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FOUNDRY & FORGING LABORATORY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

LABORATORY MANUAL

SUBJECT CODE: ME352

SUBJECT: FOUNDRY & FORGING LAB

Prepared by Approved by Assoc. Dean

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FOUNDRY & FORGING LABORATORY

DOs & DONTs

1) Avoid loose garments; roll up sleeves, Full sleeves.


2) Keep the tools in a proper position.

3) Wear Gloves, Goggles, Leather shoes, while we are closer to furnace.

4) Read the manual before operating the Furnace and oven.

5) Use Tongs to handle the red hot work piece.


6) Be familiar with the location of First Aid Box and Fire Extinguisher.

7) In case of doubt contact the instructor.

8) Always familiar with safety precautions to prevent the skin burns.

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Syllabus & Scheme

Sub Code : ME352 CIA Marks : 25

Exam Hours : 03 Exam Marks : 50

PART A
Testing of Molding sand and Core sand Preparation of sand specimens and conduction of the
following tests:
1) Compression, Shear and Tensile tests on Universal Sand Testing Machine.
2) Permeability test
3) Core hardness & Mould hardness tests.
4) Sieve Analysis to find Grain Finest number of Base Sand
5) Clay content determination in Base Sand
PART B
Foundry Practice
1) Use of foundry tools and other equipments.
2) Preparation of moulds using two moulding boxes using patterns or without patterns. (Split pattern, Match
plate pattern and Core boxes).
3) Preparation of one casting (Aluminum or cast iron-Demonstration only)

PART C
Forging Operations
1) Calculation of length of the row material requited to do the model.
2) Preparing minimum three forged models involving upsetting, drawing and bending operations.
3) Out of these three models, at least one model is to be prepared by using Power Hammer.

Scheme of Examination :

One Question Part-B : 25 marks


One Question Part-A/PART-C : 15 marks
Viva Voce : 10 marks
Total : 50marks

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INDEX

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S.NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO

1.
Study of Sand testing tools and equipments 05

2. Compression tests on universal testing machine 09

3. Shear Tests on Universal testing machine 10

4. Tensile tests on Universal Testing machine 14

5. Permeability tests on Permeability tester 17

6. Core Hardness Tests 20

7. Mould Hardness Tests 22

8. Sieve analysis tests 24

9. Clay content determination in base sand 26

10. Rapid Moisture tester 28

11. Study of foundry practice tools 30

12. Green sand Chipping block 34

13. Mould without pattern (Solid Hexagonal prism+ Square) 36

14. Mould Without pattern (Concentric Circles) 39

15. Mould with pattern (Dumb Bell Shape) 40

16. Mould With pattern (Single Piece Octagon Block) 42

17. Mould with pattern (Single Piece Step Pulley) 44

18. Mould with pattern (Pelton Wheel Cup) 46

19. Mould with pattern (Bearing Self Core Pattern) 48

INDEX

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S.NO NAME OF THE EXPERIMENT PAGE NO

20. Mould With Pattern (Wooden match Plate Pattern) 50

21. Study of Forging and Smithy tools 52

22. Hexagonal Headed Bolt 56

23. L Shape with a triangular faced joint 58

24. Flat or Conical headed Rivet 60

25. Viva Questions 61

EX NO.1

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STUDY OF SAND TESTING TOOLS AND EQUIPMENTS


AIM:
To Study the tools and equipments used in the Sand Testing Lab

DESCRIPTIONS:

1. UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE:

This Equipment is used to determine the various strengths such as Compression, Shear Tensile, Transverse
and deformation of Foundry sand.

This Machine Consists of the following items

a. Oil reservoir

b. Movable Ram

c. Plug In Coupling

d. Low & High Pressure Gauges



Low & High Pressure Gauges are used to read 0 to 1600 gm/cm 2, 0 to 13 Kg/Cm2

Fill the equipment with the hydraulic oil (as specified in the manual) in the mentioned area (Plug

In coupling).

Fit the Pressure gauges in the plug in coupling. (after filling Hydraulic oil)

Insert the compression pads in the respective pad seats of the UST machine.

Prepare the Standard sand specimen of diameter 50 mm X 50 mm height.

Place the specimen in between Fixed jaw pad & Movable jaw Compression pads and rotate the hand wheel
slowly in the clockwise way

The point at which the specimen breaks will give the Compression strength reading. (Observed from the Low
pressure gauge)

The Dial will have two pointers named as Live (Black) pointer, Dead (Red) Pointer. Dead pointer will stay in the
last point where the Black pointer retracts back to the zero.

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2. PERMEABLITY METER:

The Permeability meter is used to find the permeability number of Green sand, Core sand & Dry sand

It Consists of following parts namely,

1. Water Tank

2. Precisely calibrated well balanced Inverted air tank

3. Water Manometer

4. Permeability Chart

5. Sealing boss with Rubber sleeve

6. O-P-D Valve

7. Siphoning Arrangement

8. A Stop Watch

9. Two Orifices (1.5 mm Dia, 0.5 mm Dia)

Fill the water tank with the Water to the specified level.

Fix the Air tank over it, and keep the specimen over the orifice tube

Calibrate the manometer by using Zero adjusting screw and water leveling knob.

Turn the O-P-D Screw, to the position P from O .Observe the readings from the Manometer, and take the
time taken by the air tank to move from 0 to 2.

By using the formulae, Calculate the Permeability number of the given (dry/green) sand.

3. SAND RAMMER:

Sand Rammer is used to make the cylindrical core of 50mm X 50mm (Dia X Height), by using Sliding weight.

The sand rammer consists of following parts namely,

a. Frame

b. Ramming Plunger

c. Calibrated Sliding weight

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d. Lifting Cam

e. Ramming cam

Take a 150 gm of (green) sand and pour inside the specimen tube fixed with the pedestal cup

Fix it in the groove and the ram it for three times

After ram it for three trials, check the top of the plunger rods level (whether it reaches within the tolerance level
-(Minus) to +(Plus)

The Diameter and height of the core should be equal if the top of the plunger rod exists within the tolerance
level

4. SIEVE SHAKER:

It is used to find the Grain fineness number

These are the following parts included in the sieve shakers

i.Timer

ii.Switch

iii.10 Sieves

iv.Lid & Pan

v.Flexible Side bars

vi.Locking Rod

Take a 100gm of sand, and drop it inside the sieves

The shaking mechanism will gather the specific grain sized sand on each sieve plates

The dead weight and the weight of the sieve (along with the sand) are weighed separately and the percentage of
sand retained in each sieves

5. MOULD HARDNESS TESTER:


It is a handy instrument with a special gauge to read the mould hardness number (0-100) directly. The tip of
the instrument is special in shape and made from alloy steel. The hardness tester is supplied in wooden cart box.

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6. CORE HARDNESS TESTER:

It is a handy instrument with a special gauge to read the hardness number directly. The tip of the instrument
is made of tungsten carbide. It is a scratch type tester supplied with the container.

7. CLAY WASHER:

It consists of a motorized unit, which thoroughly agitates the water containing clay and extracts the clay
from the water

It consists of following units, namely

a. Motorised Stirrer Timer

b. Indicator Lamp

c. Switch

d. Glass Jar

e. Syphon

8. RAPID MOISTURE TESTER:

The instrument operates on the principle of the gas pressure generated between the moisture in the
sample and the absorbent compound

This instrument is used for finding the amount of moisture present in the Green sand.

The required moisture reading from the RMT is 3 to 8%

RESULT:
Thus the Study of Sand Testing tools and equipments are done and verified.

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EX.NO-2

COMPRESSION TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING


AIM:

This experiment measures the Compression strength of given specimen at different percentages of
Moisture.

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS:


Green sand, Steel specimen tube, Universal Sand Strength testing machine, Sand rammer, Funnel, Stopper,
Ruler, Weighing machine, Compression Shackles, Stripper, Specimen tube, Rapid Moisture Tester.

COMPRESSION STRENGTH:
Compression strength refers to the stress required to rupture the sand specimen under compressive
loading.
The sand specimen is taken out of the specimen tube (Prepared by using the sand rammer) and it is
immediately put on the strength testing machine (any delay which causes the drying of the sample leads
to increase in strength) and the force required to cause the compression failure is determined.

The green strength of sand is generally in the range of 0.03 to 0.16 MPa.

PROCEDURE:
1. Take a small amount of (green) sand in a pan, and pour it inside the Rapid moisture tester.
2. Add two (given) spoons of Calcium carbide to the green sand.
3. Close the lid and shake it well by keeping gauge pointing upward.
4. Observe the change in the reading and note down the value of the final reading.
5. If the final reading, is within 3 to 8% then we can go for Step-7 or else goto Step-6.
6. If the final reading is between the following values, then
a. 0 - 2% of moisture, add little water to the (Green) sand and increase the humidity.
b.8 10% of moisture, then reduce the moisture by adding (dry) sand to the Green sand

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7. Take the given (green) sand and weigh it to 160 gm.


8. Pour it inside the specimen tube and close it on one side by using the pedestal cup
9. Keep it in the sand rammer and ram it for three times.
10. Take the mould using the Stripper and keep it inside the compression pads.
11. Fix the Low pressure gauge inside the plug-in coupling, and rotate the hand wheel in the clockwise direction.
12. The point at which the core breaks is called as compression strength. The value of compression strength can
be attained by the low pressure gauge reading (Black needle return value)
NOTE :`
1. Plot the Graph by plotting % of water with Compression Strength

RESULT:

The Compression Strength of the sand specimen when clay is kept constant and varying moisture

40 % of Water = ___________N/mm2

50 % of Water= ___________ N/mm2

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60% of Water =____________N/mm2

EX.NO-3

SHEAR TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING


AIM:

This experiment measures the shear strength of given specimen at different percentages of Moisture.

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS:


Green sand, Steel specimen tube, Universal Sand Strength testing machine, Sand rammer, Funnel, Stopper,
Ruler, Weighing machine, Shear test Shackles, Stripper, Specimen Tube, Rapid Moisture Tester.

SHEAR STRENGTH:

Shear strength is a defined as the magnitude of the shear stress that a soil can sustain.

The shear resistance of soil is a result of friction due to interlocking (bonding) of particles at particle
contacts

Due to interlocking, particulate material may expand or contract in volume as it is subject to shear strains.

If soil expands its volume, the density of particles will decrease and the strength will decrease;

The theoretical state at which the shear stress and density remain constant while the shear strain
increases may be called the critical state, steady state, or residual strength.

PROCEDURE:
1. Take a small amount of (green) sand in a pan, and pour it inside the Rapid moisture tester.
2. Add two (given) spoons of Calcium carbide to the green sand.
3. Close the lid and shake it well by keeping gauge pointing upward.
4. Observe the change in the reading and note down the value of the final reading.
5. If the final reading, is within 3 to 8% then we can go for Step-7 or else goto Step-6.
6. If the final reading is between the following values, then
a. 0 - 2% of moisture, add little water to the (Green) sand and increase the humidity.

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b.8 10% of moisture, then reduce the moisture by adding (dry) sand to the Green sand
7. Take the given (green) sand and weigh it to 160 gm.
8. Pour it inside the specimen tube and close it on one side by using the pedestal cup
9. Keep it in the sand rammer and ram it for three times.
10. Take the mould(50mm dia X 50 mm H) using the Stripper and keep it inside the compression pads.
11. Fix the Low pressure gauge inside the plug-in coupling, and rotate the hand wheel in the clockwise direction.
12. The point at which the core breaks into two halves longitudinally, and then it is called as Shear strength.
13.The value of shear strength can be attained by the low pressure gauge reading
(Black needle return value)

NOTE :
Plot the Graph by plotting % of water with shear Strength

1.

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RESULT:
Thus the Shear Strength of the Green sand is effectively done and the values are tabulated for different
levels of moisture.


40 % of Water = ___________N/mm2

50 % of Water= ___________ N/mm2

60% of Water =____________N/mm2

70% of Water =____________N/mm2

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EX.NO-4

TENSILE TEST ON UNIVERSAL TESTING


AIM:

This experiment measures the tensile strength of given specimen at different percentages of Moisture.

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS:


Green sand, Steel specimen tube, Universal Sand Strength testing machine, Sand rammer, Funnel, Stopper,
Ruler, Weighing machine, Tensile test Shackles, Stripper, Specimen Tube, Rapid Moisture Tester.

TENSILE STRENGTH:

Tensile testing,(also known as tension testing) is a fundamental materials science test in which a sample is
subjected to uniaxial tension until the material is failed.

The results from this test are used to select a material for an application, for quality control, and to predict
how a material will react under other types of forces.

Properties that are directly measured via a tensile test are ultimate tensile strength,
maximum elongation and reduction in area.

From these measurements the following properties can also be determined: Young's modulus, Poisson's
ratio, yield strength, and strain-hardening characteristics.

PROCEDURE:
1. Take a small amount of (green) sand in a pan, and pour it inside the Rapid moisture tester.
2. Add two (given) spoons of Calcium carbide to the green sand.
3. Close the lid and shake it well by keeping gauge pointing upward.
4. Observe the change in the reading and note down the value of the final reading.
5. If the final reading, is within 3 to 8% then we can go for Step-7 or else goto Step-6.
6. If the final reading is between the following values, then
a. 0 - 2% of moisture, add little water to the (Green) sand and increase the humidity.

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b.8 10% of moisture, then reduce the moisture by adding (dry) sand to the Green sand
7. Take the given (green) sand and weigh it to 160 gm.
8. Pour it inside the Tensile Strength attachment (i.e., Movable Jaw and stationary jaw) and compress it
by using sand rammer.
9. by using the knife leveler and remove the excess sand.
10. Use the Tensile strength arrangement to put the pressure on the mould by using rollers.
11. Fix the Low pressure gauge inside the plug-in coupling, and rotate the hand wheel in the clockwise direction.
12. The point at which the mould cracks when the tensile(uniaxial & opposite direction) force is applied, is called
as tensile strength.
13.The value of tensile strength can be attained by the low pressure gauge reading (Black
needle return value)

NOTE :
Plot the Graph by plotting % of water and tensile Strength

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RESULT:
Thus the tensile Strength of the Green sand is effectively done and the values are tabulated for different
levels of moisture.


40 % of Water = ___________N/mm2

50 % of Water= ___________ N/mm2

60% of Water =____________N/mm2

70% of Water =____________N/mm2

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EX NO: 5

PERMEABILITY TESTS USING PERMEABILITY TESTER


AIM:
Determination of Permeability Of Given Sand Sample Using Permeability Tester

MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS:

Water Tank, Precisely calibrated well balanced inverted air tank, Water Manometer, Permeablity Chart,
Sealing Boss with rubber sleeve, O-P-D Valve, Siphoning arrangement, A Stop watch, Two orifices (1.5 mm dia ,
0.5 mm dia), Green sand, steel specimen tube, Sand rammer, Funnel, Stopper, Ruler, Weighing balance, Rapid
Moisture tester .

PERMEABILITY:

Permeability is that property which allows gas and moisture to pass through the moulding sand. It is
determined by measuring the rate of flow of air through A.F.S.(American Foundry standard) rammed specimen
under a standard pressure.

PERMEABILITY NUMBER:
The volume of air passing through a sand specimen 1 sq. cm area and 1 cm. in height at a
pressure of 1 gram per square centimeter in 1 min. is called the Permeability Number and
is computed by the formula:
P = (v x h) / (p x a x t)
Where,
P = Permeability Number
v = Volume of air passing through the specimen (cubic centimeter or in mil)
h = Height of specimen (centimeters)

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p = Pressure difference between upper and lower surfaces of test specimen (in centimeter of water
column)
a = Cross-sectional area of specimen (square centimeter)
t = time (minutes)

PERMEABILITY METER:
The body of the Permeability Meter is an aluminum casting of a water tank and base. Inside water tank
floats a balanced air drum carefully weighed and designed to maintain constant pressure of 10 cm during its fall.
The outlet from the air drum is connected to a centre post in the base via three way air valve.
The centre post incorporates a pipe for measuring pressure, which is connected to
the water manometer and an expandable O ring for sealing the specimen tube. It also
accommodates the orifices.

PROCEDURE:
1. Take a small amount of (green) sand in a pan, and pour it inside the Rapid moisture tester.
2. Add two (given) spoons of Calcium carbide to the green sand.
3. Close the lid and shake it well by keeping gauge pointing upward.
4. Observe the change in the reading and note down the value of the final reading.
5. If the final reading, is within 3 to 8% then we can go for Step-7 or else goto Step-6.
6. If the final reading is between the following values, then
a. 0 - 2% of moisture, add little water to the (Green) sand and increase the humidity.
b.8 10% of moisture, then reduce the moisture by adding (dry) sand to the Green sand
7. Take the given (green) sand and weigh it to 160 gm.
8. Pour it inside the specimen tube and close it on one side by using the pedestal cup
9. Keep it in the sand rammer and ram it for three times.
10. Take the core (50mm dia X 50 mm H) using the Stripper.
11. Remove the orifice from the grooved hole and keep the core over the rubber boss.
12. Fill the water tank with the Water to the specified level.
13. Fix the Air tank over it, and keep the specimen over the orifice tube

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14.Calibrate the manometer by using Zero adjusting screw and water leveling knob.
15.Turn the O-P-D Screw, to the position P from O .Observe the readings from the Manometer, and take the
time taken by the air tank to move from 0 to 2.

16.By using the stop clock, calculate the time taken for the steel water drum from the initial position of
0 to 2
17.Record the manometer reading on the pressure manometer while the steel drum moves from initial position
from 0 to 2
18.By using the above formulae, Calculate the Permeability number of the given (dry/green) sand.

RESULT:
The Permeability number for Green Sand is _______________

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EX NO: 6
CORE HARDNESS TESTS
AIM:

To find out the hardness of wet and dried cores made out of core sands, resin sands etc

MATERIALS REQUIRED:
Core Hardness tester, Core from green sand after baking.

CORE HARDNESS TESTER:

It is a handy instrument with a special gauge to read the hardness number directly. The tip of the
instrument is made of tungsten carbide. It is a scratch type tester supplied with the container.

PROCEDURE:
1. Hold the instrument in right hand vertically with tipped plough facing the surface of the core and dial
indicator facing conveniently for observation of readings

2. Press the instrument against the surface of the core in such a way that the base of the instrument will
just touch the surface of core and knife edge will penetrate in the core

3. Slowly pull the tester longitudinally and firmly on the surface of the dried or baked core
(approximately 1 inch)

4. This hardness indicates the firmness of the skin of the core which is usually termed as core hardness

5. Prepare two cores (one is wet core, Other one is dried core) of same green sand

6. Record the readings from the core Hardness tester.

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CALIBRATION:
1. Clean the tip and base of the instrument.

2. Apply the instrument vertically placing the tip on a hard smooth and plain glass surface and gently
aprs on the surface until the surface of the base plate touches the surface of glass.

3. The pointer of gauge should show zero reading on dial after completion of one rotation of the pointer

RESULT:

1. The Core hardness value of the wet core is _____________________

2. The Core hardness value of the dry (baked ) core is ______________________

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EX NO: 7
MOULD HARDNESS TESTS
AIM:

To find out the green mould hardness of the sand mould.

MATERIALS REQUIRED:

Mould Hardness tester, Green sand, Cope and drag, Green sand Moulds.

MOULD HARDNESS TESTER:


It is a handy instrument with a special gauge to read the mould hardness number (0-100) directly. The tip of
the instrument is special in shape and made from alloy steel. The hardness tester is supplied in wooden cart box

CALIBRATION:
1. Confirm free movement of the dial indicator and tip by pressing lightly
2. The needle should come to zero position when released.
3. Test the instrument on optically flat surface by gently pressing vertically to touch the bottom ring of
the tester
4. The needle will show one complete round with zero reading

PROCEDURE:
1. Apply the instrument vertically, placing the tip on the mould surface of which hardness is to be measured
2. Gently press on the surface until the surface of the bottom ring contacts the mould surface throughout the
periphery.
3. The depth of the penetration of the tip into the mould indicates the green hardness which is indicated on the
dial directly.

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PRECAUTIONS:
1. Keep the instrument clean and away from dust ensure that all sticking sand is removed from the
instrument before and after every test
2. Do not tamper with the setting and calibration.

RESULT:

1. The Mould hardness value of the Green sand is ____________________________

EX NO-8

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SIEVE ANALYSIS TEST


AIM:
For Ascertaining the fineness number. i.e., the grain size fraction of dried and clay free sand

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Sieve Shaker apparatus (with 10 Sieves, Pan and lid), 100 gms of green sand, Allen Keys, Digital weighing
balance

DESCRIPTION:
Timer and switch are provided on the panel. The instrument consists of 10 sieves, lid and pan. The side
bars on the shaking mechanism are made specially to accommodate 10 numbers of sieves along with lid and pan.

CALIBRATION:
1. Fix the instrument on a strong and sturdy base which can withstand the vibration of the instrument
during shaking level the instrument by leveling knobs.

2. Remove the clamping device by pulling the knobs of side flexible bar. Take out the set of sieves. Check the
timer and switch for OFF position. Connect single phase AC supply

PROCEDURE:
1. Use Soft brush for cleaning the sieves and pan. Arrange the sieves in the descending order from top to
bottom

2. Weigh the dead weight of the 10-sieves with pan and lid.

3. Take 100gms of sand in the digital weighing balance and pour the sand inside the sieves.

4. Keep the sieves close with the lid and lock it with the spring return valve

5. Set the On Switch. Fix the pre-timing for 10 minutes for the completion of cycle

6. The sieve shaking mechanism will start to shake the sieves in the transverse direction.

7. After 10 minutes, Based on the grain size, the sand is distributed evenly on the various sieve size.

8. Weigh the weight of the sieves with the sand.

Grain Fineness Number = (e/c) = { e / c}

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The percentage of the retained grains on each sieve and the pan is to be multiplied with the
multiplex and the results are to be added.

This sum is divided by the total of percentage retained sand particles

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Keep the instrument clean and tidy

2. Remove sand grains from each sieve using soft brush

3. Before tightening the knob ensure that sieves are fitted exactly into each other

4. Dont rotate the knob of timer anticlockwise to avoid damage.

RESULT:
Thus the Grain fineness number of the given Green sand is ___________________

EXNO-9

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CLAY CONTENT DETERMINATION IN BASE SAND


AIM:
To determine the clay content percentage present in the dry sand

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Clay washer, Glass jar, Siphon tube, washes tube, 30 gms of Sodium hydroxide dissolved in 500 cc of
distilled water

DESCRIPTION:
It consists of a unit having motorized stirrer timer, indicator lamp, switch, Glass jar, Siphon

PROCEDURE:
1. Take a weighed quantity (A=50gms) of dry sand and add it inside the glass jar

2. Add 10cc of alkaline solution, and fill the remaining space with the distilled water until it reaches the red
mark

3. Fix the timer for 8 to 10 minutes and start the cycle. The fan blades torque can be regulated by using the
regulator.

4. Make sure the water should not overflows, due to the high turbulence level of the fan blade.

5. After the cycle is over, remove the water from the glass jar using siphon tube

6. Repeat the cycle (Step-2 to Step-5) for 4 to 5 times to wash away all the clay from the water.

7. After finishing the entire process, wait for 5 minutes to allow the sand to settle down.

8. By using Sieve (400 micron) and filter the retained sand after removing clay

9. Keep the sieve in the oven (at 65 degree) for 4 to 5 hours

10. Weigh the dried sand and let it be B

Percentage of Clay in the dry sand = {(A-B)/A} X 100

Where,

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A = Weight of the dry sand sample

B = Weight of the washed and dried sand sample.

Note:
Dont rotate the knob of Timer Anticlockwise to avoid damage.

RESULT:
The Percentage of clay present in the dried sand are ________________

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Ex No-10

RAPID MOISTURE TESTER


AIM:
To find-out the Percentage of moisture present in the green sand.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Lever (adjusted for 6gms), Balance Bracket, Balance support, Pan Hanger, Pan, Spoon, 6 gms of green sand,
Absorbant bottle (CaC2), Bourdon pressure gauge

DESCRIPTION:
The instrument operates on the principle of the gas pressure generated between the moisture in the
sample and the absorbant compound.

The instrument is portable and needs no power supply. It is accommodated in a handy wooden case with
calibrated balance ready to use. Absorbent compound is provided with the instrument in the airtight bottle.

PROCEDURE:
1. Take a known quantity of green sand (6 gm) by using portable weighing balance.

2. Pour the sand inside the bourdon pressure gauge and add the two spoons of calcium carbide inside the

bourdon gas tube.

3. Seal the bourdon pressure gauge by using the handle and C-clamp tightly.

4. Shake it for 3-4 minutes, by keeping the pressure gauge facing up.

5. The Acetylene produced by the chemical reaction (between CaC2 + H20) responsible for moving the needle

in the pressure gauge.

6. The optimal reading (for the Green sand) from the Bourdon pressure gauge is 3 to 8 %

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Note:
1. When the reading is between 0 to 3%, then add the water due to the less percentage of water present in
the Bentonite

2. When the reading is 8 to 10%, reduce the moisture by adding the dry sand to the green sand.

RESULT:
Thus the reading of the Rapid moisture tester is ____________________%

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EX NO-11

STUDY OF FOUNDRY PRACTISE TOOLS


AIM:
To Study the tools and equipments in the Foundry practice tools

DESCRIPTIONS:
A. GREEN SAND MOULDING TOOLS
COPE:
Cope is the top box of the assembly having one half of the mould cavity along with gating system
and vents

DRAG:
Drag is the bottom box of the assembly having the other half of the mould cavity. Cop and drag
are noted together using bolt and nuts.

1. PARTING LINE:

Parting line is the imaginary line corresponding to the surface where cope and drag boxes meet.

2. MOULD CAVITY:

Mould Cavity is the cavity formed by the pattern in the sand.

3. CORE:

Core is compacted hard sand mass provided in the mould cavity to get the hollow portion in the
casting

4. POURING BASIN:

Pouring basin is a funnel shaped opening into which molten metal is poured from the ladle

5. SPRUE:

Sprue is the portion in the mould through which molten metal descends into the mould

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6. RUNNER:

Runner is the portion through which molten metal from the sprue is conveyed into the cavity.

7. INGATE OR GATE:

Gate is the portion connecting the mould cavity and the runner

8. RISER:

Riser is the portion in the cope to hold molten metal to be supplied to the casting during
solidification

9. VENTS:

Vents are holes made in the cope to allow gases to escape out of the mould.

B. TROWEL:

A trowel consists of a metal blade fitted with a wooden handle. Trowels are employed in order to
smooth or sleek over the surfaces of moulds. A Molder also uses them to repair damaged portions of a
mould the trowel can have a leaf like blade or a rectangular blade

C.LIFTERS:

Lifters are made of thin sections of steel of various widths and lengths with one end bent at right angle.
They are used to clean and finish the bottom and sides of deep narrow openings of moulds

D.SPRING CALLIPER
A caliper is used to transfer and compare a dimension from one object to another from a part to scale or
micrometer where the measurement cannot be made directly. A spring caliper has a loop spring on top
of the joint between the tow legs applies force tending to separate the legs at the bottom and adjusting
screw and nut keeps the legs in position

E. SHOWEL:

A Showel is used for mixing and tempering moulding sand and for moving sand from pile to flask.

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F. MOULDING BOXES:

The Moulding boxes (flasks) are used to provide the necessary rigidity and strength to the sand in
moulding. Usually they consist of two parts cope and the drag. There can be a third middle part called
cheek. They are made of either wood or metal.

G.BELLOW:

Bellows are used to blow loose particles of sand from the pattern and mould cavity.

H. REAMER:

A Hand reamer is a wooden tool used for packing or ramming the sand into the mould box. The
peen rammer is wedge shaped at one end whereas a round rammer has a cirtular cross section at one
end

I.VENT WIRE:

A Vent wire or rod is used to make a series of holes (Small) to perimit gases to escape whiel the molten
metal is being poured.

J. SPRUE PINS:

A Sprue pins is a tapered peg pushed through the cope to the joint of the mould. As the peg is
withdrawn it removes the snad, leaving an opening for the metal. This opening is called the sprue
through molten metal is poured. The sprue pins form the viser pin.

K. SMOOTHERS:

They are available in variety of shapes. They are used for repairing and finishing small surface of
moulds.

L. STRIKE OFF BAR:

The Strike of bar is a piece of metal or wood with straight edges. It is used to strickle or strike off
excess sand from the mould after ramming to provide a level surface.

M. Furnace:

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In a foundry metals/alloys are heated in a refractory lined container using a fuel to convert them
from solid to liquid state. The refractory lined container where this conversion takes place is called a
furnace. Fuel used can be solid, liquid, gaseous or electricity.

A furnace is selected based on

1. The type of metal to be melted

2. The quantity of the metal melted

3. The fuel available for melting

4. The purity of the melt required

Pit type crucible furnace using coke or fuel oil or electricity is the cheapest of the melting furnaces
for melting cast iron and non ferrous allots and is till widely used in small foundries and laboratories

a. Coke fired

b. Oil fired

c. Electrical resistance

RESULT:

Thus the Foundry tools are studied and verified.

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EX NO-12

GREEN SAND CHIPPING BLOCK


AIM:

To prepare the mould cavity using self drawn sketches

APPARATUS & TOOLS USED:

Molding sand, Cope & drag, rammer, Flat round rammer, riser, runner, strike-off bar, vent hole,
divider, trowels. i.e used for Finishing, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Spring Calliper

PROCEDURE:

1. Place the drag upside down.

2. Spray the parting sand and try to fill the Moulding sand above it in the drag

3. Draw two squares (50x50, 100 X 100) sketches on the surface of the drag.

4. Level the sand, using the strike-off bar and ram it with flat rammer & Peen rammer.

5. Now after ramming, bring the drag to original position.

1. Keep the cope over the drag

2. the pattern has to be kept in proper position & then the fill the parting sand in the
cope which is placed over the drag

3. It is also fitted with sand (Moulding sand) & ramming is done while the riser &
runner in position

4. The drawing drawn in the drag was replicated in the cope.

5. Now the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

6. Now remove the sand in the drawn area (i.e, smaller square area from the Cope &
Larger square area from the drag).

7. The runner and sprue is finished properly using the trowels and Smoothers

8. The model of specified dimensions is obtained.

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RESULT:

The given mould cavity is drawn by using the sketches without pattern on the green sand
successfully and verified.

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EX NO-13

MOULD WITHOUT PATTERN (SOLID HEXAGONAL PRISM + SQUARE)


AIM:

To prepare the mould cavity using self drawn sketches

APPARATUS & TOOLS USED:

Molding sand, Cope & drag, rammer, Flat round rammer, riser, runner, strike-off bar, vent
hole, divider, trowels. i.e used for Finishing, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Spring Calliper

PROCEDURE:

Moulding sand is used to fill the drag

Drag is filled with moulding sand and draw inner square, enveloped by hexagon (25 x 25,
50X 50) sketches and then the sand is filled.

Level the sand, using the flat rammer for ramming.

Now after ramming with rammer , fill the parting sand in the cope which is placed over the
drag

It is also fitted with sand (Moulding sand) & ramming is done while the riser & runner in
position

The drawing drawn in the drag was replicated in the cope.

Now the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

Now remove the sand in the drawn area (i.e, smaller square area from the Cope & Larger
Hexagonal area from the drag).

The runner and sprue is finished properly using the trowels and smoothers.

The model of specified dimensions is obtained.

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RESULT:

The given mould cavity is drawn by using the sketches without pattern on the green sand
successfully and verified.

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EX NO-14

MOULD WITHOUT PATTERN (CONCENTRIC CIRCLES)


AIM:

To prepare the mould cavity using self drawn Sketches.

APPARATUS & TOOLS USED:

Molding sand, Cope & drag, rammer, Flat round rammer, riser, runner, strike-off bar, vent
hole, divider, trowels. i.e used for Finishing, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Spring Calliper

PROCEDURE:

Moulding sand is used to fill the drag

Drag is filled with moulding sand and draw inner circle, enveloped by outer Circle (
25mm, 50mm) sketches and then the sand is filled.

Level the sand, using the flat rammer for ramming.

Now after ramming with rammer , fill the parting sand in the cope which is placed over the
drag

It is also fitted with sand (Moulding sand) & ramming is done while the riser & runner in
position

The drawing drawn in the drag was replicated in the cope.

Now the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

Now remove the sand in the drawn area (i.e, smaller square area from the Cope & Larger
Hexagonal area from the drag).

The runner and sprue is finished properly using the trowels and smoothers.

The model of specified dimensions is obtained.

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RESULT:

The given mould cavity is drawn by using the sketches without pattern on the green sand
successfully and verified.

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EX No-15

MOULD WITH PATTERN (DUMB BELL SHAPE)


AIM:

To prepare the mould of given dimensions

Tools USED:

Moulding sand & box, rammer box, Trovel, Flat rammer, runner,riser, Strike-off bar, Vent
hole rods, Dividers, Flat round Trowel, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Square shaped Trovel, Spring
Calliper

PROCEDURE:

1. Mould is prepared by using moulding sand

2. Drag is kept upside down along with a part of split pattern (Dumb Bell Part A) and fills it
with Green (Bentonite) sand.

3. The strike-off bar is used to level the sand. Ram it with Flat round rammer & Peen rammer.

4. After that, drag is kept back on the original position.

5. Now after ramming with peen rammer and the flat round rammer, the cope is placed over
the drag along with the split pattern (Dumb Bell part-B)

6. Place the Runner and riser (Sprue pins), and fill with Green (Bentonite) sand.

7. Repeat the Step-3.

8. Then the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

9. Now the pattern is removed from the cope and drag, by using draw spike.

10. A dumb bell cavity shape is created based on the given mould.

11. It is finished smoothly using rectangular Trowel and Smoothers.

12. Using vent wire, create small vent holes on the top surface of the cope.

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RESULT:

Now the mould of given dimensions are obtained

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EX NO-16

MOULD WITH PATTERN (SINGLE PIECE OCTAGON BLOCK)


AIM:

To prepare the mould of given dimensions

Tools USED:

Moulding sand & box, rammer box, Trovel, Flat rammer, runner,riser, Strike-off bar, Vent
hole rods, Dividers, Flat round Trowel, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Square shaped Trovel, Spring
Calliper

PROCEDURE:

1. Mould is prepared by using moulding sand

2. Drag is kept upside down along with the given mould pattern (Single piece octagon block)
and fills it with Green (Bentonite) sand.

3. The strike-off bar is used to level the sand. Ram it with Flat round rammer & Peen rammer.

4. After that, drag is kept back on the original position.

5. Now after ramming with peen rammer and the flat round rammer, the cope is placed over
the drag

6. Place the Runner and riser (Sprue pins), and fill with Green (Bentonite) sand.

7. Repeat the Step-3.

8. Then the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

9. Now the pattern is removed from the drag, by using draw spike.

10. The octagonal cavity is created based on the mould kept in the drag .

11. It is finished smoothly using rectangular Trowel and Smoothers.

12. Using vent wire, create small vent holes on the top surface of the cope.

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RESULT:

Now the mould of given dimensions are obtained

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EX NO-17

MOULD WITH PATTERN (SINGLE PIECE STEP PULLEY)


AIM:

To prepare the mould of given dimensions

Tools USED:

Moulding sand & box, rammer box, Trovel, Flat rammer, runner,riser, Strike-off bar, Vent
hole rods, Dividers, Flat round Trowel, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Square shaped Trovel, Spring
Calliper

PROCEDURE:

1. Mould is prepared by using moulding sand

2. Drag is kept upside down on the given pattern (Single piece step pulley) and fills it with
Green (Bentonite) sand.

3. The strike-off bar is used to level the sand. Ram it with Flat round rammer & Peen rammer.

4. After that, drag is kept back on the original position.

5. Now after ramming with peen rammer and the flat round rammer, the cope is placed over
the drag

6. Place the Runner and riser (Sprue pins), and fill with Green (Bentonite) sand.

7. Repeat the Step-3.

8. Then the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

9. Now the pattern is removed from the drag, by using draw spike.

10. A (Step pulley) pattern is Created based on the shape of the mould on the top surface of
the drag.

11. It is finished smoothly using rectangular Trowel and Smoothers.

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12. Using vent wire, create small vent holes on the top surface of the cope.

RESULT:

Now the mould of given dimensions are obtained

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EX NO-18

MOULD WITH PATTERN (PELTON WHEEL CUP)


AIM:

To prepare the mould of given dimensions

Tools USED:

Moulding sand & box, rammer box, Trovel, Flat rammer, runner, riser, Strike-off bar, Vent
hole rods, Dividers, Flat round Trowel, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Square shaped Trovel, Spring
Calliper

PROCEDURE:

1. Mould is prepared by using moulding sand

2. Drag is kept upside down along with the given pattern (Pelton Wheel Cup) and fills it with
Green (Bentonite) sand.

3. The strike-off bar is used to level the sand. Ram it with Flat round rammer & Peen rammer.

4. After that, drag is kept back on the original position.

5. Now after ramming with peen rammer and the flat round rammer, the cope is placed over
the drag

6. Place the Runner and riser (Sprue pins), and fill with Green (Bentonite) sand.

7. Repeat the Step-3.

8. Then the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

9. Now the pattern is removed from the drag, by using draw spike.

10. A pattern is created on the drags top and in the Copes bottom, by using the pelton wheel
cup mould.
11. It is finished smoothly using rectangular Trowel and Smoothers.

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12. Using vent wire, create small vent holes on the top surface of the cope.

RESULT:

Now the mould of given dimensions are obtained

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EX NO-19

MOULD WITH PATTERN (BEARING SELF CORE PATTERN)


AIM:

To prepare the mould using self core pattern of given dimensions

Tools USED:

Moulding sand & box, rammer box, Trowel, Flat rammer, runner, riser, Strike-off bar, Vent
hole rods, Dividers, Flat round Trowel, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Square shaped Trowel, Spring
Calliper, Bearing self core

PROCEDURE:

1. Mould is prepared by using moulding sand

2. Drag is kept upside down along with the given pattern (Bearing self core) and fills it with
Green (Bentonite) sand.

3. The strike-off bar is used to level the sand. Ram it with Flat round rammer & Peen rammer.

4. After that, drag is kept back on the original position.

5. Now after ramming with peen rammer and the flat round rammer, the cope is placed over
the drag

6. Place the Runner and riser (Sprue pins), and fill with Green (Bentonite) sand.

7. Repeat the Step-3.

8. Then the cope is lifted smoothly and kept aside

9. Now the pattern is removed from the cope and drag, by using draw spike.

10. The mould pattern is created in similar to Bearing self core mould.

11. It is finished smoothly using rectangular Trowel and Smoothers.

12. Using vent wire, create small vent holes on the top surface of the cope.

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RESULT:

Now the mould of given dimensions are obtained

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EX No-20

MOULD WITH PATTERN (WOODEN MATCH PLATE PATTERN)


AIM:

To prepare the mould by using wooden plate of given dimensions

Tools USED:

Moulding sand & box, rammer box, Trovel, Flat rammer, runner, riser, Strike-off bar, Vent
hole rods, Dividers, Flat round Trowel, Smoothers, Lifters, Shovels, Square shaped Trovel, Spring
Calliper, Wooden match plate pattern.

PROCEDURE:

1. Mould is prepared by using moulding sand

2. Drag is kept upside down on the Wooden match plate pattern and fills it with Green
(Bentonite) sand.

3. The strike-off bar is used to level the sand. Ram it with Flat round rammer & Peen rammer.

4. After that, drag is kept back on the original position.

5. Now after ramming with peen rammer and the flat round rammer, the cope is placed over
the drag

6. Place the Runner and riser (Sprue pins), and fill with Green (Bentonite) sand.

7. Remove the wooden match plate gently from the drag.

8. The Match plate mould will create a pattern on the green sand, which is dumped in the
drag.

9. Then the cavity obtained is finished smoothly using rectangular Trowel and Smoothers.

10. Using vent wire, create small vent holes on the top surface of the cope.

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RESULT:

Now the mould of given dimensions are obtained

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EX.NO 21

STUDY OF FORGING AND SMITHY TOOLS


AIM:

To study the tools of Forging and smithy.

SMITHING & FORGING:

Smithy is defined as the process to handle relatively small jobs only, such can be heated in an
open fire or hearth.

The shop in which the work is carried out is known as smithy or a smiths shop and the various
operations are performed mainly by hand. I.e., by hand hammers or small power hammer etc.

The portion of a work in which forging is done is termed the forge and the work is mainly
performed by means of heavy hammers, forging machines and presses.

HEARTHS & FURNACES:

The heating of the metal is performed in a smiths hearth or in a furnace. Hearths or forges as they
are employed for heating metals for hand, forging while furnaces are employed for heating metals for
heavy forging

HEARTHS:

Hearths are classified as open or closed hearths. Blacksmiths forges have one or more (two)
hearths and are correspondingly called single or double hearth blacksmiths forges

A single open hearth open type forge consists of an iron fire pot lined with fire-clay or other
refractory materials. In which fuel is burnt by the aid of an air blast which enters the bottom of the fire
pot. The air is supplied by a hand operated blower or motor driven blower. The hood over the fire pot
collects the gases flowing through the fire and controls any smoke or spark.
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FUELS:

Fuels for blacksmiths hearth should contain as little sulphur as possible as it is detrimental to
steel. The best fuel for blacksmiths hearth is charcoal which must be dense and show a bright surface on
being broken. Charcoal contains no sulphur and particularly no ash. Coke can also be used but its
disadvantage is its high cost.

HAND TOOLS AND APPLIANCES:

THE ANVIL:

The anvil forms a support for blacksmiths work when hammering. The body of the anvil is made

of mild steel with a tools steel face welded on the body, but the beak or horn used for bending curves is

not steel faced. The round hole in the anvil called pritchel hole is used for bending rods of small diameter

and as a die for hot punching operations. The square or handle hole is used for holding shanks of various

fittings.

Anvils vary upto about 100 to 150 kg and should stand with the top face about 0.75m from the
floor. The height may be attained by resting the anvil on a vast iron or wooden base.

THE SWAGE BLOCK:

The forgeshop tool is used for many squaring, sizing, heading, bending and forming operations. It
is 0.25m wide and may ne used either flat or edgewise in its stand.

HAND HAMMERS:

Two kinds of hammers are used in the hand forging

1. The hand hammer used by the smith himself (0.5 to 2 kg)

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2. The sledge hammer used by the striker (4 to 10 kg)

TONGS:

The work to be forged is generally held with tongs. The tongs generally used for holding work
are

1. The gad tong used for general pick-up work, either straight or tapered

2. The straight lip fluted tong used for square, circular and hexagonal bar stock.

3. The ring tong used for bolts, rivers and other works of circular section.

4. The flat tong used for holding work of rectangular section.

FLATTERS:
Flatters are used to give smoothness and accuracy to articles being forged. This is used to flatten and
smoothen metal. Flatters are used under a sledge hammer to flatten and smoothen the metal, particularly after
its thickness has been reduced using fullers.

TONGS:

Tongs are used to hold hot metal pieces. Various shapes of blacksmiths tongs are available. A
selection of tongs is shown in figure, each taking its name from the shape and purpose of its mouth.

SINGLE PICK UP TONGS

It is used to pick up either flat work or round work

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CURVED PICK UP TONGS:

It is sometimes called as chisel or bolt tongs. It is used to hold round work such as bolts or rivets.
The opening behind the jaws allows space for the head of a bolt.

STRAIGHT LIP TONGS:

It is also called flat jawed or flat mouth tong. It is used to hold flat work.

DOUBLE HOLLOW BIT:

It is used to pick up either flat work or round work.

BASIC FORGEWORK OPERATIONS:


1. Drawing down

2. Spreading

3. Upsetting or jumping up

4. Punching

5. Drifting

6. Swaging

7. Bending

8. Fullering

RESULT:
Thus the forging tools are studied successfully.

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EX.NO 22

HEXAGONAL HEADED BOLT

AIM:
To make a hexagonal headed bolt out of the cylindrical metal specimen by forging.

TOOLS USED:
Anvil, Hand Hammer, Ring tongs, Flatter, Swage, Foot rule etc.

PROCEDURE:
Charcoal is put into the hearth where the fire is already started using wood pieces. When sufficient heat is
generated the cylindrical metal specimen is placed into the fire. When the metal piece reaches a sufficiently hot
condition, it is taken out of the fire using ring tongs, to prevent bending of the lower part of the specimen during
hammering, 3/4th length of length of the specimen is cooled by immersing it in water.

Then the specimen is placed over the anvil and the hot part is hammered to the shape of a cup. When the
specimen loses heat it is again placed over the fire and when sufficiently hot it is cooled to 3/4 th length and
hammered to a larger size when compared to the lower part. Then the hexagonal head is forged on to the
hammered part. Then the specimen is placed in the pritchel hole and hammered using a hammer and flatter

When the model is complete with required shape and dimension it is cooled by immersing it in water.

RESULT:
Thus the hexagonal bolt was made from cylindrical bolt with specified dimensions.

CALCULATIONS:
Volume of the given rod= (d2h)/4

= ( X 162 X 100)/4

= 20106.20mm3

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1. PART-A
Volume of Hexagonal Head = (3X 3 x 152 X10)/2

= 5845.67mm3

2.PART-B
Volume of Cylinder = (d2l)/4

= ( X 162 X L)/4

= 201.06 L mm3

Volume of the given rod = Volume of Part-A + Volume of Part-B

20106.20 = 5845.67 + 201.06 L

L = 70.92 mm

L = 71 mm

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EX.NO 23

L-SHAPE WITH A TRIANGULAR FACED POINT

AIM:
To forge the metal into a model of required size and shape

EQUIPMENTS USED:
Metal piece, anvil, hand hammer, sledge, Tongs etc

PROCEDURE:
With wood pieces fire is initiated after which charcoal is added. The air is supplied by a motor driven
blower. The amount of air is controlled by means of a tap which is present at the side of the open hearth. The
given metal piece is placed inside the fire with the help of a tong. The metal piece is heated to white hot
condition. Then with the help of tongs and hand hammer the metal piece is neaten to get square cross section.
When the metal loses its red hot condition it is again put back into fire till red hot condition is attained again using
tongs, flatter and sledge the metal piece is beaten to a square cross section. When the metal is still red hot the
metal is bent using the pritchel hole in the anvil to a L shape. Then again the metal piece is heated. When it is
sufficiently hot the tip of the longer side is beaten with hand hammer in such a way to get a pointed end
surrounded by triangular effaces. Then the model is cooled by dipping it in water.

RESULT:
Thus the L-Shape with a triangular faced Point is done based on the dimensions.

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CALCULATIONS:

Volume of the given rod= (d2h)/4

= ( X 162 X 100)/4

= 20106.20mm3

PART-A
Volume of Part-A = 13.52X 27

= 4920.75mm3

PART-B
Volume of Part-B = 13.02X L = 169L mm3

PART-C
Volume of Part-C = (1/3) X (20X132)

= 1126.67mm3

Volume of the given model = Volume of Part-A + Volume of Part-B + Volume of Part-C

20106.20 = 4920.75 + 169L +1126.67

L = 83.18

Length of the L shaped Rod (L) = 83 mm

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EX.NO.24

FLAT OR CONICAL HEADED RIVET

AIM:
To make a rivet out of the cylindrical metal specimen by forging.

TOOLS USED:
Anvil, Hand hammer, Round tong, Swage, Foot rule, etc

PROCEDURE:
Charcoal is put into the hearth where the fire is already started using wood pieces. When sufficient amount
of heat is generated the cylindrical metal specimen is placed in the fire. When the metal piece reaches a
sufficiently hot condition, it is taken out of the fire using round tongs. To prevent bending of the lower part of the
specimen during hammering, 3/4th length of the specimen is cooled by immersing it in water. Then the specimen
is placed over the anvil. Then the specimen is placed over the anvil. Then the comparatively hot part is hammered
to the shape of a cup. When the specimen loses heat it is again placed over the fire and when sufficiently hot it is
cooled to 3/4th length and hammered. This procedure is continued till the specimen attains the shape of a cup
head rivet (of required shape and dimension)

When the model is complete it is cooled by immersing it in water .

RESULT:
Thus, the conical head rivet was formed based on given dimensions.

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FOUNDRY & FORGING LABORATORY

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. what is shear strength?

2. what is tensile strength of a material?

3. what is compressive strength?

4. what is the difference between strength of a material and stress in a material?

5. what is the use of conducting permeability test on a specimen?

6. How many types of sand are there which are used in the foundry and forging lab?

7. Define Hand Forging

8. Define Power Forging.

9. Small components are forged by which method?

10. Menti on the tool and equipment used in hand forging

11. Body of anvil is made of which material?

12. What is the function of Hammers?

13. From which material Hammers are made?

14. what is swage Block?

15. What is the function of Swage Block?

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CU-Faculty of Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering