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Bakken Case Study

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Hadi Jabbari and Steven A. Benson

Petroleum Engineering Department, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND 58202 USA

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 47th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium held in San Francisco, CA, USA,

23-26 June 2013.

This paper was selected for presentation at the symposium by an ARMA Technical Program Committee based on a technical and critical

review of the paper by a minimum of two technical reviewers. The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of

ARMA, its officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper for commercial purposes without

the written consent of ARMA is prohibited. Permission to reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 200 words;

illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgement of where and by whom the paper was

presented.

ABSTRACT: Low permeability shale formations, such as the Bakken, require a large fracture network to enhance well

productivity. In this research, through a comprehensive fracture-simulation/reservoir-performance study, we evaluated the

main parameters controlling the fracture stimulation in horizontal wells. The main goal was to investigate opportunities to

optimize hydraulic fracturing and production of horizontal Williston Basin Bakken Formation wells. The project area used in

the investigation was located in Williams County, North Dakota. To design a successful hydraulic fracture treatment, three

tasks were conducted: First, a reservoir simulation to evaluate the response of the reservoir to fracture stimulation and to

calibrate the reservoir model was performed using two steps involving: a) sensitivity analysis (SA) to determine the

significant well/reservoir properties and parameters and b) history matching (HM) simulation results to the production data

from the stimulated horizontal well in the study area. Second, the amount of fracturing materials was estimated and

preliminary pump schedules were developed based on selected design parameters that include: half-length, pump rate, and

maximum proppant concentration. Design parameters screening was conducted using 2D fracture geometry solutions for

fracture treatment parameters. An optimization task was performed to identify optimal stimulation treatment(s) that together

with optimal operating conditions would return a maximum value for the objective function (e.g. Net Present Value). Finally,

fully-3D hydraulic fracture modeling was utilized to perform implicit, coupled, finite difference/finite element solutions to

basic conservation equations. The pump schedule obtained from the scoping design was changed in terms of the pad

volume and proppant schedule for treatment optimization. The overall goal of such a schedule refinement was to place the

right amount of proppant in the right place along the fracture.

Past studies by Breit et al. [1] used reservoir

1. INTRODUCTION simulation to compare multi-well to single-well

The Bakken reservoir of Williston Basin is composed completions in the Bakken Formation. In their

of an upper shale member, a middle member of modeling, they considered a homogeneous layer with

sandstone and siltstone, and a lower shale member. dual porosity and with an anisotropic permeability

The first development of the Bakken Formation ratio of 4 to 1. Sadrpanah et al. [2] also used reservoir

occurred in the 1960s [1]. Early Bakken development simulation to evaluate multiple hydraulic fractures in

with vertical wells resulted in minor production. Later, horizontal wells. Using explicit simulation to

horizontal drilling in the 1980s improved production as implement the hydraulic fractures into the horizontal

compared to previous vertical well completions. wells, they predicted the fracture behavior and post-

Activity in developing the Bakken Formation has frac production profiles to make optimal designs for

increased due to the success of horizontal drilling maximum production enhancement. Lentz et al. [3]

coupled with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing described the benefits of re-fracture treatment in

stimulation. However, production forecast which horizontal wells in the Bakken Formation. They

may be acquired by fracture modeling and reservoir concluded that more perforations and diversion

simulation is quite challenging for these types of techniques would be attributed to the success of the

wells. treatments.

In recent years, there have been several studies on the Besler et al. [4] studied the stimulation and operation

simulation of horizontal wells in the Bakken of horizontal completions in the Middle Bakken

Formation [1, 3, and 4]. The main goal of the Bakken Formation of North Dakota and Montana. They

reservoir simulation past efforts has been to simulate compared the production histories of the fractured

the production performance of the wells and to horizontal wells to offset wells completed with other

develop optimum scenarios for further field techniques to evaluate best industry practices. Cox et

development. al. [5] investigated the production performance of the

Bakken wells, and by using reservoir simulation and

1

pressure transient test analysis, evaluated optimal completed in the Middle Bakken member and

economics in the early phase of the Bakken stimulated with multi-stage transverse fractures.

development. A similar study, with an emphasis on

economics, was conducted on the Marcellus shale by

2.1. Sensitivity Analysis of Reservoir Properties

Schewitzer et al. [6] where several hydraulic fracture

treatments were evaluated with the goal of determining and Parameters

the most efficient wellbore/fracture configurations. A sensitivity analysis was performed to ascertain how

The economic study for a hydraulic fracturing project a given model output varies based on the input

was performed using the average present-day parameters. This is an important method for checking

completion costs and projected sale price of gas used the quality of a given model as well as a powerful tool

in the calculation process. Shanqiang et al. [7], on the for checking the robustness and reliability of the

other hand, studied more complex fluid flow physics analyses [9]. The sensitivity analysis helps reservoir

and stimulation practices in making long-term modelers achieve a better understanding of how

production forecasts for unconventional reservoirs. different parameters influence their results. The

They proposed a probabilistic reservoir simulation information from such analysis can later be used in

workflow to provide realistic range of production other tasks, such as history matching, optimization,

forecast with application in the Bakken Formation. and uncertainty assessment as it helps determine which

The work presented in this paper provides the results parameter(s) to vary and to what degree.

of an integrated fracture/reservoir simulation together

with a financial analysis to evaluate the production and 2.2. Sampling Method

economics of the Bakken horizontal wells stimulated

with a variety of fracturing strategies. The main goal For a given set of parameters and values, the parameter

of this research was to investigate the opportunities for space is usually very large, and it would be too

optimizing hydraulic fracture treatments in the Bakken perplexing to select a reliable design (the set of job

horizontal wells. patterns). According to the theory of experimental

design (Design of Experiments, or DOE), an efficient

2. RESERVOIR MODEL DESCRIPTION

design should have two characteristics to be acceptable

BAKKEN CASE STUDY that include [10, 11, 12]: a) the input parameters

In an effort to adjust the well/reservoir properties and should be approximately orthogonal. This means that

parameters, history matching of the reservoir model in a design matrix, the correlation between the vectors

was performed for the study area to yield the observed of any pair of columns should be either zero or very

production data. Reservoir simulation was used to small, and b) the sampling point (job patterns) should

perform three major tasks to provide insights into the be evenly distributed in the parameter space. Or, in

design of hydraulic fracture stimulation. These tasks other words, the design matrix should represent all

include: a) sensitivity analysis (SA), which is used to possible job patterns (space-filling). This means that

determine how sensitive an objective function (an no two points are close to each other.

expression or single quantity) is to different parameters One common method used to select a job pattern is by

and their ranges in values, b) history matching (HM) random design, but its main disadvantage is that the

for calibrating the reservoir parameters conducted by interpretation of the results is not accurate due to

an automated algorithm to simulation results, and c) an random confounding and the estimated coefficients

optimization (OP) stage for developing best case can be biased [10, 12]. To avoid the random design

scenarios for future hydraulic fracture treatments in the problem, we have used the Latin hypercube sampling

Bakken Formation. (LHS) method proposed by Mckay et al. [11], in that

The location of the study area is in section 36-T156N- the input variables are considered to be random

R95W in eastern Williams County, North Dakota, on variables with known distribution functions. The

the eastern flank of the Nesson Anticline (Fig.1). The parameters whose changes were examined in the

matrix porosity values used in the reservoir simulation sensitivity analysis are listed in Table 1. Each

were 0.05 (Upper Bakken), 0.06 (Middle Bakken), and parameter is given a range of values over which it can

0.05 (Lower Bakken). The matrix permeability values vary.

were 0.00012 md (Upper Bakken), 0.003 md (Middle The results from 2,300 simulation runs were collected

Bakken), and 0.00015 (Lower Bakken) [8]. The and analyzed to screen for the parameters (factors)

observed data of Well X was used for the history which appeared to have significant effects on the

matching process- adjusting the reservoir simulation response (objective function). The statistical

parameters that could best represent the actual significance of each effect and interaction was

reservoir. The cumulative production data for the study

well are shown in Fig.2. examined by comparing its signal-to-noise t-ratio, t E

Figure 3 shows the grid setup for the simulation model (or tn 1 ), to the critical t-value, denoted by t* / 2 , which

where a horizontal well with 3600 ft lateral length is is the inverse of the two-tailed t-distribution. When the

populations standard deviation ( ) is unknown (i.e.

2

small samples, or small n ), we can replace it by an data, Rwm, p is the measured maximum change for well

estimate, s p (pooled standard deviation), then the

w and production data p , and Ewm, p is measurement

quantity in Eq.1 follows the t-distribution with n 1

error.

degrees of freedom (for n runs) [12].

The global objective function (Eq. 2) was used for

Y o

tn 1, / 2 (1)

history matching only the cumulative oil production

sp n (Cum_OIL) and cumulative water production

(Cum_WTR) data of Well X. The cumulative gas

Note that the significance level ( ), which is left to production data was found to be unreliable. By forcing

the investigator, was considered to be 5% as the well to produce at historic oil rates the reservoir

reasonable accuracy was required. Finally, we used a model was matched to the production history. The

Tornado chart of the effects to determine the final history matching plot in Fig.6 shows the

magnitude and the importance of the effects on the convergence of the objective function after 1467 runs.

cumulative oil and cumulative water production. The

charts in Figs.4 and 5 display the effects. The The relative permeability curves were developed using

significant parameters were obtained from the the Corey correlation which is power-law in the water

sensitivity analysis. Note that the absolute values of saturation [14-16] (Eqs.3-6). Note that since there was

their t-ratios (for Cum_OIL and Cum_WTR) were no experimental data available for the relative

found to be greater than the critical t-value (obtained permeability curves, the end-point saturations were

from t-distribution for the specified degree of estimated from the history matching process.

freedom). nw

S w Swcrit

krw krwiro .(3)

2.3. History Matching 1 S wcrit Soirw

now

History matching is a well-examined method of tuning So Sorw

reservoir characteristics (properties) used in the model krow krocw (4)

to match historical field data. This process is 1 S wcon Sorw

accomplished through an iterative trial-and-error nog

process. The sensitivity analysis described above was Sl Sorg S gcon

krog krogcg (5)

used to identify the significant parameters, shown in 1 S

wcon Sorg S gcon

Table 1. These parameters were then adjusted, over

realistic ranges, in order to achieve a close match ng

between the simulation results and the field data, while S g S gcrit

krg krgcl ...(6)

insignificant parameters were set to constant values 1 S S S

based on available data. gcrit oirg wcon

During the history matching process a global objective Also, the linear relative permeability (X-curves) was

function was used to measure the relative difference considered for the grids containing the hydraulic

between historical data and simulation results. In such fractures. The parameters estimated from the history

a function the well variables are accounted for by matching process are listed in Table 1. As shown in

means of a root-mean-squared error method (RMSE). Figs. 7, 8, and 9, reasonable matches were obtained for

The goal of the history matching is to obtain small OIL_PROD, Cum_OIL and Cum_WTR production

values of objective functions to correspond with small trends.

differences between historical data and simulation The reservoir simulation is followed by hydraulic

results. The global objective function is given by Yang fracture modeling (2D/3D) to simulate the fracturing

et al. [13]: process and evaluate the different stimulation

T ( w, p )

strategies for the study well in the Bakken Formation.

( Rw, p , t Rw, p , t )

s m 2

t 1

Eg Ww, p

Rw, p

N ( w) m m

p 1 4 Ew , p

Ww, p 3.1. Optimal Treatment Materials

p 1

Hydraulic fracture stimulation is required for

Where, subscripts w , p , and t are well, production economic development of low permeability reservoirs,

data, and time, respectively, N ( w) is the total such as the Bakken Formation. This is because a

highly conductive fracture results in a negative skin.

production data from well 1 to w , Ww, p is weight, At the same time, there is no single fracture treatment

T ( w, p) is the total of time step, Rws , p ,t represents design that best fits all possible cases. The amount of

knowledge about the treatment environment shapes the

simulation results while Rwm, p ,t is measured historical design process to a very large degree. When the area to

3

be hydraulically fractured is new, there are generally a The method of Latin hypercube plus proxy

large number of potential uncertainties that may have optimization was used to find the optimal treatment

effects on the production responses, such as the static scenario(s). This method consists of four main steps: a)

and dynamic parameters. constructing combinations of the input parameter

values to obtain the maximum information from the

We have presented hydraulic fracturing designs for a

minimum number of simulation runs (Latin hypercube

Bakken horizontal well with 10000-ft lateral drilled

design), b) building an empirical proxy model by using

inside a 1280 acre drainage area. The goal of the

the data from Latin hypercube design runs (proxy

design was normally to consider all plausible

model), c) conducting a proxy-based optimization, and

combinations of fluids and proppants to find the best

d) validation of the optimal solution obtained from the

candidates of treatment materials. Improper fracturing

proxy by iterative simulation runs. The algorithm is

design can result in fractures that are too narrow that

shown in Fig.10.

may cause proppant bridging and screenout or too

wide that can allow too much proppant settling. In this Figure 11 illustrates the results of such NPV

study we have done a comparative study of proppants, calculations using the Latin hypercube algorithm. The

pads, and fracturing fluids to determine the best iterative procedure, over 324 runs, was able to

combination(s) for carrying out the stimulation job in optimize the NPV from 27 million to almost 84 million

the Bakken horizontal wells. USD. The NPV was calculated for a standard

horizontal well completed with 12, 18, and 36 fracture

The first step was to use a 2D fracture simulation

stages. It is clear from this figure that the job-IDs 39,

method (PKN model in this case) to quickly perform

106, 162, 198, 280, and 318 with the specifications

the sensitivity analysis, preliminary designs, and

shown in Table 5, outperformed the other treatment

calculating the fracturing material sizes prior to

cases.

performing fully-3D fracture modeling. Table 2 shows

the results of the scoping calculations that were carried Using crosslinked gel plus either resin-coated sand or

out for 27 combinations of the candidate fracturing ceramic as the fracture treatment materials appeared to

materials. Note that the average fracture height used in be the best choices due to the higher cumulative oil

the 2D modeling was estimated from the microseismic produced in 5 years as compared to all the other

mapping data of the well, being 120 ft [8]. combinations of treatment materials. One of the

notable successes with this design strategy would be

A financial analysis was used to evaluate the costs and

the elimination of proppant flowback. Many operators

benefits associated with each hydraulic fracturing

in the Bakken reported tremendous problems with

design. The expense considered for fracturing job

production of sand, requiring frequent pump changes

economic analysis and gross treatment sizing were

as the pumps were damaged by crushed sand. A

restricted to four major components: a) fluid cost, b)

review of wells completed by three operators using

proppant cost, c) pumping charges, and d) gross

high-strength proppants indicated zero pump failures

equipment charges. The treatment costs per fracture

due to proppant sand flowback [4].

stage, the sum of the 4 major components, are shown

in Table 2. Other parameters used in the economic

analysis are shown below in Tables 3 and 4. All cost 3.2. Hydraulic Fracture Simulation

values used are general averages based on personal

communications with various operators. The optimal fracture treatment materials were

determined by integrating fracture modeling (2D, PKN

model) with reservoir simulation. As a next step, 3D

An optimization task was conducted to identify the fracture simulation was performed to more accurately

optimal stimulation plan (fracture treatment design) model the created fracture in order to find an

and operating conditions (flowing bottomhole optimized pump schedule. Figure 12 shows a log style

pressure) that would yield a maximum value for the illustration of the major data that was input into the

objective function, being net present value (NPV) in fracture model as compared to depth in the study area.

this case. In the optimization study the history matched The geologic model was comprised of five layers with

reservoir model was used to forecast the reservoir differing stresses, permeabilities, and moduli. They

response based on different hydraulic fracturing were: Lodgepole, Upper Bakken, Middle Bakken,

strategies. The main goal was to determine the best Lower Bakken, and Three Forks.

fracture treatment(s) that would yield the highest profit

from the well stimulation plan(s). The well was Since the estimation of fracture geometry plays a

operated at bottomhole pressures of 1000, 1500, and major role in evaluating the completion plans, a

2000 psi during the 5-year period. The NPV is made commercial hydraulic fracture simulator was used to

up of three terms: a) the value of the oil produced estimate the created fracture geometry and its

being $96/STB, b) the cost for water characteristics. To evaluate the success of a fracture

disposal/processing being $3/STB, and c) the capital treatment in a horizontal well, the production response

expenses (CapEx) (Table 3). The annual interest rate of the well due to the hydraulic fractures should be

for calculating the discounted NPV used in this study investigated. First, we need to know the fracture

was considered as 6%. geometry and fracture conductivity. This information

4

comes from fracture geometry models that range from FEM needs to be used for fracture width/propagation

simple hand calculation procedures (2D models) to calculations. FEM should be used in any case where

complex 3D models (pseudo-3D or fully 3D). modulus values in different layers differ by a factor of

2 or more [19, 20].

Fluid injected at the beginning of the fracturing job

(pad) initiates and opens up the fracture. Pad provides Furthermore, three main constraints were considered in

the necessary extra fluid that is leaked off into the the design of the hydraulic fracture treatments: a) a

formation during a treatment. The pad also generates limit of 1000 psi was considered for the net-pressure

sufficient fracture length and width to place the that can influence the surface treating pressure

proppant. If the pad volume is too small, the treatment (#HHP), and can have an effect on the fracture height

may screen out. If the pad volume is too large, we will growth (unwanted fracture growth into the Lodgepole),

waste money, the fracture height will grow into b) a fracture width limit that should be at least 3 times

unwanted zones (i.e. the Lodgepole), and the fracture the proppant diameter in order to prevent the proppant

will not close as rapidly as it would with a smaller pad bridging and involuntary screenout [19], and c) the

volume. After pumping the specified volume of pad, injection time must be less than 24 hours. As is clear

the proppant concentration is ramped up step-by-step from the calculations in Table 10, these constraints are

as the slurry is being injected. If proppant prematurely validated in this case.

bridges in the fracture during pumping, the treating

pressure will rise rapidly to the technical constraint, a 4. CONCLUSIONS

situation called screen-out.

A study was conducted on hydraulic fracturing designs

For calculating the proppant ramp schedule, a material for a Bakken horizontal well. First, in an effort to

balance method was used, such as the power-law adjust the reservoir properties, history matching and

method of Nolte [17]. The power-law method is reservoir simulation were performed for the study

explained thoroughly by Economides et al. [18] (Table case. Next, the calibrated reservoir model was used for

6). In an ideal pump schedule, the proppant schedule fracture treatment optimization and material selections.

should be designed such that a uniform proppant Using the results from reservoir simulation and

concentration is obtained in the fracturewith the hydraulic fracture modeling, NPV cash flow models

value of concentration equal to the maximum proppant were developed for various fracture treatment cases. A

concentration ( ce , which is a design parameter) and comparison of the oil production and the NPV of

a minimum pad volume is used to achieve the desired several strategies for well stimulation was the

objective of the simulations and modeling. Finally,

fracture half-length ( X f _ Design ).

hydraulic fracture modeling was performed to

In the end, the pump schedule designed for the accurately model the created fracture so as to find an

selected treatment scenario (optimal treatment case) appropriate pump schedule.

was developed as shown in Fig.13 with the details The main goal of this research was to improve

presented in Table 7. Obviously, a pump schedule may hydraulic fracturing design by improving proppant

vary based on the fracturing treatment materials, coverage along the fracture, optimizing treatment

and/or based on the desired fracture half-length and volumes and pump rates, understanding fracture

fracture conductivity. Additionally, Tables 8 and 9 geometry, and optimizing proppant selection. The

present the characteristics of the fluid and proppant design of a successful fracturing job in a low

used for the treatment. permeability formation (e.g. the Bakken) requires a

Using fully-3D modeling with the developed pump treatment that yields a long fracture. For this reason,

schedule, the fracture dimensions and fracture no improvement in the NPV values was observed in

conductivities were calculated. These parameters were cases with low fracture half-lengths (Fig.11). The

then evaluated to ensure that the fracture would not results from this study suggest that for a Bakken well

grow upwards into the Lodgepole Formation. Several with 10,000-ft lateral, a fracturing strategy utilizing a

operators have reported difficulty keeping fractures high fracture half-length, with a high number of

contained within the target Bakken horizon, and have fractures (36 or more) would provide the most efficient

observed radioactive tracer indicating vertical height balance between the operating charges, fracture

growth into the shallower Lodgepole Formation. In treatment costs, drilling expenses, and the benefit

some cases, high H2S or elevated water-cut indicated earned from the incremental oil production.

fractures had propagated into the Lodgepole Formation The effective fracture width in an optimal case where

[4]. Table 10 contains the details of the treatment x f 1000 ft is shown in Fig.14. As is clear from this

design and the results from the fully-3D fracture

simulations. figure, the fracture height is nearly equal to the

thickness of the pay zone. Generally, it is believed that

Note that in the 3D modeling we have used a finite in-situ stress differences (in the vertical stress profile)

element method (FEM) for calculating fracture width are the major controlling factor of fracture height

and fracture propagation. Generally, for cases where confinement [21]. Figure 15 depicts the fracture tip

formation layers have differing values for modulus, position at successive stages of fracture propagation.

5

Figure 16 depicts the proppant coverage versus natural fracture density in y-

DJ_NatFrac :

fracture penetration. Other results from the fully- direction (used in DualPOR model)

3D/FEM fracture simulations are shown in Figs.17-20. DK_NatFrac : natural fracture density in z-direction

HHP : hydraulic horsepower, hp

The results from this research also imply that using

ratio of vertical to horizontal

crosslinked gel plus either resin-coated sand or KvKhRatio :

permeability of matrix

ceramic as fracturing materials would lead to optimal

krocw : kro at connate water

stimulation in the Bakken horizontal wells. The major

concerns about the use of sand as proppant may krwiro : krw at irreducible oil

include: a) lost conductivity caused by inadequate krogcg : krog at connate gas

proppant strength due to increased closure stress, as krgcl : krg at connate liquid

severe crushing of frac sand from aggressive mp : Proppant mass, lb

drawdown or reservoir depletion would dramatically

decrease well productivity, and b) lost conductivity n : run number

due to proppant flowback, caused by overflushing the nw : exponent for calculating krw

treatment [3, 22, and 23]. Overdisplacing proppant now : exponent for calculating krow

carried in a crosslinked fluid may seriously nog : exponent for calculating krog

compromise the wellbore to fracture conductivity. ng : exponent for calculating krg

With ceramic, no proppant fowback has been observed

in the Bakken Formation. Overall, higher production matrix permeability modifier (used

PermMtrxMultplier :

in HM)

performance has been observed from high quality

ceramic wells in the Bakken Formation, suggesting PermNatFrac : natural fracture permeability

higher ultimate recovery with better proppants [4]. matrix porosity modifier (used in

PorMtrxMultplier :

HM)

Note also that in this research the basic theory of fluid PorFracMultplier :

natural fracture porosity modifier

loss from a hydraulic fracture has been employed (used in HM)

based on 1-D fluid loss (also called Carter fluid loss sp : pooled estimate of standard

deviation of individual responses

[19]), which is valid for matrix fluid loss as long as the

lateral propagation (height and length) is rapid Sw : water saturation

compared to the rate of fluid leakoff normal to the Swcrit : critical water saturation

fracture. If the hydraulic fracture intersects with Soirw : irreducible oil for water-oil table

existing natural fractures, then these natural fissuers Sorw : residual oil for water-oil table

may begin to open under the high pressure associated Swcon : connate water saturation

with the injected fluid. This can dramatically increase

Sorw : residual oil for water-oil table

the rate of fluid loss [19]. The natural fractures will

begin to open when the net pressure inside the fracture Sl : liquid saturation

begins to exceed a critical value (PnetCrit.). As the net Sorg : residual oil for gas-liquid table

pressure rises above this critical level, the rate of fluid S gcon : connate gas saturation

loss then becomes proportional to the product of Swtr : connate water saturation

natural fracture density and (Pnet - PnetCrit.) cubed. The

te : time at end of pumping, min

critical net pressure can be obtained by analyzing the

Nolte-Smith log-log plot of net treating pressure versus ti : time of injection, min

time [24]. Since this type of data for the study well tE : signal-to-noise t-ratio

was not available, the extra fluid loss due to natural

t* : critical t-ratio

fractures was considered by increasing the leak-off

coefficient to some degree. Vi volume of injection into one wing,

: cu ft

Vf : volume of fracturing fluid

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS w : fracture width, in

The authors would like to thank the Institute for Energy Xf : fracture half-length, ft

Studies and the Department of Petroleum Engineering at the

University of North Dakota. We also appreciate NSI

Y : sample average

: mean

Technology Inc. and CMG for their software supports.

: proppant schedule exponent,

dim.less

NOMENCLATURE e : fluid efficiency at end of pumping,

dim.less

CPor_NatFrac : natural fracture compressibility REFERENCES

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SPE Unconventional Reservoirs Conference,

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School PhD Dissertation, Sep. 2011, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

1979. A comparison of three methods for selecting

7

Fig.1 Project area location in eastern Williams County, ND (Courtesy of BRC 1 [8])

1

Bakken Research Consortium

8

Fig.4 Tornado plot of Cum_OIL (linear model t-ratios)

9

Fig.5 Tornado plot of Cum_WTR (linear model t-ratios)

the objective function (red dots represent the cases with the lowest error values)

10

Fig.7 Oil production rate history match

Fig.8 Cumulative oil production history match-- oil production rate constraint

Fig.9 Cumulative water production history match-- oil production rate constraint

11

Fig.10 The algorithm of Latin hypercube plus Proxy Optimization (courtesy of Computer Modeling Group)

modeling in Well X

12

Fig.13 Developed pump schedule using Nolte method

41X-36H

Propped Width

Profile at Closure

LdgPol

TVD

ft

10300

U-Bkn

10350

M-Bkn

10400

L-Bkn

10450

41X-36H

Stress (psi) Vs. Time ( 5.5, 10.3, 22.3, 49.4 min)

9800

TVD

ft

10000

10200

10400

10600

TFrk

10800

Fracture Penetration (ft)

13

41X-36H

10100 59.04 min

TVD

0.000

ft

10200 0.058

LdgPol

0.116

0.174

10300

0.232

M-Bkn 0.290

10400 0.348

0.406

10500 0.464

0.522

TFrk

0.580

10600

0.151 m/sec

7000 7500 8000 8500 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Stress (psi) Fracture Penetration (ft)

41X-36H

10100 55.95 min

TVD

0.000

ft

10200 0.300

LdgPol

0.600

0.900

10300

1.200

M-Bkn

1.500

10400 1.800

2.100

10500 2.400

2.700

TFrk

3.000

10600

0.151 m/sec

7000 7500 8000 8500 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Stress (psi) Fracture Penetration (ft)

Fig.17 The ratio of fracture width to average proppant particle diameter at closure

41X-36H

10100 55.95 min

TVD

0.000

ft

10200 26.000

LdgPol

52.000

78.000

Temperature F

10300

104.000

M-Bkn

130.000

10400 156.000

182.000

10500 208.000

234.000

TFrk

260.000

10600

0.151 m/sec

7000 7500 8000 8500 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Stress (psi) Fracture Penetration (ft)

14

41X-36H

0.20

0.15

Average Width (in)

0.10

0.05

At Shut-in

Average Width (in)

200 400 600 800

Penetration (ft)

41X-36H

10100 59.04 min

TVD

0.000

ft

10200 0.000

LdgPol

0.000

0.001

10300

0.001

M-Bkn

0.001

10400 0.001

0.001

10500 0.002

0.002

TFrk

0.002

10600

0.151 m/sec

7000 7500 8000 8500 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Stress (psi) Fracture Penetration (ft)

15

Table 1 Parameters and properties examined in the Sensitivity Analysis & History Matching

Lower Level Upper Level History-

Parameters Base Value

(-1) (+1) Matched

PorMtrxMultplier 1 0.5 10 10

PermMtrxMultplier 1 0.5 20 10

PorFracMultplier 1 0.5 10 10

PermNatFrac 0.001 0.00001 0.01 0.001

KvKhRatio 0.1 0.01 0.3 0.1

CPor_Mtrx 1.00E-06 2.00E-06 8.00E-06 8.00E-06

CPor_NatFrac 5.00E-06 1.00E-06 1.00E-05 2.00E-06

DI_NatFrac 200 100 1000 1000

DJ_NatFrac 200 100 1000 500

DK_NatFrac 50 20 300 185

Rel. Perm. Table -- Matrix

swcon 0.1 0.05 0.2 0.1

swcrit 0.3 0.25 0.45 0.3

soirw 0.1 0.05 0.25 0.10

sorw 0.25 0.25 0.45 0.25

soirg 0.1 0.05 0.25 0.1

sorg 0.4 0.25 0.45 0.4

sgcon 0 0 0.02 0

sgcrit 0 0.01 0.06 0

krocw 1 0.3 1 1

krwiro 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.6

krgcl 1 0.4 1 0.9

krogcg 1 0.3 1 1

nw 2 1 3 1

no 3 2 5 3

nog 2 1 3 2

ng 2 1 3 2

Rel. Perm. Table Nat. Frac.

sgconf 0 0 0.01 0

sgcritf 0 0.01 0.06 0.06

sorgf 0.4 0.25 0.45 0.35

soirgf 0.1 0.05 0.25 0.15

sorwf 0.25 0.25 0.45 0.3

soirwf 0.1 0.05 0.25 0.1

swcritf 0.3 0.25 0.45 0.40

swconf 0.1 0.05 0.25 0.05

krgclf 1 0.4 1 0.90

krogcgf 1 0.3 1 0.90

krwirof 0.3 0.2 0.7 0.55

krocwf 1 0.3 1 0.9

nwf 1.5 1 2 2

nof 1.5 1 2 1.5

nogf 1.5 1 2 2

ngf 1.5 1 2 1.5

Swtr(i) 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.37

Hyd. Frac. Cond. (kfw), md-ft 22 22 500 22

16

Table 2 Comparison of different fracturing treatmentsper stage

kfw Vf_total mp Material

NO. Cases xf HHP

(md-ft) (M-Gal) (M-lbs) Cost

1 500 261 11.3 32.3 9164 $338,463

Slickwater

2 1000 260 22.6 64.4 9101 $341,038

20/40 Ottawa Sand

3 1500 297 38.2 110.3 9204 $351,700

Slickwater

5 1000 1035 22.7 64.3 9104 $353,362

16/30 RC Sand

6 1500 1183 38.4 110.2 9208 $372,789

Slickwater

8 1000 828 21.9 64.9 9075 $357,612

20/40 Ceramic

9 1500 946 37.1 111.3 9175 $380,716

50# Linear HPG

11 1000 197 17.9 48.6 8925 $336,430

20/40 Ottawa Sand

12 1500 225 30.2 83.4 9003 $347,381

50# Linear HPG

14 1000 782 18 48.6 8928 $345,805

16/30 RC Sand

15 1500 894 30.3 83.3 9006 $363,337

50# Linear HPG

17 1000 626 17.4 49.1 8906 $348,895

20/40 Ceramic

18 1500 715 29.3 84.1 8981 $369,083

30# XLink Gel

20 1000 319 27 78.9 9339 $362,368

20/40 Ottawa Sand

21 1500 359 45.1 133.2 9459 $381,940

30# XLink Gel

23 1000 1271 27.1 78.9 9344 $377,589

16/30 RC Sand

24 1500 1430 45.3 133.2 9465 $407,562

30# XLink Gel

26 1000 1008 26 79 9298 $381,737

20/40 Ceramic

27 1500 1134 43.4 133.4 9413 $415,491

Components Cost

Fixed Cost $400,000

Drilling & Completion

Lateral length=4500 ft $5,500,000

Lateral length=10000 ft $8,500,000

Proppants

Ottawa Sand $0.09-0.12/lb

Resin-Coated Sand $0.25-0.31/lb

Ceramic $0.32-0.39/lb

Fluid

Slickwater $0.09/gal

Linear HPG $0.32/gal

Xlinked Gel $0.48/gal

Pumping charges $36.40/HHP Includes all pump EQP

17

Table 4. Other parameters used in the economic analysis.

Parameter Value

Oil Price, $/STB 96

Water disposal/process, $/STB -3

Monthly Operational Cost, $ -7,900

Bottomhole Fracture

Xf, Fracturing fluid Proppant Number

Job ID pressure, conductivity,

(ft) Type Type of stages

(psi) (md-ft)

39 1500 1008 Ceramic

106 1000 1271 RC Sand

162 1000 1008 Ceramic

1000 Xlinked gel 36

198 2000 1271 RC Sand

280 1500 1271 RC Sand

318 2000 1008 Ceramic

1 e

a) Calculation of the exponent of proppant concentration curve:

1 e

t t pad

c) Mass per unit of injected slurry volume: c ce

te t pad

d) Converting the concentration from mass per slurry volume into mass added per unit volume

c

of base fluid ( c a ): ca

1 c

p

Conc. (PPG) Cum

Slurry Vol Fluid Vol Rate Fluid Prop Pump Time

Proppant

(M-Gal) (M-Gal) Start End (BPM) Type Type (min)

(M-lbs)

6.00 6.00 0.0 0.0 10.00 Slickwater - 0.0 14.3

0.32 0.29 3.0 3.0 10.00 Xlinked Gel 40/70 Sand 0.6 0.8

4.04 3.62 3.5 3.5 10.00 Xlinked Gel 20/40 Ceramic 3.5 9.6

9.38 8.31 4.0 4.0 10.00 Xlinked Gel 20/40 Ceramic 10.6 22.3

Total Slurry, M-Gal 19.7 Total Fluid 18.2

Total Proppant, M-lb 46.8 Avg. Conc 2.6

Total Pump Time, min 47.0 Pad % 30.4

M is a Roman for thousand.

18

Table 8. Proppant data [Courtesy of NSI Tech., 2012]

Ceramic 20/40

Specific Gravity 3.70

Damage Factor (1.0 = No Damage) 0.85

Stress, psi 0 2000 4000 8000 16000

KfW @ 2 lb/sq ft (md-ft) 7300 7100 6400 4800 2200

RC Sand 16/30

Specific Gravity 2.55

Damage Factor (1.0 = No Damage) 0.80

Stress, psi 0 2000 4000 8000 16000

KfW @ 2 lb/sq ft (md-ft) 11800 10800 8900 5500 1500

Slickwater

Specific Gravity 1.04

Data @ Wellbore @ FormTmp 1.0 hr 2.0 hr 4.0 hr 8.0 hr

vis(cp @ 170 1/sec) 188.0 123.0 88.0 67.0 35.0 14.0

non-Newtonian n' 0.46 0.53 0.58 0.61 0.64 0.67

2

K(lb/sec/ft )x1000 0.06 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.00

Specific Gravity 1.04

Data @ Wellbore @ FormTmp 2.0 hr 3.7 hr 5.2 hr 6.6 hr

vis(cp @ 170 1/sec) 500.0 400.9 226.0 124.8 83.2 54.1

non-Newtonian n' 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72

K(lb/sec/ft2)x1000 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00

'Hydraulic' Length (ft) 1091.8

Half Length

Propped length (ft) 870.0

Max Net Pressure (psi) 1213.0

Final Net Pressure (psi) 755.0

Surface Pres-End of Pad (psi) 7116.0

PRESSURE:

Surface Pres-Start of Flush (psi) 5621.1

Surface Pres-End of Job (psi) 6656.9

Maximum Hydraulic orsepower 1779.0

Max Exposure to Form. Temp. (min) 45.3

TIME:

Time to Close 12.0

RATE: Fluid Loss Rate during pad (BPM) 0.17

EFFICIENCY: At end of pumping schedule 0.96

Average In Situ Conc.(lb/ft^2) 0.2

PROPPANT: Average Conductivity (md-ft) 556.3

Fcd (KfW/kXf) 213.15

HEIGHT: Max Fracture Height (ft) 150.2

WIDTH: Avg width at end of pumping (in) 0.14

Total Fluid Volume (M-Gal) 18.2

VOLUMES:

Total Proppant Volume (M-Lbs) 46.8

19

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