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Ma. Louise M.

Roperez BSED 3 MTh 5:30-7:00

To meet the demands of 21st century, educators need to produce 21st century learners equipped
with 21 century skills. Achieving 21st century skills will require an assessment that will enable students

to showcase their talents and abilities. One way to do this, is to use performance based assessment.
Stiggins (as cited by Glassgow, 2002) stresses that well-designed performance assessments are a highly
effective tool, significantly fostering student learning.
Depending on the author, the concept of performance assessment can mean almost anything. Jay
McTighe (as cited by Shiel, 2016) defines a performance task as any learning activity or assessment that
asks students to perform or to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and proficiency. Similarly,
Hibbard (2000) defines performance task as a task that requires students to use content knowledge,
thinking skills, problem-solving skills, and work habits to produce a product and/or performance. In his
book, he considered it as a culminating learning activity and a type of open-ended test. With these two
definitions, we can imply that performance based assessment is different from traditional assessment. It is
an assessment that demands students to apply knowledge that have they attained in creating a product or
performance. In addition, it requires higher thinking skills rather than lower thinking skills.
Another term that is often associated with performance task is authentic assessment. A lot of
authors are saying that these two terms have similarity, however, it should be noted that these two are not
synonymous. Meyer (as cited by Sivalingam-Neli, 1997) highlights the differences between performance
assessment and authentic assessment in terms of the degree of inference. He cited that in a performance
assessment, the student completes or demonstrate the same behavior that the assessor desires to measure.
In authentic assessment, the students not only completes or demonstrates the desired behaviour, but also
does it in real life context. To make it simpler, not all performance assessments are authentic, but all
authentic assessment are performance based.
Stiggins (1997) describes five aspects of general and technical quality that apply to performance-based
assessments for classroom use. First is having clear targets, teachers who choose to use performance-based
assessments must be clear on what they intend to achieve. Second, is focused purpose, teachers must
communicate to the students the purpose of conducting it and how the results will be used. Third, proper
method, the teaching method must match with the intended targets. Fourth, sound sampling, performance-
based assessments use only a sample that are possible to assess students learning. Last is an accurate
assessment, free of bias and distortion. In order to avoid bias or prejudice, a rubric must be used and
presented in class. Airasian and Russell (cited by Wadham, 2011) explain that a rubric is a set of clear
expectations or criteria used to help teachers and students focus on what is valued in a subject, topic, or
There are three types of performance based assessment methods: written scenarios, projects, and
portfolios (Anada, 2000). Written scenarios require students to undergo a written task within a limited
period of time. This is used to measure their ability to organize and express their knowledge. While,
project assessment is a comprehensive, experiential exploration of a topic or theme that requires a
product. It measures students standard based knowledge and skills. Last is portfolio assessment, a
compilation of students work that are used to track down their progress. It is mainly used to document
student learning.
Using performance based task comes with its pro and cons. According to the educational testing
service (2003), it assess different types of knowledge and skills, it can be easily incorporated into a
curriculum without interrupting teaching and learning, it can be used to evaluate student understanding,
reasoning, and communication, and it can be used to determine how well students can apply their
knowledge. On the contrary, performance based assessments are time consuming and costly to design,
administer, and score. It is also difficult to design complex and difficult performance based task.

Anada, S. (2000). Equipped for the Future assessment report: how instructors can support adult learners
through performance-based assessment. Retrieved on December 11, 2016.

Educational testing Service (n.a, 2003) Retrieved on December 11, 2016

Glassgow, J. (2002) Standard based activities with scoring rubrics. Retrieved on December 11, 2016.

Hibbard, K. (2000.) Performance-Based Learning and assessment in Middle School Science. Retrieved
on December 11, 2016.

Meyer C. (1992). Whats the Difference between Authentic and Performance Assessment. Retrieved on
December 11, 2016.

Shiel, K. (2016) Designing and Using Performance Task. Retrieved on December 11, 2016.

Sivalingam-Neli, V. (1997). Examining Claims Made for Performance Assessments Using a High
School Science. Retrieved on December 11, 2016 Context.

Wadman, R. (2011). Proposal for the EBSS Instruction for Educators Committee to develop rubrics
based on the ACRL Information Literacy Standards for Teacher Education for assessment purposes.
Retrieved on December 11, 2016.,?hl=en&q=Airasian+
Ma. Louise M. Roperez BSED 3 MTh 5:30-7:00

Knowledge Level: The successful student will recognize or recall learned information.
list record underline
state define arrange
name relate describe
tell recall memorize
recall repeat recognize
label select reproduce
Comprehension Level: The successful student will restate or interpret information in their own words.

explain describe report

translate express summarize
identify classify discuss
restate locate compare
discuss review illustrate
tell critique estimate
reference interpret reiterate
Application Level: The successful student will use or apply the learned information.

apply sketch perform

use solve respond
practice construct role-play
demonstrate conduct execute
complete dramatize employ
Analysis Level: The successful student will examine the learned information critically.

analyze inspect test

distinguish categorize critique
differentiate catalogue diagnose
appraise quantify extrapolate
calculate measure theorize
experiment relate debate
Synthesis Level: The successful student will create new models using the learned information.

develop revise compose

plan formulate collect
build propose construct
create establish prepare
design integrate devise
organize modify manage
Ma. Louise M. Roperez BSED 3 MTh 5:30-7:00
Evaluation Level: The successful student will assess or judge the value of learned information.

review appraise choose

justify argue conclude
assess rate compare
defend score evaluate
report on select interpret
investigate measure support
Art work Inventions Notebooks Problems solved
Cartoons Internet transmissions Oral reports Puppet shows
Collections Journals Original plays, stories, dances Reading selection
Designs and drawings Letters Pantomimes Recipes
Documentary reports Maps Performance, musical instrument Scale models
Experiments Model construction Poetry recitations Story illustrations
Foreign language activities Musical compositions Photos Story boards
Games Musical scores Plans for inventions Performances
Ma. Louise M. Roperez BSED 3 MTh 5:30-7:00