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Vlll

Content s

  • 2.1.6 Deformation of segregated alloys and its effect

on homogenisation

46

  • 2.1.7 Banding in rolled steels 50

    • 2.2 Nucleation of precipitates from supersaturated

solid solution

51

  • 2.2.1 Spinodal decomposition 5 /

  • 2.2.2 Homogeneous nucleation 55

  • 2.2.3 Heterogeneous nucleation jy

  • 2.2.4 The formation of transition phases 60

  • 2.2.5 Trace element effects 63

    • 2.3 Growth of precipitates from supersaturated

solid solution

64

  • 2.3.1 Diffusion controlled growth 65

  • 2.3.2 Growth kinetics of grain boundary phases 69

  • 2.3.3 Growth kinetics of Widmanstdtten plates ji

  • 2.3.4 Formation of misfit dislocations at interphase boundaries 72

    • 2.4 Second-phase dissolution 77

      • 2.4.1 Diffusion limited dissolution j8

      • 2.4.2 Interface reaction kinetics 80

      • 2.4.3 Precipitate arrays 82

      • 2.4.4 Application of the theory 82

Chapter 3

Highly metastable alloys 84

  • 3.1 Manufacturing methods 85

    • 3.1.1 Rapid solidification 85

    • 3.1.2 Cooling rate and undercooling 87

    • 3.1.3 Condensation, chemical reaction and mechanical

 

disruption

91

3.2

Metastable phase diagrams 94

  • 3.2.1 T o lines 94

 
  • 3.2.2 Submerged phases and transformations 95

  • 3.2.3 Glass transition temperature 99

    • 3.3 Metastable crystalline phases 106

      • 3.3.1 Microcrystalline and nanocrystalline alloys 106

      • 3.3.2 Segregation and supersaturated solid solutions 108

      • 3.3.3 Metastable crystalline and quasicrystalline compounds 114

        • 3.4 Amorphou s alloys 121

I

40 -

?

30 -

  • X n m

Figure 2.14 (a) Free energy-compositiona l relationshi p corre -

spondin g t o spinoda l decomposition , (b) Equilibriu m diagra m

an d spinoda l curve, (c) at 0 /) Z n alloy quenche d

Small angle X-ray spectr a for a n Al-2 2 from 425 °C an d anneale d at 65 °C for

(1) 0.5 min , (2) 5.0 min , (3) 34.5 min , (4) 65.0 min .

(After Rundma n an d Hilliar d 1967.)

10.0

 

36°

42°

< 111 >

23°

26°

28°

<100 >

 

"Random' grain boundarie s

0.01

-

0.001

-

0.0001

 

O.(X)2

0.004

0.006

Tin concentration , wt %

 

'Random '

 

200

-

boundarie s

C

OJ

 

/ o

 

/

/O

~

too

'Special ' boundarie s

  • 0 _L

O.(XX)1

0.0005

0.0010

0.0015

0.0020

0.0025

Tin concentration , wt %

(b)

Figure 4.44 (a) Rate of grain boundary migration at 300 °C versus wt% Sn for 'random' grain boundaries and 'special' grain boundaries in zone refined lead. (From Aust and Rutter 1959.) (b) Apparent activation energies of grain boundary migration versus wt% tin for 'random' and 'special' boundaries in zone-refined lead. (From Aust and

  • (a) Rutter 1959.)