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Sensitivity- ability to pick up weak signals

Selectivity - ability to select the desired signal in the

Communication Receiver presence of other signals.
- equipment capable of receiving RF signal , 2. Super heterodyne Receiver- a receiver in which all
bandlimitng and tuning in the desired signal incoming modulated RF carrier signals are converted
and performing demodulation. as a common IF carrier value for additional
Demodulation amplification and selectivity prior to demodulation,
using heterodyne action.
- process of recovering the information signal
from the composite modulated signal. Heterodyne - to mix two frequencies in a non-linear
device and translate one frequency into another
Basic Types of Receiver frequency by use of non-linear mixing.
1. Coherent of Synchronous - The frequency Parts:
generated in the receiver used for demodulation used 1. RF section - RF amplifiers increases the level of
is synchronized to oscillator frequency in the weak RF signal received from the antenna.
transmitter. 2. Local oscillator a stable crystal oscillator
2. Non-coherent or Asynchronous - demodulation is whose frequency beats with the incoming signal to
completely independent from the transmitter carrier reproduce the correct intermediate frequency.
frequency. 3. Mixer
- it combines the incoming RF signal and the LO signal
Standard AM Receiver Types
and produces at its output. The sum and difference
1. Tuned Radio Frequency Receiver (TRF) - consists of
signals and various harmonious.
a number of amplifier stages which are tuned to
4. 1st and 2nd IF amplifier - tuned to 455 KHz amplifies
resonance at the carrier frequency of the desired
the 455 KHz output of the mixer and rejects the
signal by a gaged capacitor. The amplifier signal at the
remaining output frequencies; provides further
original carrier frequency are fed directly into the
selectivity and amplifications.
detector for demodulation and the resulting signals
5. 2nd Detector - demodulates the 455 KHz signal and
are amplifier and reproduce by a loudspeaker.
extracts the audio signal.
1. RF Amplifier - amplifies the weak signal. It has a Advantages of Using RF Amplifier
variable RF stage to controls RF gain and sensitivity. 1. Provides higher gain and sensitivity.
2. Detector - provides rectification and detection for 2. Improve-image frequency rejection.
the modulated signal recovers the RF signal. 3. Enhanced S/N.
3. AF Amplifier - raises the power level of the audio 4. Better selectivity
signal to drive the loudspeaker.
Tracking - process of tuning the local oscillator to a
Advantages of TRF Receivers pre-determined frequency for each station.
1. Simple to design and align at lower frequency Throughout the AM band.
application. a). High tracking of hide side injection .
2. High sensitivity at single frequency applications. flo = fRF + fIF
Disadvantages: b). Low tracking or low side injection
1. Selectivity varies when it is tuned over a wide range flo = fRF fIF
of input frequencies. where:
2. Instability due to large numbers of RF amplifiers all flo = local oscillator frequency
tuned to the same center frequency. fRF = input signal frequency
3. Non-uniform gain over a very wide frequency fIF = intermediate frequency (455 KHz)
range. * Note: high tracking is preferred because it is easier
4. Requires multistage tuning. to filter the undesired frequency.
Image frequency, fs: stage (a class C circuit capable of producing the sum,
- any frequency other than the selected RF carrier, difference and original frequencies), which is receiving
that if allowed the receiver and mix with the LO signal signals from two sources RF amplifier and the local
will produce a cross-product frequency. That is equal oscillator). The unmodulated signal from the local
to IF. oscillator is fed to the mixer simultaneously with the
fs = flo + fIf modulated signal from the RF amplifier. (These two
fs = fRF + 2fIF circuits are mechanically linked). The local oscillator
since; (LO) is a tunable circuit with a tuning range that
fo = fRF + IF (for high tracking) extends from 995 KHz to 2,105 KHz.
rejection of the image frequency The output from the mixer circuit is connected to the
IFFR: intermediate frequency amplifier (IF amp) with
IFFR = 1 + Q2 2 amplifies a narrowband of select frequencies (455 KHz
where: 3 KHz). In some receivers this class A circuit acts not
only as an amplifier but also as a filter for unwanted
frequencies which would interfere with the selected
in dB; one. This new IF frequency contains the same
IFFR (dB) = 20logIFRR modulated information as that transmitted from the
1 MHz source but a frequency range lower than the
fsi = 20 MHz mixer 1F standard broadcast band. This conversion process
21 20 = 1 helps reduce unwanted interference from outside
f52 = 22MHz 22 21 = 1 sources. The signals is rectified and filtered to
eliminate one sideband and the carrier (conversion
from RF to AF) and is finally amplified for listening.

Choice of IF
1. If the intermediate frequency is too high poor
f0= 21 Mhz selectivity and poor adjacent channel rejection
unless sharp cut-off filters are used in the IF stages.
Note: Image and frequency rejection depends on the 2. A high value of intermediate frequency increased
front and selectivity of the receiver and must be tracking difficulties.
achieved before the IF stage. 3. As the intermediate frequency is lowered, image
Ex: frequency rejection become poorer.
In a broadcast superheterodyne receiving having an 4. A very low intermediate frequency can make the
RF amplifier. The loaded Q of the antenna coupling selectivity too sharp cutting off the sidebands.
circuit is 100. If IF is 455 Khz. Calculate: 5. If the IF is very low, the frequency stability of the
a.) Image and frequency and its rejection at 100 KHz. local oscillator must be made corresponding higher
b.) Image frequency and its rejection at 25 MHz because any frequency drift is now a large proportion
of the low IF than of a high IF.
Example Problem: 6. The intermediate frequency must not fall within the
Given: tuning range of the receiver or else instability will
Q = 100 occur and heterodyne whistles will be heard, making
IF = 455 MHz it is impossible to tune the frequency bond
immediately adjacent to the intermediate frequency.

Superheteroby dyne Tracking

The signal is received by the first stage RF amplifier
(which is wideband class A amplifier) whose resonant
frequency response curve can be tuned from 540 KHz
to 1650 KHz (The standard Broadcast Band). The
modulated signal is amplified and fed to the mixer