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Earthquakes Mechanics and Effects

Earthquakes: Cause and Effect

• Why earthquakes occur


• How earthquakes are measured
• Earthquake effects
• Mitigation strategy
• Earthquake time histories

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 1 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 2

Seismic Activity: 1961-1967 Plate Boundaries

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 3 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 4

Plate Tectonics: Driving Mechanism Plate Tectonics: Details in Subduction Zone

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 5 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 6

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 1


Seismicity of North America Seismicity of Alaska
North American
Plate
North American
Plate

Pacific
Plate Pacific
Plate

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Faults and Fault Rupture Types of Faults

Epicenter

Strike slip Strike slip


Rupture surface (left lateral) (right lateral)

Hypocenter
(focus)
Fault plane
Normal Reverse (thrust)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 9 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 10

Elastic Rebound Theory Time = 40 Years


Time = 0 Years

New road

New fence
Old fence

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 11 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 12

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 2


Time = 41 Years

New road

Old fence

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 13 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 14

Seismic Wave Forms Seismic Wave Forms


(Body Waves) (Surface Waves)

D
D pr irec D
pr irec op tio Di pr irec
op tio ag n pr rect op tio
ag n o
ag n at of op io
at of io
n ag n o at f
ion
io at f
n ion

Compression wave Shear wave Rayleigh wave


Love wave
(P wave) (S wave)
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 15 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 16

Relationship Between Reservoir Level


Arrival of Seismic Waves and Seismic Activity at Koyna Dam, India
Inflow

Reservoir level

Earthquake frequency
P waves S waves Love waves

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 17 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 18

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 3


Surface Fault Rupture,
Effects of Seismic Waves 1971 Earthquake in San Fernando, California

• Fault rupture
• Ground shaking
• Landslides
• Liquefaction
• Tsunamis
• Seiches

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 19 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 20

Cause of Liquefaction Liquefaction Damage, Niigata, Japan, 1964


“If a saturated sand is subjected to ground
vibrations, it tends to compact and decrease in volume.

If drainage is unable to occur, the tendency to


decrease in volume results in an increase in
pore pressure.

If the pore water pressure builds up to the point at


which it is equal to the overburden pressure, the
effective stress becomes zero, the sand loses its
strength completely, and liquefaction occurs.”
Seed and Idriss (1971)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 21 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 22

Liquefaction and Lateral Spreading, Landslide on Coastal Bluff,


1993 Earthquake in Kobe, Japan 1989 Earthquake in Loma Prieta, California

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 23 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 24

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 4


Tsunami Damage, Seward, Alaska, 1964
Cause of Tsunamis

Tsunamis are created by a sudden vertical


movement of the sea floor.

These movements usually occur in


subduction zones.

Tsunamis move at great speeds, often 600


to 800 km/hr.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 25 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 26

Result of Ground Shaking, 1994


Earthquake in Northridge, California Mitigation Strategies

Earthquake effect Strategy


Fault rupture Avoid
Tsunami/seiche Avoid
Landslide Avoid
Liquefaction Avoid/resist
Ground shaking Resist

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 27 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 28

Measuring Earthquakes
Modified Mercalli Intensity
INTENSITY
• Subjective Developed by G. Mercalli in 1902 (after a previous
version of M. S. De Rossi in the 1880s)
• Used where instruments are not available
• Very useful in historical seismicity Subjective measure of human reaction and damage

MAGNITUDE Modified by Wood and Neuman to fit


• Measured with seismometers California construction conditions
• Direct measure of energy released
Intensity range I (lowest) to XII (most severe)
• Possible confusion due to different measures

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 29 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 30

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 5


Modified Mercalli Intensity
Modified Mercalli Intensity
IV. During the day, felt indoors by many, outdoors by
few. At night, some awakened. Dishes, windows,
I. Not felt except by a few under especially doors disturbed; walls make creaking sound. Sensation
favorable circumstances. like heavy truck striking building. Standing automobiles
rocked noticeably. [0.015 to 0.02g]
II. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on
upper floors if buildings. Suspended objects may swing. V. Felt by nearly everyone, many awakened. Some
dishes and windows broken. Cracked plaster.
Unstable objects overturned. Disturbance of trees, poles
Felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on and other tall objects. [0.03 to 0.04g]
III.
upper floors of buildings. Standing automobiles may
rock slightly. Vibration like passing truck. VI. Felt by all. Many frightened and run outdoors.
Some heavy furniture moved. Fallen plaster and
damaged chimneys. Damage slight. [0.06 to 0.07g]
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 31 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 32

Modified Mercalli Intensity Modified Mercalli Intensity


VII. Everybody runs outdoors. Damage negligible in IX. Damage considerable in specially designed
buildings of good design and construction, slight to structures, well designed frame structures thrown
moderate in well built ordinary structures, considerable out of plumb, damage great in substantial buildings
in poorly built or badly designed structures. Noticed with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations.
by persons driving cars. [0.10 to 0. 15g] Ground cracked conspicuously. Underground pipes
broken. [0.50 to 0.55g]

VIII. Damage slight in specially designed structures, X. Some well built wooden structures destroyed. Most
considerable in ordinary construction, great in masonry and frame structures destroyed with
poorly built structures. Fall of chimneys, stacks, foundations badly cracked. Rails bent. Landslides
monuments. Sand and mud ejected is small considerable from river banks and steep slopes.
amounts. Changes in well water. Persons driving Shifted sand and mud. Water splashed over banks.
cars disturbed. [0.25 to 0.30g] [More than 0.60g]

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 33 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 34

Isoseismal Map for the Giles County, Virginia,


Modified Mercalli Intensity Earthquake of May 31, 1897.

XI. Few, if any, (masonry) structures left standing.


Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground.
Underground pipelines completely out of service.
Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground.
Rails bent greatly.

XII. Damage total. Waves seen on ground surface. Lines


of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown into air.

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 35 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 36

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 6


Isoseismal Map Isoseismal Map
For New Madrid for 1886
Earthquake of Charleston
December 16, 1811 Earthquake

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 37 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 38

Isoseismal Map for February 9, 1971,


Comparison of Isosiesmal Intensity for Four Earthquakes
San Fernando Earthquake

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 39 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 40

Comparisons of Various Intensity Scales Instrumental Seismicity

Magnitude (Richter, 1935)


Also called local magnitude

ML = Log [Maxumum Wave Amplitude (in mm/1000)]

Recorded Wood-Anderson seismograph

100 km from epicenter


MMI = Modified Mercalli
RF = Rossi-Forel
JMA = Japan Meteorological Agency
MSK =Medvedez-Spoonheur-Karnik

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 41 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 42

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 7


Other Wave-Based Magnitudes
Magnitude (in general)
MS Surface-wave magnitude (Rayleigh waves)
M = Log A +f(d,h) +CS + CR
mb Body-wave magnitude (P waves)

A is wave amplitude MB Body-wave magnitude (P and other waves)

F(d,h) accounts for focal distance and depth mbLg (Higher order Love and Rayleigh waves)

CS and CR, are station and regional corrections MJMA (Japanese, long period)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 43 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 44

Moment Magnitude vs Other Magnitude Scales


Moment Magnitude (Magnitude Saturation)
Seismic moment = MO = μAD
[Units = force times distance]

Where:
μ = modulus of rigidity
A = fault rupture area
D = fault dislocation or slip

Moment magnitude = MW = (Log MO-16.05)/1.5


(Units = dyne-cm)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 45 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 46

Approximate Relationship Seismic Energy Release


Between Magnitude and Intensity Log E = 1.5 MS + 11.8
10

9 1E+28

8 1E+26
7
1E+24
6 Mˆ L = 0.67 I 0 + 1
Energy, Ergs
Magnitude

1E+22
5
1E+20
4 .

mˆ bLg = 0.49 I 0 + 1.66 1000


1E+18
3 Richter (Local) 31
2 MbLg 1E+16

1 1E+14

0 1E+12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
0 2 4 6 8 10
Intensity
Magnitude, Ms
Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 47 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 48

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 8


Seismic Energy Release Ground Motion Accelerograms
1E+28
Nuclear bomb Sources:
1E+26
1964 Alaska earthquake • NONLIN (more than 100 records)
1E+24
1906 San Francisco earthquake • Internet (e.g., National Strong Motion Data Center)
Energy, Ergs

1E+22 1972 San Fernando earthquake • USGS CD ROM


1E+20 Atomic bomb
.

1E+18 1978 Santa Barbara earthquake


Uses:
1E+16
• Evaluation of earthquake characteristics
1E+14
• Development of response spectra
1E+12 • Time history analysis
0 2 4 6 8 10
Magnitude, Ms

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 49 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 50

Sample Ground Motion Records


Ground Motion Characteristics

• Acceleration, velocity, displacement


• Effective peak acceleration and velocity
• Fourier amplitude spectra
• Duration (bracketed duration)
• Incremental velocity (killer pulse)
• Response spectra
• Other (see, for example, Naiem and Anderson 2002)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 51 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 52

Base Line Correction for Simple Ground Motion


Corrected vs Uncorrected Motions 500

250
Acceleration, in/sec2

Corrections made primarily: -250

-500
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

200 Velocity, in/sec

• To remove instrument response


150

100

50

• To account for base line shift 0


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
800 Displacement, in
600
400
200
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time, sec

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 53 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 54

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 9


Typical Earthquake Accelerogram Set
600

400
Horizontal acceleration (E-W), cm/sec2 Definition of Bracketed Duration
200

-2 0 0 Acceleration, cm/sec2
-4 0 0 600
-6 0 0
0 5
-463 cm/sec
10
2
15 20 25 30 35 40 45
400
0.05g
600 200
400
Vertical acceleration (E-W), cm/sec2 0
200

0 -200
-2 0 0
-400
-4 0 0

-6 0 0 -600
0 5 10 2 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
-500 cm/sec 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
6 00 Time, Seconds
4 00

2 00
Horizontal acceleration (N-S), cm/sec2
0
Bracketed duration
-2 00

-4 00

-6 00
0 5 10
-391 cm/sec21 5 20 25 30 35 40 45
T im e (s e c )

Time, Seconds Loma Prieta Earthquake


Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 55 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 56

Definition of Incremental Velocity


Acceleration, cm/sec2
Concept of Fourier Amplitude Spectra
N /2 N /2 N /2
v&&g (t ) ≅ a0 + ∑ a j cos( 2πjf 0 ) + ∑ b j sin( 2πjf 0 ) = a0 + ∑ A j cos( 2πjf 0 + φ j )
600

400
j =1 j =1 j =1
Acceleration, cm/sec2 200
400
⎛ b ⎞
0
f 0 = df = 1 / Ndt φ j = arctan⎜⎜ − j ⎟
⎟ A j = a 2j + b 2j
⎝ aj
300 -2 0 0

-4 0 0
200
-6 0 0
Acceleration, cm/sec2 Normalized Fourier Coefficient
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 600
100 1.2
400
Time, Seconds 1.0
0 200
0.8
0
0.6
-100
-2 0 0
0.4
-4 0 0
-200 0.2
-6 0 0
0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
-300 0 10 20 30
Frequency (Hz)

-400 N points at timestep dt N/2 points at frequency df


8 9 10 11 12

Time, Seconds
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Concept of Fourier Amplitude Spectra Ground Motion Frequency Content (1)


50
40
30 1.2
20 Horizontal acceleration (E-W), cm/sec2
Amplitude

10 600
1.0
0
-1 0
400
Fourier Amplitude

0.8
-2 0
200
-3 0
-4 0 0 0.6
-5 0
0 .0 0 0 .1 0 0 .2 0 0 .3 0 0 .4 0 0 .5 0 0 .6 0 0 .7 0 0 .8 0 0 .9 0 1 .0 0 -200 0.4
T im e , S e c o n d s
-400
0.2
-600
12 0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
10 1.2 Frequency(Hz)
Vertical acceleration (E-W), cm/sec2
Fourier Amplitude

8 600
1.0
400
F o u rie r Am p litu d e

6 0.8
200
4 0.6
0
-200 0.4
2
-400 0.2
0
-600
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0.0
0 10 20 30 40 50
F req u en cy, Hz. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Time, Seconds Frequency (Hz)

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 59 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 60

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 10


600
Ground Motion Frequency Content (2) 1.2
Development of an Elastic Displacement
1.0
Horizontal acceleration, cm/sec2
400
Response Spectrum

Fourier Amplitude
0.8
200
0.6
0
-2 0 0
0.4 0.40
El Centro Earthquake Record
0.2
-4 0 0

GROUND ACC, g
0.20
-6 0 0 -463 cm/sec2 0.0
0 10 20 30 0.00
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

1.2
Frequenc y (Hz )
-0.20
Maximum Displacement Response Spectrum
40 16
30 Horizontal velocity, cm/sec 1.0 -0.40

DISPLACEMENT, inches
14
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00

Fourier Amplitude
20 0.8
10
TIME, SECONDS 12
0.6
0 10
-1 0 0.4
8
-2 0 0.2 T=0.6 Seconds 6

DISPLACEMENT, in.
4.00
-3 0
-30.7 cm/sec 0.0 2.00 4
-4 0 0 10 20 30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0.00
Frequenc y (Hz) 2
-2.00
15 1.2 0
11.0 cm -4.00
0 2 4 6 8 10
10 Horizontal displacement, cm 1.0 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00
PERIOD, Seconds
Fourier Amplitude
5 0.8

T=2.0 Seconds

DISPLACEMENT, In.
0 0.6 8.00

` 4.00
-5 0.4
0.00
-1 0 0.2 -4.00

-1 5 -8.00
0.0 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 10 20 30
Time, Seconds Frequenc y (Hz )

Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 61 Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451, Design Examples Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 62

FEMA 451B Topic 2 Handouts Earthquake Mechanics 2 - 11