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SCM/HMM1414

5.0 TISSUE ORGANIZATION


5.1 ORGANIZATION OF THE ANIMAL BODY

 Animals have same general body plan – “tube


within a tube”:
 Digestive tract – tube running from mouth to anus.
 Tube suspended in coelom – internal body cavity.
 Coelom divided into two cavities by diaphragm:
 Thoracic cavity – heart and lungs.
 Abdominal cavity – stomach, intestine, and
liver.
 Body supported by internal skeleton,
endoskeleton - jointed bones that grow as body
grows:
 Skull – surrounds brain
 Vertebrae, column consisting of separate bones –
surrounds spinal cord.

 Four levels of organization in vertebrate body:

Cells → tissues → organs → organ systems

5.1.2 TISSUES

 Tissues = a group of cells similar in structure and


function.
 Embryo differentiates into three fundamental
embryonic tissues, the germ layers:
 Endoderm – innermost layer
 Mesoderm – middle layer
 Ectoderm – outermost layer

Ectoderm
Mesoderm
Endoderm
Primitive gut

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 Germ layers differentiate into different types of cells.


 Cells organized into four main types of primary
tissues:
 Epithelial tissues
 Connective tissues
 Muscle tissues
 Nerve tissues

5.1.3 ORGAN AND ORGAN SYSTEM

 Organs = body structures composed of several


different tissues that form a structural and functional
unit.
 Example: Heart

Muscle Connective Epithelial Nervous


(cardiac) tissues Tissues tissues
tissues

Heart
 Organ systems = a group of organs that function
together to carry out the major activities of the
bodies
 Example: Digestive system

Digestive tract Liver Gallbladder Pancreas

Digestive system

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5.2 EPITHELIAL TISSUES


Characteristics:
(1) Epithelium (epithelial membrane) covers
internal and external surfaces of vertebrate
body.
 Derived from all three germ layers:
 Ectoderm → epidermis – outer portion of
skin
 Endoderm → inner surface of digestive
tract
 Mesoderm → inner lining of blood vessels
= endothelium.
 True epithelium arises from ectoderm or
endoderm
 Epitheliums arising from mesoderm are not
true epithelium.

(2) Provides a barrier that prevents passage of


some substances while facilitating passage of
others.
 Example:
 Epidermis
 Protects from dehydration → relatively
impermeable to water.
 Protects from airborne pathogens.
 Epithelium of digestive tract
 Allows selective entry of digestive
products
 Barrier to toxins
 Lungs
 Allows rapid gaseous diffusion

(3) May be modified into glands → secretion.

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(4) Cells are tightly bound – very little intercellular


spaces.
 Lower layers of cell rest on basement
membrane – compose of network of
collagenous fibers.
 Have free surface on the other side.
 Blood vessels cannot pass through adjacent
cells.
 Depends on diffusion of nutrient and O2 from
blood vessels in nearby tissues.
 This limits thickness of epithelium – one or a
few layers thick.

(5) Cells can regenerate.


 Cells constantly replaced.
 Example:
 Liver – gland formed from epithelium
Can regenerate after portions of it are
surgically removed.
 Epidermis – renewed every two weeks
 Epithelium inside stomach – replaced
every two to three days.
Epithelium

Simple Stratified
One cell thick More than one cell
thick

Squamous Cuboidal Columnar


- flat same width taller than
and height wide

Squamous Cuboidal Columnar

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5.2.1 Covering Epithelium

Simple epithelium

a) Squamous epithelium
Tessellated margin

Basement
membrane
Central disc-
shaped nucleus
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Protoplasmic
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 Cells thin and flattened.


 Little cytoplasm – encloses centrally placed disc-
shaped nucleus.

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 Margins tessellated (irregular).



 cells often bound firmly together by protoplasmic
connections.

 Location and function


α Bowman’s capsules, alveolar lining of lungs, and
blood capillary walls – enables diffusion of
materials through it.
α Blood vessels and heart chambers – provides
smooth lining that allows relatively friction-free
passage of fluid through them.

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b) Cuboidal epithelium

Basement
membrane Central spherical
nucleus

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 Least specialized epithelia.


 Cube shaped.
 Pentagonal/hexagonal from surface view.
 Central spherical nucleus.
 Location: Pancreatic duct, collecting duct of kidney,
and salivary duct, salivary, mucus, sweat, and
thyroid glands
 Function: secretion and absorption

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c) Columnar Epithelium

Columnar cell

Goblet cell
Basement
membrane

 Cells tall and quite narrow.


 Have more cytoplasm.
 Nucleus at basal end.
 Mucus-secreting goblet cells are interspersed
amongst the cells.

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 (A layer of moist epithelium containing goblet cells,


together with the underlying connective tissue, is
called a mucous membrane or mucosa).
 Epithelium may be secretory and/or absorptive in
function.
 Free surface end of cell usually has microvilli –
increases surface area for absorption and secretion.

 Location and function:

α Stomach lining – mucus secreted by goblet cells


protects stomach lining from acidic contents of
stomach and from digestion by enzymes.
α
α Intestine lining – protects from digestion by
enzymes, lubricates passage of food, and
absorption of digested food (small intestine).
α
α Kidney ducts – protection.

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d) Ciliated epithelium
Cilia
Columnar cell
Basal body

Mucus-secreting
cell Basement
membrane

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 Columnar, but with cilia at free surface.


 Mucus-secreting goblet cells produce fluids.
 Movement of cilia produces current in fluid.
 Location and function: Oviducts, ventricles of brains,
spinal canal, and respiratory passages – moves
materials from one location to another by ciliary
action.

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e) Pseudo-stratified epithelium
certain cell does not reach the free surface
Pseudostratified Pseudostratified
columnar columnar ciliated

Cilia

Nucleus

Mucus-secreting Basement
cell membrane

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 Cells appear to be at different layers because not all


cells reach the free surface.
 All cells attached to basement membrane.
 Location:
 Linings of urinary tract, trachea, epididymis –
pseudostratified columnar.

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 Linings of respiratory passages – pseudostratified


columnar ciliated.
 Olfactory mucosa

 Function: Secretion and movement by ciliary action

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2. Stratified Epithelium

STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM

 Several layer of cells.


 Forms tough impervious layer.
 Cells formed by mitotic division of germinal layer
on basement membrane.
 First-formed cells cuboid in shape.
 As cells are pushed towards free surface, they
become flattened and are called squamous.
 Squames eventually flake off and replaced by new
ones from beneath.

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 May remain uncornified or become cornified:

 Example:
 Uncornified – esophagus → epithelium protects
underlying tissues against mechanical damage by
friction when food is swallowed.

 Cornified – external skin surfaces and buccal cavity
→ squames transformed into dead horny layer of
keratin, which provides protection against
abrasion.

 Types (depending on shape of uppermost layer


cells):

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 Stratified squamous – outer layer of skin, parts


of esophagus, lining of mouth – protection

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 Stratified cuboidal – sweat gland ducts –


protection

 Stratified columnar – mammary gland ducts –


protection and secretion

 Stratified transitional – lining of urinary bladder
– permits distention

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Transitional epithelium

 Modified stratified epithelium.


 3 – 4 layers of cells of similar size except free
surface cells, which are more flattened.

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 Free surface cells do not flake off.


 All cells able to change shape under differing
condition.
 Example: urinary bladder and ureter.

 Cells change shape when wall of bladder is


stretched as it fills up with urine.
 Thickness of tissues prevents urine escaping in
surrounding tissues.

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5.2.2 Glandular epithelium


ENDOCRINE
EXOCRINE
POLYGONAL- TOP LAYER OF TRANSITIONAL EPI.


S

ometimes a patch of epithelium is folded inwards,


forming an invagination.
 Cells lining bottom of invagination become secretory
and develop into gland.
 Two types of gland:

κ Exocrine gland
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κ
υ Epithelial connection between gland and surface
epithelium remains as a tube (duct).
υ Deepest cells become secretory cells → discharge
secretions into duct.
υ Secretory cells may form spherical sack or tube,
which may show various degree of branching (to
increase area of secretory surface).
υ Example: sweat, oil, wax, mammary and
digestive glands, pancreas – produces mucus,
oil, wax, milk, or digestive enzymes.

κ Endocrine gland
κ
υ Epithelial connection disappears.
υ Secretory cells forms close association with
blood capillaries.
υ Secretion (hormones) passes into
bloodstream.
υ Example: pituitary and thyroid glands, pancreas,
ovary, and testes – produces hormones.

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5.3 CONNECTIVE TISSUES

Matrix (ground Cells Protein Fibers


substances)

 Matrix:

 Fluid, gelatinous, fibrous, or calcified


 Chemical composition: hyaluronic acid,
chondroitin, chondroitin sulphate and keratin
sulphate.
 The matrix supports, binds, and provides medium
for exchange of materials.

 Cells:
 Develop from mesenchyme, which originate from
embryonic mesoderm.
 Cells widely separated from each other.

 Fibres:
 Collagen fibres and elastic (elastin) fibres.
 Provides strength and support.

 Have a nerve supply (except cartilage) and has rich


blood supply (except cartilage and tendons).

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 Functions OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES

(1) Provides supportive framework for body,


for example, skeletal, bone, and cartilage tissue.
(2) Binds other tissues together, example
binds skin with underlying tissues. (Thus, tissue
is strong.)
(3) Forms sheath around organs of body,
separating them so that they do not interfere
with each other’s activities.
(4) Embedding and protecting blood vessels
and nerves where they enter or leave organs.
(5) Protection against wounding or bacterial
infection – areolar tissue.
(6) Insulation of body against heat loss –
adipose tissue.
(7) Producing blood

Types of connective tissues:


Connective tissue

Connective tissue proper Special Connective tissue


proper
Loose connective Dense Connective Blood Bone
tisproper tissueproper
Cartilage
Areolar
Areola Adipose
Adipose
Dense regular Dense irregular

Tendons capsules
Ligaments epimysium

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5.3.1 CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROPER

5.3.1.1 LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUES


 Fibres loosely arranged and scattered randomly.
 Have many cells.

I. Areolar Tissue

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 Matrix – transparent semi-fluid containing:


 Mucin
 Hyaluronic acid
 Chondroitin sulphate

 Fibres:
 Collagen
υ In wavy bundles.
υ Scattered throughout matrix.
υ Flexible but inelastic.

 Elastin
υ Thin straight fibres.
υ Forms a loose anastomosing network.
υ Flexible and elastic
 Both provide considerable tensile strength and
resilience to tissue.

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 Cells – interspersed/tersebar in the matrix:



 1 Fibroblast

υ Flattened, spindle-shaped, with oval nucleus.
υ Produce fibres.
υ Located close to fibres but can migrate towards
wounded tissues – secretes fibres to seal injured
area.
υ
 2 Macrophage (histiocyte)

υ Poly-morphic cell – capable of amoeboid
movement → engulf bacteria or foreign particles.
υ Generally immobile – but at times can wander to
areas of bacterial invasion → provides body
defense.

 3 Mast cell
υ Small, oval shaped, with granular cytoplasm.
υ Secretes: matrix, heparin and histamine.
υ Found close to blood vessels.
υ Heparin – anticoagulant → prevents conversion
of prothrombin to thrombin.
υ Histamine – released from injured/disrupted
tissues → causes vasodilation, contraction of
smooth muscle and stimulates gastric secretion.
 4 Plasma cell
υ Rare.
υ Products of mitotic cell division by migratory
lymphocytes.
υ Components of body immune system - produce
antibodies.
υ

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 5 Chromatophore
υ In specialized areas – skin and eye.
υ Branched and densely packed with melanin
granules.
 6 Fat cell
υ Contains large lipid droplet.
υ Cytoplasm and nucleus confined to margins.
 7 Mesenchyme cell
υ Reserve of undifferentiated cells.
υ Can be stimulated to transform into one of the
above cell types when needed.

 Location: upper dermis, blood vessels, nerves,


around body organs.
 Function: Gives strength, elasticity, and support.

II. Adipose tissue

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 Most of the matrix is occupied by fat cells


(adipocytes).
 Cells almost entirely filled by a central fat droplet.
 Cytoplasm and nucleus are pushed to the periphery.
 Cells arranged in lobules.
 Matrix contains collagen and elastic fibres.
 Location: dermis of skin, around kidneys and heart.
 Functions:
 Energy reserve.
 Shock absorber
 Insulation against heat loss.
 Support and protection.

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5.3.1.2 DENSE (COMPACT) CONNECTIVE TISSUES

 Contains tightly packed collagen fibers.


 Stronger than loose connective tissue.

a) Dense regular
- collagen fibers line up in parallel

a long narrow nucleus of a fibroblast (the cell that make the fibers)
b many collagen fibers packed together going in the same direction
found: tendons and ligaments
function: provides strength to withstand the pulling of muscles in one direction.

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b) Dense irregular
- collagen fibers have different orientation

a collagen fibers are light pink


b tiny little dark structures are the nuclei of fibroblasts.
c capillary
d arteriole
found: dense irregular fibers surround the structures found in the dermis
thus diverting them from one direction.
function: allows the skin to be resilent and flexible

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5.3.2 SPECIAL CONNECTIVE TISSUE

5.3.2.1 Cartilage..rawan

 The matrix is called chondrin and consists mainly of


mucopolysaccharide.
 Matrix may contain collagen (mostly) and elastic
fibres.
 Embedded in the matrix are spherical cells called
chondroblasts, which secrete the matrix.
 The chondroblasts eventually become enclosed in
spaces called lacunae and are called chondrocytes.
 Cartilage is usually surrounded by a dense layer of
cells and fibrils called perichondrium.

 Chondroblasts are produced by/ perichondrium this


layer and constantly added to the internal matrix.

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 Cartilage is hard but flexible - highly adapted to


resist any strains placed upon it.
 Matrix is compressible and elastic – can absorb
mechanical shocks (for example between articular
surfaces of bones).
 Collagen fibrils can resist tension imposed on tissue.

 Three types of cartilage: hyaline, yellow elastic, and


white fibrous cartilage.

Hyaline Cartilage
 Matrix semi-transparent – consist of chondroitin
sulphate and fine collagen fibrils.
 Peripheral chondrocytes are flattened and arranged
in parallel rows.
 Those situated internally are bigger and scattered.
 Chondrocyte is contained in lacunae – each encloses
one, two, four, or eight chondrocytes.
 No blood vessels – exchange of materials between
chondrocytes and matrix is by diffusion.
 Elastic and compressible tissue.

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 Location: ends of bones (sternum of ribs), nose, air


passages of respiratory system (larynx and trachea)
and in parts of ear.
 Function: Provides movement at joints, flexibility,
and support.

Hyaline Cartilage Tissue

a matrix of cartilage is a solid flexible gel the fibers are invisible at normal
magnification
b lacunae is a shell like space containing the chondrocyte
c cartilage cell called a chondrocyte
found: epiphyseal plate; ends of long bones and ribs; rings of trachea; fetal
skeleton
function: structural and flexible support

Yellow elastic cartilage


 Semi-opaque matrix containing network of elastic
fibres.
 Chondrocytes close to one another.
 Very elastic and flexible – allows tissue to recover its
shape after distortion.
 Location: External ear, eustachian tube, epiglottis,
and cartilages of pharynx.

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 Function: Gives support and maintains shape.


a lacunae with chondrocyte inside

b the black material is elastin fibers

found: framework of outer ear

function: provides elastic shape and support.

White fibrous cartilage


 Matrix contains large numbers of densely packed
collagen fibres.
 Very little chondrocytes.
 Have great tensile strength and a small degree of
flexibility.

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 Location: intervertebral discs (provides cushioning


effect), symphysis pubis (the region between two
pubic bones of the pelvis), and ligamentous capsules
of joins.
 Function: Support and fusion.

a chondrocyte cell in lacunae


b lacunae containing two chondrocytes
c fibers in the matrix mainly collagen
found: pads between vertebrae; knee cartilage
function: withstands tension, pressure and absorbs shock.

5.3.2.2 Bones

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 Calcified connective tissue.


 Matrix:
 30% organic material, mainly collagen fibrils.
 70% inorganic salts.
 Cells:
 Osteoblasts (living bone cells) are contained in
lacunae.
 Secretes the inorganic components of bone.
 Function: supportive, metabolic, and protective
functions.
 Two types of bone: compact and spongy bone.

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i) Compact bone

 Consists of units called Harvesian system or


osteon.

 Characteristic of the Harvesian system:-


 Contains a central Harvesian canal containing
nerves, arteries, veins and lymph vessels.

 Canal surrounded by numerous concentric
cylinders called Harvesian lamellae.

 Interspersed between the lamellae are numerous
lacunae containing osteoblasts. When not active,
they are called osteocytes – can be activated and
differentiate into osteoblasts.
 Fine channels called canaliculi radiate from each
lacuna.

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 Canaliculi contain cytoplasm and may link up with
Haversian canal, with other lacunae or pass from
one lamella to another.

 Capillaries branch from the arteries and veins in
the Haversian canal and pass via canaliculi to the
osteoblasts in the lacunae – facilitate passage of
nutrients, metabolic waste and respiratory gases
towards and away from the cells.

 In longitudinal section, the Haversian canals are


linked to one another by transverse canals called
Volkmann canals.

 The bone is covered by a dense connective tissue


called periosteum.
 Cartilage = perichondrium
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ii) Spongy bone

 Found in larger bones and is always surrounded by


compact bone.
 Consists of sheets of bones called trabeculae,
interspersed with large spaces occupied by bone
marrow./sum - sum.
 Trabeculae contain osteoblasts.

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5.3.2.3 BLOOD

 Composition: 55% fluid matrix (plasma) and 45%


cells and platelets.

 Plasma

 Pale yellow liquid.


 90% water and 10% solutes.
 Solutes:
 Metabolites – glucose, amino acids, vitamins.
 Wastes – nitrogen compounds, CO2.
 Hormones (– regulate cellular activities).
 Ions – especially sodium, chloride, and
bicarbonate.
 Proteins – albumin, globulins (carriers of lipids
and steroid hormones), and fibrinogen (blood
clotting).
If fibrinogen is removed, blood plasma is called
serum.
 Function: Provides medium for exchange of
substances.

 Cells

Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)

 5 million per mm3 blood.


 Diameter: 7 - 8 µ m.
 No nucleus (and organelles).
 Shape: biconcave disc.
 Plasma membrane thin and flexible.
 Cell filled with haemoglobin – lack of nucleus permits
more haemoglobin to be packed into cell → 250
million molecules of haemoglobin per cell.

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 Life span: 120 days.


 New cells manufactured in red bone marrow – 1½
million per second.
 Function: O2 and CO2 transport – biconcave disc
provides a large surface-volume ratio for absorption.

Leukocytes (White blood cells)

 Larger the erythrocytes.


 7000 per mm3 blood.
 Have nucleus.
 Short life span – a few days.
 Function: Body defenses.
 Two main groups: granulocytes and agranulocytes.

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(i) Granulocytes

 Contains lobed nucleus and granular cytoplasm.


 Capable of amoeboid movement.
 Three types:

 Neutrophils
υ 7 – 9 µ m.
υ 70% of leukocytes.
υ Nucleus with 3 – 5 lobes.
υ (Can squeeze between cells of capillary walls
(diapedesis) and move to infected area.)
υ Function: Phagocytosis - engulf and digest
pathogen


 Eosinophils
υ (Granules stained red with eosin dye.)
υ 1.5% of leukocytes.
υ 9 – 12 µ m.
υ Nucleus sometimes “Z” shaped.
υ Function: Anti-histamine properties.

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 Basophils
υ (Granules stained blue with methylene blue.)
υ 0.5% of leukocytes.
υ ≈ 10 µ m.
υ Nucleus sometimes “S” shaped.
υ Function: Produce heparin and histamine
(causes inflammatory response).

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(ii) Agranulocytes

 Non-granular cytoplasm.
 Oval or bean-shaped nucleus.
 Two types:
 Monocytes
υ 4% of leukocytes.
υ 9 – 12 µ m.
υ Bean-shaped nucleus.
υ (Can migrate from bloodstream to inflamed
areas, acting in same manner as neutrophils.)
υ Function: Phagocytosis - engulf bacteria.

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 Lymphocytes
υ 24% of leukocytes.
υ 6 – 8 µ m.
υ Big, rounded nucleus with little cytoplasm.
υ Function: Antibody production and cellular
immune response.

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Platelets

 Irregularly shaped membrane-bound cell fragments.


 Formed from megakaryocytes, large bone marrow
cells.
 0.25 million per mm3 blood.
 Usually without nucleus.
 Life span: 7 – 8 days.
 Function: Blood clotting./ pembekuan darah

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5.4 MUSCLE TISSUES

 Most abundant tissue in animals – 40% of body


weight.
 Derived from mesoderm.
 Composed of long cells called muscle fibres, held
together by connective tissues.

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 Capable of contracting when stimulated by nerve


impulses.
 Cytoplasm contains myofibrils arranged in parallels.
 Myofibrils made from the proteins, actin and
myosin.
 Three types: smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles.

5.4.1 Smooth muscle

 Consists of spindle-shaped cells arranged in bundles


or sheets.
 Length: 0.02 – 0.5 mm; diameter: 5 – 10 µ m.
 Each cell has a centrally placed elongated nucleus.
 No sarcolemma (muscle cell bounding membrane).
 Myofibrils inconspicuous…tidak jelas
 Myofibrils may be arranged longitudinally or
circularly.
 Under the control of autonomic nervous system.
 Location: Walls of intestinal tracts, genital, urinary,
and respiratory tracts, and walls of blood vessels.

5.4.2 Skeletal muscle

 Long cylindrical cells/fibres.


 Length: 1 – 40 mm; diameter: 10 – 60 µ m.
 Several nucleus (about 100 per fibre) at periphery
(beneath sarcolemma) = muscle cell membrane
 Sarcolemma present..
 Myofibrils conspicuous…jelas-clear-boleh nampak
 Fibres filled with specialized cytoplasm called
sarcoplasm.

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 Fibres have cross striation - alternating light and


dark bands.
 Under the control of voluntary nervous system.
 Location: Attached to the skeleton in the trunk, limbs
and head.

5.4.3 Cardiac muscle

 Each fibre is made up of small cylindrical cells.


 Length: ≤ 0.08 mm, diameter: 12 – 15 µ m.
 One nucleus per cell.
 Cells joined together by intercalated discs – serve
as tough junctions between myofibrils of successive
cells.
 Sarcolemma present.
 Myofibrils conspicuous.
 Fibres interconnected with one another (to ensure
uniform spread of excitation throughout the heart
and cause synchronous contraction of the muscle).
 Cross striations present.

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 Myogenic but rate of contraction influenced by


autonomic nervous system.
 Location: Walls of heart chambers.

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5.5 NERVOUS TISSUE

 Derived from mesoderm.


 Composed of neurons and supporting cells,
neuroglia.
 Receptor cells also present.
 Little intercellular space.

5.5.1 Neurons

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 The cell body contains nucleus and cytoplasm.


 Cell body is enclosed within a plasma membrane.
 Also contains Nissl’s granules (involved in protein
synthesis), ribosomes, and other organelles.
 The dendrites are cytoplasmic processes extending
from cell body – they make synaptic connections
with other neurons.
 A nerve fibre is a long cytoplasmic extension from
cell body that transmits impulse.
 Nerve fibres that transmit impulses away from the
cell body are called axons while those that transmit
impulses towards cell body are called dendrons.

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 The cytoplasm of the cell body contains large amount


of ribosomes – synthesize proteins which is supplied
to the nerve fibres.
 The cytoplasm of the nerve fibre is continuous with
the cytoplasm of the cell body and lacks ribosomes.
 The plasma membrane of the nerve fibre is
continuous with that of the cell body.
 Nerve fibres may or may not be surrounded by a
fatty myelin sheath, formed from Schwann cells.
 Sheath is constricted at intervals along the nerve
fibre by nodes of Ranvier.
 The myelin sheath insulates the nerve fibre and
speed up the transmission of impulses along it.
 A tough inelastic membrane called neurilemma
surrounds the sheath.

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Classification of neuron

 Based on function (direction in which impulse is


transmitted)

 Sensory or afferent neuron


υ Transmits impulse from the receptor to the
central nervous system.
υ

 Motor or efferent neuron


υ Transmits impulse from the central nervous
system to the effector/muscles.
υ

 Intermediary neuron
υ Transmit impulse from sensory to the motor
neuron.
υ

2 Based on structure (number of fibres)

 Multipolar neuron
υ Neuron has one axon and several dendrites.
 Bipolar neuron
υ Neuron has one axon and one dendrite at
opposite ends of the cell body.

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 Pseudo-unipolar neuron

υ Neuron has only one extension that divides into


two, dendrite and axon.
υ

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5.5.2 Neuroglia

 Ten times more numerous than neurons.


 Found throughout the central nervous system.
 Function:
 Provides mechanical support to neurons.
 Supply nourishment to neuron fibres.
 Some are involved in the memory process –
stores information in the form of RNA.
 Some form the myelin sheath.

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5.6 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLANT


TISSUES

5.6.1 Organization of the plant body

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 Two major regions of the vascular plant:


 The root system
υ Plant body that is usually embedded in soil.
υ Consists of the roots of a plant.

 The shoot system.- pucuk


υ Usually located above ground.
υ Consists of leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits all
borne on stems.

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5.6.2 Tissue types in plants

 Three basic types of tissue:

 1 dermal tissue,
 2 ground tissue,
 3 vascular tissue.

 Dermal tissue forms the outer surface of the plants.

 Ground tissue comprises all the non-dermal and non-


vascular tissues, and makes up most of the body of
young plants.

 Vascular tissue transports water, minerals, sugars,


and plant hormones throughout the plant.

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5.6.3 Types of meristem

Plants have indeterminate growth.


It grows as long as it lives.

Animals and certain parts of plants show


determinate growth. (flower,leaves) They stop
to grow after reaching a certain size.

Plants has indeterminate growth because it has


embryonic tissues called = Meristems at its
regions of growth.

 Embryonic, undifferentiated plant tissues capable of


mitotic cell division.

 All other plant tissues are derived from meristems.


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Characteristics of Meristematic Tissues

 Consist of a group of cells with dense cytoplasm

 and large nucleus.

 Cells are small, immature, and with thin walls.

 The walls are thin because very little cellulose has


been laid down.

 They lack chloroplasts and
 no large vacuole characteristic of mature plant cells,
but they contain the other organelles.

 Important feature - ability to divide by mitosis and


differentiate into other types of cell.

 Two major types of meristems:

1. Apical meristems
2. Lateral meristems.

Apical meristems

 Located at ends of roots and stems, including main


stems and branches.

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 Responsible for primary growth - occurs by mitotic


division of apical meristem cells followed by
differentiation of daughter cells.

 Primary growth results in increase in length and the
development of specialized plant structures.

Lateral meristems

 Also known as cambiums.


 Form cylinders that run parallel to the long axis of
roots and stems.
 Responsible for formation of vascular tissue and
secondary growth.
 Secondary growth occurs by division of lateral
meristem cells and differentiation of their daughter
cells - increases the diameter of stem and root.

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5.6.4 Dermal tissues

 Forms the outer covering of the plant body.


 Two types: epidermal tissues and periderm.

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Epidermal tissue

 Forms the epidermis – outermost cell layer that


covers primary structure of plants (leaves, stems,
roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds).
 Usually one-cell thick.
 Cells are flat, tightly packed, with very little
intercellular spaces except at stoma.
 When viewed from the surface, the shape can be
isodiametric, elongated or tessellated.
 Most have large vacuoles.
 Cytoplasm and nucleus at the periphery.

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 Epidermis is covered by a waxy waterproof cuticle,


which is secreted by the epidermis.
 It reduces evaporation of water from plant, and
protects it from physical damage and invasion of
disease microorganism.
 Epidermal cells of roots are not covered by cuticle
because the cuticle prevents absorption of water and
minerals.
 Some epidermal cells are modified to form root hairs,
guard cells and trichomes,.

(a) Periderm

 Replaces the epidermal tissues when the primary


body of the plant such as roots and stems undergo
secondary growth.
 Consists mainly of cork cells./ gabus
 Cork cells form a multi-layered tissue.

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 The cells are small and more or less spherical.


 As they develop their wall becomes impregnated with
a fatty substance called suberin, which makes them
impervious to water and gases.

 Consequently the cells die and lose their contents.


 Cork is therefore a dead tissue.
 The function of cork is to protect the living tissue
beneath it from cold, insect attack, and physical
damage.

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5.6.5 Ground tissues

 Most of the ground tissues are simple tissues, that is,


comprising of one type of cell only.
 Three types:
 parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.

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(a) Parenchyma

 Most abundant ground tissue.


 Unspecialized cells.
 Usually isodiametric with very thin primary wall
containing cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin.
 In longitudinal section, they appear elongated.
 A thin peripheral layer of cytoplasm surrounds a
large central vacuole.
 Nucleus at the periphery.
 Cells are loosely arranged with lots of intercellular
spaces.
 Cells are alive at maturity and, under proper
conditions, are capable of mitotic cell division.
 Functions:
(1) Act as packing tissues between more specialized
tissues, as in the pith and cortex.
(2) When turgid they become tightly packed and
provide support for organs in which they are

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found. They form the main mean of support in


stem of herbaceous plants.
(3) Cells are metabolically active and are the sites of
many of the vital activities of the plant body.
(4) Air spaces between the cells allow gaseous
exchange to take place between the living cells
and the external environment through stomata
or lenticels.
(5) Sites for food storage especially in storage
organs such as potato tubers.
(6) Walls of parenchyma cells are important
pathways of water and mineral salt transport
through plant – the apoplast pathway.

 Parenchyma cells may become modified and more


specialized in certain parts of the plants, for
example:
κ Mesophyll – modified to carry out photosynthesis.

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κ Endodermis – forms a selective barrier to


movement of water and mineral salts between
cortex and xylem….roots

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Fig. 35.17(TE Art)

Fig. 35.18(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Casparian strip

Sectioned
endodermal cells
H2O
H2O

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κ Pericycle – produce lateral roots


κ
κ Companion cell- Sel Rakan. [ Phloem]– helps in
the functioning of sieve tubes during translocation.

(b) Collenchyma

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 Composed of elongated, polygonal cells whose walls


are unevenly thickened especially at the corners.
 Cell wall contains cellulose, hemicellulose, and
pectin.
 Cells are alive at maturity but generally cannot
divide.
 Cell walls are strong but flexible.
 Found in outer part of stem and in midrib of leaves.
 Function: Provide strength with flexibility. It is the
supporting tissues of young and growing stems and
of the leaf.

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(c) Sclerenchyma= lignin = mati = wood

Fibres

 Two types:

 1. fibres, which are long, narrow, and pointed cells,

 and

 2. sclereids, which are roughly spherical cells.



 Their cellulose walls are heavily thickened with
deposits of lignin.

 Lignin when combined with cellulose has high tensile


and compressional strength.
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 As the wall thickens, their contents die and the


mature cells are dead.
 The walls have pits – lignin is not deposited here due
to the presence of plasmodesmata.

 Fibres occur in an around the vascular tissue and


outer cortex.

 SHOW DIAGRAM OF VASCULAR BUNDLE!!

 Sclereids (stone cells) may occur singly or in groups


in stems, leaves, fruits, and seeds.

 Function: Fibres provide mechanical support while
sclereids provide support and protection.

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5.6.6 Vascular tissue

 Consists of two types of tissues: xylem and


phloem.

 Both are compound tissues, consisting of more


than one type of cells.

 Xylem transports water and minerals up from the


root to the rest of the plants.
 Xylem also provides mechanical support.

 Phloem transport water, sugars, amino acids, and
hormones throughout the plant.

(a) Xylem

Consists of

1. tracheids
2. vessel elements
3. xylem parenchyma and
4. fibres.

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5.

Tracheids
Long narrow cells with pointed/slanted ends.
 Walls thickened by lignin.
They are non-living when mature.
Tracheids are stacked atop one another with their
slanted ends overlapping.
 The overlapping ends contain pits.

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 Pits allow water and minerals to pass from one


tracheid to another by crossing the thin; water
permeable primary wall in the pit.
 Conifers rely exclusively on tracheids to conduct
water…Gymnosperm = tracheids.

 Angiosperm = vessels + tracheids.

Vessel elements
 Shorter and wider than tracheids

 The walls are lignified and have lots of pits, allowing


lateral movement of materials..water.

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 However, most of the most materials move through


the ends of the vessel elements, which partially or
almost totally disappear, leaving a structure called
perforation plate.
 The plate allows materials to move unobstructed
from one vessel to another.
 The fusion of several vessel elements end to end in a
row is called vessel.
 Vessel elements have walls thickened by lignified in
several patterns: rings (annular), spiral, scalariform,
reticulate, or pitted.

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scalariform

 Angiosperms have both tracheids and vessel
elements.
Gymnosperms only tracheids.

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(b) Phloem

 Consist of sieve tube elements, companion cells,


phloem parenchyma, and fibres.

Sieve tube elements

Fig. 35.14b(TE Art) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Sieve-tube
member
Nucleus

Companion
cell
Sieve plate

 Elongated cells with walls made of cellulose and


pectin.
 Nuclei are lost at maturity but retain their cytoplasm,
which are confined to the periphery of the cell.
 Although they lack nuclei, the cells remain alive but
are dependent on the companion cells.

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 Characteristic feature – presence of sieve plates at


ends of cell.
 The walls of the sieve plates have pores allowing flow
of solution from one element to the next.
 The end to end fusion of sieve tube elements forms
sieve tubes.

Companion cells
 The companion cell forms a functional unit with the
sieve tube element.
 Companion cells are specialized parenchyma
cells.
 Smaller in size.
 Retain their nucleus at maturity.
 Companion cells are connected to sieve tube
elements by plasmodesmata.
 Companion cells regulate the movement of
sugars in and out of the sieve tubes.
 Companion cells are not present in conifers and
some primitive plants.

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Shoots: Stems and leaves

(a) Structure of dicotyledonous stem

Cuticle

Epidermis Xylem

Cortex Phloem

Vascular bundle Cambium

Pith

 Epidermis (dermal tissue):


κ Outer surface covered with cuticle.
κ May be perforated with stomata.
 Cortex (ground tissue)
κ Several layers of collenchyma cells immediately
below the epidermis
κ Parenchyma cells below collenchyma cells.
 Vascular bundles
κ Arranged in a ring.
κ Xylem towards the inner side, and phloem towards
the outside.
κ Xylem and phloem separated by cambium/lateral
meristem.
 Pith (ground tissue)
κ Made up of living parenchyma cells.
 Secondary growth
κ Woody dicot plants undergo secondary growth, an
increase in the girth/lilitan of stems.
κ Cambium divides, forming secondary xylem
(wood) on the inside and secondary phloem (inner
bark) on the outside.

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Secondary xylem
Secondary
phloem

Woody dicot stem

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(b) Structure of monocotyledonous stem

epidermis
Vascular
bundle

Ground tissues

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 Epidermis (dermal tissue):


κ Outer surface covered with cuticle.
κ May be perforated with stomata.
 Does not have distinct area of cortex
 Vascular bundles
κ Are not arranged in a circle/ring but instead are
scattered throughout ground tissues
κ Does not possess lateral meristems (cambium)
that give rise to secondary growth.
κ Monocot does not produce wood.

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(c) Internal structure of dicotyledonous leaf

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 Epidermis
κ On upper and lower surface.
κ Outer surface covered with cuticle.
κ Lower epidermis perforated by stomata.
 Palisade mesophyll.
κ Very little air spaces between palisade cells.
κ Cells contain chloroplast –performs most of the
photosynthesis.
 Spongy mesophyll
κ Loosely arranged – allows CO2 to diffuse easily.
κ Cells contain fewer chloroplasts.
 Vascular bundles
κ Xylem and phloem surrounded by bundle sheath.
κ Xylem and phloem in leaves form in strands called
veins.
κ Most dicots have netted venation.

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(d) Internal structure of monocotyledonous leaf

 Epidermis
κ On upper and lower surface.
κ Outer surface covered with cuticle.
κ Lower epidermis perforated by stomata.
 Although most monocots have both palisade and
spongy mesophylls, some monocots lack distinct
regions of palisade and spongy mesophylls.
 Vascular bundles
κ The leaves of most monocots have parallel
venation.

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5.6.7 Roots
Internal structure of dicotyledonous root:

Root hair

Epidermis
Cortex
Endodermis
Pericycle

Vascular Xylem
Bundle Phloem

Xylem
phloem
endodermis

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 Epidermis
κ No cuticle.
κ Have root hairs.
 Cortex
κ Contains thin-walled parenchyma cells.
 Endodermis
κ One layer of cells. Each cell has a special bandlike
region, called a Casparian strip.
 Pericycle
κ One layer of cells.
κ Surrounds the vascular bundle…Produce LATERAL
ROOTS
Vascular cylinder
κ Xylem arranged like a star in transverse section
with several “spokes”.
κ Phloem located in between “spokes” of xylem

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Internal structure of monocotyledonous root:

 Epidermis
κ No cuticle.
κ Have root hairs.
 Cortex
κ Contains thin-walled parenchyma cells.
 Endodermis
κ One layer of cells.
 Pericycle
κ One layer of cells.
κ Surrounds the vascular bundle.
 Vascular cylinder
κ Xylem does not arrange like a star in transverse
section.
κ Phloem and xylem are in separate alternating
bundles arranged around the central pith.
κ Pith consists of parenchyma cells.

102