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FRANCO

D O N A T O N I I SE T W A SR U H I G E NI M A U S D R U C K

by

M i c h a e l B a r k 1 , B . M u s . ( N . S . W .S t a t e C o n s e r v a t o r i u m
of Music), F,T.C.L.

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment, of the requirements


for f.he dcores 6f Master of Music r,ij.th Honours
within the Faculty of Arts in the
University of New England

January,1985
PREFACE

I first was introduced to the music of Franco Donatoni in 1979 when a felfoir composltion student at

t h e N . S . W . S t , a t e C o n s e r v a t o r i u m o f l , l u s i c , I l i c c r r d u F o r m o s a , v i s . i l c d h i c I t o m cc i t . y , R o m c ' d u r i n g L h e t e r m

holldays and returned enthusiastic with news about Ital-ian compos-ition and, in particular, Franco Donatoni.

The musicology lccturer, Richard Toop, lalcr srowed me a s(jore of [twrs Ruhiitcl'jn A r l s L l r l r c ka n d I w a s

immediately struck by its external characteristics: itc cpced, the exlrsordj-narrr trltmher of notes and the

light virtuosity which f interpreted as rrartistic flourishrr.

I found out that the piece was conpletefy derived from the Schoettl'erg fragnent found in the last bar

and, from then on, Etwas Ruhiger took on an afmost mystical signi.ficance for me. l{ow did all ihose notes

cone from that smal1 fragment? I thought that, if I could flnd that oul, tire r:yslerics of musical de-

velopnent within a New llusi.c context woul"d becomc instantly apparent to me.

After working on the piccc for s o m e L - L m ea s a s t u r l u n t a l bhc Univcr:ity of llew rt:glarrd, I .1.i11 had

only a vague idea of how it was constructed. T wrol;e lo Fr:rnco Donatonj brtt he roplie,l, 'riJnfortunalcly,

I c a n r t h c l p y o u i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f l i l , w a sf o r L l r e s l m p l n r c l : t - u i l r r ' . J I o s L L i ; ^ m ? 1 . {' 1r :i r L 1 . d L } , e
1
'appuntir.rr' Without Donatonirs sketches to guidr- me, undcrtrking bhe analy.-is took il,c I'orn of rnusicaf

rrdetective workrrwhere countfess possiblerrlearlsI ucre followed unLil L h o m o , : Lp l a t c i L , l n c o l u t i c n en:erged.

These past four years of ever so gradual- enlightenment (which have laughl ne nuch about fife and art)

have slow1y revealed the apparent complexity of Lhe music to bc, in i'acl, irrcrcclible sinplicily. ithat I

once thought was intuitive m u s i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t h a s t r r r n c t l o u t L o h : c l u i L r - .r i g J L l l ' o l n a . I i r ; m .

The result is that, o n t h e o n e h a n d , E t w e s R u h i A c r j n A u s r l r r : c kl r a r - [ o s l i t : ' r m y s t i c e l attral buL, on

the other, I am left with a residue of analytic technique and insight into the creative ideas of this

composer which can only benefit my own r.rork. This proccss lrrs alio produceC a documcnt that may be of

some help to another student composer anxious to acquire rnorc teclrnique.

I would like to thank, firstly, Associate Professor Cecil liilf for hi:i faith tlat. I could comnlete

this progranme of study and, secbndly, Mrs Ann Chandar for her supervision. I woulcl afso fike to thank

my friends, Richard Toop, Cerry Brop)ryand Rick Formo:a, for tlreir c o l r J l a n t o n e o u r : 6 e m c n Ls n J , p a r t i c u -

larIy, Sharyn Lee, without whosc patience I would have qiven up long ago, S p e c i a l t h a n k s t o m . yn o t h e r ,

Mrs Nola Barkl-, for typing lhe dissertaLion so carefully and without compfaint.

@!p!9: 1. Franco Donatoni in a letier to bhe author dated 17th March, 1981.

ll
TABLE OI' CONTEI'ITS

PREFACE ii

LIST OF TABLES vii

LIS? OF FICURES viil

Chapter

I. INTRODUCTION 1

Review of previous studies 2

II. STYLISTIC DEVELOPI'IENT 16

III. E T W A SR U H I G N RI M A U S D R U C K 21

Fornal Outli-nes

Tr r h! vc Snhnonhorc
v v r r v v r r p v 4 6 fgll 22

rv. B A R S1 - 2 0 2/+

General Construction 21,

Rhythmic Structure of Bars 1-20 )t.

Pitch Structure o f t h e P i a n o B a r s 1- 2 0 2\

?<
Schoenberg Text - Primary relationship

Transnosii,ion of tlie Primaries 25

Primary - Cornmentary relationship ?o

Pitch Structure of the Wind and Strings Bars 1-20

f ) w n a m i e so f B a r s 1 - 2 0 5lr

V. B A R S2 1 . 1 0 0 57

Ceneral- Construction 5' 7

l'Jind and Strings Sars 21--100 57

Rhyihmic structure 57

Pitch structure

f.onarel nrinninloc <c

The flute from bar 1 ol

The flute fron bars 2-3

The fluLe from bars 4-6 6lt

The flute from bars 7-8 ol

The flute from bar 9 A,a

The flute from bars 1O-1'l 71


'7i
The fl-ute from bar 12

The flute fron bars 13-14 73

The flute from bars 11,-15 76

The flute fron bar 16 (a) 78

rne trute trom oar to (o/ 78

?he flute from bar 17 78

la].
TABLEOF CONTEIITS
I aa-+ i .',-, i l

Chapter

The flute from bar 18 (a) 82

The ffute from bar 18 (b) 82

The flute from bars 18-19 82


'1 82
The flute frorn bar 9

The f}rte fron bar 20 8' 7

Thc elarinet from ber 1 87

The clarinet fron bar 2 87

The clarinet from bars 1r-5 87


: a)
The clarinet from bar 6

The clarinet from bar 7

The clarinet frorn bars 9-10

The cLarinet from bar 1 1


qR
The clarinet fron bars 12-11

The clarinet fron bars 14-'15 OP

The clarinet fron bar 15 101

The clari.net frorn bar 16 1a3

The clarinet from bars 17-1.9 101

The clarinet from bars 19-20 106

The violin fron bars 1-2 108


.108
The violin from bars J-1+

The violin fron bar 5 i08

the v1011n lrom Dar l)

The violin from bars 7-B 112

rne v101tn tron Dar y 115

The viol-in from bars 10-11 115

The violin fron bars 12-13 118

The vioLin fron bars 1/+-15 124

The violin fronr bars 15-16

The violin from bars 16-1? 12lr

The violin from bars 18-19

The violin fron bar 20

The ce1lo from bars 1-2 127

n,r< ,-) 130

r n e c e - L - t ot r o m o a r o 132

The ce11o from bars 8-9 132

The cel1o fron bars 10-11 132

The celLo from bar 11 132

The ce11o fron bars 13-14 136

1V
TAELI OF rn\rTFirTq /^^-+i -,,-d )

Chapter Page

The ce1lo from bars 15-16 1)6


'rhe ce_L_Lo
I rom D1r | ,J 139

T h e c e 1 1 o f r o m b a r 17 139

The cello from bars 19-20

Dynamics

Thc Piano Bars 21-100

General princlples

B a r s 2 1- 4 0
1 l l

Bars 41-60 r40

B a r s 6 1- 8 0

Bars 81-i00 t40

The piano from bars 1-2 1 tr7

The piano from bars 3-4

The piano from bars 5-6 1 l+7

The piano from bars 7-8

The piano from bars 9-.10 t)<

The piano from bar I 1 1 5?.

The piano frorn bars 12-13 t)<

The piano from bars 1/*-15 152

The piano fron bars 15-15 157

The piano fron bars 16-17 15'l

The plano from bars 17-18 15'/


144
The piano from bars 1B-19

The piano from bar 20 taz

1AI
vr. B A R S1 0 1 - 1 4 5
1Al
General Construction

Pitch and Rhythmic Structure 161,

Dynamics to4

The Flute frorn Bar 100 l04

The frreducible Periodic Sequence 168

iAo
The Clarinet from Bar 100

The Violin from Bar 100 169

The Ce11o from Bar 100 189

The Piano frorn Bar 100 178

VII. B A R S1 4 6 - 1 6 6 186
'186
General Construction
q+
fDt lLr y, ,u+nLn-t ic ^ o u l -' ur 'u^C+U f e too

Pitch Structure 186

Dynamics 203
T A B L n 0 l C 0 N T E N l ' : '( c o n t , i n L r e d )

Chapt er

VIII. CONCLUSION 2A/,

BIBLIOGRAPiIT 2A6

DISCOGRAPHY 249

APPENDIXES 210

Appendix A: The Fifth Pi,ece from l'ive Piano Pieces (Op. 23) by Alnold Schoenberg 210

Appendix B: Selected Excerpts from Donatonits i'iorks 212

Appendix C: rnancnrinr na ihe Tntorylss with Frc.nco Donaloni hy Arrgelo Valoli


in 1982; Translatj.on by R. W. Toop zlo

Appendix D: Note on Terminolog;.' 224


LIST OF TAI]LtrS

Table Page

1. Biographical Notes l,

.
1 .. lr ,r l- sr L o
^4
l du^o- m
-^^l+.'
posrLtons 6

3. Rhythmic Diminution in the Wind and Strings 57

l'. Written AcceLerando in the l'lind and Strings 59


< .^-+ tnlt;+,'
v v r r v r . r B + v J
p'ar.
v q . e 73-7'l 120
1 t q
6. Wind and String Dynanics Bars 61-100
I,IST OiI i.'IGURIIS

Figure

1. Instrunental Layout for Performance 21


aa
2. The Schoenberg Text

3. Interval-lic Structure in the Schoenberg Text (i)

1r. Intervallic Structure in the Schoenberg Text (ii)


) l
5- Crace-notes in the Piano Far 1

6. The Left i{and of the Schoenberg Text

7. S c h o e n b e r gT e x t - P r i m a r y R c l a t i o n : h i p 26-2,q

8. P r i m a r y 1 a n d C o m m e n L e r y( 1 ) 3A

Q Fri nerrr - Cnmmonf-nrrr Re'l:i.i onrh irr ) | -.)o

10. Primery 1 - Commentary (9) Relationship

11 1 / o r 1 - . i n r 'Ol n i o i n 4 l a n d H o r i z o n t a l Invercion

12. Vertical Original and Vertical (Double-stopped) Inversion

13. Retrograde RelationshiP

1l+. Obscured Retrograde Relationship 38


?q
15, Ranges

16. Pitch Relationships j9


Inverted

11 Trnn<nn<if.inn T.eveL of the lrrversion (i) ,r9

18. Transposition Level of the fnversion (ii.)

19. Original - fnversion Symmetry (i) lr0

20. Original - Inversion Symnetry (ii) 1+O

21. Piano - Wind and Strings Relationship 4 1- 5 3

22. Primary Dynamic Irregularity

23. Dynarnics of Commentaries

2l+. C o m m e n b a r yD y n a m i c I r r e g u l a r i L y (i) 55

25. Connentary Dynanie lrregularity (ii) 55

26. Dynamics of Wind and Strings 55

27. Ce11o Dynamic Irregularity

?R. Tho Prinninle of Interval DininuLion

29. Minor 2nd Unit OU

30. Ungrouped Pitch

31. Double Grouping 61

32. Structure of the Doubled Sequence o l

33. Fi.xed Pitch Register in the Doubled Sequence oz

3l'. The Doubled Sequence Bar 5J oz

)E
)). vuiruarruruJr
^-'
errq
'r rn t e r v a l Diminution of the FLute from Bar 1 o)

36. The Doubled Sequence Bars 55-66 6t,

37. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Flute from Barr;2-J o)

38. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Ffute from Bars 4-6 66

v:l-]-1
L I S T 0 F F I G U R E S( c o n t i n u e d )

Figure

39. The Two Doubled Sequences Bats 66-67 67

4b. The Expected ligures in Bar 81 67

t.1
+ , .
l'lnntinui*.rr and lnlsly4l
v v r . v - r r q r v J * r . g . Diminution of the Flute fron Bars 7-8 68
AO
42. The Two Doubled Sequences Bar 68

/.3. The Doubled Sequence Bar 69 69

1,1,. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Flute from lar 9 70

1,5. The Expected Doubled Sequence Bar 69 71

1,6. The Two Doubfcd Scquences Bars 70-71 11

,n
+t.
^u u^r hr u+r r ir ru .r u, J, i + , , 4- r-i iu rntervaf
I Diminution of the Flute from Bars 1O-11
"t3
48. The Doubled Sequcnce Bar 72

l+9. Continuity and Interva] Diminuti.on of the Ffute fron Bar 12 7/+

50. Continuity and Interval Dimj.nution of the Flute from llars 13-1l' 75

51. The Doubled Sequence Bar 73 76

52. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Fl-ute from Bars 14-15 77
?R
53. The Expected Figures in Bars 8/+-85

qt /v lv n rlirrrii.rr
rruarrufqJ
nnrl T
qrrq r 1l61y4l Dininution of the Plute from Bar 16 (a) 79
)+.

55. Conti.nuity antl Interval Diminution of the Flute from Bar 1(> (b) 80

56. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Flute from Bar 17 81

57. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Flute from Bar 18 (a) 83

58. Continuity and Interval Dinrinution of the Flute from Bar 18 (b) 84

59. Continuity and fnterval Diminution of the Flute from Bars 18-19 85

60. Continuity and fnterval Diminution of the Flute from Bar 19 do

61. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Flute from Bar 20 88

Diminulion of the Clarinet frorn Bar 1 RA


62. Continuity and Interval

Aa rn-ii-rri*., ah^ rnterval Dirninution of the Clarinet from Bar 2 90


6/+. Continuity and Interval Diminuti-on of the Clarinet from Ilars .i-5 91
65. T h c D o u b l c d S e q u e n c eB a r 6 7

66. Continuity and Interval Dimj-nution of the Clarinet from Bar 6 93


57. Continuity and lnterval Dinrinution of the Clarinet from Bar 7 9lr

68. Continuity and Interval- Dininution of the Clarinet fron Bars 9-10 95

oy. I n e t n r e e L j o u o l e q b e q u e n c e sl J a r s o y - l u

7O. The Doubled Sequence Bar ?1

71. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Clarinet f r o m B a r 11 97

72. The Doubled Sequence Bars 72-73 98

73. Continuity and Interval- Diminution of the Clarinet from Bats 12-13 99

71,. Continuity and Interval Diminutio:t of the Clarinet from Bars 1.1-15 100

75. The Doubled Sequence Bar 7l+ 101

76. The Expected Doubled Sequence Bar ?{ 101


L I S T 0 F F I C U R E S( c o n t i n u e d )

Figure Page
'1
7?. The Two Doublcd Sequences Bars 75-76 01

78. Continuity and Intervaf Dinrinution of the Clarinei from Bar 15 102

79. The Doubled Sequence Bar 75 103

80. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Clarinet frotn Bar 1(r 1AL

Rl unntinrritrr arrd Tnlslyal- Dimj.nu|ion of the Cfarinet


v v ' r w r r . q r w J u r r u ! from Bars 1?-18 105

82. The Three Doubfed Sequences Bars 7'7-'lB 106

R? Cnntinrrifv anr'l Tnterval Diminubion of the Clarinet fron Bars 19-20 107

84,. The Doubled Sequence Bar 79 108

85. Conti.nuity and Interval Dimirrution of the Violin 1 ' r 6 n 1f l i r p l ; l - l i09

86. Continuity and Intervaf Dirninution of the Violin from Pars J-lr 110

87. Continuity and Inlervaf Diminution of the Violin from Bar 5 111

88. The Two DoubLed Sequences Bars lt7'/,8 I t l

89. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Violin fron Bar 6 I t )

1 1 1
90. Continuity and Interval Diminuti-on of the VioLin from Bars 7-8

91. The Two Doubled Sequences Bar 49 115

1 1 5
92. The Doubled SequcnceBars 50-51
'1
93. Continui-ty and Interval Diminubi-on of the Violin flom ll:rr 9 1b

9lr, Continuity and Interval Dj-minulion of the Violin from Bars 10-11 117

95. The Two Doubled Sequences tsars 52-53 118

96. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Violin fron Bars 12-13 119

97. Thc Two Doublcd Scquances Bar 5/, 120

4aa
98. Continuiiy and Interval Dininution of the Vlolin fronr Rars 14-15

99. The Doubled Sequence Bars 55-56 122


'15-16
1OO. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Violin from Bars 123

101. The Doubled Sequence Bar 57 121,


.t ^w .a . d ^ - + i - , i i + , , 46r h
uuraLarluruJ r u^ r
rr
nterval Diminution of the Violin from Bars 16-17 tz)

'1O3. '18-19
Coniinuity and Interval DininuLion of the Violin from Bars tlo

10/,. The Two Doublcd Sequences Bar 58

1t1
1O5. The Doubled Sequence Bar 50

106. Continuity and Interval Dirninution of the Violin from Bar 20 128

1O7. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Cello from Bars 1-2 129

108. The Doubfed Sequence Bar 61 130

109. T h e D o u b l e d S e q u e n , r eB a r 6 5 130

110. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cel1o from Bals 4-5 131

111. Continuity and Interval Dlminution of the Cell,o from Bars 8-9 133

112. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cello from Rars 10-11 1 3t ,
.11 135
113. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cello from Ilar

111r. The Two Doubled Sequences Bats 55-56 136


LIST 0F IICURIS (continueri)

Figure Page

115. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cell-o frour Bars 13-14 137

116. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Ceflo from Bars 15-16 138

117. The Doubled Sequence Bars 56-57 139

118. The Three Doubled Sequences Bats 57-58 1)9

119. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cello from Bar i6 1lro

12O. Continuity and Interval Dlminution of the Cel1o from Bar'17 1lr1

121. The Three Doubled Sequences Bars 59-60

122. Continuity and Interval- Diminution of the Cello from Bars 19-20 1l'3

123. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Piano from Bals 1-2 1 1,8

121,. Continuity and Interval Dinrinuti.on of the Piano from Bars 3-l+ t4t

125. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Piano frorn Bars 5-6 tlu

126. Continuity and Interval Dj.minution of the Piano from Bars 7-t 151

127. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Piano fronr Bars 9-.10 t)J

128. Continuity and Interval- Dininution of thc Piano from Bar.11 t)4

1)Q nnnf.inrril.rr snd Interval


v v r r v : r r 4 r v J q r r v r Diminution of the Piano from Bars 12-1J 155

110. Continuily and Interval Dinrinution of the Piano from Bars 14-15 156

1?1
| ) | .
enntinrriiv enrl lnlslyal
w v r r v f , ^ q r u J e r r Y I Diminubion of the P|ano fl'orn lllrls 1"-1i' l rti

132. Continulty and fnterval Dininution of the Piano from llars 16-17 159

133- Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Piano fron Bars 17-18 160

1t ) ?
4.
) ru vl rar ur: rtr iqnr v rJ r i t r r rq rnr ud T
r nlslysl D i m . i n u t i o n o f t h e P i a n o J l r o mB a r s 1 8 - 1 9 to I

135. Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Piano from Bar 20 toJ

'100 165-167
1aA CnnLinrrilrr and Interval
v v r . e 4 r . s 4 v J q r r q * Di-nj-nution of the I'lubc fronr llar

137. The lrreducible Periodic Sequence 168

138. Symnetry trlithin the lrreduej,ble Periodic Sequcnce (i) 168

139. Symmetry l,lithin the Irreducibfe Periodlc Sequence (ii) 169

1t+O. Continuity and Interval Dininution of the Clarj,net from Bar 10t-) 170-12
7

.t t4.t . .v ^u r-r+u lj r-rfu r ' i/ +


J
, r 4- [-qi lnterval
f Diminution of the violin fron Bar 100 173-17/+

11 4t 4. . .u ^u r- r+u jr -t l!ui ri u+J, , e^ rnr q^ !r n t e r v a l Dininution of the Cello from Bar 100

'1OO 179-1e)
11t3. Continuity and Interval Dirninution of the Piano fron tsar

1ltlr. Grace-note Decoration in the Piano 181+-185

11r5. The Attempted Reconstruction of the Schoenberg Text 187-?01

1116. Exposed OcLave Bar /'2 204

1ttl. E Major Arpeggio Bar 80 205

148, Conposizione in Quattro Movimenti (1955)

11,9. For Gri11y (1960) Bars 46-52 212

15o. Per Orchestra (1962) p. 19 213

151. Page 1O of Doubles (1961) and the Corresponding Page of Babai (1961*) 21lr

152. D l - v e r t i . n e n t o 1 7 ( 1 9 6 5 ) B a r s 1 / , / * - 1/ , 9 215
L I S T 0 F F I G U R E S( c o n t i n u e d )

Figure Page

153. Opus 18) (196?) Bars ?-8


Souvenir (Kammersynphonie < to

15/+. Black and While n. 2 (1968) 211

155. Solo (1969) Bars 192-195 < t a

156. The Conplete Score of Estratto (1969) 219

157. tunen (1975) Bars 33-36 219

158. Portrai.t (1976 - 1977) Bars 271-273 220


"Ioy (9'17)
159. The 0pening ot

160. AIeo (1977) p. 7 )))

161. The Opening of Ali (1977) 22)

162. The Opening of Argot (1979) ?2/.

163. The End of the First Section of Clair (1980) 225

16/'. Pitch-register Terninology 228

xi1
C H A P T E RI

INTRODUCTION

The project which I have set for myself is an analysis of a mrjor post-sefial work: Franco Donatonirs

Etwas Ruhiser in Ausdruck (1967). A nunber of queslions immediately present thenselves:-

.1
. llhy analysis?

Analysis has direct relevance to lhe sLudcnt-composer in tlrlt it provides inst,ruction in composiLion

technique.

2. Why post-serial?

ilClassicrr seriaLism provides a vaLuable grounding in modern chromatic techniques l't:t i:r afready amply

covered. Much information is available on th(] works of the Secontl Viennesc Schoo.l and increasirlg-Iy on

Boulez and Stockhausen.

On the other hand, rrfree l2-note compositionrr (post-serialism) has becn hailed as lhe difficult and

Itunchartedrruay of the future and it is precisely this area which would bc of interest lo explore:

But there is no short cut to the technique of free \2-noLe composition. It, can only be attempled after
Lhe discipline of serialism has been completely absorbed, when thc mind instj'ctivefy thinks in terns
of total-thromaticism a n < 1w h e n n e w s e l f - i m p o s e d d i s c i p l l n e s can bc evolved. [Free 12-note composition
is]...a vast unchartecl territorT, the confines of which are st,iff unknown and llre ltays and byeways [s:tg]
rr -1 -- -^-ceived.4
s UIII urraJ uf rrrJ PEr

This quotation from Reginald Snith Brindle is particr:larly relevant in that it is contai.ned in a book which

is read by most composition studenLs at some stage in their studies.

3. Why Franco DonaLoni?

There are five reasons:

a) Donatonirs style of composition is fast, light and, to me personally' has an elegance which appeals.

L\
ul n^-^+^-: l^
- -^ -+ a. t u r e as a composer cannot be denied. His works are wiclely performed at internationaf

nusic festivals and he constantly receives connissions from virluoso performing grcul)s. Over 70 of his

compositions have been published.

c) Donatonj-rs stature as a-teacher is equally uefl atteste,l. Ile teacht;s tho advanced composition

finishing course at Italy's najor conserva'uory and g-ives seminars at summerscltc.cls alf over: Ertop".3

d) Donatonits music is tranalysabler'. ?he works are systcmatic in their construction using processes

which can be traced rather than being the product of intuition only.

e) Despite items a) to d) above, almost no uork ]ras becn Jonc on Donrloni in the Er:g1ish Language.

, 1,. Why Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdruck in particular?


I

a) The piece stands at a turning point in Donatonits eirlislic devclopment. His'nook Questo (Zt6 pages)'

is essentially about the artistic significance of Etwas Rrrhir:er irn Ausdruck.

b) Etwas Ruh!t9! in4q!drqp! i s o n e o f D o n a t o n i r s b e s t k n o , " ma n d r n o s t a v a i f a b l e pleces. There are

Footnotes: 2. R. Smith BrindLe, Serial Composili"n, Cxfcrd University Press, 1966, c. 194'

? Two of Australiars leading composers of the younger generation, Gerard Brophy and Riccardo
Formosa, spent 1982-1983 studying with Donatoni in Rome.

/.. F. Donatoni, Qttesto, Milan, Adelphi, 1910.


| ^ ^ ^ rur .w .f : ,v r"r q- m u s i c a - Le x a m p - I e )d e v o L e l t o i t
\ sq! in SmiLh Brindle's boo;.r.e i.*u Ilu:i u:.i: ls

widely read by students.

F d ^ ^ F r i h - . r . , . .
c) Thele is a commercial ^ . , i r v e i f a b l e ,

leview of Previous Stuores

As slated above in J. e), little informaLion is available on l)orraloni in t,)re rirrglistr lan!Iuage. There

are onl;,'three arLicles (orre of which is irr translaLion from Italj-an) plus a I'ew lislinr:s in rc,cent nuslc

,lictioriaries and passing comments in text-books. 0f the three articles, tr,'o r,,ere oLrtlisheci in 195o anC

195? and the other in 1965--lhat is, virtually al lhe beglnning ol Donalonirs career, lio+. one oi then is

devoted lo Donaloni exclusivelv.


6
The first t,wo- are by heginald,imilh 5rinC1e, an lnqlish composer vlro stui]i.'d uit Pizzert,i in iione

in Ine 1950rs and who was a good lrlend o1'lror,aioni at thr i.irre:

i;e uere ver;r good friends ?.j-)O years aBo, in lacl iie began his intct'e:it. 1r, -r,rfiir,i
and re had long di-scussions then, /

As a result, the arlicfes give a good insignt, irrto Dorratonirs earliesl cor:posil,irlli

The third arti.c1e8 is bv Mario Bortolotlo, a music criNic whom Donat,or.ri nrt irl

far more concerned with the philosoplrical ano mvsLic:-L aspects of tlrc mu: ic ',n:, rs tf

on Donatoni is almosL inpossjcle to understanJ wir,l.ouL arr exLensivc prior kn,ar..d,:r of

As far as dictiontrry references are concclrred, t,he nosL coltgrrehcrrsive ari iL'l,:r, i)lr

'lwentiel,ir 'l'irr o
rr, iirt, !ictionar.,. of Centur.,' Mur;ic and iicir rlrovr:s.'

In Italian' of course, there is a subslantlal:rnount o1'rnalerial d:r:rrnentir:,'Ilonatonir:, uori.: includinpl

Lhree books by the composer himsel-f10 und a 110-page monograpil by iierrzo Cr.st.i.11 f-rf Donaionirs literar.t

output, Smith Brindle rrites:

His om extensive theories (lqn itis book 0uesto), ruritien in a singularf.y coriprrlent r.ut irr;r,'r.t.r':b1e
language, make tough reading. ''

Thic iq npr+pinlrr trlp of [,,rresro a nd A-'o.^iJ.!,1- i noi-han a. , . . fi . ' . ',. . ,..,. j


*'^* ;rnrl.r .,. 1.:.... : : ]. rjt:t-
Y 5__::__1lji____]j

i. i' tr t, : LO t e' S : 5. i.. Smillr :irinrile, 'Jlriyi-rrsiLr'


Tle i i r : u i j L r :i : , ,lxtol(l Pt'r:ss, 1(,r7i.

''1..-"1,,,
ii. .lrj.llL i'r'itr,ll--, rli,,,: Lurrrrl.i:j i,'ril,jer, fi,': i'1tt:;ir::rli'irr,.:r, l;1,. )'., i:.
R. Snitf, llinrile, r I i . a 1 l a n C , r r ) i l n i - ' L ) r ' r r :i 1i u:icr, irL ii. ilrrt-o,' (.I i. '.r,t,ri ir 1l

T u e r r t i e i l L C e : r l u r t , ' , L o n , i r r r , r r o u l - i , : , i , : r .a n r l i : l t i , 195'/, DL. 1-:ar-ii .

7. Professor iieilirrald Smitfr lrlnLilc iri ir lct-tirl Lo t,lrt'auLi,or', 1.1.r.

E. l'1. Bortolotto, rThe llew i,iusic 1n li-afi.r, Llans. l.lillialr i. ilolr: ...
Lf Janunry 1965, pp. t,1-67.

9. J. Vinton (ed.), Dictlonar't, 11'Trrlntier,ft.jorrtrtr..'ii).rii, l,,,i.r:.,


.1
pp. 8 7 - 18 E .
i : i . S a d i e ( e d . ) , T n e ) i e l r l l r o v r . . : ;, i , o r t r l o r L , 1 9 ! i , pp. i,,',-'..';.

1:) D o n a i o n i , . l u e r r i , , l.
i i . J o t r a t o n i , A n t e c e d ' : n + , e- ' . , i i i l r l , , , \ i i e 1 p h i , ' 1 9 i 3 U .
i. Donatoni, fl Sigaro di iir;nlrdo, Ililrin, lipirlli Eriizioni, 1 )r-.

1 1 . li. 0resli, l'ranco Ilor:rlorri, l . i i i a r r , : r ) u iz i o r r i i:luvinl i . i c r . i r , : , r r i ,I l : . .

12, tsrindf e , ile l,lev i.htsi.: , l', 1 / r ' ),


)

only a rudinentary knowledge of Italian. Donatonits journal articles are only a liltfe less rrimpenetrablerr.

The nost important of these are conveniently collected in Il Siearo rli Arnando. 0f the material written by

music criti-cs, by far the most accessible is Crestits Franco Donatoni. This book traces Donatonirs artistic

developrnent in cl-ear and relatively straightforward ILalian. ILs use, however, is limited to being an

introduction or overvi-ew of the sub.ject as Cres'"j" declines to become involved with the more technical

aspects of the music.

The following Tabfcc 1 and 2 list DonaLonirs biographicrrl dotr.ifs anJ con,po.ritlnns re:irccliveJ):-
TABLE 1

Biographical I'lotes

1927 Franco Donatoni Born Verona, 9th June.

Education

193L Begins to study viofin at Veronars Civico Liceo l'lusica1e.

19/+5 Takes a Diploma di Ragioniere (Diploma in Accountancy).

19116 Enters the Conservatorio rrVerdi.x di Mifano at the encouragenent of his first nusj-c

teacher Piero Bottagisio. Studies cdunterpoint and fugue under nttore Desderi.

19/rB Enters the Conservatorio lrMartini'r di Bologna and studies under Adone Zecchi and Lino

Liviabella.

191+9 Takes a Diploma in Composizione e Strumentazione per Banda (Composition and

Instrumentation for Band).

1950 Takes a Diploma in Musica Coral e Direzione di Coro (Choral l.lusic and Choral Conducting).

1951 Takes a Diploma in Composizione (Composition).

1952 Enters the Accademia llazionale di Santa Cecifia i n R o m ea n c l s t u d i e s w i t h Ildebrando

Pj.zzett'i.

1953 Takes a Diploma di Perfezionamento in Conposizione ('tcompletion'r in Composition).

1g5f+, 1958, 1961 Atiends the Ferienkurse f,l.lr Neue Musik (summ"r courscs) j.tr Darmstadl,.

Prizes and Awards

1950 H i g h l y C o m m e n d e di n t h e V e r c e l l i Prize, awarded to Quartetto for strings (1950).

1951 International LiEge Prize awarded to Quartetto for strings (195A).

1952 International Radio Luxembourg Prize awarded to @g"t!lng for strings, brass and

solo timpani (1952).

1953 International Radio Luxembourg Prize awarded to Sinfonia for strings (1953).

1961 International I.S.C.M. Prize awarded to Puppenspiol for orchestra (1961),

1966 Marzotto Prize awarded to Puppenspiel JI for flute, piccolo and orchestra (1965).

B6e Koussevitzky Conmission results in orts for 12 instruments (1969).

1979 Psacaropoulo Prize awarded to Spiri for 10 instrunents (1977).

Teaching Appointrnents

1953 Teacher of harmony and counterpoint, Conservatorio 'tMartinutt di Bologna.

1955 Teacher of harnony and counterpoint, Conservatorio rrVerdirt di Mifano.

1968 Professor of Composi-tion, Conservatorio rrVerdirr di Torino. Ilolds seninar in Base1,

Switzerland.

1969 Professor of Cornp6sition, donservatorio rrVerdirr di Mifano (teaching at Turin and Milan

concurrently).

1970 Begins teaching a t t h e S i e n a S u m m e rS c h o o f s .

1971 Begins teaching courses in nusic and the arts for the Department of Literature,

University of Bologna.
T A B L E1 ( c o n t i n u e d )

1972 Holds seninar in Granada (Spain). Spends a year in Berl-in at the i.nvj-tation of the

Deutscher Akadenischer Austausehdienst.

1971, 0n Coffredo Petrassits retj-rement, takes over therrcorso di perfezionamento in

composizionel at the Accademia NazionaLe di Santa Cecil-ia in Rome.

19'18 Holds seurinar at the Paris Conservatoire.

19'19 Hol-ds seninar at the University of California at Berkeley (U.S.A.).

1982 HoLds a composition course in Avignon (France) and a seminar at Pescara.


TABLE2

List of Compositions

1950 Quintetto I for string quartet

First performance: Liege 1951 - The Koch Quartet

PubLisher: Zanibon

1951 Concerto for Orchestra (withdrawn)

f1 Libro dei Sette Sisilli biblical cantata for soloists, choir and orchestra (',rithdram)

Recitativo e Allesro for violi"n and piano

First perfornance: Paris 195'1 - Violln: E, Koch

Publisher: Zanibon

1952 Concertino for strings, brass and solo timpani


'1952 -
First perfornance: Festival of Venice September Conduclor: F. Previtafi;

Tiurpani: Luigi Pellegrini

Duration: 161

Publisher: Schott

Concerto for bassoon and strings

First performance: Rone 1952 - Conductor: F. Donatoni; Bassoon; R. Oioffreda

Publisher: Zanibon

Sonata for solo viofa

First performance: Messina 1954 - Viola: L. Lama

Publisher: Zanibon

1953 Sinfonia for strinss

First performance: Rone 1953 - Conductor: P. Santi

Publisher: Boosey and Hawkes

Ouverture for chamber orchestra

Ij-rst perfornance: Venice 1953 - Conductor: lj. Gracis

Publisher: Zanibon

1954 Divertinento for viofi.n and chanber orchestra (2.2.2.2. 2.2.2.A. timpani strings)

First perfornance: Rone 1957 - Conductor: A. ArgenLa; Viofin: R. Brengola

Duration: 21 |

Publisher: Schott

Cinque Pezzi per due pianoforti

First perfornance: l,lerona 1955 - The Duo Gorini-Lorenzi

Publisher: Drago

1955 M u s i c a f o r c h a n n b eor r c h e s t r a ( 2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 2 . 1 . 1 . 0 . c e f e s t e p e r c u s s i o n 1 0 , 0 . e . 6 . 3 . )

First performance: Brescia 1957 - Conductor: P. Santi

Duration: 1lrl

Publisher: Schott

Composizione in quattro movimenti for piano

First perforrnance: Yerona 1956 - Piano: T. Rampazzi

Publisher: Schott
L A D L LI (Conttnued.'

1957 La Lampara (bal]et) for orchestra

First perforrnance: Milan 1957 - Conductor: L. Rosada

Publ-isher: Ricordi

Tre fmprowisazioni for piano

Fi-rst performance: 2nd and Jrd improvisations Naples 1958 - Piano: A. Itrrau]

1st inprovisation Milan 1962 - Piano:. B. Canino

Publisher: Schott

1958 Quartetto fT for string quartet

First performance: Florence 23rd March 1962 - G.S.M.C.


'1 '
Duration3 1

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (5557)

1959 Serenata for 16 instruments and soprano (3.o,3.O.0.1.1.0. mandolin, guiLar, harp, celeste,

vibraphone, piano 0.0.1 .0.1 ' )

Text: Dylan Thonas

first performance: Milan 11th April- 1959 - Conductor: Bruno l4aderna; Sol-oist: Cathy

Berberian

Duration: 131

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (5605)

M o v i m e n t of o r h a r p s i c h o r d , p i a n o a n d n l n e i n s t r u m e n t s ( 3 . 0 . 2 . 1 . 2.1.0.0.)

First perfornance: Mil-an J0th September 1959 - Conductor: P, Santi; Soloists: The Duo

Canino-BalLista

Duration: 5t15r

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (5670)

S t r o p h e s f o r o r c h e s t r a ( 0 . / , . 0 . 4 . / - . / , . 3 . 1, 1 5 , 1 5 , 1 A . 8 . 6 . )

Firsl performance: R o m el O t h J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0 - R . A . 1 . O r c h e s t r a ; C o n d u c l o r : Ir. Scaglia

Duration: 1 1I

Publisher: Suvini Zerbonl (5683)

1960 F o r G r i 1 1 y i m p r o v j - s a t i o nf o r s e v e n s o l o i s t s (1.0.2.0. 0.0.0.0. percussion 1.1.1.0.)

First performance: Rome24th May 1960 - Conductor: H. Hagada

Duration: 5t 30\

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (5'719)

S e z i o n i i n v e n t i o n f o r o r c h e s t r a ( / - . / - . / - . / ' . { s a x o p h o n e s8 . 6 . / ' , 2 . 5 percussion, xylomarimba,

vibraphone, celesLe, harp, harpsichord, piano 15.15.10.8'6.)

Fi.rst performance: Hamburg 1{th May 1962 - Norddeutscher liundfunk Orchestra; Conductor:

M. Gielen

Duration: 11"

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (5762)


!AULL Z (COnIInUeO.'

1961 Doubles exercises for harpsichord

FirsL performance: Festival o f P a l e r m o 2 5 r h l 4 a y 1 9 6 ' 1- H a r p s i c n o r d : I'lariollna de RoberLis

Duration: 6l

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (5819)

Quartetto IIl for 4-track magnetic tape

First performance: tr'estival of Venice 15th April 1962

Duration: l n tl + 5 r

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (582/r)

P u p p e n s p i e lf o r o r c h e s t r a ( 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 2 . 0 . 3 p e r c u s s i o n 6 . 6 , 6 . 1 . 2 . )

First performance: Festival o f P a l - e r m o8 t h O c t o b e r 1 9 6 2 - C o n d u c t o r : D. Parls

Duration: 9t3Or

Publ-isher: Suvlni Zerboni (5885)

1962 P e r O r c h e s t r a f o r o r c h e s t r a ( 4 . 0 . 4 . 0 . / , . 1 , . 1 r . O3. p e r c u s s i o n 1 5 . 1 5 . 1 2 . 8 . 8 . )

First perfornance: Warsaw Festival 2/rth September 1963 - Conductor: F, Donaloni

Duration: c.201

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (6053)

lOAa Orrorlal +^ r\t (7r--A1 ^) f^- -rrihd nrrorlot


Y..itsl_i3iu__ll__

First performance: Festival of Palermo 5th Oclober 19bl -.jocieLa Catlelist,ica Italiana

Duration: Aleatory

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (611))

1961, Babai for harpsichord

First performance: C i r c o l o T o s c a n i n i T u r i n 2 2 n d D e c e m b c r1 ! 6 8 - I l a r p s i c h o r d : R. Cogn"rrolJ

Duration: 3l

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (6312)

Asar I'or 1Ostrings (a.O.l.:.t. )

Firsl performance: Istiturione Universilaria Concertl Rone 20tir ifecruary 1967 -

I Solisti Veneti; Conciuclor: C. Scimone

Duration: Aleatory

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (b487)

Black and White for 37 strings

First perforrnance: Festivaf of Pafermo 6th September1965 - Conduclor: D. Paris

Duration: Aleatory

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (6390)

Footnote: 13. This date is laken from the Suvini Zerboni catalogue but according lo Cresli, op. cil,,
p. 10J the first performance was in Merlinge 1967 - llarpsi-chord: R, Pagano.
IABLE2 (continued)

1965 Divertimento II for sLrj.ngs (6.6.6./',2, or 12.12.12.8.2.)

Firsl performance: Feslival of Venice lOth September 1965 - Conduclor: D. Paris

DuraLion: l 1l

Publisher: S u v i n i Z e r b o ni ( 6 3 9 1 )

P u p p e n s p i e ln . 2 f o r f l u t e , piccolo and orchestra (2.2.2.2.2,?,2.4,3 percussion

1 2 , O . 6 , 1 , . 2) .

First performance: Valdagno 1?th September 1966 - Conductor: E. Gracis; Flute and

Piccolo: S. Gazzelloni.

Duration: 1lrl

Publ-isher: Suvlni Zerboni (6511)

196'l i ep u s 1 8 ) f o r 1 5 i n s t r u n e n l s ( 1 . 1 . 2 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 0 ,
S o u v e n i . r ( K a n m e r s y m p h o nO harp, piano,

harpsichord 1.0.1 .1 .1, )

First performance: Festiva] of Venice 12th Septenber 1967 - Musica Viva Pragensis Ensemble;

Conductor: Z. Vostrak

Duration: 1l , l

Pubfisher: Suvini Zerboni (6689)

Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdnrck for fluLe, clarinei, viol.in, cello t'nd p.itrnrr

Firsl performance: Goethe Institute R o m e 1 s t l - e b r u a l y 1 9 6 ! l - t l o l l o q u i u r n l ' 1 u : r i c a l eI ' l n s e m b l e ;

Conductor: W. Heider

Duration: 1?l

PubLisher: Suvini Zerboni (6711)

19 6 8 Black and White n. 2 exercj-ses for 10 fingers on thc keyboard

First performance: Sesta Settimana Inlernazionale Palermo 27th December 1968 - The Duo

Canino-Ba1lista

fl,rnetian. Ilaotnr',,

Publisher: Suvj-ni Zerboni (6810)

O r t s ( S o u v e n i rn . 2 ) f o r ' 1 1 , i n s t r u m e n t sa n d n a r r a t o r ( 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 0 . narp, piano,

Text: Franco Donatoni

First p e r f o r m a n c e : P a r i s 2 1 s L l 4 a r c l . 1 9 6 9 - I ' l u s i q u eV i v a n L c f n s e n L l . ; C o r i , r c L o r : 1 1 . P a n n i ;

Narrator: S. Bussott,i

Duration: 1 0|

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (686")


TAPTF 2 ia^-+i.,r-'ll

1969 Solo for 10 strings (5.0,2.2.1.)

Pirst performance: Feslivaf of Venice pth September 1969 - I Sollsti VeneLi;

Conductor: C. Scimone

Duration: 13t

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (6906)

Eslratto for pi-ano

First perfornance: Arte Viva Trieste 19th February 1970 - Piano: A. BaLlista

Duration: 5oil

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (6931)

1970 DoublesII for orchestra (3.3,).3.3.3.3.O. harp, piano, harpsichord, J percussion

1 8 . o. 9 , 6 , 3 . )

First performance: In concert--Rome 13th June 1970 - R.A.L Orchestra; Conductor:

B. Bartoletti. As a bal-1et--Venice 15th January 1971 - Choreography: J. Lazzini;

Conductor: Franco Donatoni

Duration: 251

PubLisher: Suvini Zerboni (6920)

S e c o n d oE s t r a t t o for Iur'p, piano nnd lrarpsiclr<>r'tl

tr'irst performance: Brescia 9th June 1970 - Harp: M. Selml; Piano: R. 'i'r'ythall;

Harpsichord: M. de Robertis

Duration: 121

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (7027)

T o E a r l e f o r c h a m b e ro r c h e s t r a ( 2 . 2 , 2 . 2 . 2 , 2 . 0 , 0 , 18.0.5,lr.3.)

First performance: Bolzano 2nd l'ebruary 1971 - Haydn Orcheslra; Conductors: I'. Donatoni

and E. Cracis

Duration: AJ-eatory

Publisher: Suvini Zerbon-i (7107)

1 9 7 1- 1 9 7 2 T o E a r l e T w o f o r t w o o r c h e s t r a s( ) . ) , 3 . 3 . ) . 3 . 3 , A . 2 A . A . 6 . 5 . 5 . ) a n d ( 1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . 2 . 1 . 1 . 0 .

harp, celeste, piano)

First performance: Stadttheater Kiel 2nd September1972 - Conducrors: il. Zender and

F. Donatoni-

Duration: 30t

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (1211)

1972 - 1973 V o c i ( O r c h e s t e r i . j b u n s )f o r o r c h e s t r a ( / , . / , . / , . 1 . 1 , . / , , ) , 1 , p i - a n o , 2 r a r p s , i i a r p s i c h o r d ,

vibraphone, glockenspiel, xylomarimba, tubular bells, tirnpani, percussion 21,.0.10.8.6.)

First performance: A c c a d e m i a d i S . C e c i l - i a R o m el r d ] . { a r c h1 9 7 4 - C o n d u c l o r : Zoltan Pesko

Duration: 1 3 11 3 t r

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (7616)


T A B L E2 ( c o n t i n u e d )

19'l) Lied for 1l instruments (2.0.2.0,0.0.0.0. celeste, vibraphone, harp, harpslchord, piano

2.0.2.0.0.)

First perfornance: Accadernia Chigiana Siena 3rd September 1913 - Die Reihe Ensenble;

Conductor: F. Cerha

Duration: 161

Publ-isher: Suvinj. Zerboni (7/'98)

Jeux pour Deux for harpsichord and posilive organ

First performance: Festivaf of Royan 28th March 1975 - Harpsichord: E. Chojnacka;

Organ: X. Darasse

Duration: ltt3)'

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (7757)

1973- 197t, Espressivo for oboe (doubling cor anglais) and orchestra (/,.2,1r,1'.3,3.3.0.2 xylophones,

marimba, harp, tlmpani, harpsichord, piano,2 percussion' strings)

First performance: Festival of Royan 24th March 1975 - Orchestre National,e de France;

Conductor: Crlstoba] Halffter; SoloisL: Lolhar Faber

Duralion: 1b t

Publisher: S u v i n - i Z o r L J ni ( ' 7 7 i : )

197,'. Duo pour Bruno for orchestra (t,Z.t-.A.3.lr./',A. celeste, 2 pianos, 2 harps, viirraphone,

tubular bel1s, 2 percussion 2/,.O,10.6.6.)

First perfornance: Col-ogne 19th September 19'15 - l,lestdeutcher Rundfunk Orchestra;

Conduetor: P. EBtvBs
' l $t
Duration: c. JQtt

Publisher: Suvini Zerbonj. (7819)

1915 Duetto for hmpsichord

!.irsL performance: Sr,escla 5lh Jurre l975 - ]{ar.psicirorri: Il. lt, lobcl Li:;

DuraLion: c.2l

Publ-isher: Suvinl Zerboni (806/-)

L u m e nf o r six instrunents (piccolo, clarinet, celeste, vibraphone, viofa, cell-o)

First performance: Settimana Musicale Siena 2Tth August 1975 - Conduclor: M. de Bernart

Duration: / + t) A r

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (808,1)


' l e r z o E s t , r a l t o f o r p i a n o , r n d e i f i i r t i n s t r u m e n l s ( 0 . j : - i. ' ) . : . ) ' l , / ' \ ' )' ' )
' , , r /i r i d + , ' ) r ' : ! 1 . : r : ' r r n i ;
Firsl performance: PiccoliL icala l . 1 i 1 a n1 ? l h l e b r u a t ; , 1,)/', -

Piano: A. Ballista

Duration: 8l

PubLisher: Suvini Zerboni (81)2)


T A B L E2 ( c o n t i n u e d )

1976 A s h f o r e i g h t i n s t r u m e n t s ( 1 . 1 . 1 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . p i a n o , h a r p s i c h o r d1 . 0 . 1 . 1 . 0 . )

First perfornance: SeLtlmana Musical,eSiena 27th August 1976 - Conductor: F. Donatoni

Duration; c, 121

Pubfisher: Suvj-ni Zerboni (8226)

Musette oour Lothar for musette

First performance: Settimana Musicale Siena 2?th Augusl 1976 - Soloist: Loihar Faber

Duration: c.5l

Publ-isher: Suvini Zerboni (823?)

1976 - 19'17 PortraiL for harpsichord and orchesLra (3,3,3.), 3 , 3 . 1 . 1 . m a r i m b a ,v i b r a p h o n e , c e l e s t e ,

piano, 2 harps, timpani, percussion, )O,O.12,9.6.)

First perforroance: Paris 6th October 1977 - Radio Orchestra; Conductor: L Malec;

Harpsichord: E, Chojnacka

Duration: g. 18'

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (8337)

19'17 Diario 176 for four trumpets and four trombones


'19?7 -
First performance: Conselvatorio Mil-ano 23rd March lldward Tarr Ensembfe

Duration: c.11r

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (8318)

Tov for string trio (1.1.1.0.0.) and harpsichord

Firsl performance: T e a t r o R e g i o T u r i n 2 3 r d J u n e 1 9 7 7 - T r i o d i C o r n o ;H a r p s j c l r o r d :

l.l. de Robertis

Duration: 9,15t

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (8)LL)

ll on t.'rn ri p^p. f -r o r'.Ler

First oerfornance: San Maurizio Mifan 2nd Nor.ember 1977 - luitar: P. Cherici

Duration: c,9l

Publisher: Suvini Zerboni (8376)

Ali f'rn nipnoq fnr cnln viola

First performance: Paris 26th January 1978 - Vj-ola: Alain Dubois

Duration: 8I

ruo.L11sner: lrlcorql | | )zc tY )

Spiri for 1O instruments (1,1 .2.0. 0.0.0.0. celeste, vibraphone 1. I .1 .1.0. )

First performance: Accademia Filarmonica Romana Rome 1811, .Januar\' -197E - 1,1'rsicu;

Concentus; Conductor: l4arce]1o Panni

Duration: 10'

Publisher: Ri c o r d i \ 1 ) 2 6 1 , 7)
13

T A B L E2 ( c o n t i n u e d )

19?8 De Pres for soprano, tuo piccofos and three viol-ins

Text: Robertet

First p e r f o r r n a n c e : R a d i o F r a n c e P a r i s 9 t h F e b r u a r y l ? 8 0 - 2 L 2 ME n s e n b l e ; S o p r a n o : Sigune

von Osten; Conductor: Pauf l,lefano14

Duration 3r33rl

Publisher: Ricordi (132778)

ed insieme bussarono for sonrano and niano

Text: Kabir

I'irsl performance: Istiluto Italiano d i C u l t u r a S t o c k h o l m 7 t , h N o v e m b e r1 9 7 E -

Soprano: Liliana Poli; Piano: Fausta Cianli

Duration: lrt38'

Publ"jsher: Ricordi (1)2821)

Arie for feroaLe voice and orchestra (L.1r./..lt. 5.3.2.1. glockenspiel, celeste,

vibraphone, piano, 2 harps, 3 percussion 28.O.9.9,6.)

Texts: Tiziana Fumagal-Ii Hufiz, Omar Khayyam, Fray Luis de Leon and Renato Maestri

First performance: S t a g i o n e S i n f o n i c a P u b b l i c a R o m e1 5 t h M a r c h 1 9 8 0 - R . A . I . Orchestra;

Conductor: Gianluigl Cel-metti; Sol-oist: DoloLhy Dorrorv

Duralion: 231

Publisher: Ricordi (132822)

1979 About.., for violin, viola and guitar

First perfornance: Settimana Musicale Siena 25th August 1979 - Viofin: S. Accardo;

Vj.o1a, A. Bennici; Guitar: 0. Ghiglia

Duration: 4t 31r

Publj,sher: Ricordi (132961,)

Alsol lwo pleces for violirr

First performa:rce: Settimana liusicale i.iena 25t1r liugusl 1979 - riolin: i : l a i v a i ; o r eA c c a r d o

DuraLion: 5|

Publisher: Ricordi (t t:056;

Nidi two pieces for p-iccol ,

Fi-rsl performance: V e n i c e B i e n n a l e 2 6 t h S e p L e m b e r1 9 7 9 - P i c c o l o : F.oberloirabbriclani

Duration: 6l

Publisher: Ricordi (132999)

Ilarches lwo pieces for. h;:r',,

FirsL perfornance: Univelsily cf California B e r k e l e v 2 5 t L l i o v e n o e r '1 9 1 \ -

Harp: Marcella de jray

Duration: 9l

Publ,isher: Ricordj, \1)2998)

Footnote: 1l'. This date is taken fron the Ricordi cataLogue but according to Cres-ui, on. cit., p, lC?
the first perfornance lras in Naples 1978 - Soprano: Dorolhl' Dorrow.
T A B L E2 ( c o n L i n u e d )

1980 Clair two pieces for clarinel

First performance: A c c a d e m i aC h i g i a n a S i e n a 2 6 t h A u g u s t 1 9 8 0 - C l a r i n e L : Ciuseppe Garbarino

Duration: 8l

Publisher: Ricordi (131109)

1981 The Heartrs Eve for string quartet

tr'irst. nprlnrmance: V e n j - c eB i e n n a l e 7 t h O c t o b e r 1 9 8 1 - A n a l i Q u a r i e i

Duration: 171

Publisher: Ricordi (1Ji065)

Le Ruisseausur frEscalier for.solo cello and 19 instruments (4.0.4.1. 0.0.0,1. xylomarimba,

vibraphone, piano (doubling celeste), 2 percussion 3.0'0'0.1. )

First performance: P o m p i d o uC e n t r e P a r i s l O t h L p r i l 1 9 8 1 - 2 E 2 ME n s e n b l e ; C o n d u c t o r : Paul

Mefano; Cello: Alain l"leunier

Duration: 13'

Publ-isher: Ricordi (133133)

LrUl-tima Sera for female voice and five instruments (flute, cfarlneL, violin, cello, piano)

Text: Fernando Pessoa

i'ircf. ncrfnrmsnce: R a d i o F r a n c e P a r i s 1 8 t h J u n e 1 9 8 1 - E n s e m h l e0 o n t r a s t e s ; F e m a l e V o i c e :

Anna Ringart

Duration: 19'

fuoLl-sneri t(rcorol \ |)t t)o )

T e m af o r 1 2 i n s t r u m e n t s( 1 . 1 , 1 . 1 , 2 . 0 ' 0 . 0 . 3 , 0 ' 2 . 1 . 0 , )

First performance: I R C A MP a r i s F e b r u a r y 1 9 8 2 - C o n d u c t o r : Zoltan Pesko

Duration: 151

Puhlisher: Ricordi (11i?)6)

Small for piccolo, clarlnet and harp

First performance: Settimana Musicale Siena 25th Augusl 1!81 - Piccolo: Roberto Fabbriciani;

Cfarinet: G j - u s e p p eG a r b a r j - n o ; H a r p : Giuliana Albisctii Roiorrcli

Duration: 7l

ruoltsner: trfcoror \t))1t6)

r l r l r ^ r ' r l ) i a , n ^ n r . 1 J

F inel- norfnrmanee:
! f r v w y v r
Vonice Biennale ?th October 1981 - Flute: Robcrto !'abbrlciani;

Piano: Antonello ltreri

Duratlon: 11 |

Publisher: Ricordi (1T256)

In Cauda for choi-r and orchestra

Text: Brandolino Brandolini

F i i.ci. n.rf^Fman.F : Mi lan 6Lh December 1981 - Sinfortia della li . A. I.

-|uo.Lrsner: ft]corol \tJ)ta6)


T A I I L E2 ( c o n l i n u e d )

1982 Lametwo pieces for cello

Pirst perfornance: Accademia Chj,giana Siena 26th August 1!82 - Ceflo; Alain Meunier

Duration: 10t

Publi sher: R i c o r d i ( 1 3 3 / , 6 1)

Feria for fj-ve flutes' five trumpets and organ

FirsL performance: Bologna 2l,th September 1982 - ConducLor: Paul l'lefano

Duration: 121

Publisher: Ricordi (133381,)

She for three sopranos and six instruments (guitar, violin, vioJ-a, pl,ccolo, clarineL, harp)

?ext: Susan Park

First perforroance: S t r a s b o u r g 2 7 t h S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 3 - 2 E 2 ME n s e m b l e

Durati-on: 121

Publisher: R i c o r d i ( 1J J 5 ? 9 )

Lem two pieces for i.louble bass

Duration: 9l

Publj-sher: Ricordi \133537)

A1a two pieces for cello and double btrss

Duration: 10t25n

Publisher: Ricordi (133551)

1983 Abyss for female voice and 1O instruments (cor anglais, uass clarj,nel, contrabassoon, horn,

L r o m b o n e ,p i a n o , p c r c u s s i o n , o a s s f l u t e , vioIa, cel 1., iotlofe Lass)

Text: Fernando Pessoa


'1Sth '1983
Firct nonfnnnonao' tr-sti-va] of Metz November

'1 !
Duration: 8

Publisher: Ricordi (13)6L2)

Rima two pieces for piano

ruotrsner: nrcorot- l t)i)ot )

Sinfonia Oous 5-?rtAnton i'Jebernrtfor chamber orchestra (clarinet, lrass clarinet, 2 horns,

harp 8.8.6.{.0.)

First performance: Ilaples lllh i . l a r c h ' 1? 8 J - ; r . . r i . i , i J l e h e s t l ' r ;1 i l o t . r d u c t t ' r ' : i : a r h a r i I ' l e c h k a l

Duralion: Ll

Publisher: Ricordi \1))565)

A-Iamarifnr cel1o, doublc oass and piano

First performance: A c c a d e m i aM u s i c a l e C h i g i a n a S i e n a 2 9 l h A u g u s t 1 9 8 3

Duration: 131

fu0tlsner: r{Icorol llJjout]

!'rancoise Variatiot.ren for pi"ano

t.UOLISnt'l : nlCOrol ll 11r\''vl


CHAPTERII

STYLISTIC DEVELOPMENT

The Dictionarv of Twentieth-Century Music lists Franco Donatonirs inffuences as being:

G o f f r e d o P e t r a s s i ( u n t i I 1 9 5 1 ) , B e l a B a r t o k ( u n t i l 1 9 5 4 ) , S c h o e n b e r ga n d W e b e r n ( u n t i l 1 9 5 6 ) , P i e r r e
Boulez.Juntil 1957), Karlheinz Stockhausen (unti1 1961), John Cage (until 196/.), Custav Mahler (unti,1
1970). | )

It is perhaps typical thal DonaLonirs entry in Lhe Dictionary should be so neally organised and formalised.

He interprets his entire compositional development in terms of seven year peri-ods: 1955-1962' 1962-1969,

1969-1976 and,1976-1983. The first was a period of rrapprenticeshiprr and learning to compose through the

study of models. The second and third were concerned with the search for ldentity as a composer (seemingly

regarded by Donatoni as a kind of'rPilgrimrs Progress'r). The fourLh period is Lhe rediscovery of compositlon'

Donatoni writes:

What I called the period of the great Contritions occupies the doubl-e septennium starting in 1962 and
ending in 1976, having been preceded by a first septenniun 1955-1962, dedicated mainLy to artisan-1ike
selfteaching sesslons, suggested by those composJ.tlve experiences which were ca1led - with hurried
investigatlon arousing dogmatic theology and theological intolerance - as Neaue Musik (remember Darmstadt
of the second postwar period). Those sessions owed their existence, almost excluslvely, to lhe in-
ventions of the second avantgarde, which had, in Pj-erre Boufez and Karlheinz Slockhausen, its nosl
o u t s t a n d i n g c o m p o s e r sa n d t h e o r i s t s . At the conclusion of this triplc'septerlniuill, 1t:is a rtecessary
obligation to consider the period of artisan-like apprenticeship as I'irrished and equall;'' necessary to
assune as begun that,yrhich is born of composing, literalJ-y: this will be nothing but lhe mirror image
of the fi-rst period.ro

T:6e pre-1955 works are certainly inffuenced by Bartok, especially ConcerLino for strings, brass and

solo timpani ( 1 9 5 2 ) a n d ,S i n f o n i a for strings (1953). This is to be expecled as the influcnce of both Bartok

a n d S t r a v i n s k y w a s v e r y c o m m o ni n l h e r v o r k o f p o s t - w a r l L a f i a n s . In Musica for chanber orchestra (1955)

Donatoni asslmj-lates the 12-tone method. It is a transitional work which is jmrnedialely followed by

C o m p o s i q i o n ei n q u a t t r o m o v l for piano (1955).

C o n p o s i z i o n e t a k e s W e b e r na s i t s m o d e l a n d e m b r a c e s1 2 - t o n e w r i t i n g cornpletely. Even al lhis stage'

Donatoni enploy s a ve r y f o r m a l i s e d p r i n c i p l e to the rhyLhm. Four non-retro,lrrdrble rnylnnrs rr< uied:


-J-

f=-r
I
b. d. . . . .

T h e s e a r e n o t u s e d i n a u g m e n t e do r d i m i n i s h e d f o r m s - - o n l y t h c - i r o r d e r i s p e r m u t a L e d . T c ' d e l e r m i n e t h e

pernutation order he forns squares that may be read in any one of four direclions.lT

a b c d d c b a
b c d a c b a d
c-
c o a o b a d c
d a b c a c i c b

18 ,. -- (1957) is a re-uurn to more rraditional


La Lampara'" (ballet) stage music but is folloued by Tre

T m p r o v v i s a z i o n i f o r p i a n o ( 1 9 5 7 ) r + h j , c ht a k e s m o v e m e n t so n e a n d t h r e e o f B o u . l e z r s S e c o n d P i a n c S o n a t a a s

Footnotes:

E. ResLagno, 'Il Settennio dj, Franco Donatonir, Catalosue of the Venice iliennal-e,
Quarto
1981, p.12). (A quotation of Donatonirs words without the source acknowledged.

1 a AnextractofComposizi-oneusingpermutalionsdcbaandcbaclisre'producedin
Appendlx B.

18. The title means: A Fishing Boat with lJight-lighls.

16
t i

its rnodel. Innediately following is Quartetto IT for string quartet (1958)' wlrir'ir is mo,lelled on

S t o c k h a u s e n r s Z g i j n a - E - - g ,a, n d - S e r e n a t a f o r 16 i.nstruments and soprano (1959), a rare example of Donatonirs

early vocal writing. S t r o p h e s f o r o r c h e s t r a ( 1 9 5 9 ) a n d M o v i m e n t of o r harpsichorJ, piano and nine

instrunents (1959) continue to be under the inffuence of Stockhausen and, by the ti.me i'ie has mltten

For Grillv improvisaiion for seven (1960), Donatoni is applying serial techni-ques to all parameters of the
1' /a qaoinni invonl.in4 for orchesLra (19u0) ttrd ilnrthlercxercises for i.3j-psichord
^^-^^.i*i^- Fn- nrill.'
j-iL.l----:-:-=jjr ::::.::::g

(1961) display a irighly developed compositional lechniquc and cjcnrf Lhe end noi only of Donatoui's serial

period but also of his derivative practice of compositi-on.

Quartetto lll for 1r-track magnetic Nape (1961) is the resuft of Donatonirs brief flirtation vith

electronic music.

At this tinre, the influence of Cage was confronting quiLe a number of the European composers:

But the sixLies were particularLy intense, drarnatic years for many composers of my generation. When'
', in those very years, the America of John Cage invaded Europe, the reactions of young composers ?f tl"!n
tine were varied and very different: they went from the rnost unthinking enthusiasm to totaf refusal.'"
l ^ -
Donatonirs own reaction was one of thoughtful enthusiasm. The foreword of his book Questo- deals with his

lesponse to these confrontations at length in a typically decp and obscurc manner'. Ilowever, a more straight-

forward version is found in lDossier Donatonit:

It seemsto mc hhat the musical hirtory of the t.wenLjeth cenLury was a i,isLory of prorrecsive splits,
separations, dissociations induced wlthin the musical materiaf. h'e can suppose that the first separation
was that by which Arnold Schoenberg determined a new logic by the pitch of his sounds completely ne-
glecting the other s)mtactic and formal aspects of music. l'trith Anton Webern first, arid structuralisn
next, the dissociation of sound was accomplished who1ly anrl, in my opinion, irr r t,otr'rlly lrrevcrsibl.e way.
With John Cage, it seems to me, the nost dangerous and deflnitivc r;plit occurrc-d: tlte process,.reveiils
i t s a u t o n o m o u sf u n c t , i o n , a n d p l a c e s i t s e - l f a s a c o m p l c m e n t , r t ' -nt e' c L ' : s j t , : , i' n L o L h p u o r k j t . s o l f . < '

Prrppelqpigl for orchestra (1961) begins to show the influence of John Cage in j.ts alea'uor1'passages.

This pioce esLabfished Donatoni as a lesdcr of new music ir: ILa15'. I'onatonirs se:ond seplcnniun bcgins with

Per orchesira (1952) wtricir is one of his most adventurous "otk".2J Tlic ner:l picces Quartetto lV (Zrcacllo)

for string quartet (1963), Asar for 10 string instruments (196/') and Black and l'lhite for 37 rrtring inslru-

ments (1954) conbine the mobile forms of Stockhausen witli the cirancc operations of Ca53e. In each case

Donaboni devises automatisns capi'ble of generaLing music. In Qrarteito TV, cvenl,r Je;unJ ott tlio pcrformersr

reading of four newspapers. There arc no separatc parls for thc pcrfo.rmcrs, jJsL the one "score". in

Blaek and llhite the score indicates no notes or durations, only directing which fingers are to be used at a

given time.

!g@!forharpsichord(196/+)a1thoughwrittenbeforeAsarand!]a'@ismore1ncontextwith

Divertimento fI for strings (1965) and Puppenspiel n. 2 for flute, piccolo and orchestra (1965). Babi is

f'ootnotes: 19. Bars l+6'52 of &4Lif.LY are reproduced in Appendix ,l3.

)6 I. Stoianova, F. Donatoni-, P. Szernovicz, rDossier Donatonir, Ilusiqrte en Jeu, l,io, 20,


1975, p. 15,

The word rtQusstorrin the context of thc title meansrrThis Manrr.

22, Stoianova, Donaloni, S2ernovicz, loc. eif..

2 3 . Page 19 of the score of Per Orchestra is reproduced in Appendix B.


tn

a reworking of pages 1,, 8, 10 and 14 of Doubles (1961) where the original nota.iion ]r:rl been converted into

a serles of slgns or symbols for reinterpretation.24 Divertimento II and Puppenspie.l n. 2 are reworkings
)<
of Quarlutto I! and Puppenspief respectively.-'

Rrr f.hie t.ima fl.natonils concern is not for the indeterminale outcon;e o-f sound everits but for the de-

valuation of the creative process that leads to these sound events, llis alt,itude is one of objective

^ r- + { ^ - - d L i ^ .
q urJqrrrrrrP.

Tfl rrnrr nnnsidar vvup+qvr


ihrl
vrle the loss of historical material - or rrbher iLs precocious nginu; - j-s cotrsequent
rf
Jvq
rrcomposing
to the revelatory work of Cage, you will be able to understand how, from 1967, I gave up
materiaLrt and limited myself rather to rrtransforming different materiafs according to my personal working
h a b i t s r t . I t h a p p e n e dt o m e , i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s a m e y e a r s , t o l o s e c o m p l e L e L yt h e n o t i o n o f r r c o m p o -
sition techniquert, to be no longer able to consider any method at all as arrhabitual forming meansrr.
Although my music may appear to my hearers always sinilar, f can affirm tl,aL',herrprocess of compositlonrl
varies considerably according to the material utifised, and that it is almoci inpossible to repeat it.
The i.nvention of thertprocessrr, often constituted from automatisms which acL on a set of statistically
perceptibi.e events, is therefore a conplementary necessity to t,he forn wliich lives in the very framework
of the !rork...
So the invention of the process can be notling other than a consequence of the atlention directed towards
the naterial which is to be transforned...zo

The exploration of these ideas forms the main cotttent of his book Qucsrto.

The two pieces written in 1 9 6 7 a r e S o u v e n i r ( K a m m e r s y m p h o n j eO D u s 1 8 ) t o r 15 inslrunrenls and F,twas

Ruhiqer irn Ausdruck for f1ute, clarinet, violin, cello and piano. The material to be transformed is taken

f r o n S t o c k [ a u s e n a n d S c h o e n b e r gr e s p e c t i v e l y . fn Souvenjr, 363 brief s e q u e n c e so r r r c e f l s " have been ex-

tracted fron Stockhausenrs Qggpg and distributed between the 15 instruments. This section is then

trre-readrrby applylng different autonatic codes to Llic maLclial. l ' l l l ) r i c c o r l ( lr o - r ' c r L d i t t i lo 1 ' l . l r o m r r t , o l i a l

u s e d a s y s t e n o f n u m b e r e dc a r d s t o e x t r a c t certain parLs anrl then rcassc;lble',hem. Lt:fto,,'r'rnl:ttcria.l

(tirat is, naterial thab was not extracted) is then taken t,o form a figurc of' homageto Schoenberg lhat

relates to the @gS.@-Opu,E-9. in E ma;or.27

Black and white n' 2 exercises for 1o fingers on the keyboard (t9os) i= a development of the trans-

formation techniques present in the previous aleatory pieccs:n,l in particular lhc firsl R l r c k a . n dl r , l h i t e

(1961,). The piece consisps of a succession of 120 10-finger exercises to be performed o:r any one or

conbinati-on of keyboard instrurnents. The use of a rnute keyboard is afso permissable. The five lines of

the stave stand for one finger each; the bfack or white notation stands for any black (sharp or flat) or
:.P
white (natural) note on the keyboard respectively; and the notes are of free duration.-"

Donatonirs third septenniun begins with Solo for 1O string instruments (1969). Solo is nore pre-

cisely notated than Black and White n. 2 but is based on similar matelial and translormation lechniques.

In Solo the dynanics are not marked but are determined by the string articulation and mode of attack. The
14 29
time signature is f. DonaLonits interest in Gruppen rct,:rns in Orts (Sotrv.nir n. 2) for'14 instruments

Footnotes: 2l'. Page 10 of @!fq and the corresponding page of Babai are reproduccd in Appendix B.

B a r s 1 l + / + - 1 1 +o9f D i v e r t i m e n t o II are reproduced in Appendix B.

ao. Stoianova, Donatoni, SzernovLcz, gp. cit., pp. 15-16.

Bars 7-8 of @il are reproduced in Appendix 13.

An extract of !-lg,!._g@_? is reproduced in Appendix B'

)a Bars 192-195 of Sg& are reproduced in Appendix B.


t 1

and narrator (1958) and Secontlo Estratto for harp, piano and harpsichord (1969-197A). The flrst Estratto

for piano was written in 1969 and is a tiny piece of 50 seconds duration based on a brief sequence from

Doubles II for orchestra (g6q-l9lo).30

To Earle for chanber orchestra (1970) and To llarle T r . r of o r two orchestras \1971-1912) are cledlcated to

the Anerican composer Earle Brown. During the course of composing To Earle Two a transposition of the notes

B A C H (g = t-ftat, H = b-natural) b e c a m ee v i d e n t i n t h e m u o i c . This lerl to the next scorer/oci

(Orchesterilbune) for orchestrc (1972-19'/3) which is consLructed exclusively on lhe notes 5 A O ii.

for 13 instruments (1973) is derived f r o m t w o b a r s o f t h e m a r i m L ' ai n O p u s S c i r by Giuseppe


!!g!

Sinopoli (one of Donatonils ex-students). The borrowed materiaf is transposed ttp an oclave and is heard as

the first two bars of the flute in Lied. Material is derived fron thc flute by a strict harmonic formula

which is then arranged polyphonicaLty through the ittstruments. This makes ttio sectioris of 16 + 15 bars. A

'uhe previous two


re-reading util-ising an automatic code follows. It starts at the second bar of each of

sections naking another two sections of 15 + 15 bars. This cutting of bars is done for each re-reading of

tlre naterial giving section lengths ot 32, 30, 28, 26, 24... down to 2 bars. This makes the piece 272 bars

1ong. Each of the 16 sections ilj composedaccording to the applicaLtlon of constant automalic codes. The

piece has an absence of dynamic co:ltrasb which finds formal justificatiorr in Lhe pp dynanic of the original

fragment of material from Sinopoli.

The next piece J-eux pour DeuI for harpsichord and positive organ (1973) is baseC on a series of nine

notes. The choice of the number nj-ne is a dedication to Donatonir5 logular hltrpsiclrordisl' ljlisalteLh

Chojnacka, whose surnane contains nine letters. Chojnackats surname again provides source material for

Espressivo for oboe and orchestra (1973-1971r).

DuoDourBrunofororchestra(1974.1975)isbasedOntheVenetiansong@.In

addition to being in homageto Bluno Maderna, the title refers to the rrantasonistic dualltyrr of the source
31
rre t,o form 1,hcworl:. Doralonits

n e x t p i e c e i s a l - s o i n h o r o a g et o t h e p a s s i n g o f a n i n f l u e n t i a l - Ital-ian composer. Lumen t'or six instrunents


aa
(197il nas as its source rnaterial- 18 bars of nusj-c feft unfinished on Luigl Dallapiccolars piano.--

Donatoni ushers in 1976 and his fourth septennium with l'fusett,e pour Lofhar, [[ for eighl, inslruments

and !or!g!! for harpsichord and orchestra. Portralt is a large work enlirely constructed iron pitches

derived from the harpsichordistrs surnane: Cholnacka.33 Houever, Lhe fourth septennium proper really

starts with reX for string trio and harpsichord (1917), written in nine hrief episodcs'J4

The new conquest of Lhe subjective invention takes placc...with Tov... ,I"ty c a r e - L ' u l 1 5 ' o, f c o u r s e ,
Donatoni talks about this piece as arrplayful exerc-ise of invent-Lonlr..'/'

Eootrot"g: 30. Estratto is reproduced in fu11 in Appendix B.

31. Cresti, ep. cit,. ' p. 86.

32. B a r s 3 3 - 3 6 o f L u r n e na r e r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x B .

33. Bats 2'11-273 of ?ortrait are reproduced in Appendix B.

3l'. The opening of IgJ is reproduced in Appendix B.

35. Restagno' loc. cit.


20

The fourth septenniun is dominated by solo and chamber music. A nunber 01'pieces.from this period can be

grouped together as having a similar formal structure: LhaL is, constructed of two parts differing in

tempo and character.

In fac!-!,Jre composition technique was that tested an infinit,e nunber of times: more or less regular
panels poJ followigg one another, and whose symmetrical play is however continuously broken by breaks
and sudden turns.J/

The pieces that fa1l into this category are Also for colo guitar (1977), ALi for solo viol a (19'/7), Arr:ot

for solo violin (1979), Nidi for solo piccolo (1979) (based on D, F and G-flat taken from bar 59 of Lunen),

Marches for harp (1979) and Ql35!r for solo clarinet (t9eo).'"

Donatonj.ts nost recent work seems to be concerned with the possibili.ties of recombining previous works,

She for piecolo, clarinel, harp, guitar, violin, viola and three soprano voiccs (1982) ccmbines the piccolo,

clarinet and harp nusic of Smal1 (1981) with the duitar, viofin and viola music of About (1979) and adds

three female voices. At the monent (1984), Donatoni is working on an opera, Atem, due for 1985 to be

directed by Marcello Aste. The overture is Per Orchestrzr (1962).

Donatonj.rs fifth septennium began in'1983. With his rigorous attention to structural detail, he is
?o
alnost compelled to take a change in nusical direction.-'

36. ttPanelsrrin this context means sections resulting from the re-reading of previous rnateriaf.
&g@!eg:

37. Restagno, 1oc. cit.

38. Extracts of A1go, Ali' Argot and Clair are rcproduced in Appcndj-x B.

39. A very helpful transfation of an interview given by DonaLoni t.o Angelo Valorl is included
in Aopendix C.
CHAPTNR
lII

ETWASRUHIGERIM AUSDRUCK

Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdruck (1967) is scored for flute, clarinet, violin, ce1]-o and piano. The per-

formance insLructions direct the strings to be muted and the piano 1id closed throughouL thr performance.

The flute, cfarinet and piano are also required to irnplement any pruden-' means of reduci.ng lhe intensity

of their sound lrithout making perfornance difficult. Strirrgs are to play without vibrato at;d the sneed of
I
the performance is to be not slower than 60 mlnims to the minttte ( d = 6C). Therefore, ihe duration of ihe

piece is to be at the nost 11 minutes, d seconds. The actual dura'bion of the recordinglo i" a virluosic

9 mi.nuLes, 3 seconds. The perforroance layout is:

NI\ i
@ t-l ,o
. DIRE'IT..

T'IGURE1

Instrumental Layout for Performance

In the case of Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdruck, the materlal Lo be subjected to the r'l:chnique of the

artisan'r is the first three beats of the eighth bar of the second of Scho..nbelg's Five Piano Pieces (0p. 23).

rrEtwasRuhiger irn Ausdruckrr is the perfornance direction for this bar: it could be translated as tra 1itt1e

quieter in the expressi.onrr.

.1wos ruhigcr im Ausdruck


o"| |
'-=^{-=-
f----
ppn-
f-

,{-:

FIGURE 2

The Schoenbers Text

Why did Donatoni choose this particufar fragment?

One always finds it difficult, perhaps because of the dynamics pp, ppp and pppp, to understand exactly
what is going on at that point. There is something elusive i"n thgsc ferv notes, something which evades
what ry! happen and invites one to think about wh;t can happen.4l

Footnotes: 40. The recording is by the Continuum Dortmund dlrected b y W e r n e r S e i s s C B S - E S Z6 1 4 5 4 .

lr1 . Donatoni , 9-,,"sto., p. 89 .


tz

He also regards using this naterial as somewhat of a challenge:

gne has taken here an almost neutral naterial, historically determined, bu! foreign to modern practice
and therefore resistant if not antagonistic to the habits of the artisan.aa

Quite possibly, though, Schoenbergrs Five Piano Pieces mean nore lo Donatoni than just lhis.

Schoenbergrs rlatonal-expressionistrrperiod encled wi-th !'ortr Son*: for voicc and orr:hes't,r', (0p' ??,

191t). After a s j - l e n c e o f n i n e y e a r s , h i s n e x t c o m p o s i t i o n w a s F i v o P i - a n oP i c c e s ( o p . ? , 3 , 1 9 2 3 ) . Five

Piano Pieces is Schoenbergls first conpleted work to move decisivel), beyond'rft'ee alonalityt'torlards a

style in which most or all notes of a piece are derived from a basic motivlctrcellr. 0f these the lifth
t a
p i e c e ( c o m p o s e di n 1923q) is Schoenbergrs first consistently 12-tonc com[,o.ilion. During 1907 and as he

was conposing Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdruck, Donatoni was undertaklng a similarly large personal and artistic

step: the renunciation of composingoriginal musical material. D o n a L o n i r s I o i r o T e t o S c h o e n b e r gi s f u r t h e r

d e m o n s t r a t e d b y h i s u s e o f t h e s a r n ee n s e m b l e ( m i n u s t h e v o i c e ) S c h o e n b e r g u s e d i n P i e r r o L L u n a i r e ( 0 p . 2 1 ) ' " "

Formal Outlines

Donatonits Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdruck nay be divided j-nto four sections:

a) Bars 1-60, further subdivided into three sections each of 20 bars duration.

b) Bars 61-100, incorporating an overlap with section a) in bars 61-80.

e., bars lu I- 14.).

d) Bars 1/+6-166.

The first 20 bars of section a) contain the initial operaLions whieh govern the diruction of tl.le resl,

of the piece. Fundamental interval-s and rhythrnic patterns arc extracteil from the ScLoenberg Texl vhich are

transposed, inverted and juxtaposed in various ways. B a r s 2 ' 1 - . 1 0 0a r e t h e r e s u l t of re-readings based on

bars 1-20 using a systern of automatic codes to transform the material. Thc re-readings mcke a series of

rlverseslr, each verse being a re-reading of the previous one.

In section b) the nusical material gradually accumulales into evenly t-lowing patterns of staccato

grace-notes which have no particular shape.

In secLion c) there is a sudden change lo legcLo arLiculation. l'lrcre r'ollov;s r gr:durl d - i m . i n u L i o na n d

reduction of naterial d o r ^ mt o a f l u t e solo accompanied by a trill in the piano.

Section d) ttren attempts to reconstruct the initiaf material.. Fragmentary materiaf returns and the

piece ends with a quotation of the Schoenberg Text.

The Schoenbers Text

At this point we should nake an examination of the Schoenberg ?ext itse1f45, in an attempt to isolate

sone of the sources of Donatonits composition technique in lltr.ras Ruhirrer im Ausdruck.46

T
r r rh
e o af n
v r rl vlwn
l i Bu i n a
r r . a l l < r rf r n n f . t r oS n h n e n \ n r - --:r^-'-'l intervrilic structure of a minor 2nd

@@!g!g: /t2. Donatonl, Questo, p. 88.

l'3. J . M a e g a a r d ' S t u d i e n z u r [ n t w i c k l u n s d e s D o d e k a p h o n e nS a t z e s b e i A r n o l d S c h o e n b e r g ,
Copenhagen, Musik-Forlag, 1972, p. 97.

lr/r. Stoianova, Donatoni, Szernovicz, 9p. cit., p. ?.3. A prcr.ious example of an ltalian
composer using this ensenbLe in homageto Schoenberg is Castiglioni'" flg! (959).

1,5. The fifth piece of Op,23 is reproduced in full in Appendix A.

l+6. ArtNote on Terminologyrrwith regard to the specification of pitch regis',er and interval
qualily is included in Appendix D.
?)

plus a minor 3rd when expres;ed al; grotlplr of unorclercd pitcit-c1rLs:;c:r:

<:> sl

FIOURE 3

Intervallic Structure in the -schoenbergText (i)

In the following example, other ce11s from the Schoenberg Text have been transposed to be the same letter

notat ion:

alwo3 ruhiglr im Ausdrsch


I t
a"
- 7-!--J-
-3- .!-, ffi

< > S f

f
\
II
I

1GURE4

Intervalfic Structure in the Schoenberg Text (ii)

While each ceLl is notated in /,ths, a reading of the examples in the order of i., ii, ii1, iv, would give a

gradual dirninution in the size of the intervals.

Other important features of the Schoenberg Text are:

a) The range from D.t to gr ;


rh.-
hv )t iuhrer E r e rnrog oc vo rf d yr r n
u t dai nl riunrc. . n n rf vn r-
PP
tuhi o
le t^.+ L-vi ---.^- LUr
PyP
-i-r+ rLr' anrar \ . ' rlrrc
Prso
n n n n rf r r
PPPP lhe last

right hand chord;

the triplets inposed on ti^.t


!
a) the use of slur, tenuto and staccato articul-ations; and

the sequenceof notes in the left hand.


CIIAPTBRIV
-1
BARS -20

Generaf Construction

The piano holds all the prirnary materiaf for bars 1-20. Quotatiorrs or transpositions of tlie
),1
S c h o e n b e r gT e x t i n t h e p i a n o p a r t f o r m t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Thes.'rrl.rimery ma+"erialsrr*'

are always played within triplets, duplets, quintuplets or septrrpl,:Ls. In addition' they are always
LR
followed by arrconnentaryrr'- s['6tr takes the form of c gracc-lrole froup.

Grace-notes in this piece are to be played as fcst as possible and arc to bc cligned willrin ihe beeL

as visually indicated by their placement on the score.

TICURE5

Grace-notes in the Piano tsar 1

In this case, the third beat of the bar has been divided int- Lriplets. T h c L r . i p l e t p u l s e s a r e s h o u mb y

the position of the crotchel rests. The chord is tu be played just before the bhird triplet pulse and the
LQ
d-sharp jusb before the fourth beat.-'

The material in the wind and strings is a retrograde i.nversion of all the material in i,lte piano. Any

vertical chords in the piano are converted to horizontal- mefodies when inverled ln the winC o-zr '*-i--c

Rhythmic Structure of Bars 1-20

Bars 1-20 are subdj.vlded into three secLions: Section 1 (bars 1-6); Section 2 (bars 7-11); and

Section 3 (bars 1/r-20). Sections 1, 2 and 3 are further divided int,o a scquence of triplets, duplets,

qulntuplets and septuplets. Where lripleLs = 3, duplets = {, quintuple*"s = 5 and septuplcts = 7' the

s e q u e n c ei s a s f o l l o w s : 3l*57 5l+3 /+5 7 5l'3 /,5 7 5 lt3. T h e f u n d a m e n t a ls e q u e n c ei s 3 1 , 5 7

which is followed by its own retrograde 7 5 /, 3 using 7 as 4 pivot. The doubfed sequence, therefore, is

3 L 5 7 5 l- 3. The doubled sequence is stated three times using 3 as a pivot:

3 1 , 5 7 5 / ,1 ) ) 1 , 5 7 5 t ,l ) ) L 5 7 5 1 , )

Footnotes: /r7. Hereafter ca11ed the Primary.

4 8 . Hereafter ca11ed the Comrnentary.

/,9. T h e f i - g u r e j u s t
before the second beat is also a grace-note group but, because of a
misprint in the score, is.rnissing the grace-note slash.

2ll
25

The three statements of the doubfed sequence correspond to the abovementioned lllrce slcctions:

Bars: u,
l , 1| 2 | ) 1 1 , 1 5
l'^ l" i'ul" l , r l l ' ' et i r o ll
Ir lt I s ,:,:,:,,
l';l':l)':, t
I, I ,,,,, 313 1,L/. 515 717 5l t 4l L 3 t 3 l
Divislons:
f - I
I
I
1 f
v

- ,_-_)
Sections: 1 2 i(a.) l(b)

justificatior, for this schemc is the irnposition ol- lriplrts ott l tj.ne jn tlli.':lclroPxbcri'Tcxt.
The formal

Pitch Structure o.i the Piano Bars l-20

S c h o e n h e r qT e x L - P r i m a r v P e l a t i o n s h i p

The Primaries are quotations or transpositions of segments taken from t,he Schoenbvrg Text. Figure 7

shous the Primaries and their sources in the SchoerrbelrText,

The rhyLhmic subdivision of tripIcts, d u p i n L c , r ] r r i n L r t p l c i sr n d s e r l 1 1j e l . : ( a r " x 1 1 : r i n - r l p r . v i o u s ] y

inrRhythmic Structure of Bars 1-20t) is imposed on the rhythm of the Primaries. In gcnelal the Prinaries

keep their original- rhythmic profile when fitted within a duplet, quintuplel or ceptuplet. The only two

exceptlons are in the 3rd beat of ba.r 2 and the 3rd beat of bar 4 whcre in each case the Primary is a

grace-note group.

The amount of materjaf taken from the Schoenberg'lcxt Lo form eecl, Frimary increases ciight,y as the

music continues. I n g e n e r a l , S e c t i o n 1 ( b a r s 1 - 6 ) t a k e s a o n e - c r o t c h e t s e g n e n t o f t l i e S c l , o e n b e r gT e x t a t

a tine. Section 2 (bars 7-'13) takes a two-crotchet s e g n e n t , . S e c t i o n J ( a ) ( b a r s 1 / * - . 1 7 )l t r k c s a l l r r e e -

crotch(t segnent and Section 3(b) (bars 17-20) takes a four-crotchet scgment. The abovc subdivisions are

not strictly adhered to. There are considerabLe overlaps and exceptions. For examplc, the flrst two-

crotchet segmentis found in bar 5, a five-crotchet segmentic found in bar.14 and a two-crotchet segment

in bar -t9,
'l
S e g m e n L so f t h e 3 c h o e n b e r g T e x L a r e L a k e n i n o r d e r , irc fjrct : r c f : r n ( , nLL: k e n i , : 1 ' r o r n L h ^ l r e g i n n i n g o f

t h e S c h o e n b e r gT e x t . From there, the segmentscontinue in reverse order (from righi to lefl) lhrough Lhe

Schoenberg Text. Occasionally a segrnent is missed out for no apparent reason. An exanple of this is

between bars 3 and /+ where the segment containing C, B f1at, d and b is omitted. At times, large segments

overlap as in bars 15-16.

Transposition of the Primaries

The transpositions of the Prinaries are deri.ved from the seri-es of notes in the left hand of the

Schoenberg Text:

-!r41=,5-j,tf,_

FIGURE 6

The Left Hand of the Scfroonberg Tcxl


r l w o s r u h i g r ri m

F I G I I R E? ( c o n t i n u e d )
alwos ru u3druck
_?_ '-J._
:
> p w

> s f

.twos ruhig.r im Au
I I r=:
d=d -3- /-

F I O U R E7 ( c o n t i n u e d )
elwos ruhiccr im Ausdruck
J-l
e'o 1 r--3-z
-7;<\
-J-

pp l= l F?l
+J

G l w o s r u h i g e r i m) l { t s d r u c k
I I ./r--r
/ -J-
d.d -3-1- !-,

+ J -t :
!' ? t:

F I G U R E? ( c o n t i n u e d )
\ TtFr

.PP-.-s-+ z.
P P -

ctwqs tuhigar im Ausdruck clwos ruhigcr Au s d r u c k


l r - t -
d'd -3- :-, )') rJ-

. t=l
pp\7 W c:l-r
gJJ
3:

"/''#

rlwos ruhigrrim

FIGURE7

Schoenberg Text - Primary Relationship


l0

c: -^+ -r ^r v+u ^s ..
vl aJ urrs !rlru

the second note (C-flatr) is a diminished i+th (maior 3rd) from D1i

the third note (C) is a minor ?th from Dj;

the fourth note (F) is a minor 10th fron Dl;

the fifth note (E) is a major 9th from D1;

the sixth note (C-sharp) is a najor ?th frorn D1;

t h e s e v e n t h n o t e ( G - s h a r p l ) i s a n a u g m e n t e d 4 t h f r o m D 1'

Related to the sequenceof triplets (3), duplets (4), quintuplets (5) and septuplets (7) the transpositions

are therefore:

3 /, 5 7 5 lt )
no transposition dininished 1'th minor ?th minor lOth -- i ^-, cr+ L augmented dth
/-. in- ?rrl )

Prinarv - C o m m e n t a r yR e l a t i o n s h i p

Eaeh Prinary i s f o L l o w e d b y a C o m m e n t a r yg r a c e - n o t e g r o u p , E a c h C o m m e n t a r yi s a r e t r o g r a d e inversion

of one of the Primaries. In FJ.gure 9, the Primaries have been numbered 1 - 28 with the corresponding Com-

mentaries numbered (1 ) - (28)

Once again, the structure is based on the three subdlvisions of bars 1-20: Section 1 (bars 1-6);

Section 2 (bars 6-11); ana Section 3 (bars 11'-20). Primaries 1 - 9 are in Secticn'1. The posiLion of each

Connentary j-s determined by the position of its Primary. T l . r cO o m n e n t a r i e s a r e p l a c c d i n r e t r o g r a r l e sequence

using the beginning of bar 1 and the end of bar 6 as boundaries. The intervals o f t h e C o m m e n t a r ya r e i n -

verted internallys that is, the lowest and highest pitches stay the same while the intervals within thent

invert:

Pnnau I Grnenton 1

/1
t--.e9-7r -fr =
'<- ;

FICURE8

Primary 1 and Comnentary (1 )

Secti.ons 2 and 3 operate in an identical" way. Section 2 conbains Primaries 10 - 18 and Section 3 contains

Primaries 19 - 28.

Because a large amount of material has been directly generated from the ncre three beats of the

Schoenberg Text (which in itseLf is quite unified in its intervallic material), there are many other in-

teresting inter-relationships in the nraterial just presented. These add to a certain unity in the aural-

result lthilst at the same tine adding io the complexity of the inter-relationships within the music. For

example, Figure 10 sholrs the subtle relationship between Prinary 1 and Comnentary (9) in bar 1. The

Pitch-Class Set of the Primary 1s intervallically identical to the Pitch-C1ass Set of the left-harid chord

of the Conrrnentary. Both contain a mj-nor 3rd and a rninor 2nd.


F I G U R E9 ( c o n t i n u e d )
llz4t
, t

riuutt|, y (contlnued,,
--j3 t?/

F I C U R E9 ( c o n t i n u e d )
)/r

---G7-,

I, lUUt(n y lconr.r-nueo,/
--:-.. -----
? -

, " ? 7 ,

I ' - t u u t 1 t ry I c o n L r n u e o /
)o

FTGIIRE9

P r i m a r y - C o m m e n t a r yR e l a L i o n s h i p

F I G U R E1 O

P r i n a r y 1 - C o m m e n L a r y( 9 ) R e l a t i o n s h i p
37

Pitch Structure of the l,lind and Strings Bars 1-20

The wind and strings bars 1-20 are a retrograde inversion of the piano bars 1-20. When a verticaf

chorcl j-n the piano is to be inverted in one of the wind or string instruments, the invclsion is converted

into a horizontal melodic expression:

F I G U R E1 1

Vertical Original and Horizontaf Inversiotr

An exception to this is s o m e t i m e sf o u n d i n t h e s l r i - n g s w h e n a d o u b l e - s t o p i c c o n v c n i e n t :

F I G U R ] I1 2
"
llarlinal Oniainr'l *a .n.. J' V e r t r c a l (uollole-slopreo./ Inversron

lJhen r piano figure is inverted in the wind or sLringl, bhe rl';'tl'mic placemorrL of llre inverted figure

within the beat of the bar is a retrogradc of the original. This *rn be seon nrost clearly il F i g u r e 1l

which has the dulations which show the retrograde rclationship marked:

F I G U R E1 3

Retrograde Relationship
l8

S o m e t i m e st h e e x t e n d e d h o r i z o n t a l " f o r m o f t h e i n v e r s i o n c a n o b s c u r e t h e r e t r o g r a d c ' r ? l . l t i o n s h i p . Figure 11,

is an example of this with the relationship marked:

F'IGURI i /,

0bscured Retrograde Relationship

The transposition leve1 of the inverted material is refated io the p,itcL range c1'the Scficenberg Text.

It has been previously noted that the range of the Schoenberg Text is D1 to gr. The piano range used in

E t w a s R u h i g e r i m A u s d r u c ki s f r o m D 1 t o g l r r r . B e c a u s eo f t h c p r a c t i c a l fimilations ol'Lhc wind and slrings,

the range used of these instruments colfectively is two octaves smafl-er: that is, fron D to gilr. This

results in symmetry: the top and bottom bounCary notes of each range used are an equaL distance from their

respective ends of the piano keyboard (A, to crrrr'). Figure 15 shows -

i) The range of bhe Jchoenbcrg Tcxt;

ii) The range of the piano keyboard;

iii) The range of the piano used i-n Etwas Ruhi.eer;

iv) The collective range of Lhe wind and stringi in Etwns Ruhinor.

hjso- - -

,1
}.IGURE 5

Ranges

Every retrograde inversion in the lrind and <i.r'i nec i c t.rancnn<ori ca + L ^ l k ^ + L r r , ^ ^ - i - i - ^ r / - i - - ^ \


\ Protiu /
^ - r
drlu

inversi.on (wind or string) are equidistant from their own respecLive ran-a hnilnAor.' nar- Fi dt,r6 1A

nakes ihese relationships clear:


)9

F I G U R E1 6

Inverted Pibch Relationships

f r rr*o.
The first and most obvi.ous ownnnlo nf fhiq i< in 11s1 1 bet.wccn Lhe ni onn rnrl f hn

FIGURI 17
' -
Trrnc^nei+inn T a r r o, l. a- f. trnotnversron (ll

In the above figure, the piano (original) begins on its fower boundary note and the flute (retrograde

inversion) ends on its higher boundary note. Another example of tlris type of transposition of the

inversion is in bar 16 between the piano and the viofin and ceflo:

I'IGURE18

Transposition Level of the Invcrsion (ii)


/,0

fn the above figure, the piano is a (conpound) major Jrd above its lower boundary note while the violin ncte

is a najor 3rd below its higher boundary note.

Certaln transpositions give extra points of symmetry when inverted:

itoLMo

PTAlrOPORTE

I'IGURE 1 9

Original - Tnversion Symmelry (i)

At opposite poles of the original - inversion couplet in thc ebove figure there is a diminished ?th from

pitch-classes F-sharp to D-flat,. I n F i g u r e 2 0 , l h e r e i s a c o m m o nd y a d d r 1 ; r r 1 ' r l o r n r l n i . n l ) i v o t I ' r o m t , h t

top of the original to the bottom of the inversion:

CLARIIiETTO

VIOLONCELLO

F I G U R E2 0

0riginal Inversion Symnetry (ii)

Figure 21 shows the relationship firstly between the wind and strings and the Primaries (at the top of

the page) and, secondlyr between the wind and strings and the Conmentaries (at the bottom of the page). 1'se

irregularities occur in this system. The firsb is in bar 14 where, for no apparent reason, the piano chord

marked with a (?) does not have a retrograde inversion in the wind ancl strings. The other is in bar'15 where

the cl-arinet d-flatr marked with a (?) would bu u*p""t"d to be a d-naturalr, This may welf be a copyistts
1t1

F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n L i n u e d )
t.)

F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n t i n u e d )
t a

F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n t i n u e d )
FIGURE21 (continued)
F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n t i n u e d )
F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n t i n u e d )
---i-J:l

PPPP'a._..-_1 -t
P2./'

F I C U R E: 1 (continued)
?//./ 9\rl. rtco

F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n t i n u e c l )
/r9

?P/,t ieano gonL

P2// p"llo*.

F I G U R E2 1 ( c c n t i n u e d )
/"r? yofio*.

'- l t r a t
,.'r;\i pnfr n"ul-:-l-E-ll-

PPPP trt.t. poil

'tttt
- -' - nor4. pppP
Iucta tont

----i---J 177 A I

F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n t i n u e d )
PPPPgo. oota. 2fpp

. 2r? , , 7 t ,tP' s '

F I G U R E2 1 ( c o n t i n u e d )
r=-:t-

--ffi--1,

FICURB21 (continued)
53

I'IGURE 21

Piano -'vJinC and Strings Relationship


D y n a m i c s o f B a r s 1- 2 0

(the quotations of the Schocnbelg Tcxt), *.he d:,'nonics are identical


In the Primaries or tianspositions

to their sources in the Schoenberg Text. The only excepiion is in bar 1, the second Primar.y. This parti-

cular Prirnary is already irregular in Lhab it i:; e qracc-noLe rat.lr-r th:n b t ' i t t , 1I h r r l r i ' t h n o f L h e S c h o c n b c r g

Text. Because it is a gracc-note, the whole chord is givcn the dynnmic of fppp il-rste:cl of the three upper

notes being pppp and the bottom G-sharpl bei,ng pp:

F I G U R E2 2

Primary irynamic Irregu hrit.r'

The Conmentaries take their dynamlcs not from their own related Primary but from thc Primcr-;' immedietely

preceding it. The dynanic chosen is the softesL contained in lhe Plirnary. Thur lhe softest dynanic of

Primary 1 is ppp which in turn becomes the dynamic of llommcntury (o); tlre dyrtamic of frinarv 2 1s pppp which

in turn becones the dynamic of Comnentary (8); and so on:

FIGURE23

Dynamicsof Comrnentaries

The onJ.y iregularity is in bar 16. Commentary (26) is split into two parts with Prinary 22 between them.

The second psrt o f C o m r n e n t a r y( 2 6 ) t a t e s the softest dynamic of Primary 21 (nnn) rnther thnn that of

rrlmary
^z z^ \|p p p p /\:
55

I
(
,P7- , '

FTNIIDq ] /

Connentary Dynamic Irregularity (i)

In the same fashion, Primarj-es 22 and 2) nay be grouped togelher since tlrere is only the second part of

Comnentary(26) between them (i.e. t h e s e c o n d .h a l f o f C o m n e n t a r y ( 2 b ) j s n o t a C c m m e t : L c r ; ' i n i L s o w n r i g h t ) .

Therefore, Comnientary (25) takes the softest dynamic of Primaries 22 and 23 cornbined (i.e. ppnp) rather than

that of Prinary 23 only (ppp):

T I G U R E2 5

C o m m e n t a r yD y n a m i c I r r e g u l a r i t y (ii)

The dynanics of the wind and strings correspond cxact,ly to tire Primaries and Commentaries ^ f rrhi^ h +h61'
w'r!J qa rF A v

retrograde inversions. Where a Prirnary lias two dynamics, its retrograde inverslon has a c r e s c e n d o or de-

crescendo between the two dynamics to make performance at spee,l mol'e pFrtical:

!'rcuR!26
Dynamics of Wind and Sl;rirrgs
56

The only exception is i n b a r 2 0 b e ' u w e e nt h e r i g h t hand of the Primary and the cello and lhis case may well be

a misprint:

TIGURE2?
q -i ' .'
t:a] 1n u, )J ' ! n
, , q, 'mr ui n I r r oI ncr Br ul r o r tuJ
uurau rr
CHAPTERV

B A R S2 1 . 1 0 0

Generaf Conslruction

Bars 21-1OO are a serj-es of re-readings or verses based on bars 1-20. T h e w l n d e L n Cs t r i n g s on one hand

and the piano on the other pursue quite independent paths as the naterial is transformed'

The raind and strings introduce a system of interval rliminr.rt,ionand drtrati.onal (rhytlrmic) diminution

from bar 21. Each new verse is the resuLt of a re-reading of the previcus verse. Because of the rhythmic

transformations, the verses stray from the 20-bar pattern established in bars -1-20.

The piano, on the other hand, adheres to the 20-bat verse pattern rigidly. Bars 21-l,O are an inversion

of bars l-20 (using the same rhythrn). B a r s 1 n 1 - 6 0a r e a n i n t e r v a l l i c diminution (as in the wind and strings)

and a verticalisation (i.e. tte transformation of everything into chords) of bars'1-20. Bars 6'l-80 are an

inversion of bars 41-60 (using the sane rhythm). Bars 81-100 are a furthcr intervalfic dimlnution and

horizontallsation of bars 61-80.

trlind and Strinss Bars 21-100

Rhythnic Struct,tire

There are two sections in the rhythmic cuperstructure of bars 21-100 in the uj-nd and strings. The

first is a system of rhythmic diminution applied successively t i r l o u g l t l l r e r r l , r ' i l r L l sa l r r l w i t r c ' l f r o m t r l r ' ! . 1. It

is applied firstly to the violin f r o m b a r 2 1 , t h e n t f r e c e l f o f r o m b : r r ' 2 8 , L l L of l u l o from bar 14 and the

clarinet frcm bar 41. The second is a written accelerendo rpplic'd Jucce:sivc.ly bhrough Lhc sLrings and

wind from bar 61. It is applied firstly to the violin from bar 61, then the cello from bar 68, the flute

fron bar ?/* and the clarinet fron bar 81. The rhythmic durations impo;ed on tlie matcrial in the first

section are: ninims, dotted crotchets, crotchets, dotted quavcrs' quavers and grsce-notL--. Table J lists

the instrunents, the durations and the bars from where the process begins. It also notes where the second

section starts.

TABLE 3

Rhythmic Diminution in the Wind and Strings

Vi.olin Ce11o I'lute Clarinet

Minirns fron: bar 21 bar 28 bar 3/* bar /+1

Dotted crotchets fron: bat 27 bat: 34 bar 1,5 bal. l'1

Crotchts from: bar 31, bar 1,1 bar i,8 bat 51+

Dotted quavers fron: bar 41 bar 48 Inr 5L bar 61

Quavers from: bar /'7 bar 5/n bar 65 bar 6'J

Grace-notes from: bar 51,, bar 61 bar 68 bar 7l+

Start of the 2nd Section: bar 61 bar 68 bar 74 bar 81

T a b l e 3 s h o r " r sc l e a r organising principles. Seven bars aft,er the violin, the ce11o begins rltyihmic

dimlnutlon. Six bars later, the flute follows, as does the clarinet after seven rnore bars, naking a total

of 20 bars (7 + 6 + 7 = 2O). Each inslrunent continues with the diminution for exactly 40 bars. The

57
58

violin, ceLlo and clarinet all have minims for six bars, dotted crolchets for seven bars, r:rotchets for

seven bars, dotted quavers for six bars, quavers for seven bars and grace-notes for se'ren bars

6+7 +7 +6+7 +7 = 1,0). Theflute is theoddoneoutwiih m i n - i m s f o r1 1 b a r s , d o l t e d c r o t c h e t s f o r

t h r e e b a r s , c r o L c h e l s f o r s i x h a r s , d o i , L e dq u s v e r " l f o r 1 1 b e r s , . l u u v 'r : .t'or i-r,r-e I ot s en'l grcce-t.oLes ior

six bars (ll + 3+ 6 + 11 + 3 + 6 = 40).

The second sectlon is a lrritten accelerando (i,e. a gradual accumulation of materiaf F.er bar). Each

instrument begins the section with one note per bar. The number ol notes pcr bar inereases bv two for

every new bar until a peak is reached which is mainbained until bar 100. Tlro violitr rcachcs a pr:ak of

37 notes (and rests) in bar 79; the celfo, 33 notes ln bar' 84; the flutc, 39 notes in bar 9J; and the

clarinet, 35 noLes in bar 98. That is, b c r s 9 8 - 1 O Oh : , v c 3 J ( c r 1 L o ) o , l o i n s l J 5 ( c l e l j r . e t ) against a7 (violin)

rnrinql. ?o t'f]rrt.o) nn'.os (innludino ros',s) ner bar. Table filr.r;:.hn rc,"rmrrlaLjcn.f noto- 6n- r'rr {-^r ^a.r'
4

instrument.

Pi.tch Structure

General principles.

Bars 21-100 are a re-working of bars 1-20. B a r s 1 - 2 0 a r e r c p e e L ' u efdr o m t e n t o s i x t e e n t i m e s , e a c h t i m e

r,rith a diminution in the size of the intelvafs. Thc principlc of intervaf dimirrution may have been derived

fron the intervallic s t r u c L u r e o f b h e S c h o e n b e r gr e 1 1 a s s h o v m i n F i C u r c / , I'he not.ec forning the intervals

contract semitoneby scmitone towards r ccntral- axis. ' i ' i r on x i s i r o i l , l r . r ' ; , r r r r i s ( ) n( ) r -r n r i n o r l n d :

FIGURE 28

The Prinninlp nf Inf.o-rral Dininution


59

TABLE I,

WriLten Accelerando in Lhc l{ind and Strings

Number of notes pcr bar

Violin Ce11o Flute Clarinet

Bar
61 1
3
o) 5
6/+ 7
o) 9
66 11
67 t )

bu 15 1
oy 17 3
70 19 5
71 21 l
,1)
9
73 11
7/+ 1) 1

75 15 3
/o 31 11 5
77 19 1
'/8 21 9
79 37 13 11
80 l ) 13
81 )'l 15 1
82 2A 11 3
83 31 19 5
81, 33 21 1
Rq 23 9
tJt) 25 11
87 27 13
88 )a 15
89 31 i7
90 33 19
a1
91 )5
o) 31 )2.

93 39
o/ 27
95 2a

96 31
97 73
35
99
100
DU

Figure 28 also shows the coursc of action wiren the axis isr reacheC. Tn the case of a unison, there may or

may not be a residual rest. In the case of a ninor 2nd, one of the notes is tranrposed one octave (to make

a minor 9bh) and the contraction process starts again.

In practice, of course, the process is not quite so well defined. Thet'e are a number of irregularities

and finer details which are explained below.

The flute figure in bar 1 becomes the flute figure in bar 2'1:

,: ooDm?to di 80
-----7::-
1 flitl,. l.

ILTUTO

FIGURE29

l,linor 2nd Unit

The augnented 5th between b-flatrt and f-sharpttr (bar 1) contracts to a diminished 5th between brrand

frrr (bar 21) according Lo the normal conditi-ons outlincd above. Iiowever, Lhe minor 2nd between f-sharprrr

and gttt (bar 1) and f rrt and g-flatr I I ( b a r 2 1 ) i s a c o n n - t : " r r r t .l { e m a y t h e r e f o r e say that both the

f-sharpttt and g'tt (bar 1) contcact towards the b-flaLtt a s a r t u r r i L ' r . T l r i : m a n n e ro f g r o u p i n g i s o f t e n

employed in a 3-note (or other odcl numbered) figure which has a mj.nor 2nd and is hcreafter called a

rrMinor 2nd Unitrr.

A further variant is found in the flute between bars 14 anrl )/':

FIGURU30

UngroupedPitch

Here, the central- gr is left ungroupedwhilst the dr and ctt ( b a r 1 1 + )c o n t r a c t t o e - f f a t r and br. Hereafter

& note which is left at its original. pitch on repetition of the figure is referred to asrrungroupedrr.

An exanple of the third conmon variant is in the {'lute between bars 4 and 2/u:
F I G U R E3 1

Double Grouping

The central a-flatrt (bar /r) is groupedwith both the errrand Lhc ftrr ( b a r 4 ) a n d c o n t r a c l s a c c o r d . i n gt o

therrrulesrrwith both of then. T h i s c a s e i s h e r e a f t e r c a 1 l e d a r r D o u b l eG r o u p i n g r r . I t will be noticed ihat

the above grouping varlants apply mainl-y to early material (roughly bars 1-60). As the rhythmic figures

become less defined (after bar 60)' the grouping becones more regular:.

The rtDoubled br"tt"gt'.

An extra pitch development takes place whilst the material procccdc thlorrgh t,lte quaver phase of iLs

rhythmic diminution (outlined ln Table 3). Each piLch sequenceis cxtended or"rdouhLedrrhy having its or,m

inversion or retrograde inversion added on to the end of it. This caso is hcreafter called a rrDoubled

Sequencetr. For exanple, in Figure l2 the pitch series (i) may be exLcnded b;vj.rrvorsion (ii) or retrograde

inversion (iii):

FIGURE32

S t r u c L u r eo f t h e D o u b l e di e q u e n c e
b2

In each case, the last note of the I'pilotrrsequcrrcc acts ac tirc pivot, not,e (marked P) for thc Doubled

In practice, a few slight changes are made to these t'asic prirrciplcs. For cxrmple, e pcrtieular note

may be required to be Lransporcd by one octrve to fiL Lhe rar6c,)r:L ('elLlilr instrunerL. I;t oLher pl-aces,

',hal, pirrlicular pitcir. This


notes are transposed by an octave to achieve a fixed regi: t".r 1or following

c ^dtr,}/r c
ryr '' bhn f1ul,e:

T'TGURE
33

Fi-xedPitch Register in the DoubleilSequence

+.he nerfenl. lt.h in t.lre nilnt qonrrennp ir irvortcd irr tho nelrn-"p,1^ :nrrrr.inn
fTr nr lFai go qr rr w
re 33- P,trreuu lo fOfm a

nanfaat {*h Tha racrrl* i- - ci-^i -a-ia*^r fuhr nr n (onrronao


l,Errtuu /urr. lctsrouvr l ur ur ag hr rnu, L
t 'u }hn l l n r r h l o rr ui L uiluu,,uv l' - w
a r. --c}rr-ll
l-rr.Jr/
Thic nznaodrrra

is only undertaken in the second hal-f of the sequence. The pilci sequence is always left unaltered. It

should be pointed out that for figures containing only one note (such as i,he sofit.ary quaver in bar 54 of

the ce1lo) no extensj.on into a Doubled Sequence is possihle. The Doubled ;lcouence acts on each instrument

independently during its particular quaver phase and is terminated at the onset of ils new grace-note phase.

The flute from bar 1,

I'igure 35 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the flute from bar 1. Thc irorpin; of the

intervals to be diminished is s h c i w nl y " \ , / between the two notes concerned. Notice that the interval

dinrinution is really the diminution of every second interval (especially in t s , h el a t e r stages after bar 60)

except in the rare event of a Double Grouping. Obser,rations on thcse procl5sses rre outfined beloru.

Grouping variants.

Bar 1: The f-sharntrl and drrrforn a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 212 The frrrand g-flatrrr form a Minor 2nd Unit.

B a r s l + 5 - l + 6 tT h e e r r r and f rrr form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Ilatthl ad Soatar^a<

Bar 65: The j,ntelvallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is s h o u r nb e l - o w .

FIGURI34

The DoubledSequenceBar 6l
aE fla!l

PPl - lP

PPP

E9

' ' i
/ / ? - t

T.IGURE
35

Continui.ty and lnterval Dinrinution o1' the llute fl'om Ear 1


6t

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 92: The dllrto clrrgrouping in bar 89 formc c-sharprrr plus the quaverrestr.

The flrite from bars 2-3.

F i g u r e 3 7 s h o $ r st h e c o n t i n u i t y and interval dj-minution of the ffute from bars 2-3. Observations on

these processes are out,lined below.

Grouping variants.

Bar 2: The flute brr is groupedvith the:ynchronous f-sltarprr in the clarinet.

The ar I and g-sharprr form a l"linor 2nd Unit.

Bar 222 The b-flatrr is ungrouped.

Bar 232 The b-fkLtrr and arr form a l,finor 2nd UriiL.

Bar 46t m L ^ L r 1 ^ + r r ai o- "q r -1 t-] 1- ^w u: l e d . The brr and b-flallrform e t l ' l i n o r2 n d U n i l .

Bar 66: The c-sharprrr is ungroupcd.

Doubled Sequences.

Bars 65-66t The intervaLlic structure o f t h e D o u b l e d S e q u e n c c i s r r h o w nb e f o w .

IIGURE ?6

The Doubled Se(luence Bars 65-66

S o u r c e s o f t h e n e r , rr e s t s .

Bar 85: The brr to c-sharprrt grouping in bar 81 forms crrrplus the quavc: t'esl.

Bar 99: I ronaiifinn nf .rt I i: nano*arl

Trnaarrlrri*ioa

Bars 65-66: The result of the diminulion of the interval between cttr and 1,rr uoulcl be expected to be

crrr to br, a ninor !th. The acttral result in bar 81 is brr to crr, a major ?th but using

the expected pitch-classes i,n reverse order.

Bar bb: L ' h ed r r r marked with a (?) is ignored in ber 6'1.

Bar 81: The brrmarked with a (?) is ignored in bcrs;85-86.

The flute from bars 4-6.

Figure 38 shows the continuity and interval di.minution of the flute from bars 4-6. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Groupi.nq variants.

I . The flute crtr


Flor
is grouped with the synchronous atl 1n the clarinet. The a-flatrtin the

third figure is the centre of a Doub-leGrouping.

Bar 2Lz The brrin the first figuro is ungrouped. Tho art in 1 . 1 , i 'f h i r d fir"rrp ir tlre cenlre of

a Double Grouping.
rl'!.r- l-t Ur'r

i' ta'+bi i-t- t;

P// 322 ?2P

, . 97
u . =

F]CURE37

Continuity and fnterval Diminution of thc Flute fron Bars 2-3


F I C U R N3 8

Continuity and fnterval Diminution of the Flute from ilars /r-6


al

Bar The frr in Lhe second figure is unqrouped.

Bar t9. The brrand b-flatrrform a M i n o r ' 2 n dU n i b .

Doubled Sequences.

Bars 66-67: The intervaflic structures of the two Doubfed St:quonccs arc sirown be1ow.

:-o{{}-b!-@-\:-9i'-

F I G U R E] 9

T h c T w o D o u b l e d S c c l u e n c e sB a r s 6 6 - o T

fneeularities.

Bars 66-67': These two figures are i.gnored in bar 81, The expected figures would probably be the

following.

F I G U R E4 0

The Expected ligures in Bar 81

The flute from bars ?-8.

Figure 1*1shows the continuity and interval diminution of the flute from bars 7-8. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

f-rnln{ na rrari qn* c


s - .

Bar 8: The drrr and e-flatrrr form a l"linor 2nd Unit,

Tho r-chrr-r y e
I o-i
r r q
Lr I
v J lorm a l,linor 2nd unit.

Bar 28: The c-sharprrrand drrr form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar /+8: The at I and b-fLairr forn a l'linor 2nd UniL.

Rar la. The crrr and d-flatrrr form a lvlinor 2nd Unit.

The bl is the centre of a Double G::ouping.

Doubled Sequences.

bar oaJ: The intervallic structures of the two Doubled Sequences are shown in Figure 42.
l,;nd l^r tJ!,t

E6
ir,-1
F^PP

1
89

9? r-
&
-P
3,
4 p'.,
:--:_

IIGURI 41

Contj,nuity and Interval Dininution of the llute from Bars 7-8


I'TGURE/+2

T h e T w o D o u b l e d S e c l u e n c e sB a r 6 8

Sources of the new rests,

Bar 89: Tha hll i^ ott -rnr:-inc in hon RA fc^.^hd


\ ! evvrru
fiarrrn) fnrmc h-flptrrnlnr +l-o rr'..oF racf

Trregularities.
'li
Bar The figure marked with a (?) is a Double Crouping bul tLc cenl,ral nole (1,") does not

Lake part in the diminution process. IIovcvcr, irr thjs cc;r'iL d o c : n o L r r c ? . rL


' rh a L l h c

brr is ungrouped. Thc notes either;idc of brrprocecd ac if tltc; wcre 6roupedwith brr

but brr itself remains uninffr.ctod. Thc only oti:cr examplcs of this l;.'pe ol irregularily

are in bars /,1-42 of the cfarinet and bar'19 of the cello.

The flute from bar 9.

Figure 44 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the flute from bar 9. Observations on

Lhese processes are ouLlined below.

dr ar r ni n, ' r r or i qnl <


g . : '

Bar 9: The a-flatr and gr form a Minor 2nd UniL,

Bar 292 The errr and d-sharnrrr folm a l4inor 2nd Unlt.

Bar 1+92 The e-fl-atrrr and drrtform a Minor 2nd Unit.

The c-sharprt i s t h e c e n t r e o f a D o u b l - eG r o u p i n g .

Doubled Seouences.

bar oy3 The intervalfic structure of lhe Doubled Sequence is shol"n befow.

- ? - t - -

FIGUHE4,3
Tha Dnr:hrod c-^1,6-^- D11
69

This Doubled Sequence i s irregular in that the dimlnished 5th in tha ni' ln* caarrona- ia

not reproduced in the s e c o n d h a l " f o f t h e s e q u e n c e . The expected Doubled Sequence is

shown in Figure ,i5.


rA,*tlno (toot

-?/

91

09

22

FIGURE44

Continuity and Interval Dirninution of the Flute from Bar 9


l1

3-6F

F T d U ? J r4 '

Tha rlwnoat orl Dnrrir'l od i^^r'nnno For i.Q

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 89: A ronaiitinn nf o|| i< nooat.ad

Bar 92: ?he hll t.n nll ororrnino in hrr 80 forms h-fln+ll r-ll. J.hn e ',rvn- n
' o :' 1 , .
Y"*'"'

Irresularities,

bar by: The Doubled ljequence is irregulal es riescribed above.

Bar 90: The dininution of the interval" b e L v r e e nd - s h a n p r r a n d I ' - s h a r p r m a . r k e dr + i t h a ( ? ) r v o u l d b e

cxpectedto producea drrand gr in har !2. Inslead, lhc cr-lt omittcd from bar 92,

The flute from l-,rrs 10-11.

Figure 47 shows the continuity and intervaf diminut,ion of the flute from t'ars 10-11. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Groupins varlants.

lJar I l: The f-sharprris ungrouped. The flute br is grouped wilh thc:Jnclrlonous b-flat in the

clarinet,

Bar 31: Tho f--hrn-lt ;^ ".-''^':ped,

Bar 51r The l-sharpr t is ungroupcd.

Doubled Sequences.

Bars 70-71: The intervallic strucburec of Lhe l;wo Dorrbfcd ilcquenccs urc shom below.

!.Ii}URE ,16

T h e T w o l - a o u b l e dS e q u e n c c s B a r s 7 0 - 7 1
96

,/2

97

99

FIGURE /,7

Continuiiy and Interval Dininution of the Fiute from Bars


13

Sources o f t h e r y rests.

Bar 90: There are two new quaver rests in tlris bar. The brt t,o c-citarprrr g r o u p i n g i n b a r 8?

forms clrrplus the first rest. The b-fla'urr to a-flatrr groupini; in bar 87 forms

nlrrs tho seeond rest.

Bar 92: The dlr to ctr grottping in bar 90 forms c-shat'prr plus t,hc (lllaver l'\-'s+!.

'Ihe I/,
tlute lrom o3r

!'igure 49 shows the contlnr:ity ancl interval dinlnution of t,hc flut,e from bar 1!. Observaticns on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants.
T
r rLr u
- - r r 4ru r -r,,4r ! r l " o r m
Bar 122 ts a Minor 2nd UniL.

The a-flahr t and srr lorm a l4inor 2nd Unit.

Bar 52: Tho qrl nnd --sharnrt form a Mirror 2n1 UniL.

Doubled Sequenees.

The intervallic structure of the Doubl-edSequenr:eis shown below.

irICirRIl 48

Tirn Dnrrh] pd .^nnrrrnco Di r 7J

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 9O: The b-flatrLo crrgrouping in bar 87 forms hrl-lus thc quavor rect.

Bar 93: The arto brgrouping in bar 90 form: h-flarr plrrs Lhe quavcr rest.

The fluto from bars 13-11'.

Figure 50 shows the contlnuity and inlerval di.minution of the ffute from bars 13-11+. Observaiions on

these processes are outl-incd below.

Crorrping variants.
'lh- -r i< rrn-nn,r-oA
4 i , v
6

Bar 3l,z TLa at ic rrnnrnrrno,l

The g-sharpr I is ungrouped.

Bar 75t The f-sharpr is ungrouped.

Doubled Seouences.

Bar 73t The intervallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is sirom in Figure 51.
93

2/

FIGURE49

Continuity and Intervaf Dlminution of the Flute from tsar 12


-,?

9 3 t

I'IGURE 50

Continuity and Interval Diminution of tire Flute from Bars 13-1{


76

I . ' I G U R E5 1

The Doubled Sequence Bar 73

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 81r: A repetition of f-sharpr is negeLerl.

Bar 87: There are four new quaver rests'in this b'rr. A rcpeLilion of hrr is negaled to form the

firsl rest. The brto argrouping in bar 83 fonms h-flaLrplus Lhc reccnd rest. The

. l l + ^ h l l - - a r r - i - - ; - h ^ r n z f n n m < h - f t r r l l r , t r r : ivt , r, a
E t h i r . , l , r r r r v , , r r , , : t . T h , , f - c h r r n l
liLuJ

to a-f1atr grouping j"n bar 84 forms gr plus the fourth rest.

Bar 901 Thp hrrt.n:rr ororrnino in bar 8? form: b_fla+rr h1.,^ rhA ^,,a-16-,^-t.

Irregularities.

Bat 13l. The result of the drrto errgrouping m a r k e dw i t h a ( ? ) i s a r e o e a t e d e - f l a t r r in bar 33.

The only other example of a repeated note is in bar 27 of the clarinet.

Bar 95: The result of the drrto c r g r o u p i n g m a r k e dw i t h a ( ? ) w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o b e a e - s h a r p r l

plus quaver rest. The acLual- resulL 1n bar 97 is Lhe c-sharprr only, the quaver rest

beins onitted.

The flute fron bars 14-15.

Figure J2 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the flute from bars 14-'15. Observations on

these processes are outlined be1ow.

Grouping varlants.

Bar 14z The er and d-sharpr form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bars 3l'-35: The fr and et form a Minor 2nd Unit,

D-- ar. Tho ol ic rrnornrrnod Tha P-<hrrnrI i< tho ann*ro nf r llanhlo -'--r-nC.
a.ra,,r.i

The ar is the centre of a Double Groupins.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 84: The at to gr grouping in bar 75 forms a-flatrp-tus the qutver resL.

Bar 88: A repetition of gr is negated.

Bar 93; The g-sharprto b-flatrgrouping in bars !0-!1 forms arplus the quaver rest.

Bar 95: The frtto grrgrouping in bar 93 forrns f-sharp'r plus the quaver rest.

frregularities.

Bar 84: The atrto f-sharprrgrouping m a r k e dw i t h a ( ? ) i : e c o m e sa - f L a t i l to g't in bar 88.

Likewise, the f-sharprrto b r g r o u p i n g b e c o m e sf r r t o crrin bar 88. That is, the

conttal f-sharprr of the Double Grouping (bar 84) splits to form grr and frt in bar 88.

Thls type of procedure does not occur elsewhere.


,r.rET
.f.P//

5 5 . -

t ! 7
-
?t4 PP ' PPl PPP

2u4

>--J

. ,L) i:
l;

H++ri*-;+-4i,!--153

FICURtr52

Continuity and Interval Diminuiion of tlie Flute from Bars 14-'15


78

The fLute frolr bar 16 (a).

Figure J{ shows the continuity anrl interval diminution of the f}ute from bar 16 (a). Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Groupinq variants.
'tjnit,,
bar Io : The d-sharnrrr and errr form a Minor 2nd

Bar 37: The dr rr and e-flatrrr forn a }linor 2ncl Unil.

Bar 98: Thc g-sharprr is the c.ntre of a Dortb,le Groul,ing.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 84: The b-flatrrto crttgrouping in bar 77 forms brrplus t h e c l u a v e rr e s t '

The flute from bar 16 (b).

Figure J! shows the continuity and interval dininution of the flute from bar 16 (b). Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

variants.

Bar 16: The b-f1atr is ungrouped.

Bar 38: The grrand a-ffatrr f o r . ma M i n o r ' 2 n d l j n i t .

Sourees of the new rests.

Bar 91: The frto g t g r o u p i n g i n b a r 8 8 f o r r n sf - s l t a r p r p l u c the quaver rest.

Bar 98: A repetition of dr | | is negated.

Trnaarr'larilioe

Bar 78: The f-sharptt and grr marked with a (?) would be expected lo be grouped nnd yct the

interval renains unclianged in bar 8/r,

The flute fronr bar 17.

Figure 56 shows the continuity and interval diminrrtion of the ffute from bar 17. Observations on

Lhese processes are outlined bel-ow.

Groupinq variants.

Bar 1?: The drr is grouped with the synchronou: a in Lhe clarlnet.

Bar 38: The c-sharprr is ungrouped.

Irresul-arities.

Bat 75t These two figurec are ignored in berc cil,-rJ5. Thc cxpccied I'i1;uros uould probably be

the following.

FIGURE53

T h e ExpectedFigures in Bars 84-85


79

TICURB5,i
Continuity and fnterval Dirninution of tho Flute f r o m I l a r ' 1 6 ( a )
- P?

67
c.;--;-----

PPz '??P PP

6t

?2P

FICURE55

Continuity and Interval Diminutj-onof the I'lul;e from Bar' 16 (b)


F I G U R E5 6
'17
Continuity and Intervaf Diminution o f + " h el l u t e from Bar
82

The flute from bar 18 (a).

Fi -rrra (? cLa'.'a
- .L r e c o n t i n u i t y
*
and interval diminution of the flute from bar 1E (a). Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants.

Bar /r0: The c-sharpr and dl form a Minor 2nd Unit. The l;-flatr is unglouped. The g-sharprrand

all form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Trraa,rlori*ioc

Bar 18: The c', d-flattand arnarked wlth a (?) are all g r o u p e da s a U n i t t o t h e b r . The a'

combines wilh brto forn b-flatr (lar 1,0) and the }iinor 2nd Unit rises one serrltone

(tar 1,0). This type of grouping is not found efsewirere.

fhe flute from bar 18 (b).

Figure 58 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the flute from har 1B (t). Observations on

these processes are outlined be1ow.

Grouping variants.

Bar 18: The a-f1atr is ungrouped.

Bar lo2: The c-sharpr t is ungrouped.

Sorlrces of the new rests.

Bar 85: A repetition of a-flatrris negated.

Bar 88: A repetition of err is negated.

The flute fron bars 18-'19.

Figure 59 shows the continuity and interval dimi.nution of the flute flom Lars 18-'19. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

flrarrni n- 'rori on* c


g . : .

Bar 19: The ar I is ungrouped,

Bar L2: The br and cr form a Minor 2nd tlnit.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 88: The crrrto b-flatrr grouping in bar 85 forms'ut'plus the quavei. rest,.

T r r aar , l qr i * i ac

Bat 792 The crrrmarked with a (?) is ignorcrl jn Lar 85.

The flute from bar 19.

Figure 50 shows the continuity and interval diurinution of the ffute from bar 19. Observations on

these processes are outlined bel-ow.

Grouping variants.

Bar 1,3: The d-sharprr is ungrouped.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 88: The frr to glr grouping in bar 85 forms f-sharprr plus the quaver rc'st.
sl

FIGURE57

Continuiby and Interval Diminution of the Fl-ute fron Bar 1B (e)


91

93

l/

96

F I G U R E5 8

Continuity and Interval Diminuiion of the Flute from Bar' 1B (b)


l,rr(3)

F I G U R E5 9

Continuity and lnterval Diminution of "he Flute from Bars 18-19


3-

t6

Ptz

?b tL

-= ' '

91 |g ,. tJ
-l-,!_--{;
r:=
-
?//

F I G U N ! ]6 O

Continuity and fnterval Diminut,ion of the llute f r o n F a r 19


?7

The flute from bar 20.

Figure 61 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the flule from bar 10. Obs"-rvations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants.

Bar 20: The g-sharptr i-s ungrouped.

Bar lr5: The g-sharpr I is ungroupcd.

The cfarinet from bar 1.


'1.
Figure 62 shows Lhe continuity and interval diminution of the clarinet from oar Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Orouping va:iants.

Bar 1: The f-sharprr is ungrouped.

Bar 21: The f-sharptr is ungrouped.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 9l't The glrto alr grouping in bar 90 form trre quaver rcst pltts a-flttrr.

Trregularities.

B a r 4 ' 1: Thc figure narked with a (:) i s a D o r r b l c Q r o u p i r r ; 1b u t l h o r : e n L r n l r r o f . r ' ( l , r r ) d o r ' s r r o l ,

take part in the di-minution proces:, However, in this case it,loes not, meantliat, the

brr is ungrouped. The notes cibher sidc ol brrprocccd:,: i i ' , l r c y w . r . g r o u p e du i t h

brr but brr itsel-f remains uninffected. ?ire only Lrthcl eronpl!.: oi 'uhi-: iype of ir-

regularity are in bor 7 of the flute and bar'19 of thc ccfl.o.

Bat 9l+z The rest referred to above is placed bcfolc 1.1r.'a-flatrrinsleud o1'afL.er, which ls

generally the case.

The cfarinet, fron bar 2.

Figure 6l shows the continuity and interval diminution of the cfarj,net, from bar 2. Observations on

these processes are outlined belou.

Grounins variants.

Bar 2: The clarinet f-sharprr is grouped with lhe synchronous bil in thc flute.

Bar 22t The grr ls ungroupcd.

Bar /r2l. The grr is ungrouped.

Sources of the nevr rests.

Bar 90: A repetition of frr (first figure) is negated.

The clarinet from bars 4-5.

Figure 6/, shows the continuity and intervaf diminution of the clarinet from bars /*-5. Observations on

these processes are outlined be1ow.


F I C U R E6 1

Continuity and Interval Diminutlon of the Flute from Bar 20


39

I']GI]RE 62

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cfarinet frcy Bar


T'ICURE
63

Continuity and Irrterval Diminution of the Clarinet from Bar 2


t '-
I,r-l
H T =' .
l'
| ,/|/

TIGURE 6i*

Continui.ty and Interval Diminution of thc Clarinet fron Bars


Crouoins variants.

Bar 4: The clarinet atl is grouped witir the synchronous crrr 1n tLIe f1utc.

D - - t / . The b-flatrr is ungrouped.

^rrr r ^ . , u- l ,r -: ;-r ,w. ur lC d .


Bar /n4: r.

The clarinet from bar 6.

Figure 66 shows the continuity and intervaf dininution of the c.larinet lron bllr 6. Observations on

these processes are outlined belovr.

Sources of the new rests.

There are two new quaver rests in this bar' A rlpr'liLion of er j: neqaled to form the
Bar:95:

first rest. The a-flatrt to b-flattr grouping ir he- Q1 fo'.ns rl I n'rrs the second rest,

Bar 100: The fr to gr grouping in bar 97 forms f-sharpr plus the quai'er resi.

The clarinet, fror bar 7.

Figure 5'l sho$rsthe continuity and interval diminution of the clarinet from bar 7. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Groupins variants.
- ! r r ^ . . - _ _ - . . _ 1 d .
Bar 1o7: fIIE U-IIEU TO U!ItsIUUPC

Doubled Sequences.

Bar 67: The intervallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shotvn bcloi+'

F ] G U R E6 5
-ha finrhled Sonrrpneo Pnr 67

Irreqularii, ies .

EAT I: The resuft of the bt to al grouping marked rsith a (?) is a repeated b-ffatr i-nbar 27.

T ! r e o n - l' r o f , h e r e x a m n le o f arrnnra i" ,. har Jl of Lh^ flulc.

ljar b /: The dr to a-flatr grouping markedwith a (?) would be expected to form c-sharpil to al

r h a . _ c r r r D . ' is there but the ar is left out.

The clarinet from bars 9-10.

Figure 68 sirows the contj.nuity and interval dininuti"on of the clarinet from bars 9-10. Observations

on these processes are outlined be1ow.

Grouping variants.

Bar 9: The a is ungrouped.

Bar 29: The a is ungrouped.

Bars 49-50: The a is ungrouped.

Bar 50: The dr is ungrouped.


:
t = -
lLA)lq r C

F ] G U R E6 6

Continuity. and fnterval Diminution of the Cfarinet fron Bar 6


!z__
i 2/P
t ?/.

l r
l"1t--i',
fT- =
| ""2

lrr T;-
ffi
f 2P,
|l l 8 u. -.

v#

I'IGURE 67

Continuity and Interval. Dimirrution of thc Clarinet flom tsar ?


F I G U R E6 8

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cfarinet from Bars 9-10


96

Doubled Scquences.

Bars 69-70: The intervallic structures of Lhe three Doubled Sequences are shown befow.

P I C U R E6 9

The Three Doubled Sequences ilars 69-70

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 91: A rcpetition of a is negated.

Bars 91-92: There are two neruquaver rests in this figure. The b-flal to a-ffal grouping in bar 86

forms a (r"rhich is immediately negated forming the firsl rest) plus the second qttaver rest'

Bar 1OO: A repetition of e-flatrr is ne61ated.

Trrac,r'lrri*iac
g'

Bar 85: This rest marked with a (?) appcars sometirne earlicr th{rn resLs woufd be expected. It

is also the only rest in the piece to be encfosed in brackets. It woufd appear that the

bar was found to be one note short (eight notes instcad of nine) and the rest inserted

to urake un the reouired nunber.

The cl?rinet from bar 11.

Iigure 71 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the clarinet from bar 11. Observations

these processes are outlined bel-ow.

Orouoing variants.

IJAT II3 The frr ungrouped. The viol,in e'r is grouped with the synchronous arr in the ce11o.

Bar 31: The frl u n g r o u p e d( f i r s b figure). The.irt i s u n g r o u p e r l( s e c o n d f i g u r e ) .


'fhe is ungrouped (second fipure).
The frl ungrouped (first figure). frt

Doubled Sequences.

Bar 71: The intervaLlic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shown below.

FIGURE 70

The Doubled Sequence Bar 7 1


I l u . rn r t

'v,,l,^

(t" o" ':

F](]URE71

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cfarinet from Bar 11


98

Sources of the new rests,

Bar 922 There are two new quaver rests in f,lis l r r r r. - A


!r . e
r n
v yev tv ,r vi rl , i i . r .'f f|| is necaf.cd'." form the

first rest. The err to f-sl,arprl grouping in bar 87 forms fr' (uhich is irnmediately

negated, as previously shown) and l h e s e c o n d r e s t .

Irresularities.

ljar I l: The violin ell is taken as source material for the clarlnet (ratlier than the clarinetrs

own b-f1ab).

Bar 31: IL seemsobvious that there is a misprinL in thc score. Tlterc should be a quintuplet

bracket over the first beat.

The clarinet from bars 12-13.

Figure 73 shows the continuity and intervaf diminutlon of ihe clarinet fron bars 12-1J. Observations

on these processes are outlined beLow.

0rouping varj-ants.

Bar 12: The a-f1at is ungrouped.

Bar 322 The a-flat is ungrouped.

Bar 532 The a-flat is ungrouped.

n^,rh l6.t aonrronnac

Bars 72-73: The intervallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shown below.

tz- 13

F I G U R B? 2

The Doubfed Sequence Bars 72-73

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 92:. There are two new quaver rests in this bar. A - ^ - ^ + : + i
r sPvuaurw,,
n i ^ + i ^ na-atai * a fa+-

' the first rest. The a to g grouping in bar 87 forms a-f1ai (wl.rich is immediately negated,

as previously shoun) and the second rest.

The clarinet from bars l4-15.

Figure 7{ shows the continuity and interval diminution of the cfarinet from bars 11*-15. Observations

on these processes are outlined below.

nr^rlhi hd rrari oni c


g . : '

Bar'14: The clari,net c-sharpr is grouped wi1!h the synchronous g-sharp in the cef.lo.

Tho nl ic rrrara,rnan

Bar 5l+z Tho al ir rrrrrarrnaA


-'..-(_

F I G U R N7 ]

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Clarinet from Bars 12-13


'
,=4,
P770t/ lP

--------<t
I A - -

//P7J ?/

FICURE74

Continuily a n d T n t c r v s l D i m i n u t i o no f t h e C l a r i n e t f r o n B a r s 1 / , - 1 5
l)oubLeo Sequences.

The interval-1ic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shor.n below.

F I C U H E7 5

T h e D o u b f e d S r : , 1 u c r t L :l cr a r

This Doubled Sequence is quibe i-rregrtlar. 1'he inl,ervals of 1.h^ n:lnf. q-n'ron-e rln not

re.l-ate to the intervals in the seoond half of the sequence. Tl.- -.--.an{oA ln',ll ai

Sequence is s h o r n mb e l o w .

I'IGUR!] 7b

The Expected Doubled .lequencc Ear' 71,

Sources of the ncw rests.

Bar 96: The ell to f-sharnl | -rnr:nino in xnn Q? fnnn lrl nlrr- t.ho .r)1'ror r!\s- .

'15.
The clarinet fron bar

Figure ?8 shows the continuity and interval diminution of t,he clarinet from bar i5. Observations on

Lhese processes are outlined befow.

Oroupine variants.

B a r 15 : The a-fLat is ungrouped (first figurc). The f'r 1S ungrouped (senond fisure).

The a-flat is ungrouped (first figure). The ftl ungrouped (5-cond fi--ure).

Bar 55: The a-fl-at is ungrouped.

Tha ft t ia rrnarnlnaA
ljar )o 3

Doubfed Secluences.

Bats 75-76t The intervaLlic structures of the tuo Doublcd Sequences are shom below,

F I G U R D7 7

The Two Doubled Sequences Bars 75-76


P?P/

IIGUR]'J 78

Continuity anC lnterval Diminution of the Cfarinet from Bar 15


101

Sources of the nerr rests.

Bar 92: Thr:re are two new quaver r e s t s i n t h i s bar. ?hc g r^ 4 .rrrrninc in h.r" 87-88 forms the

first rest plus a-flal. A -enet.ition e'''-llrt. is negsted to form Ll.te soccnd rest.

Irregularit ies.

Bar 92: The rest narked wi-th a fe)


\ . / -i cJ -tr,'^,1
P r u L L u
h^f^FA 1.^ a-flaL in:i.crd oi ri-r,cr, v;hich is

-^h6r. l I rr * ha aq ca

The clarinet fron bar 16.

Figure 80 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the clariret from bar 16. Obscrvations on

these processes are outlined below.

t-^,r^i-- 'rarionic

Bar 16: The b is ungrouped.

Bar 362 The f-sharp and f forn a Minor 2nd Unit (first figure). The b is un,;rouped (second

figure).
'rh-
Bar 572 The g is the centre of a Double Grouping (firsL figur"'), I, i1,th,,n^rlra/t lr^q9nd

figure ) .

Doubled Sequences.

ljar /o: The intervallic structure of the Doubled Seqrtr:nco is sliown l,t 1ow.

FICURE?9

The Doublcd Sequence Bar 76

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 99:' Tho al *.n f-charnl ornrrnino !n hrr Qlr fnnme frnlrr<
P 4 q P
iv -1 h
r !
a nrravor neet

Irregularities.

Bar 57t The a-flaL to g to f-sharp Doublc Grouping woufd be expccted to form a-fl:Lrr f, and

F-sharp in bar ?6. However, F-sharp is below thc rangc of the clarinet so -iL is placed

up an octave (f-sharpr) making a major 7th instead of a ninor 9th.

The clarinet from bars 17-18.

Figure 81 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the clarj-nel from bars 17-18- Cbservations

these processes are outlined belor,r.

Croupine varlants.

Bar 17: The clarinet a is grouped with the synchronous dtr in the ffute (first figure). The

f tritf is ungroupcd (third figure). The f and e form a Minor 2nd ijnii (fourth figure).
F I G U R E8 0

Conlinuity and Interval Diminution of the Clarinet fron Bar 16


105

-- -h '_----.

.......,.,""\
tt rz
\----l

A1

t?r2

2
i':-=

F I G U R E8 1

Continuity a.rd Inierval, Dirni.nution of the Clerinet from Bar-s 17-18


1Lr6

The b-flat i s u n g r o u p e d( f i r s t figure). Thc 1'trill i s u n g r c u n F . l( t l r i r d f i g u r e ) . The

g-flat and f forro a Minor 2nd Unit (fourth figure).

Bar 57t The b-flat i s u n g r o u p e d( f i r s L figure). The a-ffaLrtand g'r form a l'linor 2nd UniL

/ a-^nr,-] f i -,,-^ )

Bar 58: The g is ungrouped (second figure). The grand a-f1atr form a l4inor 2nd Unit (thirC

figure ) .

Doubled Sequences.

Bars 77-78: The intervallic structure of the three Doubled Sequences are shom below.

f;-@-;

F I G U R E8 2

The Three Doubled Sequences Bars 77-78

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 89: A repetition of f-sharprr is negatecl (second figure).


'fha
Bar 93: r t^ c
6
ornrrnina
tsawuPrr'6
in hrn Aa f+Ghi-.1
\urrfr(r rf i -rrt rr nu ^r )s /
c^---
rur'.ro
e ^h-F-
r -rrr41 P
-1.,,. *F^ n,'rrron racl

Trregufaritie s,

Bar 77: The F-sharprtto g'r grouping narked witlr a (?) would bo cxpcclcd Lo lcrnr eilher f-sharprr

to gttt or f-sharpr to grr in ber 89. The forner poss-ibility:eems Lo be preferred buL

J.hc hiol^ dl | | is nontidered nnrnr'l ran"o (f.. '.his nrrrnnso) - Tt is


. J * "
ouL P
of theq
c-Iarincf.rr r P v g \ / .

therefore placed dovm an octave resulting in f-sharprt (uhich is immediately negated with

a rest) and gr.

The clarinet from bars 19-20

Flgure 83 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the clarinet from bars 19-20. Observations

on these processes are outlined bel,ow.

Groupinq variants.

Bar '19:

Bar 20: The cr is the centre of a Double Grouping.

The er and fr form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 40: The f-sharp is ungrouped.

The fr and g-flatr form a Minor 2nd Unit.

bar ou: The b-flat is ungrouped.


----< --''-

E ] G U R E8 ]
'19-20
Continuity and Interval Dininution of tire Clarinet frorn Bars
108

Doubled Sequences.

Bar 792 The intervallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shown below.

l'IGURii 8/,

The Doubled Sequence Bar 79

Sources of the new rests.

Ber 99: The ftr to e-fl-atrrgrouping in bar 9? forms ctrplus the qu:ver resL.

Bar 100: The b-flatrto cil grouping in bar 9? forms br pluc the quaver rest'

The vioLin from bars 1-2.

Figure 8J shows the conti-nuity and interval diminution of the violin from bars 1-2. Observations on

these processes are outlined beLow.

Grouping variants.

EAT Z' The e-sharprr is grouped with the synchronous c in the ceffo.

Bar 22: Th- ^l I ic rrn-rnrrnorl

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 82: There are two new quaver rests in this bar. The e-flatrrrto d-flatrrrgrouping in bar ?9

f o r n s d r r r a n d the first rest. The b-fIat' t.o nrr -rn)ni-u in ha- ?9 forns bt and the

second rest,

Tho o-<harnlt +- Ll --^.,-r-- j- L^- 02 al I n-d +ha \ ,1r q, r ,L 1v 6vr . rr o vc v+ w .


5r vuyrrlS fOfmS u r r !

The violin from bers 3-lr.

Figure 86 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the vrolin from bars 3-1'. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

GrorrpingvaricnLs.

The c-sharprt is grouped with the synchronous f-sharprin the cello.

Tha nr l ie rrn+rnlnoA

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 88: Tha nrrtn rlrr ornilninu in hqr R5 fnrmc n-ehernrl arrA *ha nrrrrror noet

Bar 97: T h e d r r t o e t r g r o u p i n g in b a r 9 4 f o r m s e - f l a t r l Dnn +h6 nrrrwor roc*

The violin frorn bar 5.

Figure 87 shows the continuity and interval dinrinution of t h e v i o l i n from bar 5. Observati-ons on

these processes are outllned beLolr,

Sources of the new regts.

t'ar /o: The cr t t to b-flatr I g r o u p i n g i n bar 72 forms hl I oni +v hr a


rE nlorror
Yquvur !r o ec e
l -v .
109

/')"i c*'l
\,"*

Ita0 P? pgntt gor't


POs Oorb.

tzll .r.o gont.

l ?
aL ,, ,- |

i+. " '' '-

|i,,l*

2 Pgntt .r.o to!t;

,P/, l.s.o tot. Doro

--.ll
tj't rtco gocl

:37 \=

?21 l.Ino p6r

l2 guott trco Pttt

???2lego Dor. lord.

FICURT8i

C o n t l n u l t y a n d I n t s r v s . l D j . m l n u t l o no f t h e V 1 o 1 1 nf r o n r B a r s 1 - 2
110

Dqotr \s
i>ont.22

l'unt+ Ponr

- -9osSor.1 P? PO6: AOiD.


i -i
!orD. :

i)?t : l;

?//P *<o pctt Po [l

2// l.g.o lobt-.

?7 psnlt rrco PoDt;

P22, l.Cao ?o!. Do!D.

2/2 rr.o poot

PP juott rrco trll

tq +t_

???l l4ni-jot. oord.

FIGURE 86

Continuity and Interval Diminutj.on of the Violin from Bars 3-4


. .?t

FIGURE 87

Continuitv and Interval Diminution of the Violin from Bar 5


11)

lhe vaoLln lrom oar o.

Figure 8! shows the continuity and intervaL diminution of the violin from bar 6. Observations on

these proeesses are outlined be1ow,

Crouping variants.

5ar o: Ihe f-siiarprl h a r m o n i c i n t h e c e l l . , r i s r r n g r o u p e d( l i r s t figur^), Th" bil and a-sharprl

harnonics form a I'fi-nor 2nd tlnit (second fir:ure).

Bar 2 6 : Tha f-chsrnll I iq rrnonnrrnpd (first. liorrro) -

D^- )1 , The crrrand brrform a Minor 2nd ijnit.

Sources of the new rests.

uar 6li A repetition oi arr is negated to form the quaver rost.

Bar 97: A repetition of b-flatrr is negaled to form thc quaver rcsL.

Irrepularities.

Bar 6: The ce1lo is taken as source material for Lhe vlolin in bars 26-27.

bar /o '. The harnonic produced b y t h e c e 1 l o i n b a r 6 i s a n f - s h a r p i l but is displaced by an octave

the violin.

Bar d6: It seems obvious that there is a misprint ln the score. The quaver d-flatrrt should be

dotted.

The viofin from bars 7-8.

Figure 90 shons the continuity and inLerval dininutlon of the violin from bars 7-E. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Gror.tping variants.

Bar 8: Tha oll i< rrn-rar,-aA

'fho
Bar 28: qll i< r,nanarraan

Doubled Sequences.

Bars L7-l+8: The i-ntervallic structures of the two Doub]ed Sequences are shoum below.

F T O U R E8 8

T h e T w o D o u b f e d S e q u e r r c e sB a r s / + ? - 1 , 8

Sources of the new rests,

EAt tl, The cr | | to b-flatr I grouplng ln bar 65 forms bil and the quaver rest.

Bar 79r A repetition of at i,s negated to form the quaver rest.

Bar 88: Tho fll f" n " 6 o l l arnrrnin- in lrar R5 frnmc f-ehannll nnd tho nlnrron ro<i
tffrPlr Posioorm

2P gvti gor.t

PPP rys6fi1.1.

PP/, laaro toe. lorE

t/2 .tco gor,l

c ! z ;

PP jxolt.tco p!t;l

rrouRE69
Continuity and Interval- Diminution of the Violin from Bar 6
lP gect, po..l

2?/ lcgro jool-

?7 jtn|. rtco to!t;

-,,.
:

i.fr o t ooi
?f juotr ttco trll

. ' 9

PP?f lcgno Do!. lorD

FIGURE 90

Continuity anl Interval Diminution of the Violin from Bars 7-8


The violin from bar 9.

figure 93 shows the continuity and interval diminrrtion of the violit.r from l.::r 9. Observations

these processes are outl-ined belou.

Grouping variants.

Bar 9: The f-sharprr is ungrouPed.

Bar 292 The f-sharprr is ungrouPed.

Bar 66: The ar (second figure) is the centre of a Doublc Groulinq.

Doubled Seqrtences.

Bar /+9: The intervallic structures of the two Doul,led Serluences a]'e shown belolv.

I'IGURII 91

T h c T w o D o u b l . e dS ^ q u ,n c c s P r r t / , 4

Sources of tho ncw rests.

Bar 89: A repetition of dil is negated by lhe quaver resl.

The violin from bars 10-11.

Figure 94 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the violin fronr bars 10-11. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping varia.nts.

.bar I u: The d-flatr and cr forn a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 11: The cel1o at I harmonic is grouped with the synchronous err in the viofin'

Bar JO: The dt and c-sharpr form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 31: The g-sharprr is ungrouped.

Bar 66: The dr is the centre of a Doubfe Crouping.

-uar o/: The er is the centre of a Double Grouping.

Doubled .Seouences.

Bars 50-51: The intervallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shom below.

FIGIJRB 92

The Doubled Sequence Bars 50-51


rq-
PPP guEtr todl

l/? lagr.o tool

27 gont| rrco Do!|,

ti !,4

PP/, l.aEo tor. DorD. i i

FIGURE93

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Violin fronr Bar 9


I st.o i
l o ! n o l n 'I

(o^,tiU) |;
-*_=
---

,-.+- -/
// --+-/

;:+=4i.{
F::ffir
zt2 ligoo gdrt)

PT rtrL. rt.o

??7P 1)gas pot. oorri

il tr 4r,.
3:
??P crii pont,

FIGURE94

Continuity and Interval Ditninutiot'rof the Violin from Bars 1O-11


t t -

Sources of the new rests.

The dr to et grouping irr bar 66 forms e-flatrand the quavcr rest.

Bar 80: This rest is.irregular and is dlscussed under ITrregularitiesrrbelow.

Bar 95: The ar to btgrouping in bar 92 forms b-flatrand the quaver resl.

Irrequl arities.

Bar 11: The ce1lo arrharmonic is takcn as source malu-riaf for ihc violin in ber ?1 ill preference

to the violinls ovm ert bar 11.

Bar 80: The rcst narked with e (:) is tltere for no apparonl reasor'I. The d-sharptr Lo er5rouping

j-n bars 76-77 forns dtt plus quaver rest plus ft.

The violin fronr bars 12-13.

Figurc 96 shows the continuity and interval dirninution of the vlolin from bars 12-13. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants.

Bar 13: The arr is ungrouped (second figure).

Bar 33: The b-flatrr and attform a Minor 2nd Unit (second figure).

.uar o /: The crtt (first figure) is the centre of a Double Grouping.

Bar 92t The c-sharprt (second figure) is lhe centre of a Double Crouping'

Doubled Sequences.

Bars 52-53t The intervallic structures of the two Doubled Scquences are shown befow.

I'IGURE 95

The Two Doubled Sequences Bars 52-53

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 732 There are two new quaver rests in this bar. The arr to brr grouping in bar 67 forms

b-flatrrand the first rest. The crrr to b-f1at'r grouping in bar 68 forms brrand the

second rest.

EAr ttz A repetition of b-flattr is negatccl to form tlre quaver rest (second figure). This case

is qui.te confusing. Table 5 makes clear the conLinuity of bars 7J-77.

Bar 80: A repetition of b-ffatrris negated to form the quaver rest (second flgure).
,, c?):

t?P lrLr. tost.

tPPP tcno iffiiil

,, t t

PPPP I'eioo 9oi. ooro. i

P gcott rtco gott

2/2| ligas tor. oorr

li !^-.

! rco poDr.

1 r * l i

lll lcg-s goo,.. i

. .,.li.l .,.i

FIGURE96

Continuity and Interval- Diminution of the Violin from Bars 12-13


I:O

NARTF q

'/-, ( ure J bar // (Secono 11fiurt',


IJar secono I f

b-f1atr I b-f1atr

a l Al

r- Pr^r | |
b-flatr

b r l quaver rest (b-fla'r" negated)

quaver rest cluaver rest

Trraarr'loriliae

Bar 68: T h e b _ f l a L r r e n c l o s e d b y a d o t t e d l i n e i s f o r . r c c ib y L h e a t t to brrgrou;Jnq in turs 53-51..

Thll is, two noLes from scparale figur.: fottn otrc nolc, Thi.'notc, b-ftrlrr, mttst Lhcre-

fore bc regarded as belonging',o t'oth Figurc 96 and FiSurc 98.

Lhe vlolrn lrom nars l / + -I ) .

Figure 98 shows the continuity and interval diminution of tile viofin from bars 14-15. Observations on

these processes are otrtlined be1ow.

Grouoing varlants.
"lho ritlt f roannrl f icrrrp) ir rrnprorrnnd-
s v v v ' ' v t L L s L e t
\

Bar 3/,: The frr and eil form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 89: The crr is the centre of a Double Grouping.

Doubled Seouences.

Bar 5l+: The intervallic structures of the two Doubled jequences are shomr befovr.

r-{}- hr *-1:)/;\-
2
=

}.ICURE 97

The Two Doubled Sequcnces Bar 54

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 73: The alrto brr grouping in bar 67 forms b-flatlr and tlre quaver rest.

Bar 83: There are two new quaver rests in thi.s bar. The brr to c-sharprrr grouping in bar 80

(bctween the first and second fi.gures) forms crrr, which would be a repetition and thus

is irnnediately negated by the first rest, plus the regular residual rest.

Bar 87: A repetition of dtris negated to form the quaver rest.


,pt:\
: legDo

/PPP 7ogn5 ifif,f,fi

\:>r+-J
PPPP ligao Dos. lorb

lc!:Dg pog.Doro

4'2 lcFno Poil.

l27P ligae ,or. Dorr

,r li

??/ DOCI o Fo3. oorb.

--:
-Er
:
tool

==4
r='iriE=-=tE=:E
i:--<--:-==--=:==:-

F I G U R E9 8

Continuity and Interval Di-minution of thc Violin from Bars 14-15


| 1.1

Bar o . ) . The e-flatrtto d-flatrtgrouping in bar 89 forms drrplus the quaver rest.

Bar o ? . The b-flatrr bo a-flattrgrouping in bars 89-90 forms:rr (bar 92) plus lhe quaver.rest

(bar 93).

Bar 98: A repetition of ett is negated to form the quaver rest.

IrreAularities.

Bat 1/+t The grouping of e-flatrrand ert (firsb figure) marked with a (?) would be erpected to

f O r n re i t h e r e - f l a t r r to errr or e-fl-atr to ett. The actual result is errto d-sharpl

which is the retrograde of lhe cccond option.

The second and third flgures of bars 14-15 combine to form one figure with b-flattras

the pivot.

-uar ob 3 The b-flatrt enclosed by the dotted line is the overlap with the preceding figure, as

previously explained under rrTheviolin frorn bars 12-13 -- lrregularjties"'

The violin frorn bars 15-16.

Figure 100 shows the continuity and interval- diminution of the violin from bars.15-16. Observations

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variant,s.

IJar to: The b-flatr (first figure) is ungrouped. The ar (second figure) is'uhe centre of a

uuuurY u1uuylrts.

Bar 71,2 The br is the centre of a Doubfe Grouping.

Doubled Sequences.

Bars 55. 56:. The inlervaflic structure of the Doubled Sequcnce is shoum befow.

IIIGURI' 99

T h e D o u b l - e c lS e q u e n c e l l a r s 5 5 - 5 t r

Sources of t h e n e w r e s t s .
'l l+: There are two new quaver rests in this bar. The ftr to e-ffairr grouping in bar 69 forms
Ba.r

err and the first rest. The arr to gtr grouping in b3r 69 forms g-sharprr plus the

second rest.

Bar 78: The c-sharpr I to d-sharpt' g r o u p i n g i n b a r 7 / +f o r m s d r l plus the quaver rest.

Bar 81.: The e - s h a r n yt I lu. vo u


d - sel r- '-e- r- }l Jl --^,,^i-. r- L-- R1 fnrnq ,lt I nll)q t.tro rtuaver I'cst.
ureuP!,6

Bar 87: There are two new quaver rests in this bar. The b-flatrr to a-ffatrr grouping in bar 84

forms arrplus the first rest. A repeliLion of f'r i s n e g a L e dt o f o r m t h c s e c o n d r e s t .

Bar 90: There are two new quaver rests in tlris bar. r\ repetition ol fr is nega'.ed to form the

fir<f. rast A n
n r o
s Pnc o
u ttuif tv ir ro n of e-flaf,ll ic ned.iart tn fnrn +.1)^ .Fn^nd ]'est.

Bar 93: The f-sharpr to g-sharpr grouping in bar 9O forms gr plus the quaver rest.

bar yo: The gtr to lr I grouping in bar 93 forms f-:harpt I plus the quaver rest.
, ir-----:T-

jont. PP Ptntl lrco :tont'

----
-*- .-.
'i---'
t:\.

rii, pont.I+-'

,2?l? tcaoo

//P tio

U.P lcat.o goLl

2?/? 12g.s ros.

,/P/? tclio po5

F I C U R E1 O O

Continuity and fnterval Diminution of the Violin from Bars 15-16


1 ) )

Irregularities,

Bar 552 The three figures from bars 35-36 conbine t,o forn rine scquence which is tl:en doubled. The

dotted Lines show the three parts of tlte pilot sequence.

The crtto b t g r o u p i n g m a r k e d w i t h a ( ? ) r . t o u l dL ' e e x p c c t c ' 1 L o f o r m e i i ) r c : c r r r to br

ctrto b in bar 70. Instead, a mosl unexpectcd b-flatr ls forrned.

'Ihc v1o,Lan trom oars lo- | /.

Figure 102 shows the continuity and interval diminution o f + - h ev i o l i n from bars 16-'17. Observations

these processes are outllned be1ow.

Grouping variants.

TL^ ^ el-+tll id rrndF^,!^6/l

Bar 172 Th- ^f rt l.-^^^A f.i-r,-a) ic the cent,re of a Doubl-eCrouping,


-r.^ ( :DosnLnwnr dr ,.r: rr r rri - ru)r '
Bar 3?z TL- a-flo+lll i/fi-.+
\ r r r v v ff i1- 6r u
' r r- E) / ri -r, . -u-r-r^t s. .ru^ u^ liJ s u . ^.litttt
\ / i,; ilre centre

IJar 6t: The b-flatr (sccond figure) is the centre of a Double Crouping.

Doubled Seclttences,

Bay 57: The intervallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shom below.

P I G U R E1 0 1

The Doubled Sequence Bar 5?

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 81: fhere are truo new quaver rests in this bar. The b-flatrr to crrt grouping in bar 78 form

brrplus the first rest. The btto ar grouping in bcr 78 forms b-flatrplus Lhe sccond

rest.

bar yo: The g-sharpt'to f-sharplr grouping belween bhe -iirsL and second figures in bar 93 forrns

gtr (firsl figure) plus bhe quaver rest (second figure).

frresularities.

Bar 57: The second and thj.rd figurec from hars J7-38 combine to form one sequencewhich is then

doubled. The dotted lines show the two parts of the pilot sequence.

The violin frorn bars 18-'19.

Figure 103 sholrs the continui.ty and interval dininution of the violin from L,ars 18-19. Observations

Lhese processes are outlj-ned below.

Doubled Sequences.

Bar 58: The intervallic structures of the two Doubl-edSequences are shom in Figure 104.
h'c!l'lrovn''q
vir.^.!rro

tur.l. tool

L(@ 9ont. ??4/ lo5.borre'


?/? E:i
_=__t_

ll tdth rtco PgDt.;

/?t/ lcio po". nlir i

r , , ' . , . . b 4 . ,. - . / s ; t , ,

,2/ lagro gotl

??// 12g1.spos. ooiol

///? lcioo go5 oora

.x L:

ItG!o toot. PPP/ legno-|oe. oorai.

} - I C I I R E1 0 2

Continuity and Interval Diroinution of the Viotin from Bars 16-17


( .\ : n ^ . 3 o ;

Ll/ lcit.o goLt

// gcatt rrco tort. i

F I C U R E1 O ]

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Violin from Bars 18-19


12,1

'1
Fii;URE O/;

The Two Doubled Sequcttces l'ar 58

Sources of the new rests.


.liq.lrc.nd rn.lcr lrrrrdc llr-itiesll
Bar 79t Thi.s quaver rest is !i n rrn uo Br lur rro r and ir befOw,

Bar 91: A nnnol ition nf ol is negated to form tlre cluaver rest (secotrdfirlure).

Bar 9/,: groupirrg in b:rr a1 f')rlls f r plrrs the quavel: rerrt-

Trreeul-arities.
'lho
Bar 79: The quaver rest marked with a (?) ic +haro anr no rnnr-Fnt fceson. ovnani orl rnerrl t

from the crr to f-sharpr g r o u p i n g in bar 75 vroufd be bt to gr but t h e b r i s n e g a t e d b y

a rest.

'l aU.
he vao11n iTOm DaT

Iigure 106 shows the continuitY and irrterval dimin,ttion of tlre vio.i in from bar 10. Cl.serv:Ltions on

these processes are outlined below.

Croupine variants.

Bar 792 The e-flatr r l l-s t h e c e n t r e o f a D o u b . l . eG r o u p i n g .

Bar 972 the c e n L r e o f a D o r r h l eG r o u p i n g ,

Doubled Sequences.

bar ou: The intervalLic structure of the Doubled Sequencc is shown below.

trTNI]Rtr 1N(

^r ,^^rrAnna r.rtr ou

Sources of the nerr rests.

t t r ^ ^ t l t _ _ ^ . . * : - _ : - l ^ - o c 4 ^ - - ^ r 1 . 6 . , r . - , 6 - , 6 s t .
Bar 88: dr wuPrrrS rrr rtrr e/
L t t - t r r -

Bar 91: A repetition of b-flatil is negated to forrn ths quavcr rest.

The cel1o from bars 1-2.

Figure 107 shoirs the continuity and interval diminution of the cello fron bars 1-2. Observations on

these processes are outli-ned below.


2//? rtco gool

2/l'l.Zro

t7 gnnl| [co,o!t.

?l'P rtco gool.

P7? t.aoo pqL.

P? gtolt trco P!t;l

P222 l2gno DoG. lorui

I'ICURE106

Continuity and Interval Diminution of t,he Violin from Bar 20


vtoLolicELLo

-__--
ri ti r: o'; t

hl'/ ttrla lrco pott

?/lP legno gool,

//2P lcaio

r------:-
ti

tPP la3oo trlt

PPP rggas n;l

//, l.aho r.tl

FIGURI 107

Continuity and Interval D i m i n u t i o n o f t h e C e l l o f r o m B a r s 1- 2


1 ? n

Grorrpinq variants.

Bar 2z The cel-lo c is grouped *ith the sltrchronous c-sharpl I in the violin.

Bar 222 The d-flat is ungrouped.

Bar i,Zz The d-fl-at is ungrouped.

Doubled Seouences.

Bar 61: The intervalLic structure of tho lnrrhl pri Sne ,nnnr i s sl.orm bc1ow,

IIGURE 108

The Doubled Sequence Rar 61

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 8J: The a to g grouping in bar 80 forms a-fl-at plu: tl.e quaver rest,

Bar 992 TL: B-fl-at to c grouping in bcr 97 forms B plt,.r tbe quaver rest.

The cello from h'ers 4-5.

Figure 110 shows thc continuity and interval dininution , f i,lrc ccllo froni bars 1u-J. tlbscrvulions ort

these processes are outfined below.

Groupine variants.

The cello f-sharpr is grouped wiLh th. synchronous ' ;rtarprr in thc vi.:in.

dL^ -t i^,,---^.,-^n
Bat 2l'z rrrs ts ro urr6ruuysu.

Bat I'l+z T4 lrar v -l


6
i . rrn-rnlaa.-l

Doubled Sequences.

The lntervalllc structure of the Doubled Sequence is shor.rn bel-ow.

F I G U R E1 0 9

The Doubled Sequence Bar 65

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 75: A repetition of a-flat is ncgated by the q u a v e r r e s t .

frresularities.

Bat 752 The e-f1atr to d-fLatr grouping in bar 65 woufd be expected to form dr plus a quaver rest

in bar 75. Instead, only the dl is form.d. T h e ( ? ) n a r k s t h e place where the r-st would

be expected.
l?/ lqai

.li
11 +-12

r l ; . f i

PPP ytr6e 112y

l. r t--
I .- \:-

l--=s-=-
I /2 ica}o tlst.
I

2/2 lc(no t.

ll'lt l.Joo qoot-

F I G U R E1 1 0

Continuj-ty and Interval Dimlnution of the Celfo from Ilars


| )a

The cetlo from bar 6.

The whole of the ce11o bar 6 has been taken as source material for the violin as shom in Fig;re 8!.

The ce11o frorn bars 8-9.

Figure 111 shoirs the continuity and interval diminution of the ce1lo from bars 8-9. 0bservations on

these processes are outlj-ned below.

Grouping variants.

Bar 9: The c is ungrouPed.

Bar 29: The c is ungrouPed.

Bar 972 The c is the centre of a Double Crouping.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 88: The drto crgrouping in bar 87 forms d-ffatrplus the qua:er resl'

The cello from bars 10-11.

*r." rtt "t"- tr" tinuity and i-nterval- diminution of the cello from bars 10-11. Observations on

these processes are outl-j-ned beLow.

Grouping variants.

Bar 10: The g (unison) is ungrouped.

Bar 30: The g is ungrouped.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 90: A repetition of a is negated to form the quaver rest-


f

frresularities.

Bar 69: The two figures of bars 50-51 combine to form (through the conmonnoLe f-sharp) one

figure.

"l
The cel1o fron bar 1.

Figure 113 shows the continuity and interval di.ninutlon of the cello fron bar.11. 0bservations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants.

Bar 11: The f is ungrouped. The clarinet b-flat is grouped with the synchronous br in the fl-ute.

Bar 31: The b is ungrouped.

Bar 32: The f is ungrouped.

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 79: The f to e-f1at grouping in bar 76 forms e plus the quaver rest.

Bar 90: The b-flat to a-flat grouping in bar 88 forms a plus the quaver rest.

Bar 95: The e to f-sharp g r o u p i n g i n b a r 9 1 +f o r m s f p l u s t h e q u a v e r r e s t .

Bar 9'7t A repetition of f is negated to forn the quaver rest.

Irreeularities.

Bar 11: The clarinet b-flat is taken as source material for the celfo j-n preference to the

cellors olrn arl harnonic (whj.ch is taken by the violin).


?rl / Dtilr

?2Pf poir uco ioot.

tl?2 tccno pott.

l/22 ltjtc jaL

rl;---l--T;

IPP 13g56 11n

l'/, l.Coo L.sl.

P.PP lcgoo lrtl.

lr22 r.3oo loat.

2/?' ,ccno j;i.

l.too Dclt

FIGURE 1 1 1

Contin-uity and lnterval Diminution of t h e C e l - 1 o f r o m S a r s 8 - 9


1 2 '

l?2 rtco tt;l pEltr rrco Po!l.

li E -r:ll-

2P?2 poi cco toot.

ll?2 ,.goo DoLl.

??21 tqio 1*|

2P/P lcaro

PPP 1.3gaq 1r.l

F I C L T R E1 1 2

Continui,ty ancl fntervaL Diminution of the Cello from Bars 10-11


----;^-

I'
* ,,,.,,,.,,,."

,P2 ggcl, $co DoDt.

?P? guotr $co poDt.

222 tca-no tst:

i li -r:

P??2 jnot-t uco Doot.

/122 lejto gott

???2 lofio 1ar.

?P// lcg.o ,otr.

t3..

PPP 12gi6 1ap1

|?P ,.ano r^st.

2,PP lacbo tr.l

222 lctco t.El

t?2, ,cat,c a;;i.

F I G U R E1 1 3

Continuity and I n t e r v a l Dininution of the Ce1lo from Bar 11


r)D

The ce1lo from bars 13-1l''

Figure 115 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the cello from bars 13-14. Observations

these processes are outlined below.

Crouoing variants.'

Bar 14: The ce1lo g-sharp is grouped with the slmchronous c-sharpr in the clarinet.

Bar 3l+: The a is ungrouped.

Sources of the new rests.


'/o: A repetition of e! is negated to form the quaver rest.
bar

Bar 89: The b to a groupi-ng in bar 87 forms b-f1at plus the quaver rest.

The cello from bars 15-16.

Figure 115 shows the continuity and interval dininution of the ce11o froll bars 15-16. Observations

these processes are outlined bel-ow.

Grouping variants.
'15: The e is ungrouped.
Bar

Bars 35-362 The e is ungrouped.

Doubled Sequences.

Bars 55-56: The lntervallic structures of the two Doubled Sequences are shom bel.ow.

F I C I J R E1 1 4

The Two Doubled Sequences Bars 55-56

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 712 There are two new quaver rests in this bar. The a to b grouping in bars 5lr-55 forns

b-flat plus the first rest. The e to d grouping in bar 55 forms e-flat plus the second

rest.

Bar 83: The g to f grouping in bar 81 forms f-sharp plus the quaver rest'

Bar 99: This rest is iregular and is discussed under rrlrregularitiesrr below.

frresularities.

Bar 71: The two rests m a r k e d w i t h a ( ? ) w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o b e p r e s e n t i n bar 76 and the sub-

sequent verses. fnstead, l"ey are omitted and do not appear again. I ne rnLro t i.i marKs
+^ L --^,,-i-- i-
the position where one would expect a quaver rest--formed by the a

bars 55-56. Tnstead, the rest is omitted.

Bar 99: The quaver rest n a r k d w i t h a ( ? ) i s u n e x p e c t e d l y i n s e r t e d . It is in the position of the

onitted.quaver rest discussed innediately above,


137

PPP tco t tl-

2/l te3io lsr.


r

PPP2 tosrr rtco loDt.

??2? toi.oo jut.

?P/P lctto lotl.

l./P l.3do trsl

t/2 lcano t6t.

FIGURI 115

Continuiiy and Interval Diminution of the Cel1o from Bars 13-14


1)E

P?/2 geDtl goot

2P7? grll^
arco PoDl.

0 Pont
(2)

PP? rtco lgl.

!t

2?? lcCio tur.

P2?2 poi r.co toot

/t?2 l.tro i/oll.

??22 lqio jut.

/'/2 t.l.o rrtl.

t/? lccoo tal

PPP lcgro ltst

.gno t.5t,

?P? ysli

l.rro 9cDt. Ic3!c trst.

TICURE116

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cello from Bars 15-16


139

The cello from bar 16.

Figure 11p shows the continuity and interval diminution of the cello from bar 16' Observationson

these processes are outlined bel-ow.

Grouping variants.

bar to: The a is r:ngrouped.

Bar )7: The a is ungroupcd.

Bar 9/': The g is the centre of a Double Grouping.

DoubLed Sequences.

Bars 56-572 The intervallic structure of the Doubled Sequence is shom below.

F I G U R E1 1 i ' .

The Doubled Sequence Bars 56-57

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 82: The a to g grouping in bar 79 forms a-flat plus the quaver rest.

Bar 98: A repetition of f is negated to form the quaver rest.

The ce1lo fron bar 17.

Figure 120 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the cell-o from bar 17. Observations on

these processes are outlined be1ow.

Grouplng variants.

Bar 17: The f (third figure) is ungrouped.

Bar 38: The f (third flgure) is .ungrouped.

Doubled Sequences.

Bats 57-58: The intervall-ic structures of the three Doubled Sequences are shom below.

F I G U R E1 1 8

The Three Doubled Sequences Bars 57-58


1/-0

, f
i' 7 .4

pool ?lP/ got. oot@.


P/?? lc6oo
uco Poll

PPP sco lst.

lll lcgio tur.

/l?2 lcaoo pott.

lll2 lcgro 1ul.

dr.:

/P/P t.tro ,onl.

E":7r
?Urf l.ano

IQ

t/? l.ano t6l.

?2? 12g1s

I ' I G U R D 1 . 19

Cqntinuity and fnterval Diminution of the Ce11o from Bar 16


\et

222 tijio tut.

2P l.ano lisl.

Fr, l.aDo lrtL

P??P logio jal

2P/P lct.o 'onl

lrr'l t.jno lerr

,?, lerno l.ra ?DP;;:o e;i.

?22 1r7r.elj1.

FICURN 120

Continuity and Interval Dirninutlon of the Cello fron Bar 17


Sources of the new rests.

Bar 73: A repetition of c-sharp in bar 57 is negated by the quaver rest.

Bar 77: There are three ncw quaver rests in this bar. Tirc c-sharf to 3-flat grouping in bar 73

forms d plus the firsL new resL,. The cr uo dt grouping in har ?3 forns c-sharpr plus

the second new rest. The c-sharp to d-sharp grouping in bar 7J forms d plus the third

new rest,

Bar 80: A repetition of f i.s negated to form the quaver rest (',hird figure).

Bar 93t The g to a grouping in bar 91 (third figure) forns g-sharp plus the quaver rest.

Bar 9l': The G to A grouping in bar 9: forms A-flat plus the quaver rest'

Bar 96: There are two new quaver rcsts in this bar. The c' to b-flal grouping in bar 95 forms

b plus the first new rest (second figure). A repetiti.on of b is negated to forn the

second new rest (third figure).

The ce11o from bars 19-20.

Figure 122 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the ce11o from bars'19-20. Observations

on these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants'

Bar /,0: The g-flattrto frt forn a Minor 2nd Unit. The cr is ungrouped (fast figure).

Doubled Sequences,

Bars 59-50: The intervallic structures of the three Doubfed Sequences are shom below.

F I G U R E1 2 1

The Three Doubled Seqrr:nces Bars 59-60

Sources of the new rests.

Bar 78: The d-sharpr to c-sharprgroupi-ng in bar 7/r forms drplus the quaver rest.

Bar 80: There are two new quaver rests in this bar. The g-sharp to b-flat grouping in bar ?8

forms a plus the first new rest. The crto dr grouping in bar 78 forms c-sharprplus

the second new rest.

Bar 84: A repetition of b is negated to form the quaver rest.

Bar 86: The b to a grouping in bar 8/+ forrns b-flat plus the quaver rest.

Bar 97: A repetition of b-flat is negated to form the quaver rest.

Bar 98: The f to g grouping in bar 97 forms f-sharp plus the quaver rest.
t'l)
?r,er 4n u'r,r

It_---.-.---'-----
|' I t - ! : --l - : l - rr----+\
L - i

lEP lc6to ttst.


|

PPP lca.o ltEL

?2|? icjoo joot-

2/7t lcgoo Doir.

FIGURE122

Continuity and lnterval Diminution of the Cel-lo from Bars 19-20


1ttr

Irregularities.

Bar 19: The figure narked with a (?) is a Doubfe Grouping buL the cenlral note (f-sharprr) does

not take part in the dininution process. However, in this case it does no'u nean that the

f-sharprr is ungrouped. The notes either side of the f-sharprr proceed as if they uere

grouped with the f-sharprt but the f-sharprr itself remains uninflected, The only other

examples of this type of irregularity are in bar 7 of Lhe f}rte a n d b a r s , 1 1- 1 n 2 o I L b e

cLarinet.

Bar 20: The grouping narked with a (?) acts like a Minor 2nd Unit but is in fact a perfect /*th'

naking it arrPerfect dth Unitrr. There are no other Perfect 4th Units in the piece.

Bar 7l+z The d to a-fl-attgrouping in bars 58-59 woufd be expected to form e-flat and gt. The

e-flaL is presentrrub lhe gt is omitted. T h e p l e c c r " ' h e r el h e g r w o u l d be expected is

narked rrith the first (?). The b-flatr to a-flatr grouping in bar 59 would be expected

to forn ar plus a quaver rest. The ar is presenL but the rest is omitted. The place

where j-t would be expected is marked with the second (?). The first figure of bar 60

is transposed down one octave when transformed in bar 71+. Presumably this is done to

make the faster passage more manageable.

Dynanics

The dynamic structure of the wind and strings in bars 21-100 is related to the rhythnj"c structure of

bars 21-100 which has been presented previously in this chapter und.cr trRhythmic Structurett. (Thc two

rhythnic structures are: i) the dininution of rhythrnic durations; and ii) a written accel-erando.)

During the first of these sections, the dynanics for each figure are retained from verse to verse.

During the second section, the dynarnics for each figure are only retained for the first four bars; that is'

fron one note per bar to seven notes per bar. At nine or more notes per bar separate dynami,cswould becore

inpractical. From this stage, therefore, only one dynamic per bar is used. The dynamic for each of these

subsequent bars is arrived at by_deternining the expected dynamic of the very first note in the bar. This

note then acts as a rrpilotrr note and its dynamic is applied to the whole of the bar.

Table 6 sets out each instrunent and its dynamic per bar. It will be noticed that, despite the system

used to determine dynamics, the results are surprisingly structured. These structures (formed by chance)

are bracketed.

The Piano Bars 21-100

alanarol Drirain'la<
ry

Bars 21-40.

T h e p i a n o i n b a r s 2 1 - / + Oi s a n e x a c t i n v e r s j . o n o f t h e p i a n o i n b a r s 1 - 2 0 . The transposition leve1 of

thls inversion is deternined by the boundary notes D1 and grrrr and executed in the sane manner as described

previously in Chapter 4, rrPitch Structure of the Wind and Strings Bars 1-20rr. In this case, however, it is

sinply an j.nversion (not a retrograde inversion) and the rhythn stays the same.
TABLE6

W i n d a n d S t r i n g D y n a m i c sB a r s 6 1 - 1 0 0

6 1 Ppp
oz ppp
oj pppp
o4 ppp'
65 vvv

oo pppp
67 vPv

od pp ppp
pppp ppp
70 PYP
ppp
pPpp ppp
72 !v pppp
n2 pppp pppp
pp D
" "D P P I
I
pppp
I
75 vvv
pDp j pppp, PPPP' PPP
4A ppp ppp ppp' P P P ' P P P ' P P P ' P P P ' P P P
pppP pppp ppp' P P P ' P P P , P P ' P P P ' P P P ' P P P
78 vv -pppp
" ' Il vvv
ao ppp l
Ppp DDD I
I
80 ppp pppp " - l
ppp I

ol pPpp ""1
ppDp'l p p J pppp
82 pp ppp
" ' I pp PPFP' PPPP, PPPP
J

ppp "p p p"p 'tl ppp PPPP' PPPP' PPI PPP' PPPP
AJ
vvv
ppp I "'t
pppI PP' PP, PPP' PPP' PPP' PP' PPP
pppP "-l
ppDp I ^ " 1
DDD I ppp
do pp DDD I D D I
I
pp
J
9,n ppp "p D p"p ' l1 pp ppp
66 ppp ppD I ppp
- - 1l ppp
pppp " " 1
pDpD l DDD I
I
pppp
ao pp ppp J n n l ppp
pPp ' - ^ 'I l
DDDD - " 1
ppD I ppp
ta ppp ppp l 'DDD
^ ^I l pp
93 pppp eeee'l n n l ppp
91, pp ppp J DDD
" ^ Il pppp
.I
ppp ^"'t
DDDD DDD I ppp
')o pppp ppD I Y Y JI lpp
t "
o., .I
pppp " " 1I "DDD' l
PDDD I ppp
tI DpD
"'
98 pp ppp I "DDD' tI t"'
oo ppp pppp p p l lpp
I Ippp
100 pppp ppp I ppp I
t40

bars 4l-ou.

Pitch structure.

B a r s 1 1 1 - 6 0r e p e { r t b a r s 1 - 2 0 b u t d i n i n i s h the size of the intervals within each figure in the sane

manner as described provlously in this chapter undcrrrwind end Striltgc Ilars 21-1OO--PiLch Structurerr.

Isolatetl pitches which are not part of any other figure remain the same (i'e. ungrouped) and Minor 2nd

Units also occur. When a figure is comprised of two pitches a semitone apart and no diminulion is possible'

one of the pitches is displaced by an octave. Examples of this are between bars 3 and 1r3; and bars 4 and

Rhvthnic structure.

Another variation in this section is that a!1 the horizontal nelodic material- i.n bars l-20 is now

expressed as vertical chords. The chord is placed vrhere the first attack of the horizontal nelody would

have been. In addition, a1l- durations are now either of " qri.ve. or a grace-note in length. The grace-

notes of bars 1-20 have stayed as grace-notes, while a1f the larger durations in bars 1-2O are reduced to

quavers with a rrtenuto staccatorr marking.

Dynarnics.

When two dynanics have to be conbinect (for instance, when a horizontal- meJ-ody becornes a vertical

chortl), the dynamic used is the louder of the two. In all other circumstances, the dynamics are those of

bars 1-20.

llars o t-6u.

,* rr"* t bars 61-80 is an exact inversion of the piano in bars /*1-60. The transposition leve1 of

this inversion is again deternri-ned by the boundary notes D1 and grrrr.

Bars 81-100.

Pitch structure.

Bars 8'1-100 repeat bars 61-80 and further diminish the size of the inierval-s within each figure, This

is ilone in the sane nanner as the interval diminution of bars 1-20 during bars 41-60,

Rhvthnic structure.

A11 of the material is now converted into horizontal melodies with the durations reduced to staccato

grace-notes. Grace-note nelodies derived from the grace-note chords of bars 61-80 are plaeed so that the

first grace-note of the nelody is exactly in the previous position of the chord. Similarly, grace-note

nelodies derived fron the chords of a quaverrs duration in bars 61-80 are placed so that the first grace-

note cf the nelody is just before the previous position of the chord. The grace-notes that foll-ow in the

Belody are in each case played as quickly as possible.

Dvnarnics.

The ilynanics of bars 61-80 are retai:red. for bars 81-100.


147

The Piano frorn Bars 1 -2

I.igure 123 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the piano from bars l-2. Observations on

these proeesses are outlined below.

Grouping variants.

Bar 1: The D1 ancl D-sharpl (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The d-sharp (fourth figure)

is ungrouPed.

The frtr and g-flatttt (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The f-sharprr (fourth
Bar 6.1:

figure) is ungrouPed.

The Piano from Bars 3-1+

Figure'12ii shows the continuity and interval-idirninution of the piano from bars J-4. observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants,

Bar 3: The cl-f1at and c (second figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar l: The E and I (third figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 63: The artand b-flatrr (second figure) forrn a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 6lr: The d-sharprrrand ertt (thj-rd figure) form a trlinor 2nd Unit.

The Piano from Bars 5-6

Figure 12! shows the continuj-ty and intcrval clinj-nution of thc plano from bal's 5-6. Obselvalions on

these proeesses are outlined below.

Grouping varj-ants.

Bar 6: The d-sharp (first figure) is ungrouped. The 81 and B-flatl (fourth figure) forn a

Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 66: The f-sharprt. (fj.rst fi.gure) is ungrouped. The brr and ctr' (fourth figure) form a

Minor 2nd Unit.

The Piano fron Bars 7-8

Figure 125 shows the continuity and interval dininution of the piano from bars 7-8. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping varj.ants.

Bar 7: The B and c (second figure) forn a Minor'2nd Unit.

Bar 8: The F-sharpl and G1 (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The f (second figure) is

ungrouped.

Bar 67: The arr and b-flattr (second figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 68: The c-sharprrrr to drrtr (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The err (second figure)

is ungrouped.
FICURE123

Conti-nuity and Interval Dlminution of the Piano from Bars 1-2


1 / O

rlcuRE 121,

Continuity and Interval Diurinution of the Piano from Bars 3-4


I ' I G U R E1 2 5

Continuity and Interval Dirninution of the Piano fron Bars 5-6


151

FIGURI 126

Continuiti'and Interval- Diminution of the Piano froro Bars 7-8


152

The Piano frorn Bars 9-10

and interval diminution of the piano from bar-s 9-10. Observations on


Figure 122 shows the continuity

these processes are outlined befow.

Grouping variants.

Bar 9: The gt (third figure) is ungrouped.

(bar 9) forn a Minor 2nd Unit' The f (bar 9) to e-flat (bar 10)
Bars 9-10: The dr and c-sharpt

grouPing forms e in bar /+9.

Bar 69: The dr (third figure) ls ungrouped.

Bar ?O: The at to br grouping (first figure) forms b-flatrin bar 90. The drto ergrouping

(second figure) forms d-sharpt in bar 90'

The Piano fron Bar 1 1

Figure 128 sholrs the continuity and interval diminuti.on of the piano from bar 11. observations on

these processes are outlined bel-ow.

Grouping variants.

Bar 11: The E and F (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The d-flat to e-f1at grouping (first

figure) forms d in bar 51. The a (second figure) is ungrouped'

Bar 712 The crt (second figure) is ungrouped.

The Piano from Bars 12-13

and interval diminution of the piano from bars 12-13. Observations


Fj-gure 129 shows the continuity

on these processes are outlined be1ow.

Grouping variants.

Bars 12-13: The g-sharpr is ungrouped.

Bar 13: The E-flat and D (first discrete flgure) forn a Minor 2nd Unit'

Bar 722 The d-flatr is ungrouPed.

Bar |jz The gtrr and a-flattrr (first figure) forn a l'linor 2nd Unit. The a-sharprr and brl

(second figure) forrn a Minor 2nd Unit.

The Piano fron Bars 1 1u-15

Figure 130 shows the continui.ty and interval dininution of the piano from bars 1/+-15. Observations

on these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants.

Bar 1d: The F ancl E (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The a (firsl figure) is ungrouped.

The c (second figure) is ungrouped.


'15)
Bars 1/+-15: The A and G-sharp (bar form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 15: Tho G to A grouping (flrst dlscrete flgure) forns C-sharp in bar 55. The f-sharp and

g (f,irst dLscrete figure) foxm a Mlnor 2nd Unlt.

Bar 7t+: The etrt and fttr (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The ctr (second figure) is

ungrouped. The arr (third figure) is ungrouped.


\( lt
/t
{tr

F I G U R E 12 7

Conti.nuit-,' and Interval Dinlnution of the Piano from Bars 9-10


F]GURE128

Continuity and In'uerval Dininution of the Piano fron Bar 11


I'IGURE129

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Piano fron Bars 12-13


t)o

_PP

I'IGURE 1'O
'1l+-15
Continuity and fnterval Diminution of the Piano from Bars
151

Bat 75: In the first figure, the a-flatrr to c-sharptr grouping forms arr and crrr in bar 95 whj.1e

the inLervening b-flattr is ungrouped. The remaining drrr and crrrgroup to form e-fLatrrt

in bar 95.

The Plano frorn tsars 15-16

*".-rt "-n" the continuity and interval di-minution of the piano from bars 15-16. Observations on

these processes are outfined below.

Grouping variants.

The C and C-sharp forn a Minor 2nd Unit. The A to B grouping forros B-flat j.n Ltar 55.
Bars 15-15:

Bar 16: The f-sharp and g (first discrete figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The b to c-sharpr

grouping (third discrete figure) forms cr in b.ir 56. The !'and F-sharp (fourth discrete

figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 762 The d-sharprt and etr (second figure) form a l4inor 2nd Unit. The ar (fcurth figure) is

ungrouped. The dttrand e-ffaLttt (fifth figure) forn a llinor 2nd Unit.

Irregularities.

Bar 762 In the second figure, the f-sharprr is presurnably grouped with the Minor 2nd Unj-t

d-sharprrand ert (listed above), However, the irregular result in bar 96 is ftt (a

novementof a semitone) followed by ertand d-sharprr (no change).

The Piano from Bars 16-17

Figure 132 shows the continuity and interval- diminution of the piano from bars 15-16. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

Grouping variants.

Bars'16-17: The d-sharptrand ert (bar 17) forn a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 77'. The f-sharp and g (first figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit which is ungrouped,

The Piano fron Bars 17-18

Figure 133 shovs the continuity and interval dininution of the piano from bars'17-18. Observations on

these processes are outlj.ned below.

Grouping variants.

Bars 17-'18: The g and f-sharp form a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 18: The errand ftr (first discrete figure) forn a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 77t The b-flatrto e-flatrrgrouping forms brand dil in bar 97 whil,e the intervening crl

renains ungrouped. The etr to f-sharprr grouping forns frt in bar 97.

Bar 78: The f and g-flat (second figure) forn a Minor 2nd Unit.

The Piano from Bars 18-'19


'rrs
Figure 134 shows the continuity and interval diminrrtion of the piano from 18-19. Observations on

these proeesses are outlined below.


s -J. tP.d ..s

F I G U R E1 ] 1
'15-16
Continuity and Interval Dirninution of the Piano from Bars
- f - . - . ? -
-

, P S '

FICURE i ]2

Continuity and Inte:'val Dirninution of thc Piano from Bars 16-'17


, r t r p t p p l : i r - ,
L , | _

FICURE133

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Piano from Bars 17-18


tc) |

-.-7-

134
FICURE

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Piano from Bars 18-19


162

Grouping variants.

Bars 18-19: The C-sharp and D (third beat, bar 18) forn a Minor 2nd Unit.

Bar 19: The g-sharprand at (first disctete figure) forn a Minor 2nd Unit. The b-flat to ct

grouping (first discrete figure) forns b in bar 59. The G-sharpl and At (second discrete

figure) form a Minor 2nd Unit. The F to G gror-rping (second discrete figure) forms

F-sharp in bar 59. The f to d-sharp grouping (third discrete figure) forns e in bar 59.

The extra e fron bar 19 is omitted in bar 59.

Bar 792 The c-sharptr (fourth figure) j-s ungrouped.

The Piano fron Bar 20

Figure 135 shows the continuity and interval diminuLion of the piano from bar 20. Observations on

these processes are outlined bel-oLt.

Grouping variants.

Bar 20: The d-sharpt (first figure) is ungrouped.

Bar 80: The f-sharpt (first figure) is ungrouped.


163

FIGURE135

Continuity and fnterval Dininution of the Piano from Bar 20


CHAPTERVI

B A R S1 0 1 - 1 4 5

General Construction

A sudden change to a legato articulation occurs in bars 101-145 which presents this section in sharp

contrast to bars 21-10O. The music proceeds to 'rthin outrr and reduce in quantity, lnstrunents dropping out

of the texture, until all that is l-eft is a flute solo accornpanied by a piano trill' This entire section

is based on bar 100. Bar 101 is a re-reading of bar 1OO, bar 102 is a re-reading of bar'101' bar 10J is a

re-reading of bar 102 and so on until the end of the section.

Pitch and ''Rhvthmic Structure

Pitch and rhythn are interlocked and nutually dependent upon each other in the automatic codes that

govern the re-reading of the materiaL in this section. The process used is very similar to that described

l-n the previous chapter dealing with bars 101-1/+5.

Qnce again, the notes forming the intervals contract semitone by semitone towards a central axis, the

axis being either a unison or a roinor 2nd. In the case of a mj-nor 2nd axis' one of the notes is transposed

one octave (to nake a minor 9th) and the diminution process starts again. In the case of a unison axis,

there is always a residual rest. Upon the re-reading of the material the rest is omitted' thus reducing

the anount of naterial- per bar. Rests are also created by negating bhe repetition of a note by inserting

a rest.

Again in connon lrith the previous section is the presence of irregularities in lhe grouping of the

notes forning the intervals to be dininished. There are notes which are ungrouped and others which forn

Double Groupings.

In re-reading bar 100 to form bar 101, the grace-notes of bar'l0O are transformed into the equal

rhybhmic subdivisions of bar 101 the previous rests are omitted. The rhythm then continues to be en-
-and
tirely the result of how nany notes and rests are avaj.lable after any given re-reading to be fitted into

Lhe given bar.

Dynamics

The piano holds the dynanic of pppp (estabJ-ished by the dynamic for the pianors second phrase of

bar 100) throughout thi.s section

The other instruments each rotate through the dynamics of pp, ppp, pppp in that order. The signal for

a change in dynanic is the presence of a resti after each rest the dynarnic is changeci. The commencing

dynanic is deterni.ned by the one established in bar 100.

-100
The F]ute from Bar

Figure 136 shows the continuity and interval dininution of the rnaterial fron bars 101-145 together

vith the source Datrlal for thls section, bar 100. The grouplng of the intervals to be diminighed ls

oholrn by a! between the tuo notse conoernd. Observatlons on these processes aro outlined bel"ow.

)6t,
tol

F I G U R E1 3 5 ( c o n t i n u e d )
r .!uunI t ro ( co:]t1nueo./
F I G U R E1 3 6

Continuity and llterval Dininution o.i the Flute frorn Bar' 100
ta-

The Irreducible Periodic Sequence

Although one nay think that the particu'1r code or system used i n t h i s section is raLher arbitrary,

there are sone surprising structural considerations which come about c o m p l e t e l y b y " h a r , c e . 5 0 First of all,
E1

what Donatoni ca11s an trirreducible pe4iodic sequencerr- develops in t h c f l u t e :

( pp sempre)

:.-.:----::\

F'ICURE137

The Irreducible Periodic Sequence

This is perhaps the inevitable result of Donatonirs process of eliminating all the intervals with an even

nunber of senitones and recycling all the intervals with an odd number of semitones: if there is arr even

nunber of notes per bar (in this case 1l+), tlne same intervals will be re-read each time leaving only odd-

nunbered intervals which will continue recycling. The sequence begins in the ffute at bar 125, starts

repeating itself at bar 139 and is interrupted at the end of bar 145 wlth the conclusion of the pianors

naterial-
i,
In 9g!9, Donatoni makes a point of exploring the structural ramifications of the frreducible Periodic

Sequence even though these ranificatlons are completely ignored and left undeveloped as the piece progresses.

Indeed, they nay have only been discovered in retrospect. The lrreducible Periodic Sequcnce is 1d bars 1ong,

each bar having 1{ notes. Its range is from f-sharpr to fr I I and the number of times each note occurs in

the sequence is given on the following scaIe. The brackets show the symmetry which is already present.

t:
- 7 c t , , t ! , 2 p e 7 ' , 6 t t I
t , + 6 7 I 1 3 t + t + t + t t
, t t t t r * ' l l l l I

FICURE138

SynrnetryWithin the Irreducible Perlodic Sequence(i)

@@!g!g: 50. Donatoni, Questo, p. 108.

51. !!!9., p. 106.


i O Y

per pitch-cLass together, an extraordinarv amount of structure (formed


If one adds the nurnber of repetitions

entirely by chance) is evident:

F I G U R E1 3 9

Synnetry Within the frreducible Periodic Sequence (ii)

'1
The Clarinet fron Bar 00

Figure 1{O shows the continuity and intervaf diminution of the cfarinet from bar 100. Observations on

these processes are outlj.ned below.

T-r--rr1 ari l-.i pe

Bar 1l+)z Inbar 1t+2the naterial is reduced to a trill between g-sharpr and a' According to the

trrules'r, this interval of a minor 2nd should expand to a minot 9th and conti-nue diminishing.

However, Donatoni chooses to end the process in bar 143 with the minor 9th in grace-notes.

The Violin from Bar 100

Figure 1dl shows the continuity and interval dininution of the vlolin from bar 100. Observations on

these processes are outlined below.

0rouping Variants

Bar 100: The etr is the centre of a Doubfe Grouping.

Irregularities

Bar 1232 lnbat 122 the naterial is reduced to a tril1 between brand crr. lnstead of the interval

expanding to a rninor 9th and continuing to diminish, the process ends in bar 123 with the

ninor 9th in grace-notes.

The Ceflo from Bar 100

Figure 1{2 shows the continuity and interval diminution of the ce1lo from bar 100. Observations on

these processes are outil-ned below.

Grouping Variants

Bar 100: The e-f1atr, e and b are ungrouped.

IrregularLtLes

Bar 1 0/+: The expected result of the d to e-flat grouping in bar 103 would be either D to e-flat

or al to o-flott but not tho glvon rosult of d to E-flat (rnarkedwith a (?)). Perhaps

the octave change was madeto makeperfornance of the line more practical.
1to

.tiluuK.r, r 4u ( con!J.nueq,,
(t) i4) (6, (r) t.t /t, ' /t) /,2t n' ,c t'') /'.,
b' 1t) 6t /1,

F I G U R E1 4 0 ( c o n t i n u e d )
FIGURE 140

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cfarinet fl'om Bar 100


173
t.5t.\

FIGURE141

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Violin from Bar 100


(Dortt
i

F I C U R E1 4 2 ( c o n t i n u e d )
r /o

I lLrUnlJ l4z \COn!1nueo,/


F I G I T R E1 4 2

Continuity and Interval Diminution of the Cello fron Bar 100


| /a'

T h e P i a n o f r o m B a r 1O O

Figure 143 shows the continuity and interval dj"minution of the piano from bar 100. Observations on

these processes are outlined be1ow.

Grouping Vari.pnts

Bar 1l+2t The gr is the centre of a Doubfe GroupinSl.

Decorati-on

It will be noticed that the piano part i n b a r s 1 0 1 - 1 1 + 5i s d e c o r a t e d w i t h e x t r a g r a c e - n o t e s . The grace-

notes always occur synnetrically within the bar. For exanple, in bar 101 the second and fourth notes of the

bar have grace-notes as do the second-last and fourth-last notes. This is because the pitch content of each

grace-note is taken fron the note in the corresponding synmetrical position. Therefore, in bar 101, the

pitch of the second note becomes tire grace-note for the second-last note and the pitch of the second-last

note beconeg the grace-note for the second note.

Figure 144 shohrsall the bars which are decorated with grace-notes, together with arrows showing their

derivation.

The decorated notes are chosen systematically: each symroetrical pair of notes which are a ninor 9th

or naJor 7th apart (or their compoundequivalents) are the ones chosen for decoration. (Minor 2nds' however,

are not decorated.) The only exception (which nay have been an oversight whilst composing) is in bar 103

where the fifth note c and its symmetrical partner c-sharprt are feft undecorated.
179

f ttjUltll | 4J (conafnued l
13) 4' tr) t.) /r) 6, tr)

FIGITRE1/'3 ( continued )
t (r, at)

I ' I G U R E1 4 3 ( c o n t i n u e d )
F I G U R E1 4 1 ( c o n t i n u e d )
183

rrcuRE 11+3

Continuity &rrd Interval Diminution of the Piano from Bar 100


FI0URE 144 (continued)
FIGURE.144

Grace-note Decoration in the Piano


VII
CHAPTBR

B A R S1 4 6 - 1 6 5

General Construction

Bars 146-166 take bars 1lrt-1/r5 of the flute and, using this material, try to reconstruct the original

Schoenberg Text:

...an attenpt, without success, at reconstructing the original material with the precise scope of re-
integrating Sg[oenbergts text: the end must be regarded as an arbitrary interruption of an experiment
which failed.)z

Rhvthmic Structure

B a t s 1 l + t + - 1 t +o5f t h e f l u t e are each rhythnica.J-1y subdivided into 14 crotchets. Accordingly' bars

1t.6-155 are also subdivided into 14 crotchets eaeh (notated in thi.s case as 7 + 7). Bars 156-165 continue

this process but ln rhythnic dininution naking 28 quaver subdivisions per bar (7 + 7 + 7 + 7). Bar 155 is

the trarbitrary interruptiontr of the process and conbines the triplets of the Schoenberg Text in the piano

wlth acconpanying quintuplet figures j.n the other instrunents.

Pitch Structure

Bars 1t+l+-1t+5of the flute (which hereafter sha1l be calLed the Pil-ot Sequence) are used without any

change in their note order. Notes which are used in each attenpt to reconstruct the Schoenberg Text are

generally sustained untif the last note used is sounded. The notes of the Pilot Sequence which are left

over are distributed aoongst the other instruments. The piano contains all the Schoenberg Text fragnrents

which are ori.ginal; that is, without transposition or inversion. The wind and strings contain afl the

inversions.Aswitha11theinversionsin@'theirconstanttransposition1eve1is

deternined by the boundary notes D, and grrtr.

Figure 1{! shous how the Pilot Sequence relates to each bar and also how each bar rel-ates to the

Schoenberg Text.

Upon exanination of these exanples it can be seen that, despite Donatonirs admission of failure quoted

previously, the impossible task of re-integrating the Schoenberg Text fron the given naterial is handfed

very elegantly. Even within the restrictions of the Pilot Sequence, Donatoni presents the Schoenberg Text

in order figure by figure and in both original and inverted forms.

In bar 1/,6 the Criginal and Inversion are both present in the same bar.53 An attenpt is nade to do

the sane in bar 1/i7 rith the G-flat1, C-sharp, A and c figure but, because the pitch-class A is absent fron

the Pllot Sequence, both the Original and Inversion rernain inconplete.

The 0riginal of the next figure, C, B-flat, d and b, is found in bars 1/+9-150, The Inversion is in

bar 1/+8but again is incomplete because the pitch-chss A is absent from the Pilot Sequence. (Tne C ot

the Original woul-d be arr in the Inversion,)

@: )2. Donatoni, Qil@, p. 92.


<? In the recorrllng, the last plano B of bar 146 is played as gr; that is, read as if it was
ln the treble c1ef. One can only assumeit is a copyistls error, as the sane mlstake is
nade in the sane flgure in bar 156.

186
clwos r im Ausdruck

P I C U R E1 / - 5 ( c o n t i n u e d )
alwos ruhigcr Ausdruck
d.d -i-

< >

=
J w
I
L.--:3-'

tluunll r4) tconltnueo,t


1E9

{vt .

F I C U R E1 4 5 ( c o n t i n u e d )
190

il"'3;"'',

F I G U R E1 4 5 ( c o n i : i n u e d )
\

i.
d

d
o

t:

a
E l l t
Bl ' l
< L
c f
I p
L I
J I
Cl cl

5 l
]-\
- --l

rt
r
tl
lqr^

!< Ll t '
E I I
L I
3 l
ct ir
= l
5 l
! [

3
ll-\
E-t
(
r l
9 t l,l I
l"r r^
ll

E lt'
I

< L ll' J
E I I
L
o
ot
I
l
.rr
I
I
l el
o
i-\
:_i

5
o

c
rl o
o

Tr {
3l.l
< L
E f kl

:f ll ()
H
tl Fr

i t &
o --1
'
E-i

\
S
I
.1wos ruhigcr im Ausdruck
d'a 'ffi
-l._J^--:' ,i-,.

I IUUrttr r4) (COnI'InueO.i


"'----t'

,^.,6r,
s ruhigcr
;-J..-_J._
-J-'------r --> ffi

3
flr,-,
t tu utt!, | 4) [ contlnueo,f
195

-r--l
= z - T,

.lwqs ruhigcr im
--J-r
)-) rJ- Ppw

st

Pp \?
"= -t=,JriY
,
JJ L-:J--'

FIGURI 145 (continued)


196

l6E .-'----

?PPPlexoo lP2P14r,
!ut. poDt.
-?-;-------1
E

ctwos ruhigar im Aus

F I G U R E1 4 5 ( c o n t i n u e d )
alwos ruhiglr im Ausdr-uck
f t - J -
d'd -3- a-->

wl
stJ

F I C U R E1 4 5 ( c o n t i n u e d )
.lwo3 ruhig.r im Ausdr_uck -
l i - ' _ ,r-;---J-
c'd ---J-',: -J-
.it :-> ffi

<> sl

i'IcURE 11"5 (conlinueC)


alwos ruhigcr im A ruck
3-
)'J -J-' J-r

pp .:-_zJl
q
g a J
L_:3_J

F I G U R E1 4 , 5 ( c o n t i n u e d )
pp\= '='
+?J

-t,luur(!, | 4) \ conf,lnueo,t
clwos ruhigcr im Aurdruck
).J -J--.:?,-ffiJ-

pp\? 7='
-Jr

FIGURE 145

The Attempted Reconstruction of th^ Schoenberg Text


?02

The Original of the next figure" F, F-sharp and E, is found in txls 151-153, The fnversion is in

bar 1l+9.

The 0riginal of the next figure, C-shlrp, a, dr and gr, is found jn bars 153-151,. Once again, the

pitch-c1ass A is absent fron the Pilot Sequence and consequently the Original is incomplete. The Inversion,

found in bars 151-152, is complete.

The Original of the last figure of the Schoenberg Text is found in bar 155. This parLicular figure

afso narks the interruption of the process up to date to be followed by a further attempt at re-i-ntegration

of the Schoenberg Text by continuing in rhythmic dininution (that is, using 28 quavers per bar). The figure

itself is only made possi.ble by bringing back the drrand grrfrom b a r 1 5 / +a n d p r e s e n t i n g then as grace-notes.

The inplication of the grace-notes is perhaps that one can bend the rrrulesrr and project them to where they

are needed, because they are theoretically of no rhythuric vatue. Even with the addition of the grace-notes,

the pitch-c1ass A is missi.ng frorn the figure.

The Inverslon ls found in bar 15J and likewise is only made possible by the grace-notes d, g and cl

brought back fron bar 152. With the addition of the grace-notes the Inversion conpletes the required figure.

Bar 156 begins the cycle agaln and contains the Original and Inversion of the first two figures of the

Schoenberg Text. The Inversion of the third figure is in bar 157 followed by its Original in bars 157-158.

The Original and Inversion of the second figure and the Inversion of the third figure each contaj-n an

added grace-note group a, arand alr. These notes (at each of the octave registers) are those which are

required to conplete the given figures but are absent from thc Pilot Sequencc: tllL- second figrrre Original

requires a, its Inversion requires al and the third figure fnversion requires att. In each case, the three

Ars are added in their cornplete forn as a rrsupplementary grouprr even though only one A is required at a time.

The Inversion of the fourth figure appears in bar 157 fofLowed by the Original in bars 158-159. The

fnversion of the fifth (second last) figure appears in bars 158-159 follor,red by the Original in bars 159-160.

The 0riginal- of the fifth figure also contains the rrsupplementary grouprr of a, ar and arr to fil1 in for

the absent ar.

The fnversion of the last figure appears in bar 159 and brings back a grace-note grouping of d, g and

cr in otder to conplete the figure, just as it did in bats 152-153.54 The Original '160
is in bar and brings

back both the dr and gt (as it did previously in bars 15/'-155) and thetrsupplementary grouprtof a, arand art

to conplete the figure.

With the presentation of this last figure, the process is again interrupted to be followed by the next

phase which starts at bar 161.55 This final phase uses the Pilot Sequence to trigger the presentation of

the naterial fron the Schoenberg Text but does not distribute the leftover material among the other instru-

nents. It seems that one note in the Pilot Sequence useful for reconstruction is now sufficient to trigger

any nunber of required notes (whether or not they appear in the Pilot Sequence) provided they are presented

vertically in a chord.

The flrst two flgures and their Inversions are in bar 151. The Inversions display extra decorating

naterlal obtained by synnetry. The third,,fourth and fifth figures and their fnversions are in bars 162-j65,

each fnversion also elaborated by symnetry.

54.1j1:A srnall- nisprint


@@@@@@@@ is present in the score at this point. The l-ast rest within the third
beat of the violin should be a quaver and not a crotchet.

55. Another nisprint: the clefs for the violin and the ce1lo are confused.
?03

The Inversion of the last figure is in bar164 (supplementedby the d, g and ctbrought back from the

previous figure) followed by the Original in bar 165. This brings to an end Lhe final phase of the re-

construction atteupt.

Bar 166' the final bar in the piece, presents the courplete Schoenberg Text in the piano (transposed

an octave higher) accompanied by inverted (but not retrograde) figures. The exception is tl.re trilled ft

to er figure in the clarinet which' because of its synmctrical posiLion between Lhe boundary notcs Dl and

grtrr, could be either a doubling of the Original or a retrograde inversion.

Dynanics

The naterial used in the reconstruction of the Schoenberg Text is assigned the appropriate dlaramic

fron the Schoenberg Text. The leftover material from the Pilot Sequence is assigned the dynamic of pppp.

(The dynamic of the Pilot Sequence ir pp.)


C I I A P T E RV I I I

CONCLUSION

Although the main thrust of this study is to present the finer delails of the composition technique

usetl in Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdruck, some comnents must be made concerning the aural- effects of the music.

Fron the aural viewpoint, as opposed to the structural viewpolnt, the pi.ece may be divided into only three

sections: bars 1-20, bars 21-1/+5 and bars 1/+6-166. The first section (1-20) and the fast section (bars

1 1 1 6 - 1 6 6 )a r e e a c h v e r y c o n s i . s t e n t i n t h e i r intervallic content, whil-st the middle section (bars 21-11'5)

tends to be rather inconsi.stent.

The first section is composed entirely of real (as opposed to tonal- or otherwise altered) retrograde

inversions and transpositions of the Schoenberg Text. This results in a consistency of intervallic quality

for the first 20 bars giving a unifled and satisfying resul-t. Likewise the third seclion, being almost

who1Ly derivod fron bars 1l'/+-1/'5 of the flute (with no pitch-c1ass alterations), Jisplays a similar uni-ty.

The reconstruction of the Schoenberg Teri also provides a satisfying intervallic relationship to the first

section.

In conparison, the niddle section is by far the most aurally inconsistent area of the piece. The

systen of interval diminution enployed ensures that intervallic quality always remains in a state of f1ux.

Thls aspect, conbined with the fact that each instrunent pursues its course independently, results in a

certaln lack of control vhich is perceived. aurally. These results, of course, may be quite within the

composelts intentions. The whole niddle section seems as if it could almost be a written-out version of

an aleatoric passage taken fron a previous aleatoric piece. The processes are essentially the sar:oe: a

set of autonatises act on a body of naterial to form a result which is not pre-specified.

Out of a nunber of possible exanples of aural inconsistencies, bar 42 is ren:arkpble for its conr-

pletely exposed octave between the flute and the clarinet within an atonal and dissonant context:

F I C U R E1 4 6

Exposed Octave Bar 42

Elsewhere, tonal chords energe from a sinilarl-y dissonant context. An exanple of this is in bar 80 of

20t,
the flute lrhere the first six notes of the bar form an arpeggio of E major:

F I G U R E1 1 7

E Major Arpeggio Bar 80

Notwithstan.Ilngtheabovecomnents,ana1ysisof@sho"s it to be a superb

exauple of nusLc constructed systenatically but without recourse to the 12-tone row.
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r .. lS
Juu r rqQu ueeSsLt oO' r C
d i- . -F-. .a.n_c-o n o n a t . o n i I I ^ Snetrato-e M r r c in a - o

Stoianova, L, Donatoni, F.,


Szernovicz, P, rDossier Donalonir, Musique en Jeu, n, Za, Septenber 1975,
208

tlntervlsta con Franco Donatonir, Lo spettatore Musicale, Bologna, 1969'


TonasL' G. L.
rI Due Volti del-IrA1eat, Nuova Rivista Mqsicale ftaliana' Rone' 1969'
looasl' G. L.
rfntervista a lranco Donatonil, Prospettive Musicali, n' 2, Pescara' 1982'
Valori, A.
.1968.
IDonatoni Pro e Contrat, Lo Spettatore Musicale, Bologna,
Zaccaro, G.
DISCOGRAPHY

Concertino (1952) tor strings, brass and solo tirnpani


Radl-o-Luxenbourg Orchestrai Conductor: Henri Pensis; Timpani: Jean-Pierrc Kenmer
Disques Festival

For Grl11v (1960) inprovisation for seven soLoists


Conductor: Piero Santi; Flute: Bruno Martinotti; Clarinet: Primo BoraLi; Bass Cl^arinet: Alfio Gerbi;
Vlolin: Roberto Bisello; Viola: Rinaldo Tosatti; CeLlo: Nereo Gasperini; percussion: Guido Zorzut
Sugar Editore ESZ 1/2

Doubles (1961) exercises for harpsichord


Harpsichord: Elisabeth Chojnacka
Phtlips 6526009

D o u b l e s ( 1 9 6 1) exercises for harpsichord


Harpsichord: Mariolina de Robertis
cBs-Esz61635
Quartetto ITI (t96t) for 4-track nagnetic tape
Realised j-n the studios of RAI-TV, Milan
Sugar Editore ESZ 3

Quartetto IV (Zrcadlo) (1963) for string quartet


Societa Caneristica Italiana Quartet; Violins: Massino Coen, Urnberto Oliveti; Viola: nnilio Poggioni;
Cello: Italo Gornez
cBs-Esz51285
Quartetto IV (Zrcadlo) (1963) for string quartet
Societa Caneristica Italiana Quartet; Violins: Massimo Coen, U m b e r t o O f j v e t i ; Viofa: Emitio Poggioni;
Ce11o: ftalo Gooez
vergo ouu),

s o u v e n i r ( K a r n m e r s v n p h o n i eo p u s ' 1 8 ) ( 1 9 6 7 ) f o r 1 5 i n s t r u m e n t s
Teatronusica di Rooat Conductor: Marcello panni
cBs 61t55
Etwas Ruhiger im Ausdruck (1967) tor^ f1ute, clarinet, violin, cel1o and piano
Contlnuum Dortnund Ensenblei Conductor: Werner Sej.ss
cBs-Esz61/,5/.
AIi (1977) two pieces for solo viola
Vi.ola: Aldo Bennici
Disco Italia ITL 70038

...ed insiene bussarono (t97S) tor soprano and piano


Soprano: Liliana Poli; Piano: Fausta Cianl;i
Pan Etlitore PRC S 20,/07

Marches (1979) two pieces for harp


Harp: Claudia Antonelli
Disco Italia ITL 700'72

Nidl (1979) two pLeces for piccolo


Piccolo: Roberto Fabbrici-ani
2 LP Cetra LIIA 3002

209
A P P E N D I XA

T H E F I P T H P I E C E F R O MF I V E P I A N O P I ] I C E S ( O P . 2 3 ) B Y A R N O L NS C I I O E N B E R C

Sehr rasch(J)

poco p.:ruo'3- | . h
I

3 5 J

| n; u 'qtf u-:;
.fI fi+
f,+ => J ,q

't= q:
hJ t . ? ,
ppq:
, J '

langsamer beginnsa4
n ))=)G"rcrundnroo)

--[
A P P E N D I XA ( c o n t i n u e d )

- et$as langsamer

allmdhlich
u)
l ' 7

sf dim.

r---- 20J
J3----__r r-J,--- j
---------.1
. J (a., tor.rcnT*tor)

, ,o'qq'{E{ jo=To-ff
22).J dolce
APPENDTX
B

SELECTEDEXCERPTSFROMDONATONI'SI,IORKS

F I G U R E 14 8

Conposizione in Quattro Uovimenti (1955)

t'

t t.n4. .t.o . {!.:do sl


sr.n/or l. trbrt:rofr d.l trrlto

ITIGURE 1 4,9

For 0ri11y (1960) Barc /+6-52

212
Ar|-LNUII\ U tCOnLlnueo/

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i ot
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A P P E N D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

;F,
I

B' oi|, :J

..lntoin.rt. r'i..h..

BABAI
PEP Ci AVICEMAAL.)

FRANCO DONATONI
F7:"4
E tsr{ r06.
lr

I Gr'l
9 - qr o.o.", ".o\ :.o..
trre.
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FICURE151

P a g e 1 0 o f D o u b l e s ( 1 9 6 1 ) a n d t h e C o r r e s p o n c l S - n gP a g e o f B a b a i ( 1 9 6 4 )
A P P E N D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

FIGURE 1 52

Divertimento II ( 1 9 6 5 ) B a r s 1 l + / * - 1/ , 9
ATT}JNU.L,( IJ (COntlnued,l

0t

cl.

fg

'-r.-....-.............-- 8*r-

lVn

trYn.

llr

FICURE153

Souvenir (Kannersymphonie Opus. 18) (1967) Bars 7-8


A P P E N D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

l l

fl I
l f
I
r l t n

FIGURE154

Black and White n. 2 (1968)


Arf.ui\uL,t .b tconllnueo./

F I G U R E1 5 5

soro (1969) Bars 192-195


A P P B N D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

I ' ] G U R E1 5 6

The Complete Score of Estratto (1969)

C.lb

Lunen (1975) Bars 33-36


lPPtrllIrT': A f^^,.+i l

PfP

C.t iE:ilff=_,lsr:-,=

I'ICIJN]] 153

Portrait (1976 - 197'l) Bars 2'11-273


A P P E N D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

a Mariolina De Robertise al Trio di Cono

Toy
per 2 violini, viola c clavicenrbalcr
FRANCO DONATONI
l:tsz I
5) AI:i'e'2 4
I

Vni
,. ':

Vla

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I ' ] G U R E 15 9

The Opening of Toy (197?)


A P P E N D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

a Oscar Ghiglia

)- t't il

T'I)

rs

l'P .

t - r ' -

J J

FICURE160

Al,eo(1977) p. 7
223

Arrurul^ lJ tconf,lnued/

Franco Donatoui al .ltdo Bcuni

ALI I|VZZ) due pezzi per viola sola


J=oc

F I G U R E1 6 1

The Opening of A1i (197?)


A P P E N D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

Duc pczzr pcr vrolrno f|979)

{,l"J,.pn =-----=-rD
ttS-n
f f i - ' i

F I G U R E1 6 2

The Opening of Argot (1979)


A P P E I I D I XB ( c o n t i n u e d )

"f
h ,fri {" '8.:t .f ,t;
"t-r-,.
^o2 r?
"/
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.D.
-rir
& r;'I-

FICURE16'

The End of the First Section of Clair (1980)


APPENDIXC

TRANSCRIPTOF THE INTNRVIEWI,IITH I'RANCODONATONI


BY ANGELOVALORI IN 1982;
TRANSLATIONBY R. W. TOOP

Franco Donatoni: The Road to fdentificatron

r studied accountancy (at high speed, to avoid


the retreat into normality). r did my first
toriun exans at Verona and.Bologni, before sensing conserva_
the need to take the intermediate course at
less decent leve1. the tio years spent in Mi1an, in circumstances a more or
e i t h e r f r o n a t e a c h i.nHge npcoei n t o f v i l w , o r i n h u n a n it is lest noi to talk about,
terms. Then came the diploma, in t5i, a+, Forogna,
loweci by a couple of-poit-graduate years at s. cecilia with iizzetti. fo1-
that' very inportantly, rt was precisely at thls period
f carneacross petrassi; it r,,asimporl.ni, not so nuch musically _ we only sald one
so r couldnrt effectively huu" "or"id"tcJ my"err iris pupit - u"-lro,
3i":l:;."o"ttdically, a personar point

ft was a decisive influence on my who).e life:


at the time, I,"?"."til1 travelling under Bartokrs wing,
but durlng this period, a major crisi"s arose
for me, which culminated itr t53_t54 in my-meeting
rhe neeting sharpened Maderna, who
the crisis y"t r,"ir'"",-;;";;""'i-";3 ilt,"'|". marureenoushto
i::"tlou;;"li.tn"n'

I had to go to Darmstadt, and retread the path


begun by Schoenberg and lJebern. I had to
lost time, and during-this period, what r r"rote was diiectry make up for
r r t a l i a n influenced by these composers: after the
first attenpt at siyletdodecaphony r J { ,
in r undeiwuni th" influence of r,reiern in t55.
there r'ras another crisis period, interruptel rn 156,
(La Larnpara, perforned in't57), pe:a}:; i ;;;-;;;";pportunity to do a bartet for La scata
which i l"c.pt"a (r wasnrt so rigorous in those
days).
rn 1957 cane ny real beginnings' or rather, the
b e g i n n . r . n g so f n y r e a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p : r was already
thirty years o1d' Then I cornposed-some piano, pieces
aq+g"age.r:rti), which were a sort of imitation
of the Boulez second sonata, nore or 1ess. That
w a s t h d tlne-when r was going to Darnstadti I .^rent
in t5/+' in t56' in 158 and 161, and r felt various there
r58 has a bit of lerio influences: for exanple, thc Quartet (for strings) of
and Nono in it, while in Movipe4ti (io, l.,u.p"l"irord,
For Grillv p i a n o a n d nine instrunrents) and
r sense a bit of stockhausen from the-lGtE-6f'Kontra-puntte,
in Baden-Baden, and had caused a ful1-b1own i""ur-u*pio"io,.,ffi'", and Zeitmasse, which r had heard

rn t59 r had written my.first


-pti6e1c e f o r , o r c . h e s t r a , strgphes, which was sLifl a bit clumsy (r had set
nyself on a difficult course)' rn "u g:t.to.Puppcr"iGT-G;e
personal language, at least the certaintv tirst one), in which r found, if not a
i}r"t il-'E-tilGilli-"ur.rif "u" coning to an end. r began to say my
but r didn't even have time to learn the iiphabet
whel cage ".ro-olong, anJ-everytr,ing was blom
:tJ:;i:'

The first b r e a k , e n o r n o u s f o r m e , c a -ir,..piu_""


me in 162, and concludcd t,he rseptenaryr
35' and Darkness had cescended i-n force. of apprenticeship: I was
th"t b;;i;;-;hls period is cal]ed ilr orchestra,
it' there is a real Dersonal dissociation, and in
not only f.o,n ,"iing ,r"i.", urt .i;"-;-;;;";i"
begins the period of indeterninacv,-"rri"ii'r""t"d four years ;eill-"ru-"in{iiilu
dissociation. It
that could happen, sinply becausu-it 1"d rie i"iai.g-ii """r"thing in rne
to silence, to "orpi"l" impotence. The fifth
r nade the piano reduction of Dal1apl""orui"'iliC:.", y e a r , 1!66, was
:il: :ir:il::""t p a s s i n g t h e r i m e , s o m e h o wj u s t i f y i n g

- rn reality' it was in 1965 that there vas an attenpt to


pletely recovcr, a craftsmanshi.p that uas gettlng
lost during the period of indeterninacy. com-
r.tooi< up again with of five years earlier,
and I rediscovered certain conscious automatisms l!p!.""-s:_gl
w h i c h , h o i r e v 3 . , - - f f , " A tihu
o "c1ary'fru1otc-art,ificially,
the identification vith the materiaf was no longer-ttrerei irr.-"rrj."ti"e because
there. This led to what was to become the secoid p;;;;;;o;;i,"iJi'flrt", aspect or "orfo"i',g lras no longer
piccoto and orchestra.
Hor'rever, r nade another big rnistake, that.of starting out from pseudo-material: the materiar of
noti.onof mateiiaf, "r,","u" irr fact r had to arrive at
3.ii*i;ri";.;::lli:';:;1,::: *:T:;::, a con*ete,
The first attempt in this direction was.souveLir,
fron t6?, which took fragments of stockhausen
were to be transforned' eLaborated and superiiliGTh."rih which
proliferation' ririti" operations which would permit their
rt was sti1l a serial approach, but it op;tut;;
theoretical ;n-tttng" that were already formed. Not
naterial, but a naterial already conposed.

After other pieces fron this period, sone^minor,ones,


nhich r'/as a rremaker of the harpsicttora ny experiences converged in Doubfes Secondo,
from r51, "rrtlun
naterLal be elaborated on a large scale.' i i e " e irris time for orchestra, so as to fet the

After this came another period of crisis-


rt seemedto be a joke of fate: every seven years, r under-
went these black neriods' r nrote a piece wtrict. servud no u""iui
but in realitv turnrng-n!-t""t""i-ir'"-;i;'d;fi;;irln".r, f,rrpo"", To Earle, making reference to
:ili;.t**' whichr,ra!-never
to be part or rne
Then the blggest failure of rny 1ife,
sixteen months of work, sixteen.hours a
'-ro-ilar1s-lwo,
penitential busi-ness r have ever known: day, the nost nasochistic,
nas a tiny little *rricrr "a"'ti" "*."t opposite of the first.
score which soundea rea6ii6Gf-ElG'"";;;a
-oi;;. The first
tailed' "." ".r'"norrous scole, gigantic, iurmensel-y de_
vbich had absolutely no effect. than that or "r,ooti" sound, in which all
up by chaos, by a conscious chaos op"r.tini--on form was swaLlowed
automatic methods.--The most violent possible
renission of nv

226
))1

A P P E N D I XC ( c o n t i n u e d )

it sti1l scares ne to think of it. They performed it


;hil]ttt the other year, but itrs a reaf souvenir of

rn r72 there is Lied (for chanber group), with.other


procedures of a combinatory, automatic
tending to'rards liberatjo-n' r wasnrt ui"." kind, but
or it then, uri vo"i,-ro" exanpre, is already n:ore frexibte,
nore free in relation to those tlght autornati"r" or ""ir-i"rffiio
viofcnce.
An important .*lo:inl::_f"om t h o s c y e a r s w : r : st , l r c D ! : o D ? . r B r . r r r r o ,w | i L t , c n
was written fron 1974 to 19'/5' There onl in momoryof l,fadcrna, and which
sees Lhe tlnol-o=u-tEir"T-o-f these urtoroti"r"",
coning sonething e1se. Hearing it today, especially tut it's already be-
the second fart, r,rith its explosions of violent
dranatic sounds' it must-obvioisly be the result and
of'some;;;;;;"i;r" state in operation. Ar.so beeause at
that tine r was frequently affectid by depressive or rnanic state-, which woul.i
not' and obviously that ii reflected in wirat fearl to my taking pi1ls or
r was writing. s-i""rg"ry, tnu rtr"i-fa"i oi ruo o"" g.rro,
written during a period of artificiaf well-being, is rathir cotd aid r""rrunt"oi--
written between pi11s and psychiatric ;;;;";;re for something.
clinics, is a concretion of the unconscious state
;l: :lT:rf:rt, that

At this period I believed I had reached the.bottom;


deciding not to write anv ncre, I bought
tiful black bicycle made in an o1d-fashioned-style; a beau_
f n o f " n g o " ' - f i'ai d m y w o r k , b u t i n c o n p e n s a t i o n
cranp in ny right hand that made it impossible I had a
ior me to *i;": supervised editorial work for suvini
salarv, and cvclea to work, thinking r hal rinished
iiiS"il; H:;:";f,:lce wirh composirion-r led this

However' r had to fulfiL a n o b l i g a t i o n f o r t h e s u r n m e rt o t h e A _ c c a d e m i a


a piece fron ne. f was rather doubttil chigiana, which had comnissioned
as to whether or not I should r,rrite it;.ry
that since r was no longer a nusician, r had "if"..Jonvinced ne, saying
no obligation to-ry.oir, but r had one to them, that r no
longer had the conposerts.r:sponsibility. so r decided to w.itl
ny rebirth' ii, come what may; in fact, the piece was
though r canrt analyse it ii any way. r can
deduce a few conscious things fron the opening,
thatrs as far as it can.go' Ali the operations'r but
have worked out were always of un !utor.ti",
but tied absolutely to the eurpirlcal dlnrands serial kind,
of the moment, with conrinually^changi-ng
piece of this period, I think, would be spiri codes. The happiest
(ror-rij-;;;;;r;;;;"i, tron 197?.
what was the name of the piece you alluded
to, the one ilrat constituted your rebirth as a
""10.!1;"1']

[..0.] Ash.

Apart fron &ig (ror voice and orchestra),


fron rJ$, and the piece r am writing at thc
choir and orchestra' my output in these last moment, for
years has consisted entirely of sofo uia-"irrrlu"
For the rest' one needs to wait a bit before pieces...
talking ouout-iir--riom126 r would have to,go through another
seven years fsniles] before getting to-ihu-u"a
or tie cycre.- r..";t say anything yet.56-

Footnote: 56' of this interview in rtar-ian may be found in Donatoni, I]_q*.re__s-irr*dg,


lolT58:t*
APPENDIXD

NOTE ON TERMINOLOCY

Throughout the analysis, the f o l l o w i n g systen of specifying pitch-register is used:

F I G U R E1 6 I ,

pitch-register
Terninology

The shorthand for naming the intervals is as fofl_ows:-


Major intervals are denoted M; for exampJ-e, M2nd.
Minor intervals are denoted rn; for exanpfe, mznd.
Perfect intervals have no prefix; for example, {Lh.
Augnented intervals are denoted {; for e x a m p J - e ,} 2 n d .
Dininished intervals are denoted o; for exanrple, o5th,

<26