Sie sind auf Seite 1von 237

GOOD

MORNING!
HOUSE RULES
Sit up, listen and heads up.
Be an active participant and not
as spectator/observer
Be open for new leaning
WHAT DO YOU NEED?
A piece of paper/notebook
Pencil/ Ball pen

Suggested printed material


OBJECTIVES
Describe the different parts of a research paper
Write a research proposal after the seminar
workshop
Critique a good research paper and proposal

Produce a research proposal using IMRAD


format.
INTENDED OUTPUTS ( BY AREA OF
SPECIALIZATION/ INDIVIDUAL)
Task 1 A Exploring A Research Introduction
Task 1 B Organizing your Literature: My Research
Data Base
Task 1C Organizing your literature:
Dendogramming
Task 1D Identifying the Problem Area
Task 1E Personal Statement of Research
Task 2 Research Matrix
CONDUCTING AND
WRITING A RESEARCH
PAPER: THE IMRAD
FORMAT

Glen R. Mangali
RESEARCH IS NOT JUST A PART OF
SCIENCE BUT ALSO A WAY OF
THINKING AND DOING THINGS
-GLEN R. MANGALI-
STANDARDS OF THE
DISCIPLINE

Inquiry Discovery
MAK TAK
Mainstream Transformative
Academic Academic
Knowledge Knowledge
WHAT IS A RESEARCH?
It is a planned work in a particular field

It calls for
creativity
critical thinking
and action.
It is a Scientific method in
action. It applies certain
principles or ideas.
It employs research that would help
develop the ability to identify and
determine possible explanations of a
particular phenomenon.
PURPOSE OF CONDUCTING RESEARCH

1.Apply / demonstrate scientific


principles or attempt to provide new
knowledge.
2. Be a result of continuing or parallel
scientific research and investigation &
not a copy of any previous research.
3. Have socio-economic significance
and relevance to livelihood
development.

4. Contribute to the advancement of


Science and Technology and the
development of the community.
Exploratory Explanatory

Theory
Information
Testing &
Gathering
Building

Descriptive Predictive
MATCH COLUMN A TO COLUMN B. WRITE THE
LETTER OF THE CORRECT ANSWER ON YOUR
PAPER.

Column A Column B
1. Explain a phenomenon a. Descriptive

2. Describe the a b. Explanatory


phenomenon c. Exploratory
3. Make accurate/useful d. Predictive
prediction-
4. Discover and explore a
phenomenon
ANSWER KEY
1.B
2. A
3. D
4. C
RESEARCH PURPOSE
DESCRIPTIVE
The goal is to describe a
phenomenon
What is the profile of the last
batch of first year college students
prior to the implementation of the
K to 12 program?
RESEARCH PURPOSE
EXPLORATORY
The goal is to discover and
explore phenomenon
How will students academic
performance improve with the
implementation of K to 12
curriculum?
RESEARCH PURPOSE
EXPLANATORY
The goal is to explain
phenomenon by looking at the
relations between and pattern.
Why is there a need to
implement the K to 12
Curriculum?
RESEARCH PURPOSE
PREDICTIVE
The goal is to make
accurate/useful prediction-
what will happen?
What will be the effect of the
implementation of the K to 12
curriculum to the students
academic performance?
RESEARCH GOAL : D.E.E.P

Describe Explain

Explore Predict
TITLE OF THE CHAPTER 1
STUDY

4. Hypothesis/
1. Introduction Assumption
2. Statement of 5. Theoretical /
Conceptual
the Problem Framework
3. Objectives 6. Definition of
Terms
CHAPTER 2- REVIEW OF
RELATED LITERATURE

Unpublished
Theses and
Dissertations
SYNTHESIS
Books
Journals (?)

26
27
INQUIRY or investigation
aimed at the DISCOVERY &
INTERPRETATION of facts or
REVISION OF ACCEPTED
THEORIES in the LIGHT OF
NEW FACTS & insights into
the practical application of
such new facts & insights on
the particular subject.

28
STEP 1 :
BIG

29
STEP 1 :
BIG
HAIRY

30
STEP 1 :
BIG
HAIRY
AUDACIOUS

31
STEP 1 :
BIG
HAIRY
AUDACIOUS

GOAL

32
STEPS IN
CONDUCTING
A RESEARCH
WHAT IS THE FIRST STEP IN
PREPARING A GOOD RESEARCH
PAPER?
STEP 1: SELECT A TOPIC THAT
IS INTERESTING TO YOU.
KNOW YOUR EXPERTISE

What is your field of


expertise?
FIELD OF EXPERTISE:
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR, CULTURE,
LEADERSHIP, POLITICS AND DEVELOPMENT
Priority Research Areas: Specific Projects
The influence of

36
Organizational practices,
organizational politics on
culture and change
employees affective
Organizational knowledge organizational commitment
Transformation of Culture of Public and
organizations in emerging Private Higher Education
and changing societies Institutions
Higher Education as Organizational development
organization programs in Higher
Education
PRIORITY RESEARCH TOPICS
1. Capacity and Policy Development
Governance
Public Resources
Government Procurement Systems

Public Financial Management

Growth and Competitiveness


Skills and Innovation Policy
Knowledge Economy

Education and Innovation

Sustainable and Land Use Planning

2. Environment and Climate Change Mitigation


PRIORITY RESEARCH TOPICS
3. Communication and Green Media Development
Values Orientation, Communication and Media Education
(VOCAME)
4. Human Capital Investment
Talent Management
Dynamic Capitalism
Education Investment and Economic Growth
Organizations Financial Performance
5. Organizational Culture, Leadership and
Development
Organizational Practices, Culture, and Change
Organizational Knowledge
Transformation of Organizations in Emerging and Changing
Societies
Higher Education as Organization
PRIORITY RESEARCH TOPICS
6. Promotion of Historical Awareness
Colonial Influence in the Philippines
Historical events that transpired in Intramuros
Historical Personalities
Institutions of great influence to nation building

7. Preservation of Cultural Heritage


Literature and Lifestyle
Performing Arts, Visual Arts, etc.
Religious and Political Culture
Translations
CHOOSING A TOPIC

home
community
IF YOU ONLY LOOK AROUND.
HOW ARE GOOD RESEARCH TOPICS
IDENTIFIED?

Social Trends
Movements taking place in the internal and
external environment in the field.

Teacher Induction
the process of socialization to the teaching
profession, adjustment to the procedures and
mores of the school site and school system, and
development of effective instructional and
classroom management.
DECISION RULE

THEORY

PRACTICE
RESEARCH
& POLICY
TASK 1A
STEP 2
IMMERSE YOURSELF IN THE
LITERATURE

How to identify the right literature


source?
THE FOLLOWING ARE THE TECHNOLOGY-
DRIVEN LITERATURE REVIEW:

1. EBSCO
2. ELSEVIER
3. PROQUEST
4. DOAJ
5. EMERALD
6. JSTOR
STEP 3 ORGANIZE YOUR LITERATURE
RESEARCHER/ MAJOR DELINEATED LOCUS METHOD
S OBJECTIVE FACTORS

Mangali , Examine the Aedes Philippines Experimenta


Glen, larvicidal aegypti, l
Habana, efficiency of Piper
Roselle et. al Piper nigrum nigrum,
2013) L. and Carica
Carica papaya seed,
papaya seed crude
crude extracts,
extracts on larvicide
Aedes
aegypti.
DENDOGRAM
Greek dendron tree, gramma drawing
is a tree-diagramm frequently used to illustrate
the arrangement of the clusters produced by
hierrachical clustering.
Dendogram are often used in computational
biology to illustrate the clustering of genes or
samples.
STEP 3 ORGANIZE YOUR LITERATURE:
DENDOGRAMMING
Article Number Bibliographic Salient Findings
Information ( Authors,
Journal, Volume, Issue,
Pages)
Literature 1 Lipton, B. (2015). A New Finding 1 - quality
"ERA" of Women and assurance policies and
Leadership: The Gendered practices are critical to the
Impact of Quality performance of Australian
Assurance in Australian universities both in terms
Higher Education. of national funding and
Australian Universities' international prestige and
Review, 57(2), 60-70. are redefining the future of
the academic enterprise.

Finding 2 There is a
problem in quality
assurance measures and
initiative that reveals the
tensions between
neoliberalism and equality
in a new era of higher
education management.
STEP 3 ORGANIZE YOUR LITERATURE:
DENDOGRAMMING
Article Number Bibliographic Salient Findings
Information ( Authors,
Journal, Volume, Issue,
Pages)
Literature 1 Lipton, B. (2015). A New Finding 3 There is a lack of
"ERA" of Women and commitment to academic
women's representation and
Leadership: The Gendered
leadership in academia.
Impact of Quality
Assurance in Australian Finding 4 - Research
Higher Education. performance plays an intrinsic
Australian Universities' role in academic promotion
Review, 57(2), 60-70.
Finding 5-The relationship
between gender and
assessments is crucial in
addressing the differences in
male and female academic
career trajectories and the
paucity of women in academic
leadership.
STEP 3 ORGANIZE YOUR LITERATURE:
DENDOGRAMMING
Adapted from de Castro,B. 2016
STEP 4 IDENTIFY RESEARCH CONCEPTUAL
TAGS

KEY QUESTION:
Which among the identified conceptual
tags/parameters/variables/ are considered
IMPORTANT and CONTROVERSIAL in
the field where I belong?
STEP 4 IDENTIFY RESEARCH CONCEPTUAL TAGS

COCEPTUAL LITERATURE IS IT CT IS THE CT ORDER OF


TAGS SOURCE STILL STILL PRIORITY
(Key ( AUTHORS, IMPORTANT? CONTROVER
Concepts) YEAR) SIAL?
1. TOPIC 1 Author A I 2
2. TOPIC 2 Author B I 3
3. TOPIC 3 Author C 4
4. TOPIC 4 Author D I I 1
I- YES
X- NO

Research Problem Indicators:


1. When there is an absence of information resulting in a gap in our
knowledge
2. When there are contradictory results
3. When a fact exists and your intend to make your study explain it
DEFINING RESEARCH CONCEPTUAL TAGS

CONCEPTUAL TAG LEXICAL Operational


DEFINITION Definition ( how
( According to the term is/will be
Authoritative used in the paper)
Sources)
STEP 5 DEVELOP YOUR RESEARCH SIMULACRUM
(RESEARCH MODEL)/ FLOWCHART

Typologies of
Simulacrum

Physical Mathematical

Conceptual
FLOWCHART
Larvicidal activity of Piper nigrum and Carica papaya seed extract against Aedes egypti
third instar larvae

Air-dried and
Gathering of crushed
powdered then
Carica papaya and P.
nigrum seeds
afterwards
commercially. underwent rotary
evaporation.

48 hours exposure of
Rearing of third
20 third instar larvae
instar larvae at
at varied
laboratory condition.
concentrations.

Recording results and


comparing them from
the varied set of
concentrations.
STEP 6: FORMULATE THE
RESEARCH PROBLEM OR PURPOSE
Your problem statement should explain what it is
you are trying to discover (or study) .
The statement should be written in the form of a
question.
STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM
A clear and concise statement of the problem is
important for :
1. It provides a focus for the researcher and is an
essential step in investigation; and
2. It gives the reader and use of the research
important information.
STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM
The statement of the problem should not
be too general nor too specific
It should contain sufficient details and
information in a sentence that is clear and
succint
EXAMPLE:

1. The purpose of this research is


to study seagrass.
2. This study investigates the
relationship of morphology of
crustacean
EXAMPLE:
1. The purpose of this research is to identify the
species of seagrass collected from the shoreline
of six towns in Iloilo namely Joaquin, Tigbuan,
Carles, Mag-ao, Estancia and Dumangas and to
describe its demographic characterstics by
comparing its mean, age, gross recruitment,
mortality rate and net recruiting nutrients and
reproductive dynamics by determining the
frequency and seasonality of flowering and its
vegetative dynamics by determining the vertical
growth rate of shoots and horizontal elongation
rate of rhizomes.
WHAT IS THE RIGHT STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM

Thisstudy will describe the


community structures of
seagrassess in coastal
areas in Iloilo.
1. The problem must be researchable

( one that can be answered by collecting and


analyzing data)

2. The problem should be important

( results of research need to have theoretical


and practical importance)
3. The problem should indicate the
type of research

The language used in the research problem


should indicate whether the study have a
simple description, relationship or difference
A. Relationship problems that
indicate correlation

What is the relationship between ion concentration


and voltage output?

Is there a relationship between density and refractive


index?
B. Relationship problems that
indicate studies of difference

Is amylase activity different in two species of tilapia?

What is the difference in the protein content of goats


milk and cows milk?
C. Relationship problems that indicate
cause-and-effect relationships

Will starving increase the amylase activity of tilapia?

Is there a difference in the amount of dissolved


oxygen between the water samples treated with
seaweeds than that which is not treated?
4. The problem should specify the population

The population is SIMPLY THE


ORGANISMS that the researcher wants to
investigate

5. The problem should specify the variables


NAME the variables and HOW they may be
RELATED in a single sentence
6. The problem should be
clear
- Includes terms that are not
ambiguous. The terms effect,
effective, achievement,
method, role are
AMBIGUOUS.
A successful research problem indicates
unambiguously the WHAT and HOW of
the research by using the declarative
sentences like
The purpose of this study is to or
questions such as What is the
relationhsip between ..... Is there a
significant difference between.....
How do...... , What is.....
Either type sentence is acceptable
EXAMPLE
This study aims to design a prototype of a
computer-based Card Swipe Time-Keeping
and Attendance System for Colegio De San
Juan Letran Manila, using light sensor that
will read color-coded cards as means of
establishing employee identity.
What is the amount of tannin that can be
extracted from the leaves, seeds and barks
of Ipil-ipil and Mahogany trees with the use
of the hot water extraction technique.
RESEARCH QUESTION TYPOLOGIES
Sample Questions General form

CAUSAL RESEARCH Does X cause Y?


Do red light affects the
growth of the plant?

Does plant exposed to red Does X cause more of Y ?


light taller than plant
exposed to green light?
EXAMPLE:

Does red light affect the growth of a


mungbean plant?

Vigna radiata (L.)


RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The research objectives reflect the
questions whose answers the
investigators want the study to yield.
It can be expressed in the form of a
statement or a question
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ( EXAMPLE)

To measure the amount of


hemoglobin( g/dL) in the blood of
mice after 5 minutes exposure to
gamma radiation
OR
What is the hemoglobin level (g/dL)
of the blood of mice after 5 minutes
exposure to gamma radiation?
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the study are very


important since they provide the general
direction in the conduct of the research.
They are used as guides in specifying the
variables of the study.
The choice of the research design to be
used, the data to be collected, as well as
the interpretation of the results all depend
upon the objectives developed.
GENERAL OBJECTIVES Generic
statement which describes in BROAD
TERMS what the study wishes to
accomplish

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Identify in


detail and in MEASURABLE TERMS the
aims of the research.
- it breaks down what needs to be
accomplished into smaller and logical
components
EXAMPLES

General Objectives:
To determine the antihypherglycemic
property of ampalaya diet on white mice.

Specific Objectives:
1. To detemine the blood glucose level
(mg/dL) of white mice before and after
ampalaya diet.
2. To compare the blood glucose level
(mg/dL) of white mice before and after
ampalaya diet.
EXAMPLES

General Objectives:
To propagate yellow sweet corn using
tissue culture.

Specific Objectives:
1. To measure the length of shoots (mm)
of yellow sweet corn grown using callus
culture after 3 weeks
2. To determine the proliferation rate
(mm/day) of yellow sweet corn using
callus culture.
THE SMART OBJECTIVES
Specific

Measurable

Attainable

Result-based

Time-bound
S PECIFIC
It is phrased clearly and unambigously. This
attempt to focus on a clear goal gives
direction to the research process.
To study fruit fly
To determine the effect of
environmental factors on lightwaves
To determine the effect of mulching on
plants
To produce a robot.
S PECIFIC
To study fruit flies.
could be.
To determine the reproductive
capacity of Drosophila melanogaster
exposed to gamma radiatio in terms
of number and sex ratio of the
offspring.
M EASURABLE
It can be accomplished through
experimentation and measurement or data
gathering. It can be described qualitatively or
quantitatively.

To identify the role of mangroves on the


population of mollusks.
To determine the significance of
sunlight on Vibrio.
M EASURABLE
To identify the role of mangroves on the population
of mollusks
could be.
To compare the relative abundance of
gastropods in natural and rehabilitated
mangrove forest.
A TTAINABLE
It should be feasible or accomplished given the
availability of materials, expertise on the conduct of
data gathering and time.

To map the gene sequence of different species of


banana
To compare the growth and development of
hornbills in a disturbed and undisturbed forest.
R ESULT-BASED

It is stated in a way that the answer to the


objectives is based on the results of the
thoroughly designed experimentation or data
gathering.
Ex. To appreciate the importance of antennae
in insects.
T IMEBOUND
It should be accomplished given the
duration of the conduct of the study.

To describe the inheritance of left-


handedness on human being.
To compute for the rate of decay of
radioactive isotopes.
AVOID

to study
to know
to research
CHOICES to identify
to measure
to compare
to develop
to describe
to classify
to test
to analyze
...............and a lot more
THE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Educated guesses or tentative
explanations about a correct solution to a
problem, descriptions, possible
relationships or difference.
the expectation or prediction of the
investigator about what the results will be
A statement of the researchers
expectation about how the variables in the
study are related
A prediction made prior to data collection
PURPOSE OF HYPOTHESIS

1. It provides focus that integrates


information
2. It is testable
3. It allows the researcher to know
what to do
4. It allows the researcher to confirm
or disconfirm a theory
PURPOSE OF HYPOTHESIS

5. It provides a framework for


developing explanations that can be
scientifically investigated
6. It provides evidence of the
predictive nature of the relationship
between the variables
7. It provides a useful framework for
organizing and summarizing the
results an conclusions of the research
Research hypothesis
declarative statement of the
results the investigator expects to
find.
A. DIRECTIONAL NATURE OF
EXPECTED RELATIONSHIP IS STATED

The 1:1 clay-talaba shell ratio will have higher


breaking strength than 1:2 clay talaba shell
ratio.
Phytoplankton in surface waters will have more
chlorophyl a content than those in benthic
environment
Tilapia fed with fortified feeds will be heavier
than those fed with organic feeds.
There is a positive relationship between water
salinity and density of Halobacter.
B. NONDIRECTIONAL
If the researcher believes there will difference or
relationship but is unsure about the nature of it

There will be difference in the blood glucose level


(mg/dL) of mice before and after ampalaya meal
There will be a relationship in the temperature of soil and
the reproductive rate of earthworm.
STEP 7 WRITING THE RESEARCH TITLE

Basic Questions Asked:


1. Does the title describe what the study is
all about?
2. Does the title contain high specificity
level?
3. Is the title academically phrased and is
not verbose?
4. Is the title within the 10-12 substantive
word requirement of the American
Psychological Association (APA)?
TITLE

is a statement of the question or problem.

For example:
If you are asking a question
about the inheritance patterns
of the gene for aldehyde oxidase
production in Drosophila melanogaster

What possible title might be?


POSSIBLE TITLE?

"Inheritance in Fruit Flies"

..too general.
"A STUDY OF THE
INHERITANCE OF THE
ENZYME ALDEHYDE
OXIDASE IN THE FRUIT
FLY DROSOPHILA
MELANOGASTER"

..too wordy.
THE WORDS "A STUDY OF THE"
ARE SUPERFLUOUS AND
ENZYME ALDEHYDE OXIDASE
AND FRUIT FLY
DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER"
ARE REDUNDANT.
THE SUFFIX -ASE INDICATES
THAT ALDEHYDE OXIDASE IS AN
ENZYME, AND MOST SCIENTISTS
KNOW THAT DROSOPHILA
MELANOGASTER IS THE
SCIENTIFIC NAME OF A COMMON
FRUIT FLY
SPECIES.
NOTE:
HOWEVER, IT IS APPROPRIATE TO INCLUDE IN
THE TITLE BOTH
COMMON AND SCIENTIFIC NAMES OF LESSER
KNOWN SPECIES.
WHAT IS THE BEST
TITLE FOR THIS
EXAMPLE?
"Inheritance of the Gene for Aldehyde Oxidase
in Drosophila melanogaster."
WHAT IS THE BEST TITLE?
This study examined how pedagogical knowledge
emerges in the teaching practice pre-service
teaching and supports the construction of
pedagogical content knowledge of prospective
physical education (PE) teachers.
ANALYSIS OF THE PEDAGOGICAL
KNOWLEDGE OF PROSPECTIVE PHYSICAL
EDUCATION TEACHERS
The best time to determine the title is after you
have written the text, so that the title will reflect
the paper's content.

BRIEF but ACCURATE

grammatically correct

complete enough to STAND ALONE


two- or three-word title may be too vague,
but a 14- or 15-word title is unnecessarily
long.

Avoid phrases such as on the, a study


of, research on, report on, regarding,
and use of.

omit the at the beginning of the title


SAMPLE RESEARCH TITLE
Holistic Formation Level of Students Exposed to
Personalized Education Program
Larvicidal efficiency of Piper nigrum L. and Carica
papaya seed extracts on Aedes aegypti third instar
larvae
Structure and Correlates of Technological
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) among
Filipino Teachers
Enjoying and Enduring: A Gaman experience of
Filipino Doctoral Science Students in Japan as
Teachers as Learners
STEP 8 WRITING THE INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
It provides the rationale for the current study.
What gap in knowledge did you try to fill? What
controversy did you try to resolve?
It should forward the papers hypotheses.
It usually requires a research model or
simulacrum.
It should end in a CENTRAL
QUESTION to be answered by the report.
A literature review is an account of
what has been published on a topic by
accredited scholars and researchers.
Its purpose is to convey to readers
what knowledge and ideas have been
established on a topic and what their
strengths and weaknesses are.
The main focus of your academic
research paper is to develop a new
argument.
The literature review serves as a
foundation and as support for a new
insight that youll contribute.
Reviewed Literature( Blank spot or
blind Spots)
Statement of the Problem
Significance of the study
Scope and Limitation
STEP 9 PREPARING THE RESEARCH Seminar on Writing and Conducting Research: IMRAD FORMAT

MATRIX
Theories Related to the Problems/Outcomes
Diagrammatic Framework of the Intended Study Conceptual Framework
Focus Study /Deliverables
STEP 9 PREPARING THE RESEARCH
MATRIX
STEP 10: RESEARCH
INSTRUMENTATION (MATERIALS
AND METHODOLOGY)

Scientists use the following terms:

Subject: What is being tested.

Variables: Conditions that are changed.

Independent variable: The variable that is


changed and controlled by you.
Dependent variable: The variable that changes
and is not controlled by you.

Controls: All the conditions that are not


changed.
This section describes your
experiment.

The information in this section comes


from the Procedures of the experiment.
In the paper, this information should not
be a list of steps.

The materials and methods should be


in paragraph form and in past tense.
Include levels of treatment, numbers of
replications, and control treatments.

If living organisms is used, include the species


and the sex of the organism if that information is
relevant to the experiment.

DO NOT try to justify your procedures in this section.

Write the procedures concisely, but in paragraph


form.
STEP 11 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

When you complete your experiments,


examine and organize your findings.
Explain what happen.
This section is presentation of data.
The authors report what happened in their
experiments.
The report is usually supplemented with:

graphs

tables

photographs
Number figures and tables
consecutively throughout the paper.

Refer to figures and tables within the


paragraph as you describe your results,
using the word Figure or Table,
followed by its number. For example,
"(Figure 1)."
If possible, place each figure or table
at the end of the paragraph in which it is
cited.

Include your statistical analysis in the


Results section. Report your data as
accurately as possible as it happens.
Do not report what you expected to
happen in the experiment.

Do not discuss the meaning of your


results in this section.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS:

1. Did your experiment give you expected results?


Why or why not?

2. Was the experiment performed with the exact


steps each time?

3. If possible, statistically analyze your data.


DISCUSSION
This section is where you will
analyze and interpret the results of
your experiment.

The figures and tables in the Results


section will be particularly important
as you begin to think about your
discussion.
The tables allow you to present
your results clearly to the reader.
The graphs allow you to visualize
the effects that the independent
variable has had on the dependent
variables in your experiment.
The purpose of the discussion is
to interpret and compare the
results.
Be objective; point out the features
and limitations of the work.
Relate your results to current knowledge in
the field and to your original purpose in
undertaking the project:
1. Have you resolved the problem?
2. What exactly have you contributed?
3. Briefly state the logical implications of
your results.
4. Suggest further study or applications if
warranted.
STEP 12: CONCLUSIONS AND
GENERALIZATION
The conclusion answers the title question
or problem and should contain a full
interpretation of the results you found
throughout the experiment.
Explain why it happened.
THE RESEARCH PROCESS
Topic or Problem Data Analysis
Identification and Conclusion
Interpretation

Communicating
Data Gathering and Utilizing the
Reconnaissance findings
/Collection

Hypotheses/
Research Plan
Proposition Formulation
Development

Framework Objective
Development Formulation
A Model of a Research Process: Quantitative/Experimental

Planning Evaluating
Identify the problem Revise Evaluate the design of the
methods and experiment and the
techniques or methods used
Identify the variables techniques

Evaluate findings in relation


Formulate a hypothesis to the problem question or
Reformulate hypothesis
Operationalize variables; problem or
plan the design and hypothesis
procedure
Revise
Processing
methods and
use science knowledge to
techniques
develop explanations for
Conducting patterns, trends or
Conduct preliminary relationships
trials
Analyses data: identify
Carry out the experiment pattern or trends in data and
Observe, measure and relationships between
record data variables

Organize data, calculate,


make tables and construct
graphs
PART I-B
KNOWING THE PARTS OF A
PUBLISHABLE PAPER
THESIS
IMRAD FORMAT
Chapter 1: The Problem: Rationale
and Background
Title Introduction
Authorship and Affiliation Statement of the Problem

Abstract (100-150
Theoretical Framework
Significance of the Study

word count) Scope and Limitation


Hypothesis
Assumptions
1.0 Introduction Definition of Terms
2.0 Theoretical Background
Chapter 2 : Review of Related
2.1 Theoretical Framework
Literature
2.2 Literature Review
2.3 Research Model Chapter 3 : Research Methodology
(Simulacrum) Research Design
3.0 Methods Research Locale
3.1 Subjects Population and Sampling
3.2 Instruments Research Instrumentation
Data Gathering Procedure
3.3 Data Collection & Statistical analysis
Procedure Ethical consideration
3.4 Data Analysis
3.5 Ethical Consideration Chapter 4: Presentation, Analysis
4.0 Results/ Findings and Interpretation of Data
172
5.0 Discussion Chapter 5 : Summary, Conclusion
6.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
Adapted from prepared slide of
7.0 References Golda Aira V. Crisostomo, Ph.D.
WHAT IS IT?
IMRAD, which stands
for Introduction,
Methods, Results and
Discussion is a
standard layout for
academic journal
articles.
It also typically requires
a title, abstract, tables
and figures,
acknowledgments and
references to literature
cited.
WHAT IS IT?
It requires suitable
background
knowledge so that the
paper:

1) complies with
widely recognized
publication standards

2) is approved in the
peer-review process
with the minimum of
amendments
THIS IS WHAT A TYPICAL THESIS
MIGHT LOOK LIKE.

This is what a typical thesis might look


like.
This is what a Publishable Article (IMRAD)
might look like.
177
WHAT IT IS?
Short and sweet
Must have only 4,000
to 6,000 word count
Single spaced

Font size: 11

Length: 10 to 15 pages
BENEFITS OF IMRAD
It is concise.
IMRAD structure facilitates
modular reading.
Readers usually do not read
in a linear way but browse
in each section of article,
looking for specific
information.
This is normally found in
pre-established areas of the
paper.
PUBLISHABLE PAPER( IMRAD STYLE)
QUANTITATIVE PAPER
Introduction Results/Findings
Theoretical Background Discussion
Theoretical Framework Conclusion
Literature Review References
Research Model
Method
Design
Study Site and Subjects
Data Measures/Instrumentation
Data Collection Procedure
Data Analysis
STRUCTURE AND CORRELATES OF TECHNOLOGICAL PEDAGOGICAL
CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (TPACK) AMONG FILIPINO TEACHERS
MANGALI, GLEN., TORRES, MILANO., GANEB, MARIBEL, GONZALES, RAQUEL
PUBLISHABLE PAPER( IMRAD STYLE)
QUALITATIVE PAPER
Introduction Findings
Design Discussion

Selection and Study Site Conclusion/Lessons

Data Measures Learned


Data Collection Procedure References

Ethical Consideration
Data Explicitation/Mode of
Analysis
CORE EDUCATIONS TEN
TRENDS 2015
TREND 1 LEARNER AGENCY
The move from
teachers completely
owning the learning
process to learner
owning more of it.
When learners have
the power to act in
their learning, they
have what known as
agency
TREND 2 MAKER CULTURE
The maker culture is a
contemporary culture
or subculture
representing a
technology-based
extension of DIY
culture that intersects
with hacker culture
(which is less concerned
with physical objects as
it focuses on software)
and revels in the
creation of new devices
as well as tinkering
with existing ones.
TREND 3 LEARNING ANALYTICS
is the measurement,
collection, analysis and
reporting of data about
learners and their
contexts, for purposes of
understanding and
optimizing learning
and the environments in
which it occurs.
A related field is
educational data
mining.
TREND 4 DIGITAL CONVERGENCE
Digital convergence
refers to the
convergence of four
industries into one
conglomerate, ITTCE
(Information
Technologies,
Telecommunication,
Consumer Electronics,
and Entertainment).
TREND 5 NETWORKED ORGANIZATION
The Networked
Organization is one
such response. It has
been defined by Lipnack
and Stamps as one:
"where independent
people and groups act as
independent nodes, link
across boundaries, to
work together for a
common purpose; it has
multiple leaders, lots of
voluntary links and
interacting levels."
TREND 6 LEARNER ORIENTATION
A learner-oriented
system places the
learner at the center of
all decision making.
It supports the active
involvement of learners
and their families in the
design and provision of
educational services
TREND 7 INNOVATION AND
ENTREPRENEURSHIP
The ability to innovate
and find new ways of
doing things will define
the success of
individuals,
communities and
countries into the 21st
century.
TREND 8 GLOBAL
CONNECTEDNESS
We live in global
community where little
is done in isolation.
Digital technologies
play a crucial role in
enabling learners to
connect with, contribute
to and learn from those
in other parts of the
world.
TREND 9 INCLUSIVE DESIGN
Understand that
learners are best served
by a learning design
that takes into account
diverse strengths and
needs.
TREND 10 NEW APPROCHES TO
ASSESSMENT
A central interest for all
learners regarding their
learning is to receive
feedback that can occur
at any time during the
learning process,
particularly useful is
when it is (a) timely; (b)
obejctive and (c)
relevant to the learner.
BOTTOM LINE:
CHANGE YOUR
PERSPECTIVE.
DO NOT ALLOW ANYONE
TO PUT LABEL ON YOU.
BEING A TEACHER IS NOT
EASY.

The story of my friend.


Psalm 139:14
I praise you because I am
fearfully and wonderfully
made; your works are
wonderful, I know that full
well
Romans 12:2
Do not conform to the pattern of
this world, but be transformed by the
renewing of your mind. Then you
will be able to test and approved
what Gods will is-his good,
pleasing and perfect will.
BOTTOM LINE:
CHANGE YOUR PERSPECTIVE.
If we only have the right
perspectives, we will have the right
view in teaching and learning.
-Glen R. Mangali-
THANK YOU FOR
LISTENING AND
GOD BLESS

Glen R. Mangali
glenmangali@yahoo.com
glenmangali@gmail.com

Website:
https://sites.google.com/site/glenmangali/
Fan Page
Type Glen Rodriguez Mangali, lives in Antipolo City,
Teacher. Then Like the page.