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InternationalAssociationforManagementofTechnology

IAMOT2015ConferenceProceedings

HOWTOUSEBUSINESSMODELPATTERNSFOREXPLOITINGDISRUPTIVETECHNOLOGIES

M.SC.JULIANECHTERFELD
UniversityofPaderborn,HeinzNixdorfInstitute,Germany
julian.echterfeld@hni.unipaderborn.de(Corresponding)

M.SC.BENJAMINAMSHOFF
UniversityofPaderborn,HeinzNixdorfInstitute,Germany
benjamin.amshoff@hni.unipaderborn.de

PROF.DR.ING.JUERGENGAUSEMEIER
UniversityofPaderborn,HeinzNixdorfInstitute,Germany
juergen.gausemeier@hni.unipaderborn.de

Copyright2015bytheUniversityofPaderborn.PermissiongrantedtoIAMOTtopublishanduse.

ABSTRACT

Manufacturing companies nowadays face a myriad of business opportunities as a direct
consequence of manifold disruptive technology developments. When it comes to the innovative
exploitation of those technologies, the matter is about winning business models. As a basic
characteristic, disruptive technologies lead to a severe shift in valuecreation networks as
digitalizationshowsformanufacturingindustries.Initially,oneofthekeychallengesistoanticipate
the business logic that comes along with technological change. Further, from a companys
perspective the effective business model design appears to be crucial in competition. Business
model patterns are an innovative approach to tackle thesechallenges. They can be interpreted as
proven, adaptable building blocks of successful business models. The paper at hand, presents a
methodology for patternbased business model design. It covers the identification of relevant
technologiesandenablesthedevelopmentofpromisingbusinessmodelsmakinguseofestablished
businessmodelpatterns.
Keywords:businessmodelpatterns,businessmodels,disruptivetechnologies.

BUSINESSOPPORTUNITIESTHROUGHTECHNOLOGICALCHANGES

Innovative products and production systems based on new technologies enable sustained
differentiation in competition (Schuh et al., 2009). Technological progress ensures substantial
success potentials for companies, but often causes threats for the established business as well. In
particular, this is valid for disruptive technologies such as Additive Manufacturing. Additive
Manufacturingmightdisplaceconventionalmanufacturingtechnologyontheonehand,butopens
upfascinatingpossibilitiesforfuturevaluecreationnetworksontheother(Gausemeieretal.,2013).
Nowadays we observe companies in manufacturing industries and related others that are facing
extensive technological developments with a strong disruptive character. These developments are
mainly driven by the continuous penetration of products and processes with information and
communication technology. More and more devices in our environment will be electronically
connected,whichisexpressedbythetermInternetofthings.Realandvirtualworldsmergeinto
socalledcyberphysicalsystems.Inthecontextofindustrialproductionanewprospectisopening
up,whichisoftenconsideredthefourthindustrialrevolutionIndustry4.0resp.IndustrialInternet

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(Kagermannetal.,2013),(Fantanaetal.,2013).Formanufacturingcompaniesnovelopportunities
forproductsandservicesarise,addressingcompletelynewmarkets.
Accordingtoourexperience,theengineeringofproducts,servicesandrelatedproductionsystems
usually does not appear as a compelling sequence of phases. The generic innovation process can
rather be expressed by interlinked cycles which is given by the reference model for strategic
planninganddevelopmentofmarketoffers(figure1)(Gausemeieretal.,2014).
Foresight

Success potentials
and business
options of the future Product Discovering

Product and service


ideas
Strategic Product
Planning Requirements
Business Planning
Business strategy
Business model
Product strategy
Conceptual Design of the Product
Business plan
cs
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C hn

Strategy conforming,
on o

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tr log

ec
ol y

M Mecha- holistic concept of


tronics e
ar ring the product system
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ftw ee
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So gin
on

Product En
ic

Conceptual Design of the Service


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Development
Strategy conforming,
s
Hu
es
oc

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holistic concept of
Pr

the service
Service Material Conceptual Design
Development of the Production System

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Pl Wo
es
Strategy conforming,
ac r
oc

e k
holistic concept of the
Pr

of
ia g production system
Lo

pl rkin
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Production System
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Development


Figure1:Referencemodelforstrategicplanningandintegrativedevelopmentofmarketoffers

Thereferencemodelleadsfromaproductrespectivelybusinessideatothestartofproductionand
covers the four main tasks strategic product planning, product development, service development
andproductionsystemdevelopment.

x Strategic product planning: The cycle characterizes the identification of future success
potentialsuntilasuccesspromisingproductconcept.Itcoversthetasksforesight,product
discovering,businessplanningandconceptualdesignoftheproduct.Businessplanningaims
ataproofofsustainabilityfromanentrepreneurialperspectiveandthereforecontainsthe
designofbusinessmodels.

x Product development: It covers the domain spanning conceptual design of a product, the
domain specific design of product as well as the integration of the results of involved
domainssuchasmechanics,controltechnology,electronicsandsoftwareengineering.

x Service development: This main task aims at the implementation of a service idea into a
marketoffer.Inanalogytoproductdevelopmenttheinterlinkedtasksconceptualdesignof
theservice,serviceplanningandserviceintegrationarepassed.

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x Productionsystemdevelopment:Whileproductsandproductionsystemsdependoneach
other,theirdevelopmentneedstobesynchronized.Startingwiththeconceptualdesignofa
production system the aspects process, place of work, logistics and working appliance are
consideredintegratively.Theseaspectsarespecifiedduringthemaintaskwhichleadstoan
integratedproductionsystem.
In tomorrows competition innovative business models are required that reap the benefits of
technological advancements (Chesbrough, 2010), (Christensen et al., 2009). More and more,
businessmodeldesigntendstobeakeyabilityof competitive companiesoperatingin technology
driven markets. The main challenges in developing new business models are managing the
complexityoftheupcomingdisruptivetechnologiesandanticipatingthebusinesslogicsinnascent
markets.Businessmodelpatternspromisetotacklethesechallenges(Gassmannetal.,2013).

PATTERNSINBUSINESSMODELDEVELOPMENT

TheUKaircraftenginemanufacturerRollsRoyceinnovateditsbusinessmodelin1962.Sincethen,
the operators of an aircraft have no longer been charged for an engines purchase, but for the
number of hours the engine had been in operation. RollsRoyce simultaneously takes full
responsibility of maintenance and repair, whereby the maintenance business is kept inhouse and
the company generates constant revenue streams (Rolls Royce, 2014). Philips pursues a similar
business model with medical devices, based on a pay per patient principle and also includes
professional maintenance (Phillips, 2014). RollsRoyce and Phillips obviously use a similar solution
principlewithintheirbusinessmodelsapattern,whichcanapparentlybetransferredtoproducts
andmaintenanceservicesofcompletelydifferentindustries(Ngetal.,2009).
ThebasicconceptofpatternsfollowstheworksofarchitecturaltheoristChristopherAlexander.At
theendofthe1970sheformulated253patternsfordesigningtowns,buildingsandconstructions.
AccordingtoAlexanderpatternsdescribeprovensolutionsforrecurringproblems(Alexanderetal.,
1977),(Alexander,1979):
Each pattern describes a problem which occurs over and over again in our environment, and
then describes the core of the solution to that problem, in such a way that you can use this
solutionamilliontimesover,withouteverdoingitthesamewaytwice(Alexanderetal.,1977).
The basic idea of the pattern concept is reusing solutions that are documented generally and
abstractlyinordertomakethemaccessibleandapplicabletoothers.Inthisway,patternsseekto
contribute to reducing complexity and increasing effectiveness and efficiency in problemsolving
processes(Buschmannetal.,1996).Patternsaremeanwhileusedacrossseveraldomains(Cloutier
andVerma,2006).
Workonpatternsinthecontextofbusinessmodelshasbeendonebyseveralauthors(Abdelkafiet
al.,2013),(Bonakdaretal.,2013).Weilletal.defineatypologyof16businessmodelarchetypesand
useittoclassifythebusinessmodelsofthetop1000firmsintheUSeconomy(Weilletal.,2005).
Johnsoncompiles19businessmodelpatternsthatareusedanalogouslyacrossindustriesasatool
forbusinessmodelinnovation(Johnson,2010).OsterwalderandPigneurdefinefivebusinessmodel
patterns(OsterwalderandPigneur,2010).ThemostextensiveworkwascarriedoutbyGassmannet
al. so far. They identified 55 universal business model patterns and made them accessible for the
developmentofnewbusinessideas(Gassmannetal.,2013).

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Business model patterns in literature basically differ with respect to their granularity. We propose
three different categories that can be used to classify business model patterns (Gausemeier and
Amshoff, 2014). The three different categories of business model patterns are frameworks,
prototypicalbusinessmodelsandsolutionpatternsforbusinessmodels.Thepaperathandprimarily
aims at solution patterns, which serve as building blocks for the design of new business models.
Since a solution pattern addresses different parts of a business model, an overall framework is
required. Kster suggests a framework, which includes the partial models supply model (Which
productorservicedoweofferandwhatkindofvaluedowebringforwhichcostumer?),customer
model (How do we design the interface to our customers?), value creation model (How do we
createtheproductorservice?)andfinancialmodel(Whichcostsdoesthebusinessaccompany?).
Every partial model contains further business model elements (e.g. customer segments, value
proposition, etc.). The framework compiles business model elements literature mostly refers to.
Figure 2 shows the framework, in which the financial model has been extended by the elements
investmentcostsandoperationalcosts(Kster,2014).

Supply Model Customer Model Value Creation Financial Model


Model
Customer Segments Marketing Channels Key Activities Investment Costs
(CS) (MK) (KA) (IC)

Key Resources
(KR)
Value Proposition Customer
(VP) Relationships (CR)

Organizational Form Operational Costs


(OF) (OC)

Products and Services Revenue Model


(PS) (RM)
Key Partners
(KP)


Figure2:Businessmodelframework

Eachbusinessmodelelementisdescribablebymeansofbusinessmodelvariablesandconceivable
configurationoptions.Businessmodelvariablesareleversacompanyusesforactivelydesigningits
businessmodel.Configurationoptionscharacterizethealternativesthatareavailableforshapinga
business model variable (Kster, 2014). Customer service is an example for a business model
variableofthebusinessmodelelementcustomerrelationships.Forshapingthisvariableacompany
can choose between the configuration options customer acquisition, customer retention,
customerdevelopmentandsalespromotion(GausemeierandAmshoff,2014),(Gassmannetal.,
2013).
We found that this approach is also suitable for identifying solution patterns in business models.
Business models of companies that already commercialize a disruptive technology successfully are
described by means of business model variables and related configuration options. According to
figure 3 a solution pattern can be defined as a combination of configuration options, which
repeatedly occurs in successful business models (Bissanz and Hagedorn, 2009), (Gausemeier and
Amshoff, 2014). For instance, the combination consisting of configuration options (3B), (4C), (5A)

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and (5B) is used across several companies successfully exploiting a technology. Thus, these
configurationoptionsrevealtheexistenceofasolutionpattern.
Business models with market success for disruptive technology:
Business model Business model Business model
...
Company A Company B Company n

BV 1 CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO
A B C A B C A B C
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO
BV 2
A B C A B C A B C
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO Business model pattern:
BV 3
A B C A B C A B C
The combination consisting of
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO
BV 4 configuration options 3B, 4C, 5A
A B C A B C A B C
and 5B is repeatedly part of the
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO
BV 5 analyzed business models.
A B C A B C A B C
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO
BV 6
A B C A B C A B C Caption
BV Business model variable
...

CO Configuration option
CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO In a business model
BV n A B C A B C A B C chosen configuration option 
Figure3:Principleforidentifyingbusinessmodelsolutionpatterns

METHODOLOGYFORPATTERNBASEDBUSINESSMODELDESIGN

Up to now, methodbased business model design has been intensively tackled by researchers.
Commonmethodsleadtobusinessmodelscoveringdifferentlevelsofdetail(BiegerandReinhold,
2011), (Eurich et al., 2013), (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010), (Kster, 2014), (Wirtz, 2010). To the
bestofourknowledge,theonlyapproachincludingpatternbasedbusinessmodeldesignhasbeen
presentedbyGassmannetal.sofar(Gassmannetal.,2013).Thisapproach,however,doesnotaid
theidentificationofnewbusinessmodelpatternsastheycanresultfromevolvingtechnologieslike
Additive Manufacturing or Industry 4.0. To bridge this gap, we subsequently introduce a
methodology designed to identify nascent business model patterns and to combine them to new
andinnovativebusinessmodels.Themethodologyfollowsthefivephaseprocessshowninfigure4.
Inthefollowing,themethodologyisgoingtobeoutlinedindetail.Toensureabetterunderstanding,
themethodologyishereafterpresentedusingexamplesfromanindustryprojectconductedwitha
mediumsizedGermanengineeringcompany,whichmanufacturesblowersandcompressors.


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Phases/Milestones Results

Technology analysis

1 Disruptive technology

Business model analysis

2 Proven business models

Pattern identification

3
Pattern system for
business models

Business model design

Alternative
4
business models
Business model
assessment

5
Selected
business model

Figure4:Methodologyforpatternbasedbusinessmodeldesign

Technologyanalysis

Within the first phase, technologies, which might have disruptive effects on a companys existing
business model, are identified. This is carried out using established methods and IT tools of
technologyscanningandmonitoring(Wellensieketal.,2011),(Bullinger,2012).Basedonaprecise
description,theidentifiedtechnologiesareassessedinthelightofthreecriteria:(1)probabilityof
occurrence,(2)disruptive potentialfortheprevailingbusinessmodelsoftheownindustryand(3)
relevancefortheowncompany.Theresultofthisphaseisadisruptivetechnology,whichishighly
relevant for the future business and has strong impact on a companys existing business model.
Therefore,futuresuccessmightdependonnewandinnovativebusinessmodelsdesignedtoexploit
thetechnologysbusinesspotential.
Aspartoftheproject,thedisruptivetechnologyconditionmonitoringhasbeenselected.Condition
monitoringdescribestheprocessofdeterminingtheconditionofmachineryduringoperation.This
technology is not entirely new, but currently experiences a new dynamic by the possibilities of
comprehensivedataanalysis(bigdata).Moreover,itishighlyrelevantforpredictivemaintenancein
mechanicalengineering.

Businessmodelanalysis

Theanalysisacrossseveralindustriestakesintoaccountthemostsuccessfulcompanies,selectedby
economiccriteria.Withintheprojectwechose20companiesalreadyofferingconditionmonitoring
servicesbasedonthetwodimensionscompanysizeandcompanydevelopment.Inordertogaugea
companys size we considered criteria like revenue streams and number of employees. For
evaluating a companys development we took a thorough look at the temporal changes in these
criteria like revenue growth and increase in employees. Since smaller companies, especially start

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ups,oftenpursuenewbusinessmodels(Criscuoloetal.,2012),weincludedamixtureofsmall,but
quicklygrowingcompaniesandbigcompaniesinouranalysis.
Subsequently, a business model framework is required for describing the companies operated
businessmodels.WeusedtheframeworkproposedbyKster(figure2)(Kster,2014).Theoperated
businessmodelsoftheselected companiesaredescribedby businessmodelvariables andrelated
configurationoptions.Thefocusrestsonthosevariablesandconfigurationoptionsthatarerelevant
for the business with the selected technology. Basically, they can be obtained from the following
sources(Gausemeieretal.,2013),(Kster,2014),(GausemeierandAmshoff,2014):(1)webpages,
e.g.companywebsitesandindustryportals,(2)industryreportsandliterature,(3)tradefairsurveys
andexpertinterviews.
Fordescribingthebusinessmodelsinthecontextofconditionmonitoring,weidentified43business
modelvariablesand140correspondingconfigurationoptionswhichcanbeassignedtothebusiness
model elements. Figure 5 shows a fewbusiness model variables and configuration options for the
businessmodelelementproductsandservicesinthepartialmodelsupplymodel.

Business model Alternative configuration options


variable
Kind of condition A Continuous remote monitoring for operator (online)
monitoring B Remote monitoring by operator
C Periodic monitoring for operator (offline)

Scope of condition A Automatic alerts (e.g. E-Mail, SMS)


monitoring B Regular reporting
C Remote doagnosis and error analysis
D On-the-spot diagnosis and error analysis

Condition maintai- A Supply of spare parts for machines and plants


ning resp. condition B Repairing of machines and plants
restoring C No maintaining resp. restoring

Advising and A Advising


training B Customer training

Figure5:Examplesforbusinessmodelvariablesandconfigurationoptions

Todescribethebusinessmodelsoftheconsideredcompanies,abinarycharacteristicslistisdrawn
upindicatingtheconfigurationoptionseachcompanyusesinitsbusinessmodel(figure6).Thelist
sums up the combinations of configuration options that characterize every companys business
model with regard to its supply model. However, established business model patterns cannot be
seen from this list. The identification of business model patterns is carried out within the third
phase.

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Characteristics List Supply Model
Question:

Company 20
Is conguration option i (row) part of business

Company 1

Company 2

Company 3

Company 4

Company 5

Company 6

Company 7

Company 8

Company 9
Company
model of company j (column)?
1 = yes Supply Model
Angebotsmodell
0 = no
Variable Conguration option No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20

Other Machinery and Plant Constructors 1A 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0

Target group Operator of other Machines and Plants 1B 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1


Customer Segments

Own Machines and Plants 1C 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Time of Original equipment 2A 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0


equipping Retrotting 2B 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Focus on single application 3A 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


Application
Focus on few specic applications 3B 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
focus
Widely diversied applications 3C 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
Value Proposition

Condition oriented maintenance 6A 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0


Maintenance
Fixed maintenance intervals 6B 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

Location independent monitoring 7A 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0


Accessibility
Monitoring restricted to machine location 7B 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1

Sensors 9A 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

Static online measurement systems 9B 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0


Products and Services

Hardware Mobile ofine measurement systems 9C 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0

With online measurement systems equipped machines 9D 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

No hardware 9E 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Desktop application 10A 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0

Software Web application 10B 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0

No software 10C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1


Figure6:Characteristicslistforthepartialmodelsupplymodel(extract)

Patternidentification

We define a business model pattern as a combination of configuration options, which repeatedly
occursinsuccessfulbusinessmodels.Inordertodeterminerecurringcombinations,foreachpairof
configurationoptionsasimilarityvalueiscalculatedbasedonthecharacteristicslist.Thesimilarity
value is high, when two configuration options are used jointly in a very large number of business
models. The final outcome is asimilarity matrix, which can be transferred into a multidimensional
scaling (MDS) (Borg and Groenen, 2005). The MDS visualizes the configuration options in a two
dimensional space regarding their similarity to each other. Configuration options with a high
similarity value are positioned in close proximity within this figure. By doing this, business model
patternscanbeidentifiedinaneasyandcomprehensiblemanner.Figure7showstheMDSforthe
partialmodelsupplymodel.Wecallitapatternmap.Suchapatternmaphasbeencreatedforall
partialmodels.
As depicted in the pattern map, we identified 10 patterns for the supply model. Each pattern
consists of at least two configuration options. Pattern 2 Condition Monitoring Systems for own
Machines and Plants, for example, describes the service to equip own machines and plants with
condition monitoring systems (configuration options: (1C) Own machines and plants, (9D) With
online condition measurement systems equipped machines). The systems are not installed in
machines of other manufacturers (configuration option: (3A) Focus on single application). This

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pattern does not yet specify, how the required components and subsystems can be developed,
produced or purchased. For this purpose, patterns of the value creation model are available. For
eachthevaluecreationandthecustomermodel9additionalpatternswereidentified.
Pattern 9 Pattern 10
Consulting and Training 14A
Flexible Original Equipping
14B 2B and Retrofitting
Pattern 7
4A
System Provisioning for Pattern 3
Self-Monitoring 6A 12D Continuous Remote Monitoring
12A
as a Service
11B 7A 11A
2A Pattern 5
12C
5D Maintenance as
Pattern 1 Additional Service
10A
9A Condition Monitoring Systems for 9D
Manufacturers and Operators of
9B
1B Machines and Plants 13B
5A 13A
1A
12B 1C
1C
8B
Pattern 6 3A
13C 11C
Pattern 4 Guarantee of 10B
Specialized Availabilities and Pattern 2
5B Response Times
Remote Monitoring Condition Monitoring
8A
without Maintenance 8C Systems for own
and Guarantee 3B
3C Machines and Plants
9E
7B Pattern 8
6B Periodic Offline
Configuration options often used 4B 10C Monitoring and Maintenance
commonly in a business model, are as a Service
5C
located close to each other in the
pattern map.
A business model pattern exists, if
two or more configuration options
Caption
are complementary and not
divideable into further patterns. 10B Configuration option

Business model patterm


in considered partial model Supply Model 
Figure7:Patternmapforthepartialmodelsupplymodel

To facilitate an unequivocal determination of a pattern within the pattern map, we defined two
generalrules.Asitcaneasilybeseen,alargenumberofconfigurationoptionsoftenislocatedclose
toeachother.Abusinessmodelpatternalwaysexists,if(1)twoormoreconfigurationoptionsare
complementaryand(2)notdivisibleintofurtherpatterns.Forinstance,infigure7theconfiguration
options (1C), (3A), (9D), (5A), (13A) and (13B) are very close to each other. The pattern
Maintenance as Additional Service (pattern 5) is, however, not necessarily part of the pattern
Condition Monitoring Systems for own Machines and Plants (pattern 2). That is why we defined
twopatternshere.
All identified patterns are documented according to a rigid scheme. Following the thoughts of
ChristopherAlexander,apatternisdescribedbytheelementsname,problem,contextandsolution
(Alexander et al., 1977), (Alexander, 1979). These elements have been extended with additional
elements like examples of companies, which already use a pattern in their business model. All
elements are outlined in keywords. The description of the solution consists of the configuration
options included by the pattern. Figure 8 exemplarily shows the documentation of pattern 2
ConditionMonitoringSystemsforownMachinesandPlants.

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Technology: Condition Monitoring Supply
Model
Business Model Condition Monitoring Systems for own
Pattern (No.): Machines and Plants (No. 2)

Context Solution
Machines and plants are substantial operating Machinery and plant manufcaturers equip own machines and
equipment for producing products. plants with online condition monitoring systems (1C).
Permanent availability of a machine is of high importance As a product they sell an integrated comprehensive solution of
for cost-efficient operation. condition monitoring system and machine (9D).
Along the lifecycle machine failures occure due to a variety There is no individual sale of condition monitoring systems for
of reasons (z.B. wear and tear, corrosion, etc.). third-party applications. Condition monitoring for third-party
Thus manufacturing companies have a demand for machines and components is not offered (3A).
mainteance and repair to prevent machine failures.

Examples for Location in Pattern Map


companies
Problem ABB 4A
11B
Maintenance is often done reactively (defective compo- Aerzener 5D
12D

nents are replaced in the case of failure) or preventively Maschinenfabrik 9A


10A
A
11A 9D

(machines are switched of at fixed intervals and compo- Atlas Copco 1B


9B 5A 13B

nents are checked resp. replaced preventively). Piller Blowers & 1A


12B 1C

As a consequence high cost result from unexpected Compressors 1C

3A

downtimes, long production interruptions or replacements SEW Eurodrive 13C 11C

of working components. Voith 8C


5B 3C
9E

Condition oriented maintenance is rarely done in ...


3B 7B
6B
4B
10C

machinery and plant manufacturing. 5C


Figure8:Exampleforadocumentedpattern

Inthelaststepofthethirdphase,therelationshipsbetweentheidentifiedpatternsareanalyzed.A
pattern merely represents a building block of a business model, so that the expressiveness of a
single pattern is limited. An overall business logic becomes evident only when there is precise
information about the interaction of patterns. The analysis of the patterns relationships proceeds
viatwosteps:Inthefirststep,itisspecifiedforeachcompanywhichbusinessmodelpatternsituses
withinitsbusinessmodel.Thisallocationisdonebyaidofapatternusagematrix(figure9).
Thepatternusagematrixdocumentsthedecompositionofbusinessmodelsintosinglepatterns.In
thesecondstep,afurthermatrixisgenerated,whichwecallpatterncombinationmatrix(figure10).
The pattern combination matrix is calculated as a product of the pattern usage matrix and the
transposed pattern usage matrix (Lindemann et al., 2009). It specifies for each business model
pattern, how often it is combined with a certain other pattern regarding the analyzed companies.
Forinstance,pattern2ConditionMonitoringSystemsforownMachinesandPlantsandpattern11
PersonalizedDirectSellingofConditionMonitoringSystemsarecombinedin40%oftheanalyzed
business models. We call this value degree of combination. A degree of combination of 40%
means that 8 of 20 analyzed companies use this combination in their business models. Thus, with
the help of the pattern combination matrix patterns can be revealed, which are frequently used
together.

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The Pattern Usage Matrix species for each
Pattern Usage Matrix company which business model patterns are
(Domain Mapping Matrix) used within its business model.
Question:
Is business model pattern i (row) part of
business model of company j (column)?

Company 20
Company 1

Company 2

Company 3

Company 4

Company 5

Company 6

Company 7

Company 8

Company 9
Company
1 = yes
0 = no

Business Model Pattern No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20


Condition Monitoring Systems for Manu-
facturers a. Operators of Machines a. Plants
1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
Condition Monitoring Systems for own
2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
SM

Machines and Plants

Example
Flexible Original Equipping and Retrotting 10 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
Business model pattern 11
Personalized Direct Selling for Condition Personalized Direct Selling for
Monitoring Systems
11 1 1 11 1 1 1 1 1 1
Condition Monitoring Systems
1
CM

is part of the business model of


company 3.
Customer Acquiring by Telephone Marketing 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Development and Manufacturing of
Measurement Systems
20 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0
VCM

IT Infrastructure for Remote Monitoring 28 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0

Caption
SM Supply Model CM Customer Model VCM Value Creation Model 
Figure9:PatternUsageMatrix(extract)

The Pattern Combination Matrix species for each


Pattern Combination Matrix business model pattern, how often it is combined
Condition Monitoring Systems

Condition Monitoring Systems

g Systems
Personalized Directt Selling of

IT Infrastructure for Remote


Business Model Pattern

(Design Structure Matrix) with a certain other pattern regarding the analyzed
Flexible Original Equipping

Manufacturing of Measur...
easur...
for owm Machines and ...
for Manufacturers and ...

companies.
g by

Question:
ng
Telephone Marketing
Condition Monitoring

How often is business model pattern i (row)


Customer Acquiring

Development and

combined with business model pattern


and Retrotting

j (column) within a business model?


(gures in per cent)
Monitoring

Business Model Pattern No. 1 2 10 11 19 20 28


Condition Monitoring Systems for Manu-
facturers a. Operators of Machines a. Plants
1 10 60 65 5 45 45
Condition Monitoring Systems for own
2 35 40
40 0 20 40
AM

Maschines and Plants

Flexible Original Equipping and Retrotting 10 90 1 5 50


Example
Personalized Direct Selling of Condition
Monitoring Systems
11 Business model pattern 21Condition
11 15
Monitoring
Systems for own Machines and Plants and busi-
CM

ness model pattern 11 Personalized Direct Selling


Customer Acquiring by Telephone Marketing 19 1 are combined
of Condition Monitoring Systems 0 in
Development and Manufacturing of 40 % of the analyzed business models; the corres-
Measurement Systems
20 45
ponding degree of combination is 40 %.
VCM

IT Infrastructure for Remote Monitoring 28

Caption
SM Supply Model CM Customer Model VCM Value Creation Model 
Figure10:PatternCombinationMatrix(extract)

Thepatterncombinationmatrixservesasthebasisforthesocalledpatternsystem(figure11).The
pattern system is a collection of all business model patterns derived from supply, customer and
valuecreationmodelcontainingallthepatterncombinationsusedwithinthemarket(Buschmannet
al.,1996).Startingpointofthepatternsystemisabasicpattern,whichcanfreelybeselected.The
colour graduations visualize how often the basic pattern is combined within successful business
models. Frequently used combinations are shown in dark blue, rarely used combinations are

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colouredbrighterorevenwhite.Indoingso,thepatternsystemrevealsthedominantbusinesslogic
withrespecttothechosenbasicpattern.
Supply Model Customer Model Value Creation Model
Condition Monitoring Systems Personalized Direct Selling of Development and Manufactu-
11 20
1 for Manufacturers and Opera- Condition Monitoring Systems ring of Measurement Systems
tors of Machines and Plants
Graded Service Packages with Development and Manufactu-
12 21
Condition Monitoring Systems Function Dependend Pricing ring of Sensors
2
for own Machines and Plants
Long term Customer Loyality Development Partnerships or
Continuous Remote Monitoring 13 through Support around the 22 Third-party Development of
3 Clock Software
as a Service

Specialized Remote Monitoring Package Pricing for Products Purchasing of Sensors and
14 23
4 without Maintenance and and Services Measurement Systems
Guarantee
Selling of Condition Monitoring Independent Development of
24
Maintenance as Additional 15 as an innovative Maintenance Software
5 Service
Service
Repairing as Additional Core
25
Guarantee of Availabilities and Communication on the Internet Competence
6 16
Response Times and Trade Fairs
Specialists with Know-how
26
System Provisioning for Self- Communication through New about Analysis
7 17
Monitoring Media
Service Team for Condition Mo-
27
Periodic Ofine Monitoring and Reputation Building by Lectures nitoring Systems
8 18
Maintenance as a Service and Essays
dThe in Journals
pattern system lists the identied patterns of all partial models
IT-Infrastruktur zur Fernber-
and shows
Customer
ustomer relations
Acquiring between the 28
by Telepho- patterns.
wachungStarting position is a
9 Consulting and Training
19 basic pattern (marked in red), which can be freely chosed. For this
ne Marketing
Flexible Original Equipping and basic pattern common pattern combinations are highlighted in
10 color. The darker a pattern is colured (blue), thr more frequent it is
Retrotting
combined with the basic pattern. This enables an efcient determi-
nation of dominant business logics.

Caption
frequent rare
n Basic pattern combination
Frequency of combination
combination

Figure11:Patternsystem

Businessmodeldesign

Theidentifiedbusinessmodelpatternsaresubsequentlyusedfordesigninganewbusinessmodel
from the standpoint of the considered company. The general design approach of new business
modelsisdepictedinfigure12.Weconsidertwotypesoflevels,onwhichthebusinessmodeldesign
can be carried out: the specific and the abstract level. Linking both levels, there are three
overarching tasks, which need to be done: Business idea definition, Conceptual business model
designandBusinessmodelspecification.
Starting point of any business model is a business idea. A business idea gives a rough idea of the
productsandservices,acompanyoffersforacertaintypeofcustomers,regionsandneeds(Bachet
al.,2010).Abusinessideathereforeisspecifictoacompanyandneedstobedefinedattheearly
beginning of the design process (Business idea definition). Further, a consistent business model
needs to be designed in order to substantiate the idea. The business model design is done by
building combinations of business model patterns, which are unique at the companys target
market. Since the patterns are abstract in nature, the specific business idea gets transferred in an
abstract pattern (basic pattern). Afterwards, combinations of business model patterns are built
keeping the basic pattern fix. Due to their high degree of abstraction, combinations of business
modelpatternsrepresentprincipalsolutionsofbusinessmodels,socalledbusinessmodelconcepts
(Business model conception). Finally, these business model concepts are specified against the
backgroundoftheconsideredcompany.Thisleadstoentirebusinessmodels,whicharecustomized

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tothecompanysspecificbusiness(Businessmodelspecification).Inthefollowing,thethreetasks
areoutlinedindetail.
2. Conceptual business model design

3. Business model specifiaction


Abstract business Abstract business
1. Business idea definition

model patterns model concepts

abstract
specific

Specific Specific business


business idea model

Figure12:Approachforpatternbasedbusinessmodeldesign

Businessideadefinition

Asaninitialtask,aninnovativebusinessideaforthefuturebusinesswiththeselectedtechnology
needs to be defined. In order to generate business ideas we distinguish between two different
principles(Gassmannetal.,2013):

x Pattern association: Following this principle, business ideas are developed by means of
creativitytechniquesandestablishedmethodsofstrategicforesight(GausemeierandPlass,
2014). Every business idea is subsequently assigned to a suitable business model pattern
fromthepatternsystem.

x Pattern confrontation: Using this principle, business ideas are developed by confrontation
with the identified business model patterns. Therefore, every pattern from the pattern
systemischeckedtodetermineitspotentialforanownbusinessidea.
Regardless,whichprincipleisused,therealwaysisaclearassignmentofthespecificbusinessidea
and an abstract business model pattern. As part of the project, the business idea Production of
remotecontrolledcompressorswasdefined.Thebusinessmodelpatternbelongingtothisbusiness
ideaispattern2ConditionMonitoringSystemsforownMachinesandPlants.

Conceptualbusinessmodeldesign

Within this task, a business model concept for the previously defined business idea has to be
developed.Anewbusinessmodelshouldgenerallycreateauniquepositioninthecompetitivearena
(Christensen et al., 2009). For this reason, a profound analysis of the dominant business logic is
carried out in the first instance. The dominant business logic can be obtained from the pattern
combination matrix (figure 10). Since the pattern combination matrix is based on an analysis of
companiesoperatinginverydifferentmarkets,itshowsthedominantbusinesslogicacrossmarkets.
For the considered company, however, only the situation in the market to be entered is relevant.
Thus, a new pattern combination matrix only including the direct competitors is carried out.
Thereafter,thedominantbusinesslogicandthebusinesslogicinthetargetmarketcanbecompared
inordertoderiveastrategicdirectionfordesigningtheownbusinessmodel.

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Forthecomparison,asocalledcomparativeprofileiscreated(figure13).Withintheprofile,thetwo
businesslogicsarecomparedwithregardtothebasicpatternwhichbelongstothebusinessidea.In
ordertoquantifythematchingofthetwologics,thesocalledLogicFitiscalculated.TheLogicFit
indicatestheaverageshareofthebusinesslogicinthedirectcompetitionrelativetothedominant
businesslogic.TherangeoftheLogicFitislimitedbynormalizationtotheinterval[0;100].Inthis
way, three characteristic domains can be defined. For each domain a recommendation for the
choiceofthestrategicdirectionisgiven:

x LowLogicFit[0;25]:AlowLogicFitexistsifthedeterminedvalueisintherangebetween
0% and 25%. In this case, the dominant business logic can be adopted because no
competitorfollowsitinthetargetmarket.

x MediumLogicFit[25;75]:AmediumLogicFitexistsifthedeterminedvalueisintherange
between 25% and 75%. In this case, a takeover of the dominant business logic should be
checked. Essential differences should be identified and possible weak points must be
discussed.Individualpatterncombinationscanbeusedfortheownbusinessmodel.

x High LogicFit [75; 100]: A high LogicFit exists if the determined value is in the range
between75%and100%.Inthiscaseatakeoverofthedominantlogicisnotpromising.The
dominantlogicmustbebrokenbyrecombiningthebusinessmodelpatterns.
76%

Relative frequency Logic-Fit


(normalized) [%] 0 25 75 100

100

80

60

40

20

0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 28
Business Model Patterns (No.)
Legend
Low Logic-Fit [0; 25]
Dominant business logic
 Adapt dominant business logic
Medium Logic-Fit [25; 75]
Business logic in direct competition
 Check takeover
High Logic-Fit [75; 100]
Basic pattern (Business idea)
Break dominant business logic

Figure13:Comparativeprofile

Asitcanbeseeninfigure13,theLogicFitcalculatedwithintheprojectis76%.Thismeansthatthe
dominant business logic for the pattern Condition Monitoring Systems for own Machines and
Plants is already pursued in the companys target market. In this case, a simple takeover of the
dominantlogicwouldnotofferauspiciouspotentialfordifferentiation.Thus,breakingthebusiness
logicseemstobemostpromising.

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In dependece of the strategic direction, alternative business model concepts subsequently are
developed. For this purpose, the business model patterns are combined in a unique way. The
combination of business model patterns underlies a major challenge, however: Since a company
lacks knowledge in the target market, it is usually not able to assess the quality of a pattern
combination. This is why pattern combinations must always be generated from a market
perspective. Prevalent methods like the morphological scheme are consequently not applicable
here.Totacklethischallenge,wedevelopedacomputeraidedtoolprovidingeffectivesupportfor
successfullycombiningpatterns.Thefunctioningofthetoolisdepictedinfigure14.

Defining constraints
In a first step valid intervals are defined (1) for the degree of combination and (2) for the chain length of combinations
of business model patterns.

Valid Degree of Combination Valid Chain Length

breaking pursueing
simple comprehensive
dominant 0 100 dominant 1 28
BM concept BM concept
logic logic

Building Valid Combinations Selecting Success promising Combinations


In a second step combinations of business model Finally the most success promising combinations
patterns which fulfill defined constraints are built need to be selected. Therefore, a filtering mechanism
according to the mathematical rules of combinatorics. eliminates unpromosing combinations within an
They are sorted by their average degree of combina- iterative procedure: Selected patterns are set for
tion. selected chains.

Nr. Pattern DC P1 P2 P3 P4 ... P27 P28

1 P1 P2 P5 P14 P22 P25 31,25 1 P1 P2 P5 P14 P22 P25 31,25


2 P1 P6 P14 P20 P23 P28 30,5 2 P1 P6 P14 P20 P23 P28 30,5
3 P2 P3 P12 P13 P23 P26 P28 29,75 3 P2 P3 P12 P13 P23 P26 P28 29,75
...

...

153 P2 P3 P7 P14 P19 P22 P28 7,5 153 P2 P3 P7 P14 P19 P22 P28 7,5

BM Business model DC Average degree of combination P Pattern 


Figure14:Functioningofthetoolforcombiningbusinessmodelpatterns

Inthefirststep,permittedintervalsforthedegreeofcombinationandthechainlengthareset.The
degreeofcombinationstemsfromthepatterncombinationmatrix,whichrepresentsthedominant
businesslogic(figure10).Thesettingdependsuponthestrategicdirectionderivedbefore.Tobreak
the dominant business logic it is appropriate that the interval includes low values. Intending to
followthedominantlogicmeanshighvaluesshouldbeincluded.The chain lengthdetermines the
numberofpatternsavalidchainconsistsof.Shortchainsleadtosimpleconceptualbusinessmodels
providing scope for creative specification. Longer chains result in a comprehensive conceptual
business model simplifying the final specification. In the second step, all pattern combinations
fulfillingtheconstraintsareformedaccordingtothemathematicalrulesofcombinatorics.Theyare
sorted by their average degree of combination, e.g. combinations occurring more often in the
analyzedmarketsaredisplayedfirst.Inthethirdstep,promisingcombinationsareselected.Forthis
purpose, each pattern can either be included in or excluded from the conceptual business model.
This procedure allows a company to actively design its business model while simultaneously
orientating at the analyzed markets. Using the elaborate tool, we developed 10 promising
conceptual business models. Figure 15 exemplarily shows the business model concept no. 3
Productionofremotemonitoringwithacontinuousmonitoringasaservice.

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The business model concepts are valid possibilities to place the business idea successfully in the
targetmarket.Uptonow,theyonlyconsistofbusinessmodelpatternsofthesupply,thecustomer
andthevaluecreationmodel,however.Thefinancialmodelhasnotbeenconsideredsofarsincethe
costsresultfromthechosenbusinessmodelpatternsoftheotherpartialmodels.Tocompletethe
business model concepts, the financial model must be added to each alternative (Kster, 2014).
Doing so, the individual cost positions that result from the selected business model patterns are
listed(figure15).
Business Model Concept (no. 3):
Production of remote-controlled compressors with continuous monitoring as a service

Value Creation
Supply Model Customer Model Financial Model
Model
Pattern 2 Pattern 12 Pattern 23 Investment Costs
Condition Monitoring Graded Service Purchasing of Sensors R&D compressors
Systems for own Packages with Function and Measurement IT-Infrastructure
Machines and Plants Dependend Pricing Systems R&D database
Extension/Construction
Pattern 3 Pattern 13 Pattern 26 of a monitoring center
Continuous Remote Long term Customer Specialists with
Monitoring as a Service Loyality through Support Know-how about Operational Costs
around the Clock Analysis Employees monitoring
Employees database
Pattern 28 maintenance
IT Infrastructure for Establishment of
Remote Monitoring know-how


Figure15:BusinessModelConcept(no.3)

Businessmodelspecification

Thebusinessmodelconceptsrepresentafirstdraftofthebusinessmodels.Theyareformulatedin
an abstract way and they are not adapted to the specific business of the considered company. In
ordertoobtainentirebusinessmodels,theconceptualbusinessmodelsneedtobespecifiedagainst
thebackgroundoftheconsideredcompany.
For the specification of the business model concepts, the configurations options included in the
business model patterns are assigned to the business model elements of the business model
framework(figure2).Thereafter,theabstractconfigurationoptionsofeachbusinessmodelelement
are transferred to the specific business of the considered company. Figure 16 shows the
specificationofbusinessmodelconceptno.3Productionofremotemonitoringwithacontinuous
monitoringasaservice.Forinstance,thebusinessmodelconceptcontainsforthebusinessmodel
element Products and Services the configuration option With online measurement systems
equipped machines (9D). This configuration option is generally valid for every manufacturer of
machinesandplants.Fortheconsideredcompany,whichmanufacturescompressorsandblowers,
thepatternwasspecifiedasCompressorswithonlineconditionmonitoringsystems.Thebusiness
model element Customer Segments includes the configuration options Own Machines and
Plants(1C)andFocusonsingleapplication(3A)ontheotherhand.Intheparticularcaseofthe
compressor manufacturer the business is limited to Automated production systems with high
followup costs in case of breakdowns. The corresponding customers are Industrial Companies
fromtheAutomotive,FoodandChemicalIndustry.

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Figure16:Specificationofbusinessmodelconcepts

Specifiedbusinessmodelconceptsrequireaconcisevisualization.Thevisualizationofthebusiness
modelsisdonewiththehelpofabusinessmodelcanvas,inwhichthespecificconfigurationoptions
are entered (Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010). Figure 17 shows the business model canvas for the
specified business model no. 3 Production of remote monitoring compressors with continuous
monitoringasaservice."

Business model canvas


Production of remote-controlled compressors with continuous monitoring as a service (no. 3)
Supply Model Customer Model Value Creation Model Financial Model
Customer Segments Marketing Channels Key Resources Investment Costs
Industrial Companies from the Trade fairs Research and development R&D Compressors
Automotive-, Food- and Che- Events Marketing and sales R&D Database
mical Industry Sales team Establish and update continu- IT-Infrastructure
Automated production Internet ously a machine database Extension/Construction of a
systems with high Implementation of remote monitoring center
follow-up costs in case monitoring
of breakdowns
Key Resources
Value Proposition Customer Relationships Know-how: Evaluation and
diagnosis
Condition-based maintenance Personal customer care
Employees: Remote monitoring
Location-idependent monito- 24/7
IT-Structure: Telephone,
ring Proactive telephone/e-mail
database systems,
Reduction of maintenance support
server, clients
Operational Costs
costs Employees evaluation and
Reduction of follow-up Organizational Form monitoring
costs Core competencies: measure- Employees database mainte-
ment analysis, data manage- nance
Products and Services Revenue Model ment Establishment of know-how
Compressors with condition Remote monitoring: Service Market Maker Model Advertising/Marketing
monitoring systems packages with function based Employees sales
Continuous remote monitoring prices Key Partners Employees logistics
Automatic alerts Compressors: Catalogue price Supplier: Sensors, measuring Raw materials, auxiliary
On-the-spot diagnosis and Education/training: system materials and consu-
error analysis free of charge Development partner: mables
Software

Figure17:Businessmodelcanvas

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Businessmodelassessment

Thespecificationfinallyleadstoalternativebusinessmodels,fromwhichthemostpromisingistobe
chosen. The selection of business models is based on a threedimensional assessment. The three
considered dimensions are (1) attractiveness, (2) accessibility and (3) future robustness. The
attractiveness describes, how success promising a business models implementation is for a
company. Accessibility measures, how difficult it is to implement a business model. Future
robustnessgaugesthesensitivityofabusinessmodeltoenvironmentalchanges.Todeterminethe
future robustness, the business models should be considered in the light of future developments.
Forthispurpose,methodslikethescenariotechniqueortrendanalysisaresuitable(Kster,2014).
Thefinalresultofthemethodologyisaselectedbusinessmodel,whichismostauspiciousfromthe
companysperspective.

SUMMARYANDCONCLUSION

Farreaching technological developments like Industry 4.0 or Additive Manufacturing have major
impact on companies future business and value creation structures. Against the background of
these developments, companies find themselves confronted with threads, but also perceive
attractive opportunities for new businesses. In order to translate business opportunities into
businesssuccess,viablebusinessmodelsarerequired.
In the paper at hand we introduced a patternbased methodology for designing business models.
The methodology enables a systematic examination of business potentials based on disruptive
technologies. In the course of our research, we made the following findings: (1) Business model
patterns are a valuable approach to describe and understand business logics of new, unknown
markets.(2)Commercialexploitationofdisruptivetechnologiesestablishesnewbusinesslogicsand
therefore new business model patterns. These patterns are applicable across industries. For
instance, business model patterns for condition monitoring can be operationalized in mechanical
engineering. (3) New business models for disruptive technologies are often based upon an
unconventional recombination of proven solution elements. Thus, an analysis of successful
technologyplayersprovidesvaluableinsights.Theyserveasavaliddatabasisfortheidentification
ofnewbusinessmodelpatterns.

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