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2009 BirdLife International

Juan de Dios Martnez Mera N35-76 y Av. Portugal


Casilla 17-17-717
Quito, Ecuador.
Tel: +593 2 2277059
Fax: +593 2 2469838

americas@birdlife.org
www.birdlife.org

BirdLife International is a UK-registered charity No. 1042125


ISBN: 978-9942-9959-0-2

Recommended citation: DEVENISH, C., DAZ FERNNDEZ, D. F., CLAY, R. P., DAVIDSON, I. & YPEZ ZABALA, I. EDS. (2009) Important Bird Areas Americas - Priority sites for
biodiversity conservation. Quito, Ecuador: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 16).

To cite this chapter: ANGULO PRATOLONGO, F. (2009) Peru. Pp 307 316 in C. Devenish, D. F. Daz Fernndez, R. P. Clay, I. Davidson & I. Ypez Zabala Eds. Important Bird
Areas Americas - Priority sites for biodiversity conservation. Quito, Ecuador: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No. 16).

The purpose of the information contained in this book is to support conservation initiatives in the Americas, for which it may be reproduced. Using this information for
commercial purposes is not permitted. If part or all of this information is used or included in any other publication, BirdLife International must be cited as copyright holder.
Those who provided illustrations or photographs in this book have copyright over them and these are not permitted to be reproduced separately to the texts accompanying
them.

The presentation of material in this book and the geographical designations employed do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of BirdLife
International concerning the legal status of any country, territory or area, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Membership of BirdLife International
does not imply any opinion or position with respect to sovereignty issues on the part of BirdLife International Partner organizations.

Graphic design: Alejandro Miranda Baldares (alejoanime@yahoo.com)


Translations: Christian Devenish, tala Ypez Zabala & Amiro Prez-Leroux
Maps: David F. Daz Fernndez, tala Ypez Zabala & Christian Devenish
Edition of Spanish language country chapters: tala Ypez Zabala, Carlos Huertas Snchez & David F. Daz Fernndez
Graphic design volunteer (Spanish language country chapters): Adriana Valencia Tapia
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This publication and all country/territory chapters in their native languages are available for download at www.birdlife.org/
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Peru is located in the center-west of South America and has a total area of 1,285,215.6 km2. The country shares borders
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ocean. Perus capital, Lima, is located on the coast, in the center of the country and is the seat of the government. Politi-
cally, Peru is divided into 24 regions as well as the Constitutional Province of El Callao. Regions, in turn, are subdivided
into provinces, and these, into districts. Peru currently has a total of 180 provinces and 1747 districts. Perus population
stands at 28,220,764 inhabitants (2008), of which 72% live in urban areas and 28% in rural zones. Forty-four ethnic
groups also inhabit Peru, divided into 14 ethno-linguistic families.

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2008), ranging from dry or humid hot climates, through temperate and Meso-Andean valleys to puna and snow.

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sin, with the most representative being the Tumbes, Chira, Chancay, Jequetepeque, Santa, Rimac, Caete, Ica, Majes and
Tambo rivers. The rivers of the Amazon or Atlantic basin are generally long and voluminous with many tributaries. The
most important river ports in Peru in the Amazon are Imaza, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas and Puerto Maldonado. Lake
7LWLFDFDORFDWHGRQWKH&ROODRSODWHDXLQWKHVRXWKRI3HUXLVDQHQGRUKHLFEDVLQ ZLWKRXWDVXSHUFLDORXWOHWWRWKHVHD 
as the lake is contained by the western and eastern ranges of the Andes. The 8380 km2 lake receives waters from the riv-
ers Suches, Huancan, Ramis, Coata and Ilave. Peru is divided by the Andes into three regions: Northern Andes, Central
Andes and Southern Andes containing 21 ecoregions (CDC-UNALM 2006), including ecosystems such as mangroves,
dry, montane and humid forests, savannas, desert, paramos, puna, lakes and rivers, among others.

Peru is one of the 10 most diverse, or megadi-


verse, countries on the planet due to its wealth
in ecosystems, species, genetic resources
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some 25,000 species are calculated to exist
in Peru (10% of the worlds total), of which
30% are endemic. Peru has the most plant
species whose known properties are used
by humans (4400 spp) and native domesti-
cated species (128) in the world. Domestic
animals include, alpaca (Lama pacos), llama
(Lama glama), guinea pig (Cavia porcellus),
domestic duck (Cairina moschata) and the
cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus) from
which a crimson dye is produced. Of the
four most important crops for human con-
sumption in the world (wheat, rice, potato
and maize), Peru has a high genetic diversity
of both potato and maize (CONAM 2001).
In terms of wild fauna, Peru also has a high
GLYHUVLW\ RI VK  VSHFLHV  RI WKH 7HYX\L5HJPVUHS*LYYVZKL(TV[HWL7,OHZVULVM[OL
global total), 3300 species of amphibians and OPNOLZ[U\TILYZVM[OYLH[LULKZWLJPLZPU7LY\]PHU0)(ZZ\JO
HZ[OL=\SULYHISL3P[[SL>VVKZ[HY*OHL[VJLYJ\ZIVTI\Z).
462 species of mammals. 7OV[V!-LYUHUKV(UN\SV7YH[VSVUNV


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Peru has a national state system of protected areas (SINANPE, in
Spanish), created in 1990 and made up of 63 protected areas, totaling
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18,043,379.84 ha, representing 14.04% of the countrys area. Some of
the largest protected areas within the system include Alto Purs, Pacaya-
[PVUZ[YH[LN`^PSSPKLU[PM`VWWVY[\UP[PLZ
Samiria and Manu with areas over 2.5, 2 and 1.5 million ha, respectively. HUKWYPVYP[PLZMVYIPYKJVUZLY]H[PVUHZ^LSS
Another level of protection exists in the form of Conservation Areas, HZPUJVYWVYH[PUNL_PZ[PUNJVUZLY]H[PVU
which do not belong to the state (and do not form part of the SINANPE),
but are managed by regional governments (Box 2) or by private landowners. TLJOHUPZTZZ\JOHZ[OL0)(WYVNYHT
By the beginning of 2009, 18 Conservation Areas had been declared,
covering 256,725 ha, representing 0.20% of Perus area. Both types of
protected areas represent 14.24% of the countrys area (Table 1).

;HISL7YV[LJ[LKHYLH[`WLZHUKJV]LYHNLPU7LY\
7YV[LJ[LKHYLH[`WL Number ;V[HSHYLHOH
5H[PVUHSWHYRZ 12 7,967,119
5H[PVUHSZHUJ[\HYPLZ 7 263,982
/PZ[VYPJZHUJ[\HYPLZ 4 41,279
5H[PVUHSYLZLY]LZ 11 3,298,712
>PSKSPMLYLM\NLZ 2 8,592
3HUKZJHWLYLZLY]LZ 2 651,818
*VTT\UHSYLZLY]LZ 7 1,753,869
7YV[LJ[PVUMVYLZ[Z 6 389,987
/\U[PUNYLZLY]LZ 2 124,735
9LZLY]LKaVULZ 10 3,543,286
9LNPVUHSJVUZLY]H[PVUHYLHZ 3 150,833
7YP]H[LJVUZLY]H[PVUHYLHZ 15 105,892
TOTAL 81 18,300,104
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Other legal instruments for site conservation in Peru include ecological 7OV[V!-LYUHUKV(UN\SV7YH[VSVUNV
easements, conservation concessions, ecotourism concessions, wildlife
management area concessions and contracts to manage protected areas. In 2006, regional workshops were held to compile information on a Nation-
These conservation mechanisms are found on private property (ease- al Bird Conservation Strategy in Peru. The initiative is being coordinated
ments), in protected areas (contracts) and state land (all other forms). by PromPeru, BirdLife International and Naturaleza y Cultura Internacio-
nal, with backing from the National Institute of Natural Resources and the
Peru is party to a series of international agreements on biodiversity National Environment Council (CONAM, in Spanish). This strategy will
conservation, among which the following are highlighted: Conven- DOORZGLIFXOWLHVDQGRSSRUWXQLWLHVWREHLGHQWLHGIRUELUGFRQVHUYDWLRQLQ
tion on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Peru, as well as establishing conservation priorities based on threats faced
Flora, Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural by birds. The strategy incorporates existing conservation mechanisms
and Natural Heritage, Convention on Biological Diversity, the Ramsar such as the IBA program as well as income generating initiatives such as
Convention on Wetlands and the Convention on Migratory Species. birding tourism aimed at creating opportunities for conservation.

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Peru is considered to hold the second highest number of bird species in 7LY\PZJVUZPKLYLK[VOVSK[OLZLJVUK
the world, after Colombia. A total of 1825 species have been recorded
(this could increase to 1840 with changes in taxonomy), belonging to OPNOLZ[U\TILYVMIPYKZWLJPLZPU[OL
23 orders and 89 families, of which 105 are endemic to the country.
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Peru has 1721 bird species (Remsen et al. 2008).
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According to the IUCN Red List, Peru has 100 threatened species at
global level (BirdLife International 2007), consisting of eight Criti- HYLLUKLTPJ[V[OLJV\U[Y`
cally Endangered species (CR), 31 Endangered (EN) and 61 Vulner-
able (VU) . The national red list established by the Peruvian State (El
Peruano 2004) puts the total at 108, divided as follows: 12 CR, 35 EN Ornithological studies began in Peru at the end of the 1770s. The
and 61 VU. Apart from the above government decree, no red data book UVW WUHDWLVH RQ 3HUXYLDQ ELUGV ZDV SXEOLVKHG LQ 2UQLWKRORJLH GX
as such has been published in Peru (Box 1). Prou as a result of Taczanowskis sponsorship of expeditions by
Stolzmann and Jelski after 1860. Later, between 1931 and 1955
The principal direct threats to birds in Peru are hunting for consump- John T. Zimmer published Studies on Peruvian Birds following ex-
WLRQGLUHFWFDSWXUHIRUWKHSHWWUDGHLQGLUHFWFDSWXUHLQVKLQJQHWVDQG peditions to the country backed by the Chicago Field Museum. In
habitat destruction (mainly conversion of montane, dry and Amazon 1964, ONeill began expeditions in Peru, resulting in the descrip-
forests to agriculture caused by human migrations). Mining and petro- WLRQRIVSHFLHVQHZWRVFLHQFH )UDQNH $VFLHQWLFELUG
OHXPH[WUDFWLRQDUHDOVRVLJQLFDQWWKUHDWV FROOHFWLRQ ZDV UVW EHJXQ LQ 3HUX E\$QWRQLR 5DLPRQGL ZKRVH
specimens formed the basis of the Ornithological Collection of the
At global level, Peru has the second highest number of restricted-range Natural History Museum of the Universidad Nacional Mayor de
species (211) and the highest among Neotropical countries. These San Marcos (Franke 2007). Further collections now exist in Tru-
species are distributed over 16 Endemic Bird Areas (EBAs) and three jillo, Arequipa, and Lima.

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6HFRQGDU\$UHDV 6WDWWHUVHOGet al. 1998). A new Secondary Area has An important milestone in Peruvian ornithology was the publication
also been proposed for Scarlet-banded Barbet (Capito wallacei) and RIWKHFRXQWU\VUVWFKHFNOLVWE\3DUNHUet al. (1982). In 2001, the
Royal Sunangel (Heliangelus regalis). There are 352 species restricted UVWJXLGHWRWKHELUGVRI3HUXZDVSXEOLVKHGE\&OHPHQWV 6KDQ\
to six biomes, with the Central Andes (CAN) biome being the best subsequently, Schulenberg et al. produced the most complete work
represented with 179 species present in Peru of a total of 213 restricted on Peruvian birds in 2007.
to the biome. Records also exist for 135 migratory species, which can
be grouped into three categories: 40 Neartic migratory species, breed-
ing in the Neotropics, 51 Neartic species which do not breed in the The Ornithological Union of Peru was established in October 2006
Neotropics and 44 austral migrants (Stotz et al. 1996). DVDQRQSURWPDNLQJRUJDQL]DWLRQZKLFKDLPVWRSURPRWHHGXFD
WLRQVFLHQWLFVWXG\DQGFRQVHUYDWLRQRIELUGVLQ3HUX,Q$SULO
Peru has more members of the family Tyrannidae (248 species), Furnariidae the Peruvian Checklist Committee was created, consisting of a
 DQG(PHUL]LGDH  WKDQDQ\RWKHUFRXQWU\LQWKHZRUOGDVZHOODVYH group of 10 ornithologists, and aimed at evaluating and validating
,QFDQFKVSHFLHVEHORQJWRWKHHQGHPLFJHQXVIncaspiza (Valqui 2006). new bird records for the country.

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MYVTTPUPUNYLSH[LKHJ[P]P[PLZ;OL[^VPUKP]PK\HSZ[V[OLYPNO[HYL:PS]LY`.YLIL7VKPJLWZVJJPWP[HSPZ7OV[V!(SLQHUKYV;LSSV"^^^YHYLIPYKZ`LHYIVVRJVT


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International, and was consolidated at the 1st National IBA Workshop,
during the 5th National Ornithological Meeting in Arequipa (20-23 Octo- 0)(ZPKLU[PLKPU^LYL
ber 2003). The above process, as well as the workshop, at which almost
140 people participated, was organized by staff at the Javier Prado Natural YL]PZLKHUK\WKH[LK
History Museum, led by Irma Franke (Franke et al. 2005). A preliminary
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workshop, covering 191,199 km2 (14.75% of Perus area). In total, 116 IBAs have been designated in Peru, covering 20,022,070 ha,
representing 15% of the countrys land area (Table 2, Figure 1). IBAs in-
These IBAs were published in the 2005 regional directory for the Tropical clude 41 of 63 protected areas within the national protected area system
Andes (BirdLife International & Conservation International 2005). In 2008, a (wholly or partially), representing 65% of protected areas.
process to update the IBA inventory was begun. At the 7th National Ornitho-
logical Conference in Piura a second IBA workshop was held with approxi- Nine of 13 Ramsar sites in Peru have been designated as IBAs: Bofedales
PDWHO\SDUWLFLSDQWV$WWKHZRUNVKRSWKH,%$VLGHQWLHGLQZHUH y Laguna de Salinas (PE103), Humedal Lucre (Huacarpay; PE091), Lago
revised and updated, resulting in new IBA proposals, elimination of others, Titicaca (PE097), Pacaya Samiria (PE109), Paracas (PE038), Reserva Na-
UHGHQLWLRQRIERXQGDULHVQDPHFKDQJHVDQGFRQUPDWLRQRIDGGLWLRQDOVSH cional de Junn (PE077), Santuario Nacional Lagunas de Meja (PE046),
cies within IBAs. This chapter presents the results of this updating process. Pantanos de Villa (PE034) and Vice (PE012).

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6LWHVZKLFKKDYHEHHQUHGHQHGRUFKDQJHGQDPHVLQFH)UDQNHet al. (2005) are marked by a singled asterisk, new sites are marked by a double asterisk.
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&ORINFORMATIONONTRIGGERSPECIESATEACH)"! SEEINDIVIDUALSITEACCOUNTSAT
"IRD,IFES$ATA:ONEWWWBIRDLIFEORGDATAZONESITES

The data compiled to identify IBAs in Peru comprises 1704 records of IBAs are located in the regions of Ancash, Piura, Lambayeque, Amazo-
393 bird species meeting different IBA criteria, corresponding to 22% of nas, Cajamarca, La Libertad, San Martin and Arequipa. Sites have been
the countrys avifauna. A total of 86 of 100 species of globally threatened HOLPLQDWHGPDLQO\GXHWRWD[RQRPLFFKDQJHVLQVSHFLHVRUUHGHQLWLRQRI
birds present in Peru meet IBA criteria within the network of sites. The boundaries. The least represented regions in the whole IBA network are
main exceptions are marine birds, especially threatened Albatrosses and Huancavelica, Ayacucho, Abancay and Moquegua, whereas the best rep-
Petrels, given that the present inventory only includes terrestrial sites and resented regions correspond to Madre de Dios, San Martin and Tumbes.
islands. 201 species restricted to the 16 EBAs and Secondary Areas are
represented in 99 sites as well as 308 biome-restricted species in 58 sites. All ecoregions in Peru except two are represented in at least one IBA. Both
unrepresented ecoregions are found in geographical extremes of the coun-
Compared to the 2005 IBA inventory, nine new sites were added to the net- try: Tumbesian mangroves in northwest Peru on the border with Ecuador;
ZRUNLQKDYHEHHQUHMHFWHGDQGKDYHEHHQUHGHQHGLQFUHDVLQJ and Solimoes-Japura humid forests in the northwest of the country, to the
the total IBA area in the country by 902,170 ha (shown in Table 1). New north of the Napo and Amazon rivers, on the border with Colombia.

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system conservation in general, have been implemented in IBAs. Site
7VZP[PVUPUN0)(ZHZRL`VIZLY]H[PVU
management and project implementation has been strongest in IBAs
which are also protected areas and managed by the National State Pro-
WVPU[ZVUIPYKPUNYV\[LZWYV]PKLZ
tected Areas Service, sometimes in association with conservation or- L_JLSSLU[KL]LSVWTLU[VWWVY[\UP[PLZ
ganizations. However, in recent years, intense efforts by organizations,
individuals and researchers have been focused on bird conservation MVYJVTT\UP[PLZ
actions in IBAs outside the National System of Protected Areas.
The IBA concept in Peru is relatively young and has only recently be-
A tangible example of site conservation following IBA designation is gun to gather strength. Priorities for the IBA program should include:
the project funded by the British Birdwatching Fair in 2004, promoting 1) creating formal protection for unprotected sites, given the many
the conservation of species in the north of Peru, such as the Endangered and increasing threats; 2) basic research on many threatened species
Marvellous Spatuletail (Loddigesia mirabilis) and the Critically Endan- in order to ascertain their real status; 3) priority setting among IBAs
gered White-winged Guan (Penelope albipennis) in the IBAs of Rio Ut- to establish where most urgent action is needed; and 4) incorporation
cubamba (PE057) and Bosques Secos de Salitral - Huarmaca Olmos of the IBA concept at central government level to ensure that IBAs are
(PE010), respectively, both of which currently lack formal protection. considered within development plans at all levels.

Another opportunity for IBA conservation is to position sites as key


7YPVYP[PLZMVY[OL0)(WYVNYHTPUJS\KL observation points on birding routes. PromPeru, the national Export
and Tourism Promotion Board, has recently begun a strong market-
LZ[HISPZOPUNMVYTHSWYV[LJ[PVU ing campaign to publicize this type of tourism both within Peru and
abroad. Three main birding routes exist in the north, center and south
WYPVYP[PaH[PVUHUKPUJVYWVYH[PVUPU[V of the country, in which many key sites coincide with IBAs. This co-
occurrence provides excellent development opportunities for local
NV]LYUTLU[HNLUKHZ communities, which could help ensure site conservation.

Data sources ANGULO, F., PALOMINO, W., ARNAL, H., AUCCA, C. & UCHOFEN, O. (2008) Corredor
Regional IBA Directory (Franke et al. 2005). GH&RQVHUYDFLyQGH$YHV0DUDxyQ$OWR0D\R$QiOLVLVGH'LVWULEXFLyQGH
$YHVGH$OWD3ULRULGDGGH&RQVHUYDFLyQH,GHQWLFDFLyQGH3URSXHVWDVGH
Bird lists for Peru UHDVSDUDVX&RQVHUYDFLyQ. Cusco, Peru: Asociacin Ecosistemas Andinos,
www.perubirdingroutes.com/NewWebsiteBirds/Site/Common/documents/ American Bird Conservancy.
Listadeaves_mplenge.pdf BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL & CONSERVATION INTERNATIONAL (2005) UHDV,PSRUWDQWHV
SACC: www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCCountryLists.html para la Conservacin de las Aves en los Andes Tropicales: sitios prioritarios
para la conservacin de la biodiversidad. Quito, Ecuador: BirdLife
Contact information International (BirdLife Conservation Series N 14).
Fernando Angulo Pratolongo (fernando.angulo@birdlife.org) BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL (2007) 2007 IUCN Red List for birds. http://www.birdlife.
,%$DQG7KUHDWHQHG6SHFLHV2IFHU3HUX3URJUDP org/datazone/species/
BirdLife International CDC-UNALM - CENTRO DE DATOS PARA LA CONSERVACION-UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL
&DOOH/RV=DURV//8UE0LUDRUHV&DVWLOOD AGRARIA LA MOLINA (2006) $QiOLVLVGHOD&REHUWXUD(FROyJLFDGHO6LVWHPD
Piura, Peru 1DFLRQDOGHUHDV1DWXUDOHV3URWHJLGDVSRUHO(VWDGR. Lima, Peru: CDC-
Tel. +51 73 348909 / 348914 UNALM, The Nature Conservancy.
CLEMENTS, J. & SHANY, N. (2001) A Field Guide to the Birds of Peru. California,
USA: Ibis Publishing Company.
CONAM - CONSEJO NACIONAL DEL AMBIENTE (2001) Per: Estrategia Nacional
sobre Diversidad Biolgica. Lima, Peru: CONAM.
FRANKE, I., MATTOS, J., SALINAS, L., MENDOZA, C. & ZAMBRANO, S. (2005) reas
My sincere thanks to all those people who contributed information to the process importantes para la conservacin de las aves en el Per. Pp. 471-619 in
of identifying and updating Perus IBAs. At the risk of omitting names, a special BirdLife International & Conservation Internacional. UHDV LPSRUWDQWHV
thanks to the following people: Edgardo Aguilar, Jos lvarez, Constantino Aucca, para la conservacin de las aves en los Andes Tropicales. Quito, Ecuador:
Katya Balta, Javier Barrio, Ronald Catpo, Ana Chunga, Vicente Cortz, Alex BirdLife Internacional (BirdLife Conservation Series N 14)
Cruz, Gunnar Engblom, Judith Figueroa, Jeremy Flanagan, Juan Carlos Flores, FRANKE, I. (2007) Historia de la ornitologa peruana e importancia de las
Irma Franke, Antonio Garcia Bravo, Diego Garca Olaechea, Mishari Garca, FROHFFLRQHV FLHQWtFDV GH DYHV Revista peruana de biologa 14(1): 159-
Melvin Gastaaga, Oscar Gonzales, Edwin Gutirrez, David Kikuchi, Jose La 164.
Torre, Ernesto Mlaga, Vctor Martnez, Ross McLeod, Alex More, Renzo Piana, MINISTERIO DE AGRICULTURA (2008) &ODVLFDFLyQGHWLSRVGHFOLPDVHQHO3HU~.
David Pineda, Manuel Plenge, Berioska Quispe, Neil Renwick, Luis Ros, Indra KWWSZZZPLQDJJRESHHOFOLPDFODVLFDFLRQGHFOLPDVKWPO
Rodrguez, Tom Schulenberg, Nathan Senner, Diego Shoobridge, Noam Shany, PARKER, T. A., PARKER, S. A. & PLENGE, M. A. (1982) An Annotated Checklist of
Alejandro Tabini, Trinidad Tapia, Alejandro Tello, Joe Tobias, Joaqun Ugarte, Peruvian birds. Vermillion, USA: Buteo Books.
Mauricio Ugarte, Jorge Valdez, Jaime Valenzuela, Jos Luis Venero, Jhonson EL PERUANO (2004) Decreto Supremo N 034 2004 AG del 22 de Septiembre
Vizcarra, Barry Walker, Rob Williams, Carlos Zavalaga, Horacio Zeballos, de 2004. Categorizacin de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna Silvestre.
William Zea and Renzo Zeppilli. REMSEN, J. V., JR., CADENA, C. D., JARAMILLO, A., NORES, M., PACHECO, J. F.,
ROBBINS, M. B., SCHULENBERG, T. S., STILES, F. G., STOTZ, D. F. & ZIMMER, K.
A special thanks is also due to those people who attended the IBA workshop J. (2008) 9HUVLRQ$FODVVLFDWLRQRIWKHELUGVSHFLHVRI6RXWK$PHULFD
during the 7th National Ornithological Conference, held in Piura on 29 April 2008, American Ornithologists Union. http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/
as well as to the organizers of the conference for providing this opportunity. SACCBaseline.html
SCHULENBERG, T. S., STOTZ, D. F., LANE, D. F., ONEILL, J. P. & PARKER, T. A.
Many thanks also to Rob P. Clay, Ian Davidson, Christian Devenish, David Daz, (2007) Birds of Peru. Princeton, USA: Princeton University Press.
STATTERSFIELD A. J., CROSBY, M. J., LONG, A. J. & WEGE, D. C. (1998) Endemic
Santiago Llore, Amiro Perez-Leroux, Amanda Tapia and tala Ypez of the BirdLife
Bird Areas of the World: priorities for biodiversity conservation. Cambridge,
Americas Secretariat in Quito for their support and help during the process. UK: BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series N 6).
STOTZ, D. F., FITZPATRICK, J. W., PARKER, T. A. & MOSKOVITS, D. K. (1996)
Finally, a sincere thanks to the Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. Chicago, USA: Chicago
Nacional Mayor de San Marcos and the authors of the Peru chapter in the University Press.
regional IBA directory (Franke et al. 2005), including all those mentioned in the VALQUI, T. (2006) Per. Edn natural de aves. Natural Eden of birds. Lima, Peru:
acknowledgements of this publication. Graph & Consult.