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Learn English Grammar

Grammar is the set of rules that govern the usage of English language.
Understand the building blocks of grammar
Nouns,
Pronouns,
Articles, adjectives,
Verbs,
Adverbs,
Prepositions, Conjunctions
Interjections.

Parts of Speech Table


This is a summary of the 9 parts of speech*. You can find more detail if you
click on each part of speech.

part of
speech function or "job" example words example sentences

Verb action or state (to) be, have, do, EnglishClub is a web site.
like, work, sing, can, I like EnglishClub.
must

Noun thing or person pen, dog, work, This is my dog. He lives in my house.
music, town, We live in London.
London, teacher,
John
part of
speech function or "job" example words example sentences

Adjective describes a noun good, big, red, well, My dogs are big. I like big dogs.
interesting

Determiner limits or "determines" a/an, the, 2, some, I have two dogs and some rabbits.
a noun many

Adverb describes a verb, quickly, silently, My dog eats quickly. When he


adjective or adverb well, badly, very, is very hungry, he eats really quickly.
really

Pronoun replaces a noun I, you, he, she, Tara is Indian. She is beautiful.
some

Preposition links a noun to to, at, after, on, but We went to school on Monday.
another word

Conjunction joins clauses or and, but, when I like dogs and I like cats. I like
sentences or words cats and dogs. I like dogs but I don't
like cats.

Interjection short exclamation, oh!, ouch!, hi!, well Ouch! That hurts! Hi! How are
sometimes inserted you? Well, I don't know.
into a sentence
IMPORTANTBUILDING BLOCKS OF GRAMMAR

NOUNS
A noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.
Examples: King, Mohan, Sarita, Mumbai, Table

PRONOUNS
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.
Examples: He, She, It, They

ARTICLES
The words a, an and the are called articles. They are used before nouns.

VERBS
A verb is a word that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being.
Examples: He talks to Sameer, She sings a song

ADJECTIVES
An adjective is a word used to describe a noun.
Examples : Beautiful house, Tall man
ADVERBS
An adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb.
Examples: He runs fast, They fought bravely.

PREPOSITIONS
A preposition is a word which shows the relation between the noun or pronoun and
other words in the sentence.
Examples: The boy is in the room, The book is on the table.

CONJUNCTIONS
A conjunction is a word which joins to sentences to complete their meaning.
Examples : They reached the station but it was too late.
He put on his shoes because he was going for a run.

INTERJECTIONS
An interjection is a word which expresses sudden feeling or emotion.
Examples : Hello!, Alas!, Hurray!, Oh!
SUBJECT
Definition:
The subject of a sentence is the noun, pronoun or noun phrase that precedes and
governs the main verb. The subject is the part of the sentence that performs an action
or which is associated with the action.
For example:
He is a really nice guy.
* "He" is the subject of the sentence, controlling the verb and the complement.
My dog attacked the burglar.
* "My dog" is the subject, controlling the verb and the rest of the sentence.
David plays the piano
* The subject "David" performs the action of "playing the piano".
The police interviewed all the witnesses.
* The subject the police performs the action of interviewing all the witnesses.
To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question
by placing "who?" or "what?" before it. Having identified the Subject, we can see that
the remainder of the sentence tells us what the Subject does or did. We refer to this
string as the "predicate" of the sentence.
For example:
Who plays the piano?
=> "David" ( = Subject)
=> "plays the piano" ( = predicate) tells us what David does.
Who interviewed all the witnesses?
=> "The police" (= Subject)
=> "interviewed all the witnesses" ( = predicate) tell us what the police did.
Subjects can either be "simple", "compound" or "complex"
Simple Subject

Composed of a single pronoun, noun or noun phrase.


Complex Subject

A complex subject consists of a noun phrase and any words, phrases, or clauses that
modify it.
For example:
The man who had followed us inside walked over to the telephone.
=> central noun: man
=> complex subject: the man who had followed us inside
The superior performance of La Traviata pleased the wealthy audience.
=> central noun: performance
=> complex subject: the superior performance of La Traviata
Compound Subject

A compound subject consists of two or more noun phrases (and their modifiers if any)
joined together with a coordinating conjunction.
For example:
The man and the woman walked over to the telephone.
=> The compound subject here is the whole phrase, "the man and the woman."
Neither the superior performance of La Traviata nor the excellent wine at
intermission pleased the wealthy audience.
=> Again, the whole phrase, "neither the superior performance of La Traviata nor
the excellent wine at intermission," is the subject. The phrase answers the
question, "What pleased the wealthy audience?"

Sentence
A sentence is a group of words giving a complete thought. A sentence must contain
a subject and a verb (although one may be implied).
A More Formal Definition of Sentence
A sentence is a set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and
predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting
of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses.
Oxford Dictionary
The Four Types of Sentence
There are four types of sentence.
A declarative sentence.
A declarative sentence states a fact and ends with a period / full stop. For example:
o He has every attribute of a dog except loyalty. (Thomas P Gore)
o I wonder if other dogs think poodles are members of a weird religious cult.
(Remember, a statement which contains an indirect question (like this example) is not a
question.)
An imperative sentence.
An imperative sentence is a command or a polite request. It ends with an exclamation
mark or a period / full stop. For example:
o When a dog runs at you, whistle for him. (Henry David Thoreau, 1817-
1862)
An interrogative sentence.
An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark. For example:
o Who knew that dog saliva can mend a broken heart? (Jennifer Neal)
An exclamatory sentence.
An exclamatory sentence expresses excitement or emotion. It ends with an exclamation
mark. For example:
o In Washington, it's dog eat dog. In academia, it's exactly the opposite!
(Robert Reich)

Nouns
Nouns are simply the names we give to everything around us, whether it be a
person, an event, a place or an object, etc. Every particular name used to define
something is a noun. E.g. : Amsterdam, Anita, Blackberry, Honesty, Waiter, etc.

The names given to a group of noun to identify them as a whole are called
Collective Nouns. E.g.: pride of lions, gaggle of geese etc.

Nouns or pronouns can also modify themselves to show possession of another


noun, usually by attaching 's' to the end of the noun. These nouns that show
possession are called Possessive Nouns.

Sometimes nouns have different forms for different genders, although this
practice has been largely abandoned by the people who prefer to use the same
noun for both genders. For example - Actor (male) - Actress (female), but people
nowadays refer to women who act as female actors rather than actresses.

Most nouns can be converted into plural forms by adding -s or -es at the end of
the word. E.g.: box-boxes, cat-cats, echo-echoes , etc

But some nouns require the last consonant to be modified before adding -es.
For example: the Y in city changes to I to form cities, kitty to kitties and f to v
in dwarf to dwarves, wharf to wharves, etc.
Some nouns become plurals irregularly by changing the entire word: mouse-
mice, ox - oxen, etc.
Grammarians have divided nouns into different categories
based on their use and purpose. Learning these divisions within
the nouns will help in sentence construction and vocabulary.
The different types of Nouns are

1. PROPER NOUNS
These nouns are the names of specific people and places. These nouns
also refer to the names of the days of weeks and months, and also the various
names for religions, organizations, institutions, etc. Proper nouns basically refer
to the names that are specific to that particular noun. These nouns are always
capitalised as they need to be distinct from other nouns.

1. - William Shakespeare was a playwright. - Proper noun that is the name of a


specific person.
2. - I will be visiting New York next month. - Proper noun that is the name of a
specific place.
3. - Everyone dislikes Monday mornings. - The names of days are proper nouns.
- The holy book of Islam is the Koran. - Name of a religion and religious
text.

2. COMMON NOUNS
These are the nouns that are used to denote a general category of people,
places or things. They are capitalized only when they are at the beginning of a
sentence. Common Nouns dont refer to something specific rather they are a
general term used for every noun of a particular kind or type.

- The boys went to play cricket. - Both boys and cricket are common nouns as
they can refer to any boy or any cricket match. There is nothing specified by
these nouns.
- This neighbourhood is one of the best in the area. - Here neighbourhood is
the common noun as there are innumerable neighbourhoods all over the world.
- She was trying to answer her phone while buying coffee. - Here we
see phone and coffee that both are general indicators of the object and the
drink.

3. ABSTRACT NOUNS
These nouns are the names of things that we cannot perceive through our
five senses of touching, smelling, seeing, hearing and tasting. These nouns can
also refer to medical conditions related to the mind and are also used to express
thoughts.
- She screamed with great delight. - Delight is an abstract noun as it tells about
the state of a persons mind and any actual physical thing.
- His bravery in the war won him a medal. - The abstract noun bravery is used
to name the motivation behind certain actions made by people.
- One should learn to be as independent as possible.
Here, independentdescribes a state or a way of being, hence it is an abstract
noun.

4. COUNTABLE NOUNS
The nouns that fall under this category are the ones that have both singular and
plural forms. They can be counted either relatively or completely, and form
plurals to associate with plural verbs in a sentence. They can also be expressed
in numerical terms

- I need to buy four new suitcases for my trip. - Suitcase (s) is a countable noun
as adding s to it makes it plural.
- Does anyone want some oranges? - Here some is being used to count the
noun orange(s).
- She had a pet dog. - Dog is also a countable noun as its plural is dogs.

5. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS
These nouns are the exact opposite of Countable Nouns. These nouns are the
names of things that cannot be counted and have only a singular form. These
nouns use singular verbs in a sentence.

- The furniture was damaged in moving out. - Furniture is an uncountable noun


and therefore, we use the singular was in referring to it.
- Is 250gms of sugar enough? - Here, sugar is an uncountable noun
as sugar itself cannot be counted. It can only be weighed.
- He always answers questions with honesty. - Honesty is an uncountable noun
as it has no plural and cannot be counted in physical terms either.

Nouns Exercise 1
List of Nouns, Noun Examples
Actor Doctor Helmet Match Rose

Advertisement Dog Holiday Microphone Russia

Afternoon Dream Honey Monkey Sandwich


Airport Dress Horse Morning School

Ambulance Easter Hospital Motorcycle Scooter

Animal Egg House Nail Shampoo

Answer Eggplant Hydrogen Napkin Shoe

Apple Egypt Ice Needle Soccer

Army Elephant Insect Nest Spoon

Australia Energy Insurance Nigeria Stone

Balloon Engine Iron Night Sugar

Banana England Island Notebook Sweden

Battery Evening Jackal Ocean Teacher

Beach Eye Jelly Oil Telephone

Beard Family Jewellery Orange Television

Bed Finland Jordan Oxygen Tent

Belgium Fish Juice Oyster Thailand

Boy Flag Kangaroo Painting Tomato

Branch Flower King Parrot Toothbrush

Breakfast Football Kitchen Pencil Traffic


Brother Forest Kite Piano Train

Camera Fountain Knife Pillow Truck

Candle France Lamp Pizza Uganda

Car Furniture Lawyer Planet Umbrella

Caravan Garage Leather Plastic Van

Carpet Garden Library Portugal Vase

Cartoon Gas Lighter Potato Vegetable

China Ghost Lion Queen Vulture

Church Girl Lizard Quill Wall

Crayon Glass Lock Rain Whale

Crowd Gold London Rainbow Window

Daughter Grass Lunch Raincoat Wire

Death Greece Machine Refrigerator Xylophone

Denmark Guitar Magazine Restaurant Yacht

Diamond Hair Magician River Yak

Dinner Hamburger Manchester Rocket Zebra

Disease Helicopter Market Room Zoo


Pronouns
Pronouns are words that we use in place of Nouns (or other Pronouns) in a sentence to
make it less repetitive and less awkward. Some of the most common Pronouns are - he,
she, you, they, it, etc. These Pronouns are divided into different categories based on
their use -
Personal Pronouns
These pronouns are used for a specific object or person and they change their forms
to indicate the different genders, numbers, case and persons speaking -
- Tanya told him to take the food to them as soon as possible as it was urgently
needed.
- Him is a Pronoun of gender.
Them is a Pronoun of number showing that there is more than one person, and
it is also a Pronoun of case as it is referring to a specific group in an objective
manner.

It is also a Pronoun of gender showing the object (food).


So we can see that the Personal Pronouns can be based on
Gender
- He went to the market.
He is used for the male gender. Other examples are - His, Him, He, etc.
- She is doing the laundry.
She is used for the female gender. Other examples are - Her, Hers, etc.
- It is important to them.

It is gender neutral as it shows an object, them is also gender neutral as them


can consist of both genders. Other gender neutral pronouns are - Their, They,
Its, etc.
Number

Singular Pronouns - Where the pronoun is only referring to one specific noun.
- That book belongs to me.
Me refers to one singular person only.
Plural Pronouns - Where the pronoun is used to refer to a number of nouns.
- That is their book, not yours.
Their shows a number of people, hence its a plural personal pronoun. Whereas the
yours in this sentence is another example of singular personal pronoun.
Cases
Subjective Case -
- She is at work.
She is the main subject of the sentence, hence in this sentence, she is the
subjective personal pronoun. You can ask the question who/what is doing
______? to recognize whether a pronoun is subjective or objective.
Objective Case -
- He will meet us later.
Us is the objective personal noun as it the object of the verb meet. He is the
subject as he is the person who will be doing the action of meeting.
Possessive Case
- That is our clubhouse.
Our shows the possession of the object clubhouse. Possessive pronouns can
also be used to show possession over people.
Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns are used to show or identify one or a number of nouns
that may be far or near in distance or time.
They are only four in number - This, That, These and Those.
This and That are singular demonstrative pronouns and These and Those are
plural demonstrative pronouns.
They can also be used to show an unspecified quantity in a sentence.
- That is a beautiful house.
That is a demonstrative pronoun that is referring to a specific noun (house). This
is a singular pronoun as it is referring to only one house.

These were made by me. - These is showing an unspecified quantity of


something that was made by a person. This is a plural demonstrative pronoun as
its referring to a number of objects.
Everyone remembers those days. - Those is showing a particular time or period
of days in the past; it is being used in place of a noun that could be - school,
summer, college, etc. Here also those is a plural demonstrative pronoun as its
indicating a number of days.
This is what he is charging? - This is used as pronoun in place of a number and
it is also acting as a quantifier by referring not only to the noun but to the
amount/number of the noun as well. This is a singular demonstrative pronoun.
Interrogative Pronouns
Who, Whom, Which and What are Interrogative Pronouns as they are used to
ask questions about a person or object that we do not know about. Compounds
of these words are made by attaching -ever to the words to strengthen the
emphasis on the word.
Which one would you like? - Here, which is being used to ask someone to
make a choice between different things, instead of naming every single choice
that is available.
What is your name? - What is used to ask a personal noun that the speaker
doesnt know.
Who will be managing the buffet? - Who is used to ask about a specific person
related to a task.
Whom did you tell about this? - Whom is showing/asking the person who was
told something by you.
Whoever could have done this? - Whoever is the compound of Who and it is
used here to emphasise the feeling of confusion in the sentence while still asking
a question.
Whichever one will you choose? - Whichever is used here to show strong
emotion while asking a persons choice.
In the case of Who and Whom -
Who is always the subject of the verb. The emphasis is on the identity of the
person who did the action.
Who rang the bell? Here, we can see that the verb phrase rang the bell is
secondary and the main emphasis is on the identity of the person ringing the bell.
Whom is never the subject of the verb. It is used to show the person to or for
whom the action is being done. In other words, it is the object of the verb.
Whom were you meeting with? Here, we can see that the subject of verb or the
person who was meeting someone is you. Whom is the object of the verb or the
person you were meeting.
Relative Pronouns
Relative Pronouns are used to join or relate two different clauses together by
referring to the noun in the previous clause using the pronouns - Who, Whom,
Whose, Whichand That.
Which and That are generally used for objects; while Whoand Whom are used
for people, and Whose is used to show possession.
She will choose the colour which looks good on everyone.
Here, which is joining the two related clauses about choosing a colour and a
colour which would look good on everyone.
She is complaining to whoever she comes across nowadays.
Here, the whoever is the object of the verb complaining and it is linking the two
clauses about someone complaining and the frequency of their complaints.
There is a car in the parking lot that someone has painted a bright pink.
That is joining the two sentences related to the object and its location in the first
and its appearance in the second.
She needs to know by tomorrow who will be accompanying her on the trip.
Who here stands for the unknown person and it also joins the two different
clauses together.
Is there anyone here whose mobile phone has a signal?
Whose is used here to ask if anyone has possession of something that the
speaker needs.
Indefinite Pronouns
These pronouns are used to show unspecified objects or people, whether in
plural or in singular. They are used to indicate the entire noun or some of the
noun or none of the noun. They are used when we want to refer to group of
nouns without actually specifying who or how much.
Some common indefinite nouns are - anyone, someone, none, everything,
many, few, etc.
If anyone has seen my notebook please return it to me. Here, we see the
pronoun anyone is being used to refer to everyone without any specification.
A few of the members were not satisfied with the service. - Few means a small
number of people/objects. Hence, it is a plural indefinite pronoun.
Nobody was answering when I called them last. Here, we see a pronoun
nobody being used to show no one at all. It is a singular indefinite pronoun.
Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns are those which are used to indicate a noun which has been
used in an earlier part of the same sentence. These pronouns are - Myself,
Themselves, Yourself, Ourselves, Herself, Himself and Itself.
Rosa was going to take it to the shop but ended up fixing it herself one
afternoon. Here, we can see that herself is being used to refer to Rosa again
at the end of the sentence.
He prefers to be by himself after a game. Here, himself is used to refer to
him.
Apart from ordering in, they cooked a few snack themselves. Here
themselves is used to show that they cooked something.
The horse hurt itself while trying to escape. - Since itself is a gender neutral
pronoun, it is used to show the nouns that have no definite gender. E.g. : material
things or ideas, etc.; or whose gender is unknown. E : animals.
These same words are also called Intensive Pronouns, which are used to lay
emphasis on the pronoun that comes before them in the sentence.
They themselves knew that the prank was in bad taste. - Here, the pronoun
themselves is used to emphasise they.
Avoid reporting things that you yourself havent witnessed. - Here yourself is
used to emphasise the pronoun you.
Reciprocal Pronoun
There are just two Reciprocal Pronouns - Each other and One another. They
are used when two or more nouns are doing or being the same to one another.
Both of these pronouns are plural in nature as they can only be used in situations
where there is more than one noun.
Jamie and Jack always sit beside each other in break. Here, the reciprocation
is between the children as they both sit together.
They havent seen one another since last year. Here, neither of the two parties
has seen each other in some time.
The trees seem to reach towards each other in a strong wind. Here, we have
an unspecified amount of trees bending towards the others in a strong wind.

PRONOUN EXERCISE 1
CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. Shipra and _____ went to see movie.

I me
2. My uncle, ______ is an engineer, works at Sony.

that who

3. ______ red car is _______.

These, me That, mine

4. Are you going to meet ______ tonight?

her she

5. The restaurant was very dirty. There were many flies buzzing around _____.

we us

6. She was standing at the balcony of _______ apartment.

her she

7. Have you seen _____?

them they

8. _______ bag is this?

Whose Who

9. Show me _____ blue bag with white flowers.

that those
10. The person _____ was accused of the burglary has been caught.

which who

EXERCISE 2
CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. What s _____ plan for Sunday?

you your

2. They looked at _____and smiled.

each other another

3. Shall _____ meet tomorrow?

we us

4. Is this _____ umbrella? Yes, it is _______.

you, me your, mine

5. ________is my brother ,Tarun.

This These

6. _______ was an interesting story.

Those That
7. ______ of you are invited to my birthday party tonight.

All Some

8. Dont worry. _______will be taken care of.

Everything Nothing

9. Is _____ interested in having pizza?

anyone none

10. She did the homework _______.

herself himself

EXERCISE 3
CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. You have to go _______.

myself yourself

2. They cleaned their house______. I didnt help them.

themselves ourselves

3. This is not Toms car. ______ is red.

His Hers
4. I will do this exercise ________.

myself ourself

What is an article?
An article is a word that modifies or describes the Noun. It is used before the noun to
show whether it refers to something specific or not. So, in a way, articles can also be
described as a type of adjectives as they also tell us something about the nouns, like
adjectives.
Types of Articles
There are two types of Articles in the English language. They are as follows:
Definite article:
Definite means to be clear, exact or obvious about something. It is called definite
because it is used in relation to a particular thing or person. The is the definite article
in English, which is used to refer to particular nouns, the identities of which are known.
The definite article indicates that the noun is specific. The speaker talks about a
particular thing. For example:
The cat sat on the couch.
The dog attacked me and ran away.
Notice how the reference is not left indefinite in both the sentences. It is clear that a
particular cat sat on the couch in the first sentence and a specific dog that attacked the
speaker is being spoken about in the second example.
Indefinite articles:
Indefinite means something which is not clear, obvious or exact. They are called
indefinite because the identity of the thing or person being spoken about is left unclear
or indefinite. The indefinite article indicates that the noun is not someone or something
in particular. The speaker talks about any one of that type of things. The indefinite
articles in English are "a" and "an." For example:
Do you have a pencil?
I want to have an apple.
Notice how the speaker is not asking for a particular pencil or apple, but any pencil or
apple in the above sentences.
Difference between A and An
Indefinite articles a/an are used as follows:
A is used before a word beginning with a consonant sound. Consonant letters in the
English alphabet are B,C,D,F,G,H,J,K,L,M,N,P,Q,R,S,T,V,W,X,Y,Z.
For example: A boy, a cat, a dog, a fight, a gym, a horse, a joke, a kite, a lion, a mirror,
a noise, a pin, a quilt, etc.
An is used before a word beginning with a vowel sound. Vowel letters in the English
alphabet are A, E, I, O, U.
For example: An apple, an elephant, an idiot, an orange, an umbrella, etc.
Note here that the usage is on the basis of sound and not only the letter the word starts
with.
For example:
An hour
An honest man
A one eyed dog
Do these seem wrong to you?
Theyre not and the reason is that the usage is on the basis of sound. The words
'hour' and 'honest' both begin with a vowel sound, as the consonant 'h' is not
pronounced. Similarly, the word 'one' begins with the consonant sound of 'w' and hence
is written as 'a one eyed dog', not 'an one eyed dog'.
Also, remember that we use "a" and "an" only before a singular noun. We can't use "a"
and "an" before a plural noun. For example:
A book - correct
A books - incorrect
An egg - correct
An eggs incorrect
Tips to remember the differences in a nutshell
a + singular noun beginning with a consonant : abag;a pen, etc.
an + singular noun beginning with a vowel: an egg; anorphan, etc.
a + singular noun beginning with a consonant sound:auser(sounds like 'yoo-zer,'
i.e., gives a 'y' sound, so 'a' is used); a university; a European, etc.
an + nouns starting with silent "h":an hour; an honest man, etc.
NOTE:
These rules also apply in Acronyms.
For example:
He is a DU (Delhi University) student.
He is an IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) graduate.
The rule also applies when acronyms start with consonant letters but have vowel
sounds.
For example:
She is an MBA (Master of Business Administration).
When/If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an
depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article.
For example:
a beautiful umbrella
an unusual situation
a European country (pronounced as 'yer-o-pi-an,' i.e., sounds like consonant 'y')
A/An is used to indicate membership in a group.
For example:

I am a journalist. (I am a member of a large group of professionals known as


journalists.)
She is an Indian. (She is a member of the people from India, known as Indians.)

Difference between A and The


"The", as mentioned earlier, is used to give information about particular or known
nouns. These are usually things that have been mentioned before or that the listener is
familiar with. On the other hand, "A" or "an" is used to talk about things which are not
particular. Usually, these are things that haven't been mentioned before or that the
listener is unfamiliar with.
For example, study these sentences:
I went to see a tattoo artist.
The tattoo artist has given me an appointment next week.
It is clear that in the first sentence, the speaker did not go to see a particular tattoo
artist. He/she went to see any tattoo artist and was speaking to a friend about the same.
The tattoo artist in this case has either not been mentioned before or is not that
important, and therefore their identity is unknown.
Whereas in the second sentence, the speaker refers to the tattoo artist that had already
been mentioned before. The identity is already known, therefore, the has been used to
refer the tattoo artist.
Usage of the
Lets study the different cases where the can or cannot be used.
Count and Noncount Nouns
The can either be used with noncount nouns or the article can be omitted entirely. For
example:
She liked to sail over the water. Here, some specific body of water is being talked
about.
She liked to sail over water. Here, no particular water is being talked about. It can
refer to any water.
A/An can be used only with single count nouns.
I need a bottle of juice.
I need an eraser.
Use of the in case of geography
There are some specific rules for using the with geographical nouns.
Do not use the before:
names of most countries/territories: India, Brazil, Canada; however, the Netherlands,
the Dominican Republic, the Philippines, the United States
names of cities, towns, or states: Toronto, Delhi, Sao Paolo
names of streets: Callowhill Drive, Park Avenue
names of lakes and bays: Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario; except while referring to a
group of lakes - the Great Lakes
names of mountains: Mount Everest, Mount Fuji except with ranges of mountains like
the Andes or the Rockies or unusual names like the Matterhorn
names of continents: Asia, Europe
names of islands (Easter Island, Maui, Key West) except with island chains like the
Andaman Islands, the Canary Islands
Use the before:
names of rivers, oceans and seas: the Ganga, the India Ocean
points on the globe: the Equator, the South Pole
geographical areas: the South East, the Asia Pacific
deserts, forests, gulfs, and peninsulas: the Kalahari, theSunderbans
Where articles are not used?
The usage of articles is one of the most confusing things to remember for many English
learners. It is not always necessary to use articles everywhere. Our tip is to remember
the cases where articles should not be used.
Do not use articles:
When you talk about things in general.
For example: I like birds.
Here, the speaker wants to imply that he/she likes any bird in general, and not a
specific type of a bird.
When talking about plural count nouns.
For example: Dogs make great pets.
Here, you are not talking about one specific dog or one specific pet; you are talking
about all dogs in general.
When talking about non-count nouns.
For example: I love music.
Here, the speaker is saying that he enjoys music, in general not any specific kind of
music or song.
When talking about specific days or holidays, geography, companies,
languages.
For example: I have bought candles for Diwali.
Here, the speaker is talking about the candles he has bought to use on the day of
Diwali.
When talking about Geography.
Articles are not used before countries, states, cities, towns, continents, single lakes,
single mountains, etc.
For example: I live in Canada.
Mt. Rosa is part of the Alps mountain range.
Here, Mt. Rosa is one mountain, whereas The Alps refer to a group of mountains.
NOTE:
The United Arab Emirates, The Russian Federation", The People's Republic of China,
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The Dominion of Canada,
etc., all contain articles because of the usage of common nouns such as kingdom,
republic, states, united, dominion, emirates, etc.
The Netherlands, the Philippines, The Bahamas, The Maldives, etc. have the before
them due to the plural nature of the names of the countries.
The Ukraine, the Sudan, etc. are exceptions to all of these rules. It is perhaps, due to
common use, or at least previous common use. There have been historical uses of
articles before names of countries that don't fit into either category.
When you talk about companies.
For example: Steve Jobs founded Apple.
I use Facebook every day.
Here, the speaker is referring to companies like Apple and Facebook.
When you talk about languages.
For example: I speak Hindi.
Here, the speaker is talking about the language Hindi.
When you talk about places, locations, streets.
For example: My house is located on Callowhill Drive.
I left my pen at home.
Here, a street called Callowhill Drive and speakers home are being talked about.
However, there are specific places that do need the use an article. For example:
the bank, the hospital, the post office, the airport, the train station, the bus stop, etc.
When you talk about sports and physical activities.
For example: I love to play cricket.
She enjoys dancing.
Here, cricket and dancing is being talked about.
When there is a noun + number
For example: She is staying at the Hilton hotel in room 127.
The train to Montreal leaves from platform 9.
Here, the nouns are followed by numbers; hence, no article is used.
When talking about academic subjects.
For example: I hate attending Mathematics classes.
Here, the mathematic classes are being discussed.
A table to remember when or when not to use Articles
Different cases Examples

When mentioning something for the


I went for a movie.
first time.

A/ An is
When talking about something which
used This is a pen.
belongs to a set of the same thing.

When talking about someone who She is an engineer.


belongs to a certain group.

When talking about a certain kind of a I've have made a great


thing. movie.

When wanting to say that someone is a


She is a shy girl.
certain kind of person.

The movie that I went


When talking about a particular thing.
for was fantastic.

The is When talking about something that you


I cleared the interview.
used are sure of.

I dont like to go out in


When there is only one such thing.
the sun.

When talking about Swimming is a great


something in general. physical activity.
No article
is used We visited France.
When talking about cities,
countries, streets, sports, etc. We watched soccer
together.

Verbs
Verbs are the most important component of any sentence. These words talk about the
action or the state of any noun or subject. This means that verbs show what the subject
is doing or what is the state or situation of the subject.
For example:
- He ran to the store. - Here the verb ran describes the action of the subject he
- She is a creative person. - Here there is no action being done. Instead the
auxiliary verb is shows the state of the subject she as being creative.
There are different types and classifications of Verbs; some of the most important
ones are listed below:
Action Verbs
These verbs talk about what the subject is doing in the sentence. Action Verbs are
one of the most easily identifiable types of verbs. To recognize them, you simply
have to look for the word in the sentence that answers the question What is the
subject doing? e.g. -
- Rose is painting the kitchen walls.
The subject here is Rose, and what is Rose doing? Rose is painting. Hence
painting is our action verb.
- My dog is sleeping on the sofa.
The subject here is dog, and what is the dog doing? The dog is sleeping. So
sleeping is our action verb.
There are two types of Action Verbs which describe the Verb and the Subject doing
the action and the Object on which the action is done, they are -
Transitive Verbs -
These Action Verbs have a definite object on which, or for which the action is being
performed. That means that the action has a definite recipient or object. To identify
them you can ask the question what is the/did the subject -verb-?
- Rose is painting the kitchen walls.
Here the verb is painting and the subject is Rose.
If we form the question - what is Rose painting?
The answer is- The kitchen walls.
Thus, we see that there was a specific object on which the action of painting was
being done.
- Hannah gave him a big hug.
Here we see that the action gave is being performed by the subject Hannah. So
the question is what did Hannah give?And the answer is - A big hug.
Here, we also have a indirect object as him. This indirect object would be the
answer to the question-
Who did the subject (Hannah) - verb - (give) the object(hug) to?
Intransitive Verbs -
These verbs also show an action but here there is no specific object on which the
action is being done. To recognize these verbs, we ask the question what is the/did
the subject -verb- ? If there is no answer present, then the verb in the sentence is
an Intransitive Verb.
- Rose is painting right now.
Here, if we ask the question what is Rose painting? There is no answer which
means that in this sentence painting is an Intransitive Verb.
It is telling us about the action of the subject but there is no specific object for the
action.
- Hannah sneezed repeatedly.
Here, the verb is sneezed. If we ask the question what did Hannah sneeze?
There is no answer present for it making sneezed a intransitive verb.
Dynamic and Stative Verbs
This category of verbs deals with the verb words themselves; and whether they
indicate an action or a state of the subject. This category is not concerned with the
object in particular.
Dynamic Verbs
These verbs denote an actual action or expression or process done by the subject.
They mean an action which can be seen or physically felt or the result of which is
seen or physically felt by the object or an indirect object.
- She buys new clothes every week.
Here the verb is buys which is an action done by the subject she, hence it is a
dynamic verb.
- He is swimming at the beach.
Here again we have the definite action swimming done by the subject he, making
swimming a dynamic verb in this sentence.
Stative Verbs
These verbs refer to the state of the subject or the situation of the subject. Stative
Verbs tell us about the state of mind of the subject, or the relation between the
subject and the object.
- She prefers strawberry jam.
Here the Stative Verb is prefers which shows the thinking of the subject She
towards the object, which is jam.
- The cupboard requires a new coat of paint.
Here the subject is cupboard and the stative verb is requires which is telling
about the relation between the subject cupboard and the object paint.
Linking Verbs
These verbs are unlike other verbs as they do not tell anything about a subject
themselves, instead Linking Verbs connect the subject to a noun or adjective that
helps in describing or providing additional information about the subject. Those
nouns or adjectives are called the subject complements.
- Lisa is fussy about food.
Here we see the subject is Lisa and the linking verb is iswhich is connecting
Lisa to the subject complement fussy about food which is giving additional
information about Lisas preferences.
- They are stubborn children.
Here the linking verb is are which is combining the subject They to the subject
complement of stubborn which is an adjective.
The best to recognize linking words in a sentence is to see whether the verb can
be replaced by is, am or are. If the sentence still sounds logical you know you
have a linking verb.
The students felt relieved. - The students are relieved.
Hence felt was a linking verb and not an action verb. As felt here is simply
connecting the subject to the adjective.
Every student felt the relief. - Every student is/am/arethe relief.
Hence in this sentence felt is action verb as it is the action of feeling an
emotion.
Using Verbs in Sentences -
To use verbs correctly in sentences you need to learn more about the
construction and use of the various verbs. And how they change form according
to tenses and use in a sentence. For correct application verbs in written text you
will need to know about -
Regular and Irregular Verbs - These are the two different ways in which verbs
change to form different tenses. Whether to simply add -ed at the end of a verb
or does it take a different form altogether.
Finite and Non-Finite Verbs - These are verbs which can be either the main verb
of a sentence or just one that is used as an adjective or noun as well.
Modal Verbs - These verbs tell us whether something is probable or about the
skills of a noun etc. There are 10 modal verbs in total and each have an
important part in sentence formation.

List of Verbs, Verb Examples

Accept Catch Expand Lie Select

Achieve Challenge Explain Like Sell

Add Change Fear Listen Send


Admire Cheat Feel Lose Sing

Admit Chew Fight Love Snore

Adopt Choose Find Make Stand

Advise Clap Fly Marry Stare

Agree Clean Forget Measure Start

Allow Collect Forgive Meet Stink

Announce Compare Fry Move Study

Appreciate Complain Gather Murder Sweep

Approve Confess Get Obey Swim

Argue Confuse Give Offend Take

Arrive Construct Glow Offer Talk

Ask Control Greet Open Teach

Assist Copy Grow Paint Tear

Attack Count Guess Pay Tell

Bake Create Harass Pick Thank


Bathe Cry Hate Play Travel

Be Damage Hear Pray Type

Beat Dance Help Print Understand

Become Deliver Hit Pull Use

Beg Destroy Hope Punch Visit

Behave Disagree Identify Punish Wait

Bet Drag Interrupt Purchase Walk

Boast Drive Introduce Push Want

Boil Drop Irritate Quit Warn

Borrow Earn Jump Race Wed

Breathe Eat Keep Read Weep

Bring Employ Kick Relax Wink

Build Encourage Kiss Remember Worry

Burn Enjoy Laugh Reply Write

Bury Establish Learn Retire Yell


Buy Estimate Leave Rub

Call Exercise Lend See

Adjectives
Adjectives are words that are used to describe (what kind of?) nouns and
pronouns and to quantify (how much of?) and identify (which one?) them. In a
nutshell, Adjectives are what define nouns and give them characteristics to
differentiate them from other nouns. For example:

- He was wearing a blue shirt.

Here blue is an adjective as it is describing the noun shirt by answering the


question what kind of shirt?

- There are seven rooms in the house.

Here Seven is also an adjective as its telling the quantity/the number of the
noun rooms, answering the question how many rooms?.
There are different types of adjectives based upon their effect on a noun and
what do they tell about the noun. There are five categories of adjectives

1. Adjectives of Quality - These adjectives are used to describe the nature


of a noun. They give an idea about the characteristics of the noun by
answering the question what kind.

- Honest, Kind, Large, Bulky, Beautiful, Ugly etc.

- New Delhi is a large city with many historical monuments.

- Sheila is a beautiful woman.


2. Adjectives of Quantity - These adjectives help to show the amount or
the approximate amount of the noun or pronoun. These adjectives do not
provide exact numbers; rather they tell us the amount of the noun in
relative or whole terms.

All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No, Enough, Great etc.


- They have finished most of the rice.
- Many people came to visit the fair.

3. Adjectives of Number - These adjectives are used to show the number


of nouns and their place in an order. There are three different sections
within adjectives of number; they are -

Definite Numeral Adjective - Those which clearly denote an exact


number of nouns or the order of the noun.
One, Two, Twenty, Thirty-Three etc. also known as Cardinals.
First, Second, Third, Seventh etc. also known as Ordinals.
Indefinite Numeral Adjective - Those adjectives that do not give an
exact numerical amount but just give a general idea of the amount.
Some, Many, Few, Any, Several, All etc.
E.g.: There were many people present at the meeting.
Distributive Numeral Adjective -Those adjectives that are used to refer
to individual nouns within the whole amount.
Either, Neither, Each, Another, Other etc.
E.g: Taxes have to be paid by every employed citizen.

4. Demonstrative Adjectives - These adjectives are used to point out or


indicate a particular noun or pronoun using the adjectives -
This, That, These and Those.

- That bag belongs to Neil.


- Try using this paintbrush in art class.
- I really like those shoes.
- These flowers are lovely.

5. Interrogative Adjectives - These adjectives are used to ask questions


about nouns or in relation to nouns, they are -
Where, What, Which and Whose.
Where did he say he was going?
- What assignment did I miss out on?
- Which is your favorite author?
- Whose pen is this?
In some instances, we find that we need to use more than one adjective to
describe a noun in a satisfactory manner. In these cases, commas are used to
separate the adjectives but some series of adjectives do not require a comma.
Therefore, we need to know the difference between Coordinate and Non-
coordinate Adjectives -
Coordinate Adjectives - Are those words which can be re-arranged in the
series easily and are still grammatically sound. This kind of series makes use of
commas. This series can also insert and between them and still be correct.
- She was a kind, generous, loving human being.
- She was a generous, loving, kind human being.
- She was a loving, kind and generous human being.
Here we can see that all three sentences are grammatically correct. In this case,
the adjectives only need to be separated by commas.
Non-coordinate Adjectives - These are those adjectives which cannot be
rearranged in the series. These do not use commas to separate the adjectives.
Also, this kind of series do not make sense if we insert and between them.
She has two energetic playful dogs.
She has playful two energetic dogs.
She has energetic and playful and two dogs.
Here we see that only the first sentence makes sense and is grammatically
correct. The second and third ones are incorrect. Hence, the sentence uses non-
coordinate adjectives and does not need commas.
There are certain rules regarding the placement of different kinds of adjectives in
a sentence. The general order followed is -

1. Determiners These are the various articles (the, a, an), demonstratives


(this, that, these, those), possessives (my, mine, your, yours, -s),
quantifiers (all, many etc.), numerals (one, twenty, thirty-seven etc.) and
distributives (each, every, neither, either)
2. Observations/Quantity and Opinion - Then come the adjectives that
give a quantity (also known as post-determiners) and subjective opinion to
the noun, telling how much and how was the noun.

Few, Most, One, Three/ Beautiful, Ugly, Difficult etc.


.- The beautiful house.
2. Size - The position after Observations is for the adjectives that tell about
the size of the noun, they can be used for an object as well as living thing.

Huge, Little, Bulky, Thin, Vast, Tiny, Lean etc


- The beautiful little house.

3. Age -Then is the turn of the Adjectives that tell about the age of a noun
either by itself or in relation to another noun.

Young, Old, Teenage, Mature, Recent, Bygone etc.


- The beautiful little old house.

4. Shape - Next are the adjectives that tell about the shape or appearance of
the noun.

Circular, Crooked, Triangular, Oval, Wavy, Straights etc.


- The beautiful little old square house.

5. Colour - After that are the adjectives that tell the shade and hue of a
noun.

Pastel, Red, Blue, Metallic, Colourless, Translucent etc.


- The beautiful square blue coloured house.

6. Origin - Next are the adjectives that show the different geographical
locations associated with a noun.

Southern, Northern, Lunar, Mexican, French etc.


- The beautiful blue coloured Mexican house.

7. Material - Next are the adjectives that talk about the raw material or
texture of the objects or the behaviour of the living nouns.

Wooden, Plastic, Steely, Metallic, Cottony etc.


- The beautiful Mexican limestone house.

8. Qualifier Lastly, the qualifier or the grammatical modifier comes, which


is an additional word or phrase provided to change the meaning of the
noun in a sentence.

Pink + eye, Royal + treatment, Hot + fudge etc.


- The beautiful Mexican limestone doll house.
List of Adjectives, Adjective Examples

Abundant Chubby Fearless Lively Sharp

Accurate Clean Fertile Lonely Shiny

Addicted Clever Filthy Loud Shocking

Adorable Clumsy Foolish Lovely Short

Adventurous Cold Forgetful Lucky Shy

Afraid Colorful Friendly Macho Silly

Aggressive Comfortable Funny Magical Sincere

Alcoholic Concerned Gentle Magnificent Skinny

Alert Confused Glamorous Massive Slim

Aloof Crowded Glorious Mature Slow

Ambitious Cruel Gorgeous Mean Small

Ancient Curious Graceful Messy Soft

Angry Curly Grateful Modern Spicy

Animated Cute Great Narrow Spiritual


Annoying Damaged Greedy Nasty Splendid

Anxious Dangerous Green Naughty Strong

Arrogant Dark Handsome Nervous Successful

Ashamed Deep Happy New Sweet

Attractive Defective Harsh Noisy Talented

Auspicious Delicate Healthy Nutritious Tall

Awesome Delicious Heavy Obedient Tasty

Awful Depressed Helpful Obese Tense

Bad Determined Hilarious Obnoxious Terrible

Bashful Different Historical Old Terrific

Beautiful Dirty Horrible Overconfident Thick

Belligerent Disgusting Hot Peaceful Thin

Beneficial Dry Huge Pink Tiny

Best Dusty Humorous Polite Ugly

Big Early Hungry Poor Unique


Bitter Educated Ignorant Powerful Untidy

Bizarre Efficient Illegal Precious Upset

Black Elderly Imaginary Pretty Victorious

Blue Elegant Impolite Proud Violent

Boring Embarrassed Important Quick Vulgar

Brainy Empty Impossible Quiet Warm

Bright Encouraging Innocent Rapid Weak

Broad Enthusiastic Intelligent Rare Wealthy

Broken Excellent Interesting Red Wide

Busy Exciting Jealous Remarkable Wise

Calm Expensive Jolly Responsible Witty

Capable Fabulous Juicy Rich Wonderful

Careful Fair Juvenile Romantic Worried

Careless Faithful Kind Royal Young

Caring Famous Large Rude Youthful


Cautious Fancy Legal Scintillating Zealous

Charming Fantastic Light Secretive

Cheap Fast Literate Selfish

Cheerful Fearful Little Serious

ADJECTIVES EXERCISE 1

CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. Generally, girls are ______ than boys.

talkative more talkative

most talkative

2. Cricket is an ______game.

exciting excitinger

excitengest

3. Arpita is looking _______ in this dress.

gorgeous gorgeousest

gorgeouser
4. She has a very ______voice.

sour bitter

sweet

5. Diamond is the _______natural material.

hard harder

hardest

6. This exercise is quite ______

more simple most simple

simple

7. Rohan is a _______ boy.

trustworthy trustworthier

trustworthest

8. The entire staff of the hotel we stayed at was very ________.

friendly friendlier

friendliest

9. You are getting _____ all the time!

gooder goodest
better

10. Your efforts to accomplish this project are _____!

outstandinger outstandingest

outstanding

EXERCISE 2

CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. My elder brother is 25, he still feels _______when he sees cockroach.

frightender frightened

frightendest

2. Mr. Sharma felt very _____ when his son failed the final examination.

more disappointed most disappointed

disappointed

3. I feel ______on Sundays.

relaxed relaxing

relaxful

4. Rohan felt _____ when his manager shouted at him in front of his
juniors.
proud honoured

ashamed

5. He is______so he avoids being photographed.

bashful confident

bold

6. It is always ________to seek the advice of your elders in difficult times.

beneficial useless

necessity

7. We had a _______ time at the alumni meet.

least great

cool

8. John is very ______ about his wedding.

excited boring

interesting

9. He doesnt seem ____ in your offer.

interested interesting

exciting
10. The news of her death ______ us.

stunning stunned

stunded

Adverbs
Adverbs are words that are used in sentences to describe or change the meaning of
a Verb or Adjective or even another Adverb. They add description to the sentence
to make it more detailed and interesting. For example:
He walked slowly across the square.
Here, one can see that the Adverb slowly is describing the Verb walk by telling
that the person was walking slowly.

Types of Adverbs
Adverbs are used in sentences to answer many questions about the
Verbs/Adjectives/Adverbs themselves. The different types of Adverbs are as
following:
Adverb of Time
E.g.: The results were announced yesterday.
Here the Adverb is yesterday which is answering the question: When were the
results announced? Announced is the verb in this sentence.
She will visit the hospital tomorrow.
Here the Verb is visit and the Adverb is tomorrow as the question being asked
is: Whenwill she visit the hospital?
Other examples of Adverbs of Time are Once, Never, Tomorrow, Daily etc.
Adverb of Place
E.g.: They will meet you there.
The Adverb here is there that is specifying a place for the Verb meet and the
question being answered is: Where will they meet you?
In spring, flowers bloom everywhere.
Here the Verb is bloom and the Adverb is everywhere,answering the question:
Where do the flowers bloom in spring?
Other examples of Adverbs of Place are - Anywhere, Somewhere, Near, Far etc.
Adverb of Manner
E.g.: He quietly slipped away.
The Adverb here is quietly which is telling the way or manner in which the action
was carried out and the Verb is slipped which is telling: How did he slip away.
She works fast.
The Verb here is work and the Adverb is fast and the question being asked is: How
does she work?
These Adverbs tell about the manner of the action being done, whether it is done
happily or haltingly etc. Other examples of Adverbs of Manner are - Honestly,
Joyfully, Cunningly etc.
Adverb of Frequency
He likes to watch TV every day.
Here, the Adverb is every day and it is telling about the amount of time spent in
doing the Verb, which is watch. The question in this sentence is: How often does
he watch TV?
They meet every week.
The Adverb here is every week and it is telling the frequency and the Verb is meet.
The sentence is telling us: How oftendo they meet?
These Adverbs are used to show the duration or timing of the action that is
happening/had happened/will happen. They also tell us how often and how long
these actions would be. Other examples of Adverbs of Frequency are - Frequently,
Often, Yearly, Briefly etc.
Adverbs of Degree
She almost finished the work.
The Verb here is finished and the Adverb is almost which is telling us about the
amount of the work finished. The question being asked is: How much of the work
did she finish?
They were completely surprised by the windfall.
The adverb here is completely which is showing the degree to which they were
surprised which is the Verb. The question being asked here is: How much were
they surprised?
The Adverbs of Degree are used to show to what extent or how much has an action
been done or will be done. Other examples of these Adverbs are - Fully, Partially,
Altogether etc.
Adverbs of Confirmation and Negation
They will certainly like this vase.
The Adverb here is certainly which is reinforcing the Verb like in
answer to the question: Will they like this vase?
He never leaves his house.
The Adverb never is negating the Verb leave. It is answering the
question in denial: Does he ever leave his house?
These Adverbs either confirm or deny the action of the Verb. They are
also used to reinforce the action that is described by the Verb. Other
examples of Adverbs of Confirmation are - Definitely, Absolutely,
Surely etc. Examples for Adverbs of Denial or Negation are - No, Dont,
Cant etc.
Adverbs of Comment
These Adverbs are used to make a comment on the entire sentence. They
give a look at the speakers viewpoint or opinion about the sentence.
These Adverbs dont just change or describe the Verb; they influence the
whole sentence.
They found his secret easily.
+
Unfortunately
Unfortunately, they found his secret easily.
Here, we see that adding the Adverb unfortunately has changed the entire tone of
the sentence. Earlier, it was a passive tone, now it has a negative or disappointed
tone.
Other examples of Adverbs of Comment are -

Luckily, the dog did not bite the children.


Happily, the power returned before the big match.
Did he honestly expect me to lie for him? (Adverb adds comment
on the anger of the speaker.)
And they would win the world cup, obviously. (Can be said in a
sarcastic as well as positive manner)

Adverbs of Conjunction
These Adverbs are used to connect ideas or clauses, they are used to show
consequence or effect or the relation between the two clauses. To use these
Adverbs to conjugate two clauses you need to use a semicolon (;) to connect
them.
Clause 1: He was going for an important interview.
Clause 2: He made sure he reached on time.
He was going for an important interview; accordingly, he made sure he
reached on time.
Here, we see how the Adverb accordingly is joining the two clauses and
showing the relation between them with the use of a semicolon (;). Accordingly
means- therefore or that is why.
A few other Adverbs of Conjunction are -

However - Yet, on the other hand, in spite of


Consequently - As a result, resulting in
Moreover - Beside, in addition
Conversely - Opposite of, contrary to
List of Adverbs, Adverb Examples
Accidentally Eventually Jealously Poorly Suddenly

Always Exactly Joyfully Positively Surprisingly

Angrily Excitedly Kindly Properly Sweetly

Arrogantly Extremely Lazily Quickly Terribly

Badly Fairly Less Quietly Thankfully

Beautifully Faithfully Loudly Rarely Thoughtfully

Bitterly Fast Lovingly Really Tomorrow

Blindly Foolishly Loyally Regularly Unexpectedly

Boldly Fortunately Madly Reluctantly Unfortunately

Bravely Frankly More Repeatedly Urgently

Briefly Generally Mysteriously Rudely Usually

Busily Generously Naturally Sadly Valiantly

Carefully Gently Nearly Safely Very


Certainly Gracefully Nervously Seldom Violently

Clearly Happily Never Selfishly Well

Courageously Highly Obediently Seriously Wisely

Cruelly Honestly Officially Silently Yearly

Curiously Hopelessly Often Slowly Yesterday

Daily Immediately Openly Softly

Delightfully Innocently Painfully Sometimes

Easily Instantly Patiently Soon

Strictly
Enthusiastically Interestingly Politely

ADVERBS EXERCISE 1
CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. I found his home very _______.

easily difficultly

frequently
2. Rohan behaves very _____ with his elders.

goodly badly

easily

3. My father will be ______ of town this weekend.

inside outside

out

4. Rohan plays football _________.

aggressively sympathetically

hardly

5. He doesnt care for anything and _______ looks happy every time.

since ago

hence

6. They called the police ________ after the accident.

immediately slowly

peacefully

7. Kiran is a ______ paid employee of this company

lowly highly

hardly
8. I was stuck in a jam for _______ two hours.

nearly simply

correctly

9. How _______do you go there?

never seldom

often

10. Thomas was ______ happy when he got his first job.

extremely fully

halfly

ADVERB EXERCISE 2
CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. ________ I met my childhood friend Meeta.

Yesterday Tomorrow

This Sunday

2. You need to run ______to win this race.

slow steadily
fast

3. I wont say it _______.

progressively repeatedly

necessarily

4. Speak _______, I cannot hear you.

loudly slowly

hardly

5. You should _______ smoke as it is dangerous for your health.

always usually

never

6. We searched ________ but were unable to find her lost jewellery.

nowhere anywhere

everywhere

7. I hope to see you _______!

soon never

randomn

8. Deepak never dresses ______ for work


formally coolly

dirtily

9. The manger looked at me with an ______ expression when I reached late!

sad regret

angry

Prepositions
Prepositions are the words which are used to connect the different nouns,
pronouns and phrases in a sentence. It functions to introduce or precede the
word or phrase to be connected, called the object of the preposition.
The preposition usually indicates the relation between the words it is
connecting. It tells whether the words are connected in actual space or a place,
or related through time or are they part of a thought or process.
Prepositional phrases are the preposition and its object and any adjectives or
adverbs that were applied to the object. The prepositional phrase as a whole
can also be used as a noun, adverb or adjective.
- He found the book on the table.

Here the preposition is on as it shows the relation in place between the


book and the table.
The prepositional phrase is on the table which is acting as an Adverb
telling where the book was found.

- She went to sleep early.

In this sentence the preposition is to which is introducing where or in


what state had the noun gone into.

- Her house was beside a steep hill.


The preposition here is beside which is telling the place where the house
was.
The prepositional phrase is beside a steep hill which is acting as an
adverb.

Kinds of Prepositions -
Simple Prepositions
These prepositions are constructed by only one word like -
On, at, about, with, after, for, etc.
- He found the book about dogs on the table, in the bedroom.
Double Prepositions
These prepositions are formed by combining two words or two Simple
Prepositions-
Into, within, upon, onto, etc.
- The dog jumped onto the bed and left marks upon the sheets.
Compound Prepositions
These prepositions are two word prepositions.
According to, because of, next to, due toetc.
- He was upset because of his son's behaviour.
Participle Prepositions-
Participles are actually verbs that end with -en or -ing. As these verbs were
commonly and very popularly used as prepositions by the people, these verbs
have been given a special status as prepositions.
Considering, during, given, including etc.
-Considering what he had to work with, he did a pretty good job.
Phrase Prepositions
These prepositions are a combination of the preposition + a modifier
(optional) + the object. They are used to modify the nouns, verbs or sentences
and also complete clauses.
At home, in time, with me, from my father, under the blanket, etc.
- The clothes left on the bed have been ironed and kept back.
These classifications are based on the construction of the prepositions
themselves. Apart from this, prepositions are also categorized based on their use
in a sentence as -

Prepositions of Place
Prepositions of Time
Prepositions of Movement

List of Prepositions
Prepositions can only be learnt by memory; unfortunately there is no method or
particular way to recognize and learn them. To help you with memorizing the different
prepositions, here is a list of common prepositions.

Simple Prepositions
For
By
At
On
Of
Off
To
Double Prepositions
Into
Onto
Upto
From Behind
From Beneath
Out Of
Upon
Compound Prepositions
Across
Along
Beside
Behind
Before
Without
Inside
Participle Prepositions
Concerning
Notwithstanding
Pending
During
Given
Failing
Excluding
Phrase Prepositions
At high speed
By all means
For a change
In accordance with
On a journey
Out of curiosity
To the best of

Conjunctions
A conjunction is a word which connects two words or clauses or sentences and
shows the relation between them. They are used to avoid making the text seem
like bullet points and to make the text flow. E.g. -
Jai saw a dog on the road. He decided to adopt the dog. Jai brought the dog
home.
Jai saw a dog on the road and decided to adopt the dog, sohe brought the dog
home.
Here and and so are conjunctions which are used to join the sentences and
show the relation between them.
There are three main categories of conjunctions that are explained below.
Apart from these, there are also Adverbs of Conjunctions,. To learn more
about the Adverbs of Conjunctions visit the Adverbs page.
Coordinating Conjunctions
These conjunctions are used to link or join two words or phrases that are
equally important and complete in terms of grammar when compared with
each other. That is to say, the sentences or words do not depend on anything
to give themselves meaning.
There are seven main coordinating conjunctions -
For
And
Nor
But
Or
Yet
Soon
As you can see, these conjunctions are arranged in this way to provide the
mnemonic acronym of FANBOYS so that it is easier to remember them.
These conjunctions are always placed between the two clauses or words that
they are joining. The following are some examples of the coordinating
conjunctions -
Chris does not want tea. Chris does not want coffee. - Chris does not want tea
or coffee.

Here, we see how or was used to combine the two words and make a
cohesive sentence using them. Also, notice how the or is between the
two words.

I scored 60% in the exams this year. Anita scored 7% more than me this year. -
I scored 60% in the exams but Anita scored 7% more than me this year.

Here we see that but was used in the middle to combine and show the
relation between the two sentences that were both equally important and
cohesive by themselves.
Subordinating Conjunctions
These conjunctions are used to join an independent and complete clause
with a dependent clause that relies on the main clause for meaning and
relevance. The dependent clause cannot exist on its own as a sentence
and often does not make sense without the main clause.
The subordinating conjunction always comes before the dependent
clause but the dependent clause itself can be placed either ahead of or
following the independent clause.
Since they had misbehaved, the boys were given one week suspensions
from school.
Here, we see the dependent clause is they had misbehaved which is not
a valid sentence by itself.
The independent main clause is the boys were given one week
suspensions from school.
They are joined by the subordinating conjunction since.
He was fond of playing basketball because it was his fathers favourite
game.
In this sentence, because is the subordinating conjunction as it
introduces the dependent clause it was his fathers favourite game
The main clause in this sentence is he was fond of playing basketball as
it is the sentence which can be said independently and still be
grammatically correct.
Other subordinating conjunctions are - Although, As, Before, Once,
Though, Until, Whether, etc.
Correlative Conjunctions
Correlative Conjunctions are simply pairs of conjunctions used in a
sentence to join different words or groups of words in a sentence
together. Correlative Conjunctions are generally not used to link
sentences themselves, instead they link two or more words of equal
importance within the sentence itself. Some of the more commonly used
correlative conjunctions are -
Both the shoes and the dress were completely overpriced.
This is an example of using the correlative
conjunctions both/and in a sentence. As you can see in this
sentence, the shoes and the dress were equally important
elements that needed to be given the same importance.

They should either change their strategy or just forfeit the game.

The either/or conjunctions are used to suggest a choice between two


options. Here the choice being suggested is between - change their
strategy or forfeit the game.

Just as she loves hiking so she enjoys travelling as well.

The correlative conjunctions just as/so are used to link two phrases
that have a similar theme or are referring to a similar thing together. This
conjunction is used to show the correspondence between two phrases or
words.

He neither helps around the house nor does he look for a job.

Neither/nor are conjunctions that are used to deny or negate words


and phrases. In the case of neither, it gives two options that are both
negated. Nor is the negative form of or.

Not only does he play the lead guitar but he is also the bands
songwriter.

The correlative conjunctions not only/but are used to show an


additional and important element in the sentence that is used to indicate
excess when combined with the first element. For instance, in this
sentence the fact that he is a guitarist and a song writer are equally
important but when shown together, they indicate an excess of talent in
the person.

It doesnt matter whether the roses are fresh or if they are drooping, just
buy them.

Whether/or is used as a conjunction to show two different options in


the sentence. The conjunction can be used both in a manner of negation
and confirmation.
CONJUNCTIONS EXERCISE 1
CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. _______ being very rich, he never shows off.

Other than Instead

Despite Otherwise

2. I am not feeling well,_____________I will come to the party.

because since

however unless

3. _____________ I had my lunch, I didnt miss Pizza.

Although Finally

Moreover Already

4. She never helps anyone _________ having a lot of money.

otherwise inspite of

however instead

5. You shouldnt go out __________ its raining heavily.

for because

already but
6. My mother _______ I went to the market for shopping.

or either

neither and

7. Thomas was not telling the truth. ________ he was shouting at me.

Provided Although

Moreover In order to

8. Please come on time, _________ we may miss the flight.

otherwise so

therefore but

9. We should avoid oily food ____________ be healthy.

finally consequently

in order to for

10. I will give you my car _____________ you come back before 5o clock.

as although

because provided
CONJUNCTIONS EXERCISE 2
CHOOSE THE CORRECT OPTION:

1. ___________my mother was sleeping, I prepared tea on my own.

As Besides

Unless Despite

2. He apologised _______ his bad behavior.

for since

because as

3. He was satisfied ________ not overjoyed.

yet as

but still

4. ___________ his sister, he is very naughty.

Likely Unlike

Similar Differently

5. After months of studying hard, Meeta ____________ cleared IAS examination.

initially consequently

therefore finally
6. ____________ it is very cold there, we have postponed our visit.

Since Due to

Yet Because of

7. Radha knows French; ______________, we have selected her to head our operations in France.

therefore moreover

otherwise provided

8. Mohan worked very sincerely and was ______________ promoted.

yet although

besides consequently

9. ____________ my family, I will also invite my close friends on my anniversary.

Aside Besides

Despite In spite of

Interjections
Interjections are small words that bear no grammatical connection with the
sentences in which they are used. They express the emotions or sentiments of
the speaker or convey hesitation or protest. They are usually followed by an
exclamation mark.
Since many interjections are mainly written forms of actual sounds that were
produced by humans, they are hardly used in academic or scholarly writing,
unless they are a part of a direct quote or otherwise.
Ah! Now thats what I call a good shot! Bravo!
Both Ah and Bravo are interjections used to show the speakers admiration in
the sentence. There are many different uses for various interjections; the
following is a list of the common interjections you may hear around you in
daily life -
Interjection Meaning Use

Aah Exclamation of fear Aah! The monsters got me!

Ahh Realization or acceptance Ahh, now I see what you mean.

Aww Something sweet or cute Aww! Just look at that kitten.

Acknowledge something as Bingo! Thats exactly what we were


Bingo
right looking for!

Eh Question something So that was all she said, eh?

Eww Something disgusting Eww! That movie was so gory.

Hmph. I could do that for half the amount


Hmph To indicate displeasure
he charged.

Oh, its been around a week since I saw


Oh I see/ I think
her.

Oops Making a mistake Oops! Sorry I didnt see those skates there.

Ouch Exclamation of pain Ouch, that hurt! Stop pinching me!

Shh An indication for silence Shh! The show is about to start.

Uh oh Showing dismay Uh oh! The teachers caught him.

Whew! I cant believe we actually finished


Whew Amazement and/or relief
it all.

Expressing surprise or
Wow Wow! Thats really great news!
admiration

Yay/Yaay Congratulatory exclamation I cant believe youre actually coming here!


Yaay!

Yeah Variant of yes Yeah, Id love some orange juice.

For fear or concern (not


Yikes Yikes, my mothers home!
serious)

Yippee Exclamation of celebration Yippee! We won, lets head to the bar.

Some interjections are used to stall for time or indicate that the speaker is
thinking of something. These interjections are also used when someone doesnt
know what to say. The following is a list of these sounds or words; they are
also called Hesitation Devices -

Meaning Use
Interjection

Indicates a pause/ need for Wait I know this uh is it Ruskin


Uh
more time Bond?

Thinking/Hesitating about Hmm, Im not sure this colour is the


Hmm
something best for this room.

I dont thinker wait let me call


Er Not knowing what to say
my boss.

Not that I dont believe you but, um,


Um Pausing or being skeptical
you say its a ghost?

TENSES
tense Affirmative/Negative/Question Use Signal Words

always, every ,
Simple A: He speaks. action in the present taking never, normally,
Present N: He does not speak. place regularly, never or often, seldom,
Q: Does he speak? several times sometimes, usually
if sentences type I
facts
(If I talk, )
actions taking place one after
another
action set by a timetable or
schedule
Present A: He is speaking. at the moment, just,
Progressive N: He is not speaking. action taking place in the
just now, Listen!,
Q: Is he speaking? moment of speaking Look!, now, right
now
action taking place only for a
limited period of time
action arranged for the future
Simple Past A: He spoke. yesterday, 2
N: He did not speak. action in the past taking minutes ago, in
Q: Did he speak? place once, never or several 1990, the other day,
times last Friday
if sentence type II (If
actions taking place one after I talked, )
another
action taking place in the
middle of another action
Past A: He was speaking. while, as long as
Progressive N: He was not speaking. action going on at a certain
Q: Was he speaking? time in the past
actions taking place at the
same time
action in the past that is
interrupted by another action
Present A: He has spoken. already, ever, just,
Perfect N: He has not spoken. putting emphasis on the result
never, not yet, so
Simple Q: Has he spoken? action that is still going on far, till now, up to
now
action that stopped recently
finished action that has an
influence on the present
action that has taken place
once, never or several times
before the moment of
speaking
Present A: He has been speaking. all day, for 4 years,
Perfect N: He has not been speaking. putting emphasis on since 1993, how
the course or duration (not
Progressive Q: Has he been speaking? long?, the whole
the result)
week
action that recently stopped or
is still going on
finished action that influenced
the present
Past A: He had spoken. already, just, never,
Perfect N: He had not spoken. action taking place before a not yet, once, until
Simple Q: Had he spoken? certain time in the past that day
if sentence type III
sometimes interchangeable
(If I had talked, )
with past perfect progressive
putting emphasis only on
the fact (not the duration)
Past A: He had been speaking. for, since, the whole
Perfect N: He had not been speaking. action taking place before a day, all day
Progressive Q: Had he been speaking? certain time in the past
sometimes interchangeable
with past perfect simple
putting emphasis on
the duration or course of an
action
Future I A: He will speak. in a year, next ,
Simple N: He will not speak. action in the future that cannot tomorrow
Q: Will he speak? be influenced If-Satz Typ I (If you
ask her, she will
spontaneous decision
help you.)
assumption with regard to the assumption: I think,
future probably, perhaps

Future I A: He is going to speak. in one year, next


Simple N: He is not going to speak. decision made for the future
week, tomorrow
Q: Is he going to speak? conclusion with regard to the
(going to) future

Future I A: He will be speaking. in one year, next


action that is going on at a
Progressive N: He will not be speaking. week, tomorrow
Q: Will he be speaking? certain time in the future
action that is sure to happen in
the near future
Future II A: He will have spoken. by Monday, in a
Simple N: He will not have spoken. action that will be finished at a
week
certain time in the future
Q: Will he have spoken?

Future II A: He will have been speaking. for , the last


Progressive N: He will not have been action taking place before a couple of hours, all
speaking. certain time in the future day long
Q: Will he have been speaking?
putting emphasis on
the course of an action
Conditional A: He would speak. if sentences type II
I Simple N: He would not speak. action that might take place (If I were you,
Q: Would he speak? I would gohome.)

Conditional A: He would be speaking.


I N: He would not be speaking. action that might take place
Progressive Q: Would he be speaking? putting emphasis on
the course / duration of the
action
Conditional A: He would have spoken. if sentences type III
action that might have taken
II Simple N: He would not have spoken. (If I had seen that,
Q: Would he have spoken? place in the past I would have
helped.)

Conditional A: He would have been


II speaking. action that might have taken
Progressive N: He would not have been place in the past
speaking.
puts emphasis on
Q: Would he have been
speaking? the course / duration of the
action