Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Summer Training

Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant
Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan
Nagar Limited (UPRVUNL)
1st July 2013 1st August 2013

Ali Shazan Gulrez

B-Tech (Electrical) II Year
Aligarh Muslim University

Verified By: Checked By:

Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant

UNIT 1 to 4 & 6 Deleted

UNIT 5 60 MW
UNIT: 7(R&M) 120 MW
Extension (UNIT: 8 &9) 2 x 250 MW
Proposed 1 x 660 MW

Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant, Kasimpur


S.No Topic Page No.

1 Thermal Power Plant: An Overview 4

2 Electrical System Layout 5
3 System Components 5
3.1 Switchyard 5
3.2 Isolator 6
3.3 Circuit Breaker 6
3.4 Generator 7
3.5 Generator Transformer 7
3.6 Neutral Grounding Transformer 7
3.7 Station Transformer 7
3.8 Unit Auxiliary Transformer 8
3.9 Switchgear 8
3.10 Double Bus System with Transfer Bus 8
3.11 Bays 9
3.12 Instrument Transformers 9
4 Electrical Protection System 10
4.1 Fuse 10
4.2 Relays 10
4.3 Circuit Breakers 10
4.4 Lightning Arrestor 10
4.5 Isolators 10
5 Generator Protection 11
5.1 Class A Trip 11
5.2 Class B Trip 11
5.3 Class C Trip 11
5.4 Differential Protection 12
5.5 Earth Fault Protection 12
5.6 Negative Phase Sequence 12
5.7 Over Voltage Protection 12
5.8 Backup Impedance 12
5.9 Reverse Power Protection 13
5.10 Low Forward Power Protection 13
5.11 Pole Splitting Protection 13
5.12 Over-Current Protection 13
5.13 Under Frequency Protection 13
5.14 Generator Relay Protection Panels 14
5.15 GRP 8A 14
5.16 GRP 8B 14
5.17 GRP 8C 14
5.18 BCU Panel 14

6 Transformer Protection 15
6.1 Buchholz Protection 15
6.2 PRV Protection 15
6.3 OSR Protection 15
6.4 Temperature Protection 15
7 Ratings 16
7.1 Generator Rating 16
7.2 Generator Transformer Rating 17
7.3 Station Transformer Rating 17
7.4 Unit Auxiliary Transformer Rating 18

(1) Thermal Power Plant: An Overview
In a coal based power plant coal is transported from coal mines to the power plant by
railway in wagons. Coal is unloaded from the wagons to a moving underground
conveyor belt. This coal from the mines is of no uniform size. So it is taken to the
Crusher house and crushed to a size of 20mm. It is then stored in coal bunkers. Raw
coal from the raw coal bunker is supplied to the Coal Mills by a Raw Coal Feeder.
The Coal Mills or pulverizer pulverizes the coal to 200 mesh size. The powdered coal
from the coal mills is carried to the boiler in coal pipes by high pressure hot air. The
pulverized coal air mixture is burnt in the boiler in the combustion zone. The boiler is
a water tube boiler hanging from the top. Water is converted to steam in the boiler
and steam is separated from water in the boiler Drum. The saturated steam from the
boiler drum is taken to the Low Temperature Superheater, Platen Superheater and
Final Superheater respectively for superheating. The superheated steam from the
final superheater is taken to the High Pressure Steam Turbine (HPT). In the HPT the
steam pressure is utilized to rotate the turbine and the resultant is rotational energy.
From the HPT the out coming steam is taken to the Reheater in the boiler to
increase its temperature as the steam becomes wet at the HPT outlet. After
reheating this steam is taken to the Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) and then to
the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT). The outlet of the LPT is sent to the condenser for
condensing back to water by a cooling water system. This condensed water is
collected in the Hotwell and is again sent to the boiler in a closed cycle. The
rotational energy imparted to the turbine by high pressure steam is converted to
electrical energy in the Generator.

(2) Electrical System Layout

(3) System Components

3.1 Switchyard

A switchyard is essentially a hub for electrical power sources. For instance, a

switchyard will exist at a generating station to coordinate the exchange of
power between the generators and the transmission lines in the area. A
switchyard will also exist when high voltage lines need to be converted to
lower voltage for distribution to consumers.
The function of electrical switch yard is to delivered the generated power from
power plant at desired voltage level to the nearest grid. or In Another way we
can say Simply switching the received power supply from various generating
stations to various locations with respect to their requirement. Therefore a
switchyard will contain; current carrying conductors, grounding wires and
switches, transformers, disconnects,isolators, remotely controlled arc snuffing
breakers, metering devices, etc.

Switchyard of Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant 220KV/132KV

3.2 Isolator

Isolators are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus

such as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for
maintenance. Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of
the circuit and is used only for isolation.

3.3 Circuit Breakers

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to

protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.
Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and interrupt current flow. Unlike
a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced, a circuit breaker can
be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit
breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an
individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect
high-voltage circuits feeding an entire city.

3.4 Generator

The Generator is 250MW, 16.5KV, 10KA hydrogen cooled generator. The

generator operate typically at 3000 rpm. When Generator is in operating
Condition a part of Power delivered is diverted to run the auxiliaries which is
about 8-10% of total power developed. It produces power at 0.85 power

3.5 Generator Transformer (16.5KV/220KV)

This is a type of Power Transformer of 315 MVA where the LV winding is

connected to the generator through the bus duct and HV winding to the
transmission system. In addition to the features of Power Transformer, our
Generator Transformer is designed to withstand over voltage caused by
sudden load throw off from the generator. It is built as a single or three phase
unit and located in power stations.

3.6 Neutral Grounding Transformer (NGT)

Neutral grounding transformers are used to derive a neutral-to-earth

connection for systems that do not otherwise have one.The transformer
primary terminals (wye side) are connected to the power system, and its
neutral is connected to earth, perhaps through a controlled impedance. No
other load is connected to the delta of the transformer.These transformers
provide a high impedance to normal currents (positive & negative sequence),
but allow ground fault currents (zero sequence) to flow, thereby allowing
protective devices to operate if a ground fault occurs.

3.7 Station Transformer

This transformer 220KV/6.6KV 50MVA is used in sub stations to transfer the

incoming voltage to the next voltage level. It can be system or auto
transformer with two/three windings. In general it is equipped with On load tap
changers and are connected to transmission grids by bushings and cables.
The system/auto transformer is built in core form. HV/LV windings are
galvanically separated for system transformer while they are Auto connected
for auto transformer.

3.8 Unit Auxiliary Transformer UAT

The Unit Auxiliary Transformer is the Power Transformer that provides power
to the auxiliary equipment of a power generating station during its normal
operation. This transformer is connected directly to the generator out-put by a
tap-off of the isolated phase bus duct and thus becomes cheapest source of
power to the generating station. It is generally a three-winding transformer i.e.
one primary and two separate secondary windings. Primary winding of UAT is
equal to the main generator voltage rating. The secondary windings can have
same or different voltages. In power plant at Harduaganj it is rated as
16.5KV/6.6KV 31.5MVA.

3.9 Switchgear

In an electric power system, switchgear is the combination of electrical

disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and
isolate electrical equipment. Switchgear is used both to de-energize
equipment to allow work to be done and to clear faults downstream. This type
of equipment is important because it is directly linked to the reliability of the
electricity supply. It is rated as 6.6KV and 0.4KV switchgear in the Power plant

Switchgear of Harduaganj Thermal Power Plant

3.10 Double Bus System with Transfer Bus

In double bus bar system two identical bus bars are used in such a way that
any outgoing or incoming feeder can be taken from any of the bus.Actually
every feeder is connected to both of the buses in parallel through individual
isolator. By closing any of the isolators one can put the feeder to associated
bus. Both of the buses are energized and total feeders are divided into two
groups, one group is fed from one bus and other from other bus. But any
feeder at any time can be transferred from one bus to other. If necessary the
transfer bus can be energized by main bus power by closing the transfer bus

coupler isolators and then breaker. Then the power in transfer bus can directly
be fed to the feeder line by closing the bypass isolator.

3.11 Bays

In switchyard electrical bays usually consists of Circuit Breakers , earth

switches, Instrument transformers and protection equipments. A substation
comprise of number of bays connected to busbars.

A Bay has following equipments

1. Line isolator with e/s and bus isolator
2. Lightning arrestor
3. Potential transformer
4. Current transformer
5. Circuit Breaker and
6. Carrier communication equipments

The following are the type of Bays

1. Incoming feeder bay
2. Outgoing feeder bay and
3. Transformer bay

3.12 Instrument Transformers

Potential Transformer: Potential transformers (PT) (also called voltage

transformers (VT)) are a parallel connected type of instrument transformer.
They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured
and have an accurate voltage ratio and phase relationship to enable accurate
secondary connected metering.

Current transformer: A current transformer also isolates the measuring

instruments from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit.
Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective
relays in the electrical power industry

(4) Electrical Protection System
4.1 Fuse
It is a type of low resistance resistor that acts as a sacrificial device to provide
overcurrent protection, of either the load or source circuit. Its essential
component is a metal wire or strip that melts when too much current flows,
which interrupts the circuit in which it is connected. Short circuit, overloading,
mismatched loads or device failure are the prime reasons for excessive

4.2 Relays
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to
operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles
are also used. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a
low-power signal (with complete electrical isolation between control and
controlled circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal.
The first relays were used in long distance telegraph circuits, repeating the
signal coming in from one circuit and re-transmitting it to another. Relays were
used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform
logical operations.

4.3 Circuit Breakers

They are used to isolate the faulty circuits, and are capable of carrying these
fault currents until the fault currents are totally cleared. Circuit Breakers are
the main isolating devices and which can be said to directly protect the

4.4 Lightning Arrestor

It is a device used in electric power system to protect the insulation and

conductors from the damaging effect of lightning. It has a high voltage terminal
and a ground terminal.When a lightning surge travels along the line to
arrester, current from the surge is diverted to the earth.

4.5 Isolators

Isolators are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such

as circuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance.
Often the isolation switch is not intended for normal control of the circuit and is
used only for isolation

(5) Generator Protection

5.1 Class A Trip:

This is applied to those protections which operate for severe electrical faults within
the machine or associated equipments (Generator Differential,Overall
Differential,Stator E/F,GT/UAT REF,Rotor E/F,Back up Impedance or Overcurrent
protection). It is used only in emergencies where continuation in service ,for any
length of time, is not permitted.

5.2 Class B Trip:

This is applied to such of those protections for which electrical isolation of the
generator can be delayed without any significant damage to the machine, in this
mode, the turbine is tripped immediately, but tripping of GT/UAT/Field circuit breakers
is interlocked through a low forward power relay, thereby delaying electrical isolation
until the power output of the generator has been substantially reduced. This avoids
over speeding of generator.

5.3 Class C Trip:

The Turbine-Generator (TG) unit is isolated from the grid by opening the transmission
lines, and allowed to continue service with station load. This is applied to those
protections, which operate for conditions external to the Generators and its
associated equipments. This enables quick restoration by re-synchronizing the
machine with the systems

5.4 Differential Protection





5.5 Earth Fault Protection






5.6 Negative Phase Sequence Protection

Connected on Generator Phase side CTs.

Provided to prevent rotor Over heating in case of Unbalanced loading.
Relay has Inverse Current Vs time characteristics with two stages
Voltage induced in the rotor at double frequency.

5.7 Over-Voltage Protection

Overvoltage may be caused by the following contingencies:

Defective operation of AVR.

Operation under manual control with AVR out of service.
Sudden loss of load (due to line tripping).

5.8 Backup Impedance Protection

Employed for the protection of the Generator against the uncleared system
line to line faults.
Relay has Reach setting and time delay setting
Relay reach Setting for trip is decided based on System conditions;
Reach should be limited and time to be more than the highest line backup
protection time setting.

5.9 Reverse Power Protection

This protection acts under the following conditions of operation:

Turbine tripped and reverse power detected for 2 seconds

Reverse Power detected for 15 seconds.

5.10 Low Forward Power Protection

This protection acts under the following conditions of operation:

Turbine tripped and reverse power detected for 2 seconds

Reverse Power detected for 15 seconds.

5.11 Pole Slipping Protection

During system disturbance, Generator rotor oscillates with consequent

variation of Voltage, Current and Power factor. This leads to variation in speed
of rotor from synchronous speed leading to slip of Pole pitch.


System Faults(delayed uncleared faults)

Power Swings
Weak field conditions


Causes rotor oscillations with cyclic variation in voltage, current,

active/reactive power.

5.12 Over-Current Protection

It is usual to provide overcurrent relays of IDMT pattern to generators as a

general back up feature. These are in no way related to the thermal
characteristics of the generator and are intended to operate only under fault

5.13 Under frequency Protection

Results due to overloading of the generator beyond the corrective limits of

governor. This protection is employed for the system disturbances such as
tripping of multiple units of power stations.

5.14 Generator Relay Protection Panels

There are 4 nos. of Generator Relay Protection Panel comprising the following
relays having the integrated functions of the Generator Protection.

1. GRP 8A
2. GRP 8B
3. GRP 8C
4. BCU(Bay Control Unit) Panel

5.15 GRP 8A

It comprises the following relays:

Overall Differential relay
GT Overhang Differential Relay
Generator Relay- 1(GR-1): It incorporates Generator Back up Impedance
protection,Negative Phase sequence,Overvoltage,Field Failure, Undervoltage,
Low Forward Power,Reverse Power,Stator 95% E/f Protection,
Underfrequency / Overfrequency,Overfluxing,Generator Overload Protection)

5.16 GRP 8B

UAT Differential Relay

GT Overcurrent/Earth Fault Relay
Generator Relay -2(GR-2): It incorporates Generator Back up Impedance
protection,Negative Phase sequence,Overvoltage,Pole Slipping,Field
Failure,Undervoltage,Low Forward Power,Reverse Power,100% Stator E/f
,Underfrequency/Overfrequency,Overfluxing,Generator Overload Protection,
Dead Machine Protection,Rotor E/F,Generator Differential Protection

5.17 GRP 8C

UAT Overcurrent/Earth fault Relay

Energy Meter-Main
Energy Meter Check

5.18 BCU Panel

BCU relays serve the function of controlling the remote operation(opening/closing) of

the isolators in the 220 kV Switchyard.

(6) Transformer Protection

6.1 Buchholz Protection

A gas operated protection with capability of detecting and warning early about an
incipient fault. Most useful for winding inter turn faults.

6.2 PRV Protection

The relay detects a sudden rise in pressure and it is used to evacuate any over
pressure due to extreme heating, to avoid explosion of the transformer tank.

6.3 OSR Protection

The relay detects the rate of change of pressure

6.4 Temperature Protection

OTI Alarm/Trip : 90/100 deg

WTI Alarm/Trip : 95/105 deg

(7) Ratings

7.1 Generator Rating:

Active Power 250000kW
Power Factor 0.85(lagging)
Volt Ampere 294100kVA
Generated Voltage 16.5kV
Current 10291A
DC voltage 299V
Current 2497A

R.P.M 3000
Frequency 50
Connection YY
Coolant Hydrogen
Insulation Class F

PM Generator (Pilot Exciter)

Active Power 35kW

Voltage 220V
R.P.M 3000
Coolant Air
Connection YYYY
Volt Ampere 35kVA
Current 105A
Phase 3
Power Factor 1
Frequency 400


Active Power 1350kW

Excitation Voltage 106(DC)
R.P.M 3000
Insulation Class F
Excitation Current 36.5A
Coolant Air
Voltage 420V
Current 3200A

7.2 Generator Transformer rating:

Type of cooling OFAF

Rated Power HV-315000kVA


Rated voltage at HV-230kV

no load LV-16.5kV

Rated Line current HV-760.72A


Maximum temperature Oil-50oC

rise Winding-55oC

Phase 3

Frequency 50 Hz

7.3 Station Transformer Rating:

Type of cooling ONAN/ONAF

Rated Power HV - 30000kVA 50000kVA

LV1-15000kVA 25000kVA
LV2-15000kVA 25000kVA

Rated voltage at HV -220kV 220kV

no load LV1- 6.9kV 6.9kV
LV2- 6.9kV 6.9kV

Rated Line current HV - 78.73A 131.22A

LV1-1255.11A 2091.85A
LV2-1255.11A 2091.85A
Maximum temperature Oil-50oC
rise Winding-55oC

Phase 3
Frequency 50Hz

7.4 Unit Auxiliary Transformer Rating:

Type of cooling ONAN/ONAF

Rated Power HV - 30000kVA 50000kVA

LV1-15000kVA 25000kVA
LV2-15000kVA 25000kVA

Rated voltage at HV -220kV 220kV

no load LV1- 6.9kV 6.9kV
LV2- 6.9kV 6.9kV

Rated Line current HV - 78.73A 131.22A

LV1-1255.11A 2091.85A
LV2-1255.11A 2091.85A
Maximum temperature Oil-50oC
rise Winding-55oC

Phase 3
Frequency 50Hz