

where :
D k kth decile
L Dk Lower class boundary of the kth decile class
CFb cumulative frequency below the kth decile class
f Dk frequency of the kth decile class
i class size
N total number of observations
FRACTILES FOR GROUPED DATA

3. PERCENTILE:
kN
100 CFb
Pk L Pk i
f Pk

where :
Pk kth percentile
L Pk Lower class boundary of the kth percentile class
CFb cumulative frequency below the kth percentile class
f Dk frequency of the kth percentile class
i class size
N total number of observations
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

EXAMPLE2 :
Find Q1 , D 6 , P95 of the data in table 5.1

Table Ex.2
Weights of 50 Pieces of Jackfruits Sold in Supermarket Y

## Weights (in pounds) No. of Pieces <CF

50-54 5 5
55-59 19 24
60-64 22 46
65-69 3 49
70-74 1 50
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Solution :
a. 1st Quartile
N 50
Q1 th th 12.5th item.
4 4
The 1st quartile class is 55 - 59 since it is where the 12.5th item is found.
Hence, L Q1 54.5, CFb 5, f Q1 19, N 50, and i 5.
N
4 CF b
Q1 L Q1 i
f Q1

12.5 - 5
54.5 5
19
54.5 1.97
56.47
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Solution continued :
b. 6th Decile
6N 6(50)
D6 th th 30th item.
10 10
The 6th decile class is 60 - 64 since it is where the 30th item is found.
Hence, L D6 59.5, CFb 24, f Q1 22, N 50, and i 5.
6N
10 CFb
D 6 L D6 i
f D6

30 - 24
59.5 5
22
59.5 1.36
60.86
FRACTILES FOR UNGROUPED DATA

Solution continued :
c. 95th Percentile
95N 95(50)
P95 th th 47.5th item.
100 100
The 95th percentile class is 65 - 69 since it is where the 47.5th item is found.
Hence, L P95 64.5, CFb 46, f P95 3, N 50, and i 5.
95N
100 CFb
P95 L P95 i
f P 95

47.5 - 46
64.5 5
3
64.5 2.5
67