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Airframe d Powerplant
MECHANlCS
POWERPLANT HANDBOOK

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION


FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION
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AIRFRAME AND POWERPLANT

MECHANICS

POWERPLANT HANDBOOK

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

Flight Standards Service

First Edition 1971


First Revision 1976

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U S Government Printing Omee


ll'nshlnpton. D C 20402
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PREFACE
This advisory circular is printed for persons preparing for a mechanics cer-
tificate with a powerplant rating. It is intended to provide basic information on
principles, fundamentals, and technical procedures in the areas relating to the power-
plant rating. This is designed to serve a s a guide for students enrolled in a formal
course of instruction, as well as the individual who is studying on his own.
This volume is devoted to an explanation of the units which make up each of
the systems that bring fuel, air, and ignition together in an aircraft engine for com-
bustion. It also contains information on engine construction features, lubrication
systems, exhaust systems, cooling systems, cylinder removal and replacement, com-
pression checks, and valve adjustments.
Because there are so many different types of aircraft engines in use today, it is
reasonable to expect minor differences to exist in like system components. To avoid
undue repetition, the practice of using representative systems and units is carried
out throughout the advisory circular. Subject-matter treatment throughout the
text is from a generalized point of view and its use can be supplemented by reference
to manufacturer's manuals and other textbooks if more detail is desired. This
advisory circular is not intended to replace, substitute for, or supersede official reg-
ulations o r manufacturer's instructions which should br consulted for final authority.
Grateful acknowledgement is extended to the manufacturers of enginr, propellers,
and powerplant accessories for their cooperation in making material availahle for
inclusion in this handbook.
This handbook contains material for which a copyright has been issued. Copy-
right material is used by special permission of United Aircraft Corporation, Pratt
and Whitney Aircraft Division, and may not be extracted or reproduced without
permission of the copyright owner.
The advancements in aeronautical technology dictate that this advisory circular
be hrought up-to-date periodically. It has bern updated, errors havr been corrected,
new material has been added, and some material has been rearranged to improve the
usefulness of the handbook. We would appreciate, h o w ~ r e r ,having errors hrought
to our attention, as well as suggestions for improving its usefulness. Your comments
and suggestions will be retained in our files until such time as the next revision is
completed.
Address all correspondence relating to this handbook to:
Department of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
Flight Standards National Fidd Office
P.O. Box 25082
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73125
T h r companion advisory circulars to AC 65-12A arc thr Airframr and Powt-r-
plant Mechanics General Handbook, AC (i5-9A, and thr Airframr and Powerplant
Mechanics Airframr Handbook, AC 65-15A.

iii
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CONTENTS
PREFACE ........................................................ iii
CONTENTS ....................................................... "
CHAPTER 1.-THEORY AND CONSTRUCTION O F AIRCRAlT ENGINES
General .....................................................
Comparison of Aircraft Powerplants .............................
Types of Reciprocating Engines .................................
Reciprocating Engine Design and Construction ....................
Crankshafts ..................................................
Connecting Rods .............................................
Pistons .....................................................
Piston Rings ................................................
Cylinders ....................................................
Cylinder Numbering ..........................................
Firing Order ................................................
Valves ......................................................
Valve-Operating Mechanism ....................................
Bearings ....................................................
Propeller Reduction Gearing ...................................
Propeller Shafts ..............................................
Reciprocating Engine Operating Principles .......................
Operating Cycles .............................................
Four-Stroke Cycle ............................................
Reciprocating Engine Power and Efficiencies ......................
Efficiencies ..................................................
Turbine Engine Construction ...................................
Air Entrance ................................................
Accessory Section ............................................
Compressor Section ............................................
Combustion Section ...........................................
Major Subassemblies ..........................................
Turboprop En. "lnes
' ...........................................
Turboshaft Engines ...........................................
Turbofan Engines ............................................
Turbine Engine Operating Principles ............................
Thrust ......................................................
Gas Turbine Engine Performance ...............................
CHAPTER 2.-INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS
Reciprocating Engine Induction Systems ..........................
Induction System Icing........................................
Internally Driven Superchargers .................................
Externally Driven Superchargers ................................
Turbosupercharger System for Large Reciprocating Engines .........
Turbocharger ................................................
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CHAPTER 2.-(Cont.)
Sea Level Boosted Turbocharger System .........................
Turbocompound Systems for Reciprocating Engines ................
Turbojet Engine Inlet Duct Systems ..............................
Turboprop Compressor Inlets ...................................
Reciprocating Engine Exhaust Systems ...........................
Reciprocating Engine Exhaust System Maintenance Practices ........
Turbine Engine Exhaust Ducts ..................................
Turboprop Exhaust System ....................................
Thrust Reversers .............................................
Engine Air-Inlet Voriex Destroyer ..............................

CHAPTER 3.-ENGINE FUEL AND FUEL METERING SYSTEMS


Fuel System Requirements .....................................
Basic Fuel System ...........................................
Fuel Metering Devices for Reciprocating Engines ..................
. .
Carburetion P r ~ n c ~ p l e........................................
s
Carburetor Systems ..........................................
Carburetor Types .............................................
Carburetorlcing ..............................................
Float-Type Carburetors ........................................
Pressure Injection Carburetors ..................................
Stromberg PS Series Carburetor ................................
Direct Fuel-Injection Systems ..................................
Carburetor Maintenance .......................................
Fuel System Inspection and Maintenance .........................
Water Injection System for Reciprocating Engines .................
Turbine Engine Fuel System-General Requirements ...............
Jet Fuel Controls .............................................
Coordinator .................................................
Fuel Control .................................................
Speed-Sensitive Control ........................................
Fuel Manifold Drain Valve ....................................
System Operation ............................................
Hydromechanical Fuel Control .................................
Fuel Conlrol Description .......................................
Fuel Scheduling System .......................................
Water Injection Re-Set System .................................
Jet Fuel Control Maintenance ...................................
Engine Fuel System Components ................................
Fuel Quantity Indicating Units ..................................
Watdr or Coolant Injection ....................................

CHAPTER 4.-ENGINE IGNITION AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS


Reciprocating Engine Ignition Systems ...........................
Battery Ignition System .......................................
Magneto Ignition System Operating Principles ....................
Auxiliary Ignition Units .......................................
Spark Plugs .................................................
Reciprocating Engine Ignition System Maintenance and Inspection .....
Magneto Ignition Timing Devices ...............................
Checking the Internal Timing of a Magneto .......................
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CHAPTER 4.-(Cont.)
..................
Timing High.Tension System Distributor Fingers
Spark Plug Inspection and Maintenance..........................
The Engine Analyzer ..........................................
Turbine Engine Ignition Systems................................
......................
Ignition System Inspection and Maintenance
Removal. Maintenance. and Instqllation of Ignition System Components
Powerplant Electrical Systems..................................
Lacing and Tying Wire Bundles .................................
Cutting Wire and Cable........................................
.......................................
Stripping Wire and Cable
Emergency Splicing Repairs ...................................
.....................
Connecting Terminal Lugs to Terminal Blocks
Bonding and Grounding .......................................
Connectors ..................................................
Conduit .....................................................
................................
Electrical Equipment Installation

CHAPTER 5.-ENGINE STARTING SYSTEMS


General .....................................................
Reciprocating Engine Starling Systems..........................
.................
Starting System Using Combination Inertia Starter
Direct-Cranking Electric Starting System
............................
for Large Reciprocating Engines
.........
Direct-Cranking Electric Starting System for Small Aircraft
Gas Turbine Engine Starters....................................
Air Turbine Starters ..........................................
Cartridge/Pneumatic Turbine Engine Starter.....................
Fuel/Air Combustion Turbine Starter............................
CHAPTER 6.-LUBRICATION AND COOLING SYSTEMS
Principles of Engine Lubrication ................................
..
Requirements and Characteristics of Reciprocating Engine Lubricants
Reciprocating Engine Lubrication Systems ........................
Internal Lubrication of Reciprocating Engines ....................
Lubrication System Maintenance Practices ........................
Requirements for Turbine Engine Lubricants .....................
Turbine Engine Lubrication Systems ............................
Typical Dry Sump Lubrication System ..........................
Engine Cooling Systems .......................................
Inspection of Cowling .........................................
Engine Cylinder Cooling Fin Inspection ..........................
Turbine Engine Cooling .......................................
CHAPTER 7.-PROPELLERS
General .....................................................
Basic Propeller Principles......................................
Propeller Operation ..........................................
Types of Propellers ...........................................
Classification of Propellers .....................................
Propellers Used on Light Aircraft ...............................
Constant Speed Propellers ......................................
vii
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CHAPTER 7.-(Cont.)
Feathering...................................................
.......................
Hamilton Standard Hydromatic Propellers
Hydraulic Governors..........................................
.....................................
Propeller Synchronization
..................................
Propeller Ice Control Systems
...........................
Propeller Inspection and Maintenance
Propeller Vibration...........................................
Blade Tracking ..............................................
Checking and Adjusting Propeller Blade Angles ...................
Propeller Balancing ...........................................
Servicing Propellers..........................................
Turboprop Propeller ..........................................
Blade Cuffs ..................................................
CHAPTER 8.-ENGINE REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT
General .....................................................
....................
Reasons for Removal of Reciprocating Engines
..............
Preparation of Reciprocating Engines for Installation
...............................
QECA Buildup of Radial En,o'n e s
Inspection and Replacement of Powerplant External Units and Systems
Preparing the Engine for Removal..............................
Removing the Engine .........................................
.................
Hoisting and Mounting the Engine for Installation
...............
Preparation of Engine for Ground and Flight Testing
Propeller Check ..............................................
........
Checks and Adjustments after Engine Run-up and Operation
...............
Removal and Installation of an Opposed-Type Engine
Engine Installation...........................................
....................
Turbojet Powerplant Removal and Installation
................................
Installation of Turbojet Engines
...........................
Rigging. Inspections. and Adjustments
...................
Turboprop Powerplant Removal and Installation
.......................
Helicopter Engine Removal and Installation
Rigging and Adjustment of Helicopter QECA.....................
EngineMounts ...............................................
Preservation and Storage of Engines.............................
Corrosion Preventive Treatment ................................
Engine Shipping Containers ....................................
Inspection of Stored Engines ...................................
Preservation and De-preservation of Gas Turbine Engines ............
CHAPTER 9.-ENGINE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS
General .....................................................
....................
Reciprocating Engine Fire Protection Systems
Firezones ...................................................
.....................................
Fire Extinguishing Agents
Turbine Engine Fire Protection Systems ..........................
Typical Multi-Engine Fire Protection System ......................
Fire Detection System Maintenance Practices .....................
Fire Extinguisher System Maintenance Practices ...................
Turbojet Aircraft Fire Protection System (Saherliner) ...............
viii
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CHAPTER 10.-ENGINE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION


Reciprocating Engine Overhaul ..................................
General Overhaul Procedures ...................................
Cylinder Assembly Reconditioning ..............................
.........................................
Crankshaft Inspection
Connecting Rods .............................................
..........................
Block Testing of Reciprocating Engines
Reciprocating Engine Operation ................................
Basic Engin,, Oprrating Principals ..............................
Factors Affecting Engine Operation ..............................
Engine Troubleshooting .......................................
Cylinder Maintenance .........................................
Cylinder Compression Tests ....................................
Cylinder Rcmoval ............................................
Cylinder Installation.........................................
Valve and Valve Mechanism ....................................
Cold Cylinder Check .........................................
Turbine Engine Maintenance ...................................
Combustion Section ..........................................
Insprction and Repair of Turbine Disc ..........................
Commercial Ratings ..........................................
Engine Instrumentation.......................................
Turbojet Engine Operation ....................................
Ground Operation ............................................
Engine Shutdown ..............................................
...............................
Troubleshooting Turbojet Engines
Turboprop Operation .........................................
................
Troubleshooting Procedures for Turboprop Engines
......................................
Jet Calibration Test Unit
Trouhlesliooting Aircraft Tachometrr System ......................
Spectron~t.tricOil Analysis Program.............................
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CHAPTER 10.-ENGINE MAINTENANCE AND OPERATION


Reciprocating Engine Overhaul ..................................
General Overhaul Procedures ...................................
Cylinder Assembly Reconditioning ..............................
.........................................
Crankshaft Inspection
Connecting Rods .............................................
..........................
Block Testing of Reciprocating Engines
Reciprocating Engine Operation ................................
Basic Engin,, Oprrating Principals ..............................
Factors Affecting Engine Operation ..............................
Engine Troubleshooting .......................................
Cylinder Maintenance .........................................
Cylinder Compression Tests ....................................
Cylinder Rcmoval ............................................
Cylinder Installation.........................................
Valve and Valve Mechanism ....................................
Cold Cylinder Check .........................................
Turbine Engine Maintenance ...................................
Combustion Section ..........................................
Insprction and Repair of Turbine Disc ..........................
Commercial Ratings ..........................................
Engine Instrumentation.......................................
Turbojet Engine Operation ....................................
Ground Operation ............................................
Engine Shutdown ..............................................
...............................
Troubleshooting Turbojet Engines
Turboprop Operation .........................................
................
Troubleshooting Procedures for Turboprop Engines
......................................
Jet Calibration Test Unit
Trouhlesliooting Aircraft Tachometrr System ......................
Spectron~t.tricOil Analysis Program.............................
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CHAPTER 1
THEORY AND CONSTRUCTION OF AIRCRAFT ENGINES

GENERAL the cycle where the pressure is high, relative to


For an aircraft to remain in level unaccelerated atmospheric.
flight, a thrust must be provided that is equal to and These engines are customarily divided into groups
opposite in direction to the aircraft drag. This or types depending upon:
thrust, or propulsive force, is provided by.a suitable (1)The working fluid used in the engine cycle,
type of heat engine. (2) the means by which the mechanical energy is
All heat engines have in common the ability to transmitted into a propulsive force, and
convert heat energy into mechanical energy, by the (3) the method of compressing the engine work-
flow of some fluid mass through the engine. In ing fluid.
all cases, the heat energy is released at a point in The types of engines are illustrated in figure 1-1.

Engine Type Major Means Engine Working Propulsive


of Compression Fluid Working Fluid
Turbojet. Turbine-driven Fuel/air mixture. Same as engine
compressor. working fluid.
Turboprop. Turbine-driven Fuel/air mixture. Ambient air.
compressor.
Ramjet. Ram compression due Fuel/air mixture. Same as engine
to high flight speed. working fluid.
Pulse-jet. Compression due to Fuel/air mixture. Same as engine
combustion. working fluid.
Reciprocating. Reciprocating action Fuel/air mixture. Ambient air.
of pistons.
Rocket. Compression due to Oxidizer/fuel Same as engine
combustion. mixture. working fluid.
Types of engines.

The propulsive force is obtained by the displace- pulse-jets accelerate a smaller quantity of air
ment of a working fluid (not necessarily the same through a large velocity change. They use the
fluid used within the engine) in a direction oppo- same working fluid for propulsive force that is used
site to that in which the airplane is propelled. This within the engine. A rocket carries ita own oxidizer
is an application of Newton's third law of motion. rather than using ambient air for combustion. It
Air is the principal fluid used for propulsion in discharges the gaseous byproducts of combustion
every type of powerplant except the rocket, in which through the exhaust nozzle at an extremely high
only the byproducts of combustion are accelerated velocity.
and displaced. Engines are further characterized by the means
The propellers of aircraft powered by reciprocat- of compressing the working fluid before the addi-
ing or turboprop engines accelerate a large mass of tion of heat. The basic methods of compression
air through a small velocity change. The fluid are :
(air) used for the propulsive force is a different (1)The turbine-driven compressor (turbine
quantity than that used within the engine to produce engine).
the mechanical energy. Turbojets, ramjets, and (2) The positive displacement, piston-type com-
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pressor (reciprocating engine). pounds of thrust, no direct comparison can be made.


(3) Ram compression due to forward flight speed However, since the reciprocating engine/propeller
(ramjet). combination receives its thrust from the propeller,
( 4 ) pressurerise due to (pulse.jet a com~arisoncan be made by converting the horse-
and rocket). power developed by the reciprocating engine to
thrust.
A more specific description of the major engine
If desired, the thrust of a gas turbine engine can
types used in commercial aviation is given later in
be converted into t.hp. (thrust horsepower). But
this chapter.
it is necessary to consider the speed of the aircraft.
COMPARISON OF AIRCRAFT POWERPLANTS This conversion can be accomplished by using the
In addition to the differences in the methods formula:
employed by the various types of powerplants for t.hp. = thrust x aircraft speed (m.p.h.)
producing thrust, there are differences in their suit- 375 mile-pounds per hour '
ability for different types of aircraft. The following The value 375 mile-pounds per hour is derived
discussion points out some of the important charac- from the basic horsepower formula as follows:
teristics which determine their suitability. 1 hp. = 33,000 ft.-lb. per minute.
33,000 x 60 = 1,980,000 ft.-lb. per hour.
General Requirements
1'980'000 = 375 mile.pounds per hour.
All engines must meet certain general require- 5,280
ments of eficiency, economy, and reliability. Be- One horsepower equals 33,000 ft.-lb. per minute
sides being economical in fuel consumption, an or 375 mile-pounds per hour. Under static condi-
aircraft engine must be economical (the cost of tion% thrust is figured as equivalent to approxi-
original procurement and the cost of maintenance) mately 2.6 pounds per hour.
and it must meet exacting requirements of efficiency If a gas turbine is producing 4,000 ~ o u n d sof
and low weight per horsepower ratio. ~t must be thrust and the aircraft in which the engine is iu-
capable of sustained output with no stalled is traveling at 500 m.p.h., the t.hp. will be:
sacrifice in reliability; it must also have the dura- 4M)0 500 = 5,333.33 t.hp.
bility to operate for long periods of time between 375
overhauls. It needs to be as compact as possible, It is necessary to calculate the horsepower for
yet have easy accessibility for maintenance. lt is each speed of an aircraft, since the horsepower
required to be as vibration free as possible and be varies with speed. Therefore, it is not practical to
able to cover a wide range of power output at vari. try rate Or the Output a hrbine engine
ous speeds and altitudes. on a horsepower basis.
These requirements dictate the use of ignition The aircraft engine operates at a relatively high
systems that will deliver the firing impulse to the percentage its maximum Power Output
spark plugs or igniter plugs at the proper .time in out its service life. The aircraft engine is at full
all kinds of weather and under other adverse con- power Output whenever a takeoff is made. It may
ditions. Fuel-metering devices are needed that will hold this Power for a period of time up to the
deliver fuel in the correct proportion to the air limits set by the manufacturer. The engine is sel-
ingested by the engine regardless of the attitude, dom at a power for than
or type of weather in which the engine is minutes, and usually not that long. Within a few
operated. The engine needs a type of oil system seconds after lift-off, the power is reduced to a
that delivers oil under the proper pressure to all of power that is wed for 'lirnbing and that can be
the operating parts of the engine when it is running. maintained for longer periods of time. After the
A I ~ it~ must
, have a system of damping units to aircraft has climbed to cruising altitude, the power
damp out the vibrations of the engine when it is of the engine(s) is further reduced to a cruise power
operating. which can be maintained for the duration of the
flight.
Power and Weight If the weight of an engine per brake horsepower
The useful output of all aircraft powerplants is (called the specific weight of the engine) is de-
thmst, the force which propels the aircraft. Since creased, the useful load that an aircraft can carry
the reciprocating engine is rated in b.hp. (brake and the performance of the aircraft obviously are
hofsepower) and the gas turbine engine is rated in increased. Every excess pound of weight carried by

2
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an aircraft engine reduces its performance. Tre- and "brake specific fuel consumption," respectively.
mendous gains in reducing the weight of the aircraft Equivalent ~pecificfuel consumption is used for the
engine through improvement in design and metal- turboprop engine and is the fuel flow in pounds per
lurgy have resulted in reciprocating engines now hour divided by a turboprop's equivalent shaft
producing approximately 1 hp. for each pound of horsepower. Comparisons can be made between
weight. the various engines on a specific fuel consumption
basis.
Fuel Economy At low speed, the reciprocating and turhopropel-
The basic parameter for describing the fuel econ- ler engines have better economy than the turbojet
omy of aircraft engines is usually specific fuel engines. However, at high speed, because of losses
consumption. Specific fuel consumption for turbo- in propeller efficiency, the reciprocatibg or turbo-
jets and ramjets is the fuel flow (lbs./hr.) divided propeller engine's efficiency becomes less than that
by thmst (Ibs.), and for reciprocating engines the of the turbojet. Figure 1-2 shows a comparison
fuel flow (Ibs./hr.) divided by brake horsepower. of average thrust specific fuel consumption of three
These are called "thrust specific fuel consumption" types of engines at rated power at sea level.

Flight Mach number

FIGURE
1-2. Comparison of fuel consumption for three types of engines at rated power at sea level.

Durability and Reliability leaves the factory.


Durability and reliability are usually considered Durability is the amount of engine life obtained
identical factors since it is difficult to mention one while maintaining the desired reliability. The fact
without including the other. An aircraft engine that an engine has successfully completed its type
is reliable when it can perform at the specified rat- or proof test indicates that it can be operated in
ings in widely varying flight attitudes and in extreme a normal manner over a long period before requir-
weather conditions. Standards of powerplant relia- ing overhaul. However, no definite time interval
bility are agreed upon by the FAA, the engine between overhauls is specified or implied in the
manufacturer, and the airframe manufacturer. The engine rating. The TBO (time between overhauls)
engine manufacturer ensures the reliability of his varies with the operating conditions such as engine
product by design, research, and testing. Close temperatures, amount of time the engine is operated
control of manufacturing and assembly procedures at high-power settings, and the maintenance received.
is maintained, and each engine is tested before it Reliability and durability are thus built into the
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engine by the manufacturer, but the continued relia- for engines of a given power. Themaximum overall
bility of the engine is determined by the mainte- efficiency of a turboprop powerplant is less than that
nance, overhaul, and operating personnel. Careful of a reciprocating engine at low speed. Turboprop
maintenance and overhaul methods, thorough engines operate most economically at high altitudes,
periodical and preflight inspections, and strict but they have a slightly lower service ceiling than
observance of the operating limits established by do turbosupercharged reciprocating engines. Econ-
the engine manufacturer will make engine failure a omy of operation of turboprop engines, in terms of
rare occurrence. cargo-ton-miles per pound of fuel, will usually be
poorer than that of reciprocating engines because
Operating Flexibility cargo-type aircraft are usually designed for low-
Operating flexibility is the ability of an engine to speed operation. On the other hand, cost of opera-
run smoothly and give desired performance at all tion of the turboprop may approach that of the
speeds from idling to full-power output. The air- reciprocating engine because it burns cheaper fuel.
craft engine must also function efficiently through Aircraft intended to cruise from high subsonic
all the variations in atmospheric conditions encoun- speeds up to Mach 2.0 are powered by turbojet
tered in widespread operations. engines. Like the turboprop, the turbojet operates
most eEciently at high altitudes. High-speed, turbo-
Compactness jet-propelled aircraft fuel economy, in terms of
To effect proper streamlining and balancing of miles per pound of fuel, is poorer than that attained
an aircraft, the shape and size of the engine must at low speeds with reciprocating en,'wines.
be as compact as possible. In single-engine aircraft, However, reciprocating engines are more complex
the shape and size of the engine also affect the view in operation than other engines. Correct operation
of the pilot, making a smaller engine better from of reciprocating engines requires about twice the
this standpoint, in addition to reducing the drag instrumentation required by turbojets or turboprops,
created by a large frontal area. and it requires several more controls. A change in
Weight limitations, naturally, are closely related power setting on some reciprocating engine installa-
to the compactness requirement. The more elon- tions may require the adjustment of five controls,
gated and spreadout an engine is, the more difficult but a change in power on a turbojet requires only
it becomes to keep the specific weight within the a change in throttle setting. Furthermore, there
allowable limits. are a greater number of critical temperatures and
pressures to be watched on reciprocating engine
Powerplant Selection
installations than on turbojet or turboprop
Engine specific weight and specific fuel consnmp. installations.
tion were discussed in the previous paragraphs, but
for certain design requirements, the final powerplant TYPES OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES
selection may be based on factors other than those Many types of reciprocating engines have been
which can be discussed from an analytical point of designed. However, manufacturers have developed
view. For that reason, a general discussion of some designs that are used more commonly than
powerplant selection is included here. others and are therefore recognized as conventional.
For aircraft whose cruising speeds will not exceed Reciprocating engines may be classified according
250 m.p.h. the reciprocating engine is the usual to cylinder arrangement with respect to the crank-
choice. When economy is required in the low.speed shaft (in-line, V-type, radial, and opposed) or
range, the conventional reciprocating engine is according to the method of cooling (liquid cooled
chosen because of its excellent efficiency. When or air cooled). Actually, all engines are cooled by
high-altitude performance is required, the turbo- transferring excess heat to the surrounding air. In
supercharged reciprocating engine may be chosen air.cooled engines, this heat transfer is direct from
because it is capable of maintaining rated power to a the cylinders to the air. In liquid-cooled engines,
high altitude (above 30,000 feet). the heat is transferred from the cylinders to the
In the range of cruising speeds from 180 to 350 coolant, which is then sent through tubing and
m.p.h. the turbopropeller engine performs better cooled within a radiator placed in the airstream.
than other types of engines. It develops more power The radiator must be large enough to cool the liquid
per pound of weight than does the reciprocating efficiently. Heat is transferred to air more slowly
engine, thus allowing a greater fuel load o r payload than it is to a liquid. Therefore, it is necessary to
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provide thin metal fins on the cylinders of an air- The opposed-type engine has a low weight-to-
cooled engine in order to have increased surface horsepower ratio, and its narrow silhouette makes
for sufficient heat transfer. Most aircraft engines it ideal for horizontal installation on the aircraft
are air cooled. wings. Another advantage is its comparative free-
dom from vibration.
In-line Engines
An in-line engine generally has an even number V-type Engines
of cylinders, although some three-cylinder en,'=w~es In the V-type engines, the cylinders are arranged
have been constructed. This engine may be either in two in-line banks generally set 60' apart. Most
liquid cooled or air cooled and has only one crank- of the engines have I2 cylinders, which are either
shaft, which is located either above or below the liquid cooled or air cooled. The engines are desig-
cylinders. If the engine is designed to operate with nated by a V, followed by a dash and the piston
the cylinders below the crankshaft, it is called an displacement in cubic inches, for example, V-1710.
inverted engine.
Radial Engines
The in-line engine has a small frontal area and is
better adapted to streamlining. When mounted The radial engine consists of a row, or rows, of
with the cylinders in an inverted position, it offers cylinders arranged radially about a central crank-
the added advantages of a shorter landing gear and case (see figure 1 4 ) . This type of engine has
greater pilot visibility. The in-line engine has a proven to be very rugged and dependable. The
higher weight-to-horsepower ratio than most other number of cylinders composing a row may be either
engines. With increase in engine size, the air three, five, seven, o r nine. Some radial engines
cooled, in-line type offers additional handicaps to have two rows of seven or nine cylinders arranged
proper cooling; therefore, this type of engine is, to radially about the crankcase. One type has four
a large degree, confined to low- and medium- rows of cylinders with seven cylinders in each row.
horsepower engines used in light aircraft.
Opposed or O-type Engines
The opposed-type engine, shown in figure 1 3 ,
has two banks of cylinders directly opposite each
other with a crankshaft in the center. The pistons
of both cylinder banks are connected to the single
crankshaft. Although the engine can be either liquid
cooled or air cooled, the air-cooled version is used
predominantly in aviation. It can be mounted with
the cylinders in either a vertical or horizontal
position.

FIGURE
14. Radial engine.

The power output from the different sizes of


radial engines varies from 100 to 3,800 horsepower.
RECIPROCATING ENGINE DESIGN AND CON-
STRUCTION
The basic parts of a reciprocating engine are the
crankcase, cylinders, pistons, connecting rods,
valves, valve-operating mechanism, and crankshaft.
FIGURE
1-3. Opposed engine. In the head of each cylinder are the valves and spark

5
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plugs. One of the valves is in a passage leading is a movable piston connected to a crankshaft by a
from the induction system; the other is in a passage connecting rod. Figure 1 5 illustrates the basic
leading to the exhaust system. Inside each cylinder parts of a reciprocating engine.

The cylinder forms a part of


Every internal combustion engine must have certain basic the chamber in which the
parts in order to change heat into mechanical energy. /fuel is compressed and burned.
/

An intake valve is needed to let the


into the cylinder. L An exhaust valve is needed
to let the exhaust gases out.

The piston, moving within the cylinder, I


forms one of the walls of the combustion chamber. I The connecting rod toms a link
The piston has rings which seal the gases between the piston and the
in the cylinder, preventing any loss of crankshaft.
power around the sides of the piston.

The crankshaft and connecting rod change the straight


line motion of the pisto~rto a rotary turning motion. The
crankshaft in an aircraft en ine also absorbs the power
or work from all the cylin8ers and transfers it to the
propeller.

FIGURE
1-5. Basic parts of a reciprocating engine.

Crankcase Sections powerplant to the aircraft. It must be sufficiently


The foundation of an engine is the crankcase. It rigid and strong to prevent misalignment of the
contains the bearings in which the crankshaft re- crankshaft and its bearings. Cast or forged alumi-
volves. Besides supporting itself, the crankcase num alloy is generally used for crankcase construc-
must provide a tight enclosure for the lubricating tion because it i s light and strong. Forged steel
oil and must support various external and internal crankcases are used on some of the high-power
mechanisms of the engine. I t also provides support output engines.
for attachment of the cylinder assemblies, and the The crankcase is subjected to many variations of
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vibrational and other forces. Since the cylinders propeller under high-power output, there are severe
are fastened to the crankcase, the tremendous centrifugal and gyroscopic forces applied to the
expansion forces tend to pull the cylinder off the crankcase due to sudden change in the direction
crankcase. The unbalanced centrifugal and inertia of flight, such as those occurring during maneuvers
forces of the crankshaft acting through the main of the airplane. Gyroscopic forces are, of course,
bearing subject the crankcase to bending moments particularly severe when a heavy propeller is
which change continuously in direction and magni- installed.
tude. The crankcase must have sufficient stiffness
to withstand these bending moments without objec- Radial Engines
tional deflections. If the engine is equipped with a The engine shown in figure 1-6 is a single-row,
propeller reduction gear, the front or drive end will nine.cylinder radial engine of relatively simple
be subjected to additional forces. construction, having a one.piece nose and a two-
In addition to the thrust forces developed by the section main crankcase.

Crankcase

NOSE
I POWER I SUPERCHARGER I ACCESSORY
SECTION I SECTION I SECTION I SECTION
FIGURE1-6. Engine sections.

The larger twin-row engines are of slightly the construction and the nomenclature differ
more complex construction than the single-row considerably.
engines. For example, the crankcase of the Wright
R-3350 engine is composed of the crankcase front Nose Section
section, four crankcase main sections (the front The shape of nose sections varies considerably.
main, the front center, the rear center, and the rear In general, it is either tapered or round in order to
main sections), the rear cam and tappet housing, place the metal under tension or compression in-
the supercharger front housing, the supercharger stead of shear stresses. A tapered nose section is
rear housing, and the supercharger rear housing used quite frequently on direct-drive, low-powered
cover. Pratt and Whitney engines of comparable engines, because extra space is not required to house
size incorporate the same basic sections, although the propeller reduction gear. It is usually cast of
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either aluminum alloy o r magnesium since the low removed through this opening by a suitable knuckle-
power developed and the use of a lightweight pin puller. The master rod is then removed by
propeller do not require a more expensive forged disassembling the split end and pulling the shank
nose section. out through the master rod cylinder hole. There is
The nose section on engines which develop from also an engine equipped with this crankshaft and
1,000 to 2,500 hp. is usually rounded and some- master rod arrangement which uses a split case
times ribbed to get as much strength as possible. crankcase held together by through bolts.
Aluminum alloy is the most widely used material The split main section (aluminum or magnesium
because of its adaptability to forging processes and alloy) may be slightly more expensive, but permits
its vibration-absorbing characteristics. better control over the quality of the ca5ting or
The design and construction of the nose section forging. The split main section is generally neces.
is an important factor since it is subjected to a wide sary when a solid master rod and a split-type
variation of forces and vibration. For instance, if crankshaft are used.
the valve mechanism is located in front of the This portion of the engine is often called the
cylinders, the vibration and forces occurring at the power section, because it is here that the reciprocat-
tappet and guide assembly are applied near the ing motion of the piston is converted to rotary
Banged portion of the case. The forces created by motion of the crankshaft.
the propeller reduction gear are applied to the case
Because of the tremendous loads and forces from
as a whole. Careful vibration surveys are conducted
the crankshaft assembly and the tendency of the
during the experimental testing of newly designed
cylinders to pull the crankcase apart, especially in
engines to see that these conditions will not become
extreme conditions when a high-powered engine is
detrimental throughout the operating range of the
detonated, the main crankcase section must be very
engine.
well designed and constructed. It is good practice
The mounting of the propeller governor varies.
to forge this section from alulninum alloy to obtain
On some engines it is located on the rear section,
uniformity in the density of the metal and maximum
although this complicates the installation, especially
strength. One large engine uses a forged alloy
if the propeller is operated or controlled by oil
steel main section, which is slightly heavier but has
pressure, because of the distance between the gover-
very great strength. The design of the forged sec-
nor and propeller. Where hydraulically operated
tions is usually such that both halves can be made
propellers are used, it is good practice to mount the
in the same die in order to reduce manufacturing
governor on the nose section as close to the propeller
costs. Any variations can be taken care of during
as possible to reduce the length of the oil passages.
the machining operation. The two halves are
The governor is then driven either from gear teeth
joined on the center line of the cylinders and held
on the periphery of the bell gear or by some other
together by suitable high-strength bolts.
suitable means.
Since the nose section transmits many varied The machined surfaces on which the cylinders
forces to the main or power section. it must be are mounted are called cylinder pads. They are
properly secured to transmit the loads efficiently. provided with a suitable means of retaining or
It also must have intimate contact to give rapid and fastening the cylinders to the crankcase. The
uniform heat conduction, and be oiltight to prevent general practice in securing the cylinder flange to
leakage. This is usually accomplished by an offset the pad is to mount studs in threaded holes in the
or ground joint, secured by studs or capscrews. crankcase.
On some of the larger engines, a small chamber On engines equipped with the steel main section,
is located on the bottom of the nose section to collect capscrews are being utilized because the threads
the oil. This is called the nose section oil sump. may be tapped in the stronger material and are not
as likely to he stripped or stretched by installing
Power Section and removing threaded members.
On engines equipped with a two-piece master rod The inner portion of the cylinder pads are some-
and a solid-type crankshaft, the main or power times chamfered or tapered to permit the installa-
crankcase section may be solid, usually of aluminum tion of a large rubber O-ring around the cylinder
alloy. The front end of this section is open when skirt, which effectively seals the joint between the
the diaphragm plate in which the front main bearing cylinder and the crankcase pads against oil leakage.
is mounted is removed. The knuckle pins may be Because oil is thrdwn about the crankcase,
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especially on inverted in-line and radial-type arranged so that it will not leak air and change the
engines, the cylinder skirts extend a considerable desired fuel/air ratio.
distance into the crankcase sections to reduce the AccessorySection
flow of oil into the inverted cylinders. The piston ~h~ accessory (rear) section is of cast
and ring assemblies, of course, have to be arranged construction, and the material may be either alumi-
so that they will throw out the oil splashed directly num which is used most widely, or magnesium,
into them. which has been used to some extent. On some
As mentioned previously, the nose section is engines, it is cast in one piece and provided with
secured to one side of the main section unit, and means for mounting the accessories, such as mag-
the diffuser or blower section is attached to the other netos, carburetors, fuel, vacuum pumps,
side. and starter, generator, etc., in the various locations
Diffuser Section required to facilitate accessibility. Other adapta-
The diffuser or supercharger section generally is tions consist of an aluminum alloy casting and a
separate cast magnesium cover plate on which the
cast of aluminum alloy, although, in a few cases,
accessory mounts are arranged.
the lighter magnesium alloy is used.
Mounting lugs are spaced about the periphery of Recent design practice has been toward standard-
this section to attach the engine assembly to the izing the mounting arrangement for the various
engine mount or framework provided for attaching accessories so that they will be interchangeable on
the powerplant to the fuselage of single-engine air- different makes of engines. For example, the
craft or to the wing nacelle structure of multiengine increased demands for electric current on large
aircraft. The mounting lugs may be either integral aircraft and the requirements of higher starting
with the diffuser section or detachable, as in the torque on powerful engines have resulted in an
case of flexible or dynamic engine mounts. increase in the size of starters and generators.
The mounting arrangement supports the entire This means that a greater numher of mounting bolts
powerplant including the propeller, and therefore must be provided and, in some cases, the entire
is designed to provide ample strength for rapid rear section strengthened.
maneuvers or other loadings. Accessory drive shafts are mounted in suitable
Because of the elongation and contraction of the bronze bushings located in the diffuser and rear
cylinders, the intake pipes which carry the mixture sections. These shafts extend into the rear section
from the diffuser chamber through the intake valve and are fitted with suitable gears from which power
ports are arranged to provide a slip joint which takeoffs or drive arrangements are carried out to
must be leakproof, The atmospheric pressure on the pads. In this manner the
the outside of the case of an unsupercharged engine various gear ratios can be arranged to give the
be higher than on the inside, especially when proper drive magnet0, pump, and other
the engine is operating at idling speed, ~f the accessories to obtain correct timing or functioning.
engine is equipped with a supercharger and operat- In some cases there is a duplication of drives,
ed at full throttle, the pressure will be considerably such as the tachometer drive, to connect instruments
higher on the inside than on the outside of the case. located at separate stations.
If the slip joint connection has a slight leakage, The provides a place
the engine may idle fast due to a slight leaning of for the carburetor, or master control, fuel injection
mixture. ~f the leak is quite large, it may not pumps, engine-driven fuel pump, tachometer
idle at all. At open throttle, a small leak probably generator, generator for the engine
would not be noticeable in operation of the engine, analyzer, oil filter, and oil pressure relief valve.
but the slight leaning of the fuel/air mixture might ACC~SSO'Y
Gear Trains
cause detonation or damage to the valves and valve Gear trains, containing both spur- and bevel-type
seats. gears, are used in the different types of engines for
On some radial engines, the intake pipe has driving engine components and accessories. Spur-
considerable length and on some in-line engines, type gears are generally used to drive the heavier
the intake pipe is at right angles to the cylinders. loaded accessories or those requiring the least
In these cases, flexibility of the intake pipe or its play or backlash in the gear train. Bevel gears
arrangement eliminates the need for a slip joint. permit angular location of short stub shafts leading
In an) case, the engine induction system must he to the various accessory mounting pads.

9
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Practically all high-powered engines are equipped generator gear trains from excessive loads.
with a supercharger. From 75 to 125 hp. may be Opposed and In-line Types
required to drive the supercharger. The accelera- The crankcases used on engines having opposed
tion and deceleration forces imposed on the super- or in-line cylinder arrangements vary in form for
charger gear train when opening and closing the the different types of engines, but in general they
throttle make some kind of antishock device are approximately cylindrical. One or more sides
necessary to relieve excessive loads. The current are surfaced to serve as a base to which the cylinders
practice on large radial engines is to use a main are attached by means of capscrews, bolts, or studs.
accessory drive gear which is fitted with several These accurately machined surfaces are frequently
springs between the rim of the gear and drive shaft. referred to as cylinder pads.
This device, called the spring-loaded accessory The crankshaft is carried in a position ~ a r a l l e l
drive gear, permits absorption of forces of high to the longitudinal axis of the crankcase and is
magnitude, preventing damage to the accessory generally supported by a main bearing between each
gear trains. When an engine is equipped with a throw. The crankshaft main bearings must be
two-speed supercharger, the oil-pressure operated supported rigidly in the crankcase. This usually is
clutches act as shock absorbers to protect the super- accomplished by means of transverse webs in the
charger gear train. crankcase, one for each main bearing. The webs
On the low-powered, opposed, and in-line engines, form an integral part of the structure and, in addi-
the accessory gear trains are usually simple arrange- tion to supporting the main bearings, add to the
ments. Many of these engines use synthetic rubber strength of the entire case.
or spring couplings to protect the magneto and The crankcase is divided into two sections in a

FIGURE1-7. Typical opposed engine exploded into component assemblies.


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longitudinal plane. This division may be in the transform the reciprocating motion of the piston
plane of the crankshaft so that one.half of the main and connecting rod into rotary motion for rotation
hearing (and sometimes camshaft bearings) are car- of the propeller. The crankshaft, as the name im-
ried in one section of the case and the other half in plies, is a shaft composed of one or more cranks
the opposite section. (See figure 1-7.) Another located at specified points along its length. The
method is to divide the case in such a manner that cranks, or throws, are formed by forging offsets into
the main bearings are secured to only one section a shaft before it is machined. Since crankshafts
of the case on which the cylinders are attached, must be very strong, they generally are forged from
thereby providing means of removing a section of a very strong alloy, such as chromium-nickel.
the crankcase for inspection without disturbing the molybdenum steel.
bearing adjustment. A crankshaft may be of single-piece or multipiece
construction. Figwe 1-8 shows two representative
CRANKSHAFTS types of solid crankshafts used in aircraft engines.
The crankshaft is the backhone of the reciprocat- The four-throw construction may he used either on
ing engine. It is subjected to most of the forces four-cylinder horizontal opposed or four-cylinder
developed by the engine. Its main purpose is to in-line engines.

FIGURE
1-8. Solid types of crankshafts.

The six-throw shaft is used on six-cylinder in-line journals and is often called the throw. Two crank
engines, 12-cylinder V-type engines, and six-cylinder cheeks and a crankpin make a throw. When a
opposed engines. force is applied to the crankpin in any direction
Crankshafts of radial engines may be the single- other than parallel or perpendicular to and through
throw, two-throw, or four-throw type, depending on the center line of the crankshaft, it will cause the
whether the engine is the single-row, twin-row, or crankshaft to rotate. The outer surface is hardened
four-row type. A single-throw radial engine crank- by nitriding to increase its resistance to wear and
shaft is shown in figure 1-9. to provide the required bearing surface. The crank-
No matter how many throws it may have, each
pin is usually hollow. This reduces the total weight
crankshaft has three main parts-a journal, crank-
of the crankshaft and provides a passage for the
pin, and crank cheek. Counterweights and dampers,
although not a true part of a crankshaft, are usually transfer of lubricating oil. The hollow crankpin
attached to it to reduce engine vibration. also serves as a chamber for collecting sludge, car-
The journal is supported by, and rotates in, a main bon deposits, and other foreign material. Centrifu-
bearing. It serves as the center of rotation of the gal force throws these substances to the outside of
crankshaft. It is surface-hardened to reduce wear. the chamber and thus keeps them from reaching the
The crankpin is the section to which the connect- connecting-rod bearing surface. On some engines
ing rod is attached. It is off-center from the main a passage is drilled in the crank cheek to allow oil
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axis of rotation. When testing the crankshaft for


static balance, it is placed on two knife edges. If
the shaft tends to turn toward any one position dur-
ing the test, it is out of static balance.
A crankshaft is dynamically balanced when all
the forces created by crankshaft rotation and power
impulses are balanced within themselves so that little
or no vibration is produced when the engine is oper-
ating. To reduce vibration to a minimum during
engine operation, dynamic dampers are incorporated
on the crankshaft. A dynamic damper is merely a
pendulum which is so fastened to the crankshaft that
it is free to move in a small arc. It is incorporated
in the counterweight assembly. Some crankshafts
incorporate two o r more of these assemblies, each
being attached to a different crank cheek. The
, weights distance the pendulum moves and its vibrating fre-
Counterweight
quency correspond to the frequency of the power
FIGURE1-9. A single-throw impulses gf the engine. When the vibration fre-
radial engine crankshaft. quency of the crankshaft occurs, the pendulum oscil-
lates out of time with the crankshaft vibration, thus
from the hollow crankshaft to be sprayed on the reducing vibration to a minimum.
cylinder walls.
The crank cheek connects the crankpin to the Dynamic Dampers
main journal. In some designs, the cheek extends The construction of the dynamic damper used in
beyond the journal and carries a counterweight to one engine consists of a movable slotted-steel coun-
balance the crankshaft. The crank cheek must be of terweight attached to the crank cheek. Two spool-
sturdy construction to obtain the required rigidity shaped steel pins extend into the slot and pass
between the crankpin and the journal. through oversized holes in the counterweight and
In all cases, the type of crankshaft and the num- crank cheek. The difference in the diameter be-
ber of crankpins must correspond with the cylinder tween the pins and the holes provides a pendulum
arrangement of the engine. The position of the effect. An analogy of the functioning of a dynamic
cranks on the crankshaft in relation to the other
cranks of the same shaft is expressed in degrees.
-
damoer is shown in figure 1-10.

The simplest crankshaft is the single-throw or CONNECTING RODS


3600 type. hi^ type is used in a single.row radial The connecting rod is the link which transmits
engine. ~t can be constructed in one or two pieces. forces between the piston and the crankshaft. Con-
Two main bearings (one on each end) are provided necting rods must be Strong enough to remain rigid
when this type of crankshaft is used. under load and yet be light enough to reduce the
~h~ double-throw or 1800 crankshaft is used on inertia forces which are produced when the rod and
radial engines. ln the radial.type en. piston stop, change direction, and start again at the
gine,
. one throw is provided for each row of cylinders. end of each stroke.
There are three types of connecting-rod assem-
Crankshaft Balance
.. connecting rod, (2) the
blies: ( 1 ) The plain-type
Excessive vibration in an engine not only results fork.and.blade cbnnecting rod, and T3) the master.
in fatigue failure of the metal structures, but also and.articulated.rod (See figure 1-11,)
causes the moving- *Darts to wear r a ~ i d l v . In some
A ,

instances, excessive vibration is caused by a crank- Master-and-Articulated Rod Assembly


shaft which is not balanced. Crankshafts are bal- The master-and-articulated rod assembly is com-
anced for static balance and dynamic balance. monly used in radial engines. In a radial engine
A crankshaft is statically balanced when the the piston in one cylinder in each row is connected
weight of the entire assembly of crankpins, crank to the crankshaft by a master rod. All other pistons
cheeks, and counterweights is balanced around the in the row are connected to the master rod by an
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If a simple pendulum is given a series of regular impulses at a speed corresponding to its natural frequency (u3ing a bellows
to simulate a power impulse in an engine) it will commence swinging, or vibrating, back and forth from the impulses.
Another pendulum, suspended from the first, would absorb the impulses and swing itself, leaving the fint stationary. The
dynamic damper is a short pendulum hung on the crankshaft and tuned to the frequency of the power impulses to absorb
vibration in the same manner.

FIGURE
1-10. Principles of a dynamic damper.

articulated rod. In an 18-cylinder engine which has


two rows of cylinders, there are two master rods and The elliptical paths are symmetrical about a cen-
16 articulated rods. The articulated rods are con- ter line through the master rod cylinder. It can be
structed of forged steel alloy in either the I- or seen that the major diameters of the ellipses are not
H-shape, denoting the cross-sectional shape. Bronze the same. Thus, the link rods will have varying
bushings are pressed into the bores in each end of degrees of angularity relative to the center of the
the articulated rod to provide knuckle-pin and crank throw.
piston-pin bearings. Because of the varying angularity of the link rods
The master rod serves as the connecting link and the elliptical motion of the knuckle pins, all
between the piston pin and the crankpin. The pistons do not move an equal amount in each
crankpin end, or the "big end," contains the crank- cylinder for a given number of degrees of crank
pin or master rod bearing. Flanges around the big throw movement. This variation in piston position
end provide for the attachment of the articulated between cylinders can have considerable effect on
rods. The articulated rods are attached to the engine operation. To minimize the effect of these
master rod by knuckle pins, which are pressed into factors on valve and ignition timing, the knuckle-
holes in the master rod flanges during assembly. A pin holes in the master rod flange are not equi-
plain bearing, usually called a piston-pin bushing, is
installed in the piston end of the master rod to
receive the piston pin. -
distant from the center of the crankpin, thereby
offsetting to an extent the effect of the link rod
angularity.
When a crankshaft of the split-spline or split-
clamp type is employed, a one-piece master rod is Another method of minimizing the adverse effects
used. The master and articulated rods are assem- on engine operation is to use a compensated mag-
bled and then installed on the crankpin; the crank- neto. In this magneto the breaker cam has a number
of lobes equal to the number of cylinders on the
shaft sections are then joined together. In engines
that use the one-piece type of crankshaft, the big engine. To compensate for the variation in piston
end of the master rod is split, as is the master rod position due to link rod angularity, the breaker cam
bearing. The main part of the master rod is lobes are ground with uneven spacing. This allows
installed on the crankpin; then the bearing cap is the breaker contacts to open when the piston is in
set in place and bolted to the master rod. the correct firing position. This will be further
The centers of the knuckle pins do not coincide outlined during the discussion on ignition timing
in Chapter 4.
with the center of the crankpin. Thus, while the
crankpin center describes a true circle for each Knuckle Pins
revolution of the crankshaft, the centers of the The knuckle pins are of solid construction except
knuckle pins describe an elliptical path (see figure for the oil passages drilled in the pins, which lubri-

13
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ANDBLADEROD

Knuckle pin
lock plate

Piston pin end

Bronze bushing

Shank

bolts
SPLIT TYPE MASTER ROD
PLAIN ROD

FIGURE
1-11. Connecting rod assemblies.
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moves down in the cylinder, it draws in the fuel/air


mixture. As it moves upward, it compresses the
charge, ignition occurs, and the expanding gases
force the piston downward. This force is transmit-
ted to the crankshaft through the connecting rod.
On the return upward stroke, the piston forces the
exhaust gases from the cylinder.

Piston Construction
The majority of aircraft engine pistons are ma-
chined from aluminum alloy forgings. Grooves are
machined in the outside surface of the piston to
receive the piston rings, and cooling fins are provid-
ed on the inside of the piston for greater heat trans-
fer to the engine oil.
Pistons may be either the trunk type or the slip-
per type; both are shown in figure 1-13. Slipper-
type pistons are not used in modern, high-powered
FIGURE
1-12. Elliptical travel path of knuckle pins engines because they do not provide adequate
in an articulated rod assembly. strength or wear resistance. The top face of the
piston, or head, may be either flat, convex, or con-
cate the knuckle.pin bushings. These pins may be cave. Recesses may be machined in the piston
installed by pressing into holes in the master rod head to prevent interference with the valves.
flanges so that they are prevented from turning in As many as six grooves may be machined around
the master rod. Knuckle pins may also be installed the piston to accommodate the compression rings
with a loose fit so that they can turn in the master and oil rings. (See figure 1-13.) The compression
rod flange holes, and also turn in the articulating rings are installed in the three uppermost grooves;
rod bushings. These are called 'Lfull-floating" the oil control rings are installed immediately above
knuckle pins. In either type of installation a lock the piston pin. The piston is usually drilled at the
plate on each side retains the knuckle pin and oil control ring grooves to allow surplus oil scraped
prevents a lateral movement of it. from the cylinder walls by the oil control rings to
pass back into the crankcase. An oil scraper ring
Plain-Type Connecting Rods is installed at the base of the piston wall or skirt to
Plain-type connecting rods are used in in-line and prevent excessive oil consumption. The portions of
opposed engines. The end of the rod attached to the piston walls that lie between each pair of ring
the crankpin is fitted with a cap and a two-piece grooves are called the ring lauds.
bearing. The bearing cap is held on the end of the In addition to acting as a guide for the piston
rod by bolts or studs. To maintain proper fit and
head, the piston skirt incorporates the piston.pin
balance, connecting rods should always be replaced bosses. The piston-pin bosses are of heavy con-
in the same cylinder and in the same relative position. struction to enable the heavy load on the piston head
Fork-gnd-Blade Rod Assembly to be transferred to the piston pin.
The fork-and-blade rod assembly is used primarily piston Pin
in v-iype engines. The forked rod is split at the
The piston pin joins the piston to the connecting
crankpin end to allow space for the blade rod to
rod. It is machined in the form of a tube from a
fit between the prongs. A single two-piece bearing
nickel steel alloy forging, casehardened and ground.
is used on the crankshaft end of the rod.
The piston pin is sometimes called a wristpin be-
PISTONS cause of the similarity between the relative motions
~h~ piston of a reciprocating engineis a cylindri. of the piston and the articulated rod and that of
cal member which moves back and forth within a the human arm.
steel cylinder. The piston acts as a moving wall The piston pin used in modern aircraft engines is
within the combustion chamber. As the piston the full-floating type, so called because the pin is
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Aluminum plug

Piston

Slipper type , Trunk type


I \

Flat head Recessed head Concave head Dome head

FIGURE
1-13. Piston assembly and types of pistons.

free to rotate in both the piston and in the connect- they can be slipped over the outside of the piston
ing rod piston-pin bearing. and into the ring grooves which are machined in the
The piston pin must be held in place to prevent piston wall. Since their purpose is to seal the
the pin ends from scoring the cylinder walls. In clearance between the piston and the cylinder wall,
they must fit the cylinder wall snugly enough to
earlier engines, spring coils were installed in grooves
provide a gnstight fit; they must exert equal pres-
in the piston-pin bores at either end of the pin.
sure at all points on the cylinder wall; and they
The current practice is to install a plug of relatively
must make a gastight fit against the sides of the
soft aluminum in the pin ends to provide a good .
ring grooves.
bearing surface against the cylinder wall.
-.
Grav cast iron is most often used in makine g is ton
PISTON RINGS rings. However, many other materials have been
The piston rings prevent leakage of gas pressure tried. In some engines, chrome-plated mild steel
from the combustion chamber and reduce to a mini- piston rings are used in the top compression ring
mum the seepage of oil into the combustion chamber. groove because these rings can better withstand the
The rings fit into the piston grooves but spring out high temperatures present at this point.
to press against the cylinder walls; when properly
Compression Ring
lubricated, the rings form an effective gas seal.
The purpose of the compression rings is to pre-
Piston Ring Construction vent the escape of gas past the piston during engine
Most piston rings are made of high-grade cast operation. They are placed in the ring grooves
iron. After the rings are made, they are ground to immediately below the piston l i ~ a d . The number of
the cross section desired. They are then split so that compression rings used on each piston is determined
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by the type of engine and its design, although most (2) It must be constructed of a lightweight metal
aircraft engines use two compression rings plus to keep down engine weight.
one or more oil control rings. (3) It must have good heat-conducting properties
The cross section of the ring is either rectangular for efficient cooling.
or wedge shaped with a tapered face. The tapered ( 4 ) It must be comparatively easy and inexpen-
face presents a narrow bearing edge to the cylinder sive to manufacture, inspect, and maintain.
wall which helps to reduce friction and provide The head is either produced singly for each
better sealing. cylinder in air.cooled engines, or is cast "in-block"
.
Oil Control Rings (all cylinder heads in one block) for liquid-cooled
Oil control rings are placed in the grooves im- engines. The cylinder head of an air-cooled engine
is generally made of aluminum alloy, because
mediately below the compression rings and above
the piston pin bores. There may be one or more aluminum alloy is a good conductor of heat and its
nil control rings per piston; two rings may be light weight reduce; the overall engine weight.
installed in the same groove, or they may be in- Cylinder heads are forged or die-cast for greater
stalled in separate grooves. Oil control rings regu- strength. The inner shape of a cylinder head may
be flat, semispherical, or peaked, in the form of a
late the thickness of the oil film on the cylindec wall.
If too much oil enters the combustion chamber, it house roof. The semispherical type has proved
will burn and leave a thick coating of carbon on most satisfactory because it is stronger and aids in
the combustion chamber walls, the piston head, the a more rapid and thorough scavenging of the
spark plugs, and the valve heads. This carbon can exhaust gases.
cause the valves and piston rings to stick if it The cylinder used in the air-cooled engine is the
enters the ring grooves or valve guides. In addition, overhead valve type shown in figure 1-14. Each
the carbon can cause spark plug misfiring as well cylinder is an assembly of two major parts: (1) The
as detonation, preignition, or excessive oil comump- cylinder head, and (2) the cylinder barrel. At
tion. To allow the surplus oil to return to the assembly, the cylinder bead is expanded by heating
crankcase, holes are drilled in the piston ring and then screwed down on the cylinder barrel which
grooves or in the lands next to these grooves.
Cast aluminum
Oil Scraper Ring Intake valve
head
I Exhaust valve
The oil scraper ring usually has a beveled face
and is installed in the groove at the bottom of the
piston skirt. The ring is installed with the scraping
edge away from the piston head or in the reverse
position, depending upon cylinder position and the
engine series. In the reverse position, the scraper
ring retains the surplus oil above the ring on the
upward piston stroke, and this oil is returned to the
crankcase by the oil control rings on the downward
stroke.

CYLINDERS
The porlion of the engine in which the power is
developed is called the cylinder. The cylinder pro-
vides a combustion chamber where the burning and
expansion of gases take place, and it houses the
piston and the connecting rod.
There are four major factors that need to be
considered in the design and construction of the Forged steel 11
cylinder assembly. These are: barrel I// I!
( 1 ) It must be strong enough to withstand the
internal pressures developed during engine FIGURE1-14. Cutaway view of
operation. the cylinder assembly.
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has been chilled; thus, when the head cools and ing their depth. In this way the fin area has been
contracts, and the barrel warms up and expands, a increased from approximately 1,200 sq. in. to more
gastight joint results. While the majority of the than 7,500 sq. in. per cylinder in modem engines.
cylinders used are conslructed in this manner, some Cooling fins taper from 0.090 in. at the base to
are one-piece aluminum alloy sand castings. The 0.060 in. at the tip end. Because of the difference
piston bore of a sand cast cylinder is fitted with a in temperature in the various sections of the
steel liner which extends the full length of the cylinder head, it is necessary to provide more
cylinder barrel section and projects below the cooling-fin area on some sections than on others.
cylinder flange of the casting. This liner is easily The exhaust valve region is the hottest part of the
removed, and a new one can be installed in the field. internal surface; therefore, more fin area is provided
around the outside of the cylinder in this section.
Cylinder Heads
The purpose of the cylinder head is to provide a Cylinder Barrels
place for combustion of the fuel/air mixture and In general, the cylinder barrel in which the piston
to give the cylinder more heat conductivity for operates must be made of a high-strength material,
adequate cooling. The fuel/air mixture is ignited usually steel. It must be as light as possible, yet
by the spark in the combustion chamber and com- have the proper characteristics for operating under
mences burning as the piston travels toward top high temperatures. It must be made of a good
dead center on the compression stroke. The ignited bearing material and have high tensile strength.
charge is rapidly expanding at this time, and The cylinder barrel is made of a steel alloy
pressure is increasing so that as the piston travels forging with the inner surface hardened to resist
through the top dead center position, it is driven wear of the piston and the piston rings which bear
downward on the power stroke. The intake and against it. This hardening is usually done by
exhaust valve ports are located in the cylinder head exposing the steel to ammonia or cyanide gas while
along with the spark plugs and the intake and the steel is very hot. The steel soaks up nitrogen
exhaust valve actuating mechanisms. from the gas which forms iron nitrides on the
After casting, the spark plug bushings, valve exposed surface. As a result of this process, the
guides, rocker arm bushings, and valve seats are metal is said to be nitrided.
installed in the cylinder head. Spark plug openings In some instances the barrel will have threads on
may be fitted with bronze or steel bushings that are the outside surface at one end so that it can be
shrunk and screwed into the openings. Stainless screwed into the cylinder head. Some air.cooled
steel Heli-Coil spark plug inserts are used in many cylinder barrels have replaceable aluminum cooling
engines currently manufactured. Bronze or steel fins attached to them, while others have the cooling
valve guides are usually shrunk or screwed into fins machined as an integral part of the barrel.
drilled openings in the cylinder head to provide
guides for the valve stems. These are generally CYLINDER NUMBERING
located at an angle to the center line of the cylinder. Occasionally it is necessary to refer to the left
The valve seats are circular rings of hardened metal or right side of the engine or to a particular
which protect the relatively soft metal of the cylinder. Therefore, it is necessary to know the
cylinder head from the hammering action of the engine directions and how cylinders of an engine
valves and from the exhaust gases. are numbered.
The cylinder heads of air-cooled engines are The propeller shaft end of the engine is always
subjected to extreme temperatures; it is therefore the front end, and the accessory end is the rear
necessary to provide adequate fin area, and to use end, regardless of how the engine is mounted in an
metals which conduct heat rapidly. Cylinder heads aircraft. When referring to the right side or left
of air-cooled engines are usually cast or forged side of an engine, always assume you are viewing
singly. Aluminum alloy is used in the construction it from the rear or accessory end. As seen from
for a number of reasons. It is well adapted for this position, crankshaft rotation is referred to as
casting or for the machining of deep, closely spaced either clockwise or counterclockwise.
fins, and it is more resistant than most metals to Radial engine cylinders are numbered clockwise
the corrosive attack of tetraethyl lead in gasoline. as viewed from the accessory end. In-line and
The greatest improvement in air cooling has resulted V-type engine cylinders are usually numbered from
from reducing the thickness of the fins and increas- the rear. In V-engines, the cylinder banks are
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known as the right bank and the left bank, as No. 2, is No. 4, and so on. The numbering of
viewed from the accessory end. opposed engine cylinders is by no means standard.
The numbering of engine cylinders is shown in Some manufacturers number their cylinders from
figure 1-15. Note that the cylinder numbering of the rear and others from the front of the engine.
the opposed engine shown begins with the right Always refer to the appropriate engine manual to
rear as No. 1, and the left rear as No. 2. The one determine the correct numbering system used by
forward of No. 1 is No. 3 ; the one forward of the manufacturer.

Single-row radial

FIGURE
10
Double-row radial

1-15. Numbering of engine cylinders.


- Opposed

Single-row radial engine cylinders are numbered four-cylinder opposed engine is 1 4 - 2 3 , hut on
clockwise when viewed from the rear end. Cylinder another model it is 1-3-24.
No. 1 is the top cylinder. In double-row engines,
Single-Row Radial Engines
the same system is used, in that the No. 1 cylinder
is the top one in the rear row. No. 2 cylinder is On a single-row radial engine, first, all the odd-
the first one clockwise from No. 1, hut No. 2 is in numbered cylinders fire in numerical succession;
the front row. No. 3 cylinder is the next one clock- then the even-numbered cylinders fire in numerical
wise to No. 2, but is in the rear row. Thus, all succession. On a five-cylinder radial engine, for
odd-numbered cylinders are in the rear row, and example, the firing order is 1-3-5-24, and on a
all even-numbered cylinders are in the front row. seven-cylinder radial engine it is 1-3-5-7-24-6.
The firing order of a nine-cylinder radial engine is
FIRING ORDER 1-3-5-7-9-2-4-6-8.
The firing order of an engine is the sequence in
which the power event occurs in the different Double-Row Radial Engines
cylinders. The firing order is designed to provide On a double-row radial engine, the firing order is
for balance and to eliminate vibration to the greatest somewhat complicated. The firing order is arranged
extent possible. In radial engines the firing order . with the firing impul-r occurring in a cylinder in
must follow a special pattern, since the firing one row and then in a cylinder in the other row;
impulses must follow the motion of the crankthrow therefore, two cylinders in the same row never fire
during its rotation. In in-line engines the firing in succession.
orders may vary somewhat, yet most orders are An easy method for computing the firing order
arranged so that the firing of cylinders is evenly of a 14-cylinder, <louble-row radial engine is to
distributed along the crankshaft. Six-cylinder in- start with any number from 1to 14, and add 9 or
line engines generally have a firing order of subtract 5 (these are called the firing order
1-5-3-624. Cylinder firing order in opposed numbers), whichever will give an answer between
engines can usually be listed in pairs of cylinders, 1 and 14, inclusive. For example, starting with 8,
as each pair fires across the center main bearing. 9 cannot be added since the answer would then be
The firing order of six-cylinder opposed engines is more than 14; therefore, suhtract 5 from 8 to get 3,
145-2-36. The firing order of one model add 9 to 3 to get 12, subtract 5 from 12 to get 7,
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subtract 5 from 7 to get 2, and so on. made of nichrome, silchrome, or cobalt-chromium


The firing order numbers of an 18-cylinder, steel.
double-row radial engine are 11 and 7; that is, The valve head has a ground face which forms a
begin with any number from 1 to 18 and add 11 seal against the ground valve seat in the cylinder
or subtract 7. For example, beginning with 1, head when the valve is closed. The face of the
add 11 to get 12; 11 cannot he added to 1 2 because valve is usually ground to an angle of either 30' or
the total would he more than 18, so suhtract 7 to 45'. In some engines, the intake-valve face is
get 5, add 11 to 5 to get 16, suhtract 7 from 1 6 to ground to an angle of 30, and the exhaust valve
get 9, subtract 7 from 9 to get 2, add 11 to 2 to get face is ground to a 45' angle.
13, and continue this process for 18 cylinders. Valve faces are often made more durable by the
application of a material called stellite. About 1/16
VALVES
inch of this alloy is welded to the valve face and
The fuel/air mixture enters the cylinders through
ground to the correct angle. Stellite is resistant to
the intake valve ports, and burned gases are expelled
high-temperature corrosion and also withstands the
through the exhaust valve ports. The head of each
shock and wear associated with valve operation.
valve opens and closes these cylinder ports. The
Some engine manufacturers use a nichrome facing
valves used in aircraft engines are the conventional
on the valves. This serves the same purpose as the
poppet type. The valves are also typed by their shape
stellite material.
and are called either n~ushroomor tulip because of
The valve stem acts as a pilot for the valve head
their resemblance to the shape of these plants.
and rides in the valve guide installed in the cylinder
Figure 1-16 illustrates various shapes and types of
these valves.
. .
head for this vumose. The valve stem is surface-
hardened to resist wear. The neck is the part that
Large Hardened tip forms the junction between the head and the stem.
The tip of the valve is hardened to withstand the
hammering of the valve rocker arm as it opens
the valve. A machined groove on the stem near
the tip receives the split-ring stem keys. These stem
keys form a lock ring to hold the valve spring retain-
ing washer in place.
Some intake and exhaust valve stems are hollow
and partially filled with metallic sodium. This ma-
terial is used because it is an excellent heat conduc-
tor. The sodium will melt at approximately 208' F.,
and the reciprocating motion of the valve circulates
the liquid sodium and enables it to carry away heat
from the valve head to the valve stem, where it is
dissipated through the valve guide to the cylinder
head and the cooling fins. Thus, the operating
temperature of the valve may be reduced as much
as 300' to 400' F. Under no circumstances should
Tulip type Scmi-tulil, type Tulip type a sodium-filled valve be cut open o r subjected to
treatment which may cause it to rupture. Exposure
FICUKE
1-16, Valve types. of the sodium in these valves to the outside air will
result in fire or explosion with possible personal
Valve Construction injury.
The valves in the cylinders of an aircraft engine The most commonly used intake valves have solid
are subjected to high temperatures, corrosion, and stems, and the head is either flat or tulip shaped.
operating stresses; thus, the metal alloy in the valves Intake valves for low-power engines ale usually
must he able to resist all these factors. flat headed.
Because intake valves operate at lower tempera- In some engines, the intake valve may he the tulip
tures than exhaust valves, they can be made of type and have a smaller stem than the exhaust
chrome-nickel steel. Exhaust valves are usually valve, or it may be similar to the exhaust valve but
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have a solid stem and head. Although these valves against a cam roller or a cam follower. (See figs.
are similar, they are not interchangeable since the 1-18 and 1-19.) The cam follower, in turn, pushes
faces of the valves are constructed of different a push rod and ball socket, which, in turn, actuates
material. The intake valve will usually have a flat a rocker arm which opens the valve. Springs, which
milled on the tip to identify it. slip over the stem of the valves and which are held
in place by the valve-spring retaining washer and
VALVE-OPERATING MECHANISM stem key, close each valve and push the valve mecha-
For a reciprocating engine to operate properly, nism in the opposite direction when the cam roller
each valve must open at the proper time, stay open or follower rolls along a low section of the cam ring.
for the required length of time, and close at the Adjusting screw
proper time. Intake valves are opened just before
the piston reaches top dead center, and exhaust valves
remain open after top dead center. At a particular
instant, therefore, both valves are open at the same
time (end of the exhaust stroke and beginning of
the intake stroke). This valve-overlap permits bet-
ter volumetric efficiency and lowers the cylinder
operating temperature. This timing of the valves is
controlled by the valve-operating mechanism.
The valve lift (distance that the valve is lifted off
its seat) and the valve duration (length of time the
valve is held open) are both determined by the shape
of the cam lobes.
Typical cam lobes are illustrated in figure 1-17.
The portion of the lobe that gently starts the valve-
operating mechanism moving is called a ramp, or
step. The ramp is machined on each side of the
cam lnhe to permit the rocker arm to be eased into
contact with the valve tip and thus reduce the shock
load which would otherwise occur.
The valve-operating mechanism consists of a cam
ring or camshaft equipped with lohes, which work
cam roller

Camshaft

FIGURE1-18. Valve-operating mechanism


FIGURE
1-17. Typical cam lobes. (radial engine).
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FIGURE
1-19. Valve-operating mechanism (opposed engine).

Cam Ring have four or five lobes on both the intake and the
The valve mechanism of a radial engine is oper. exhaust tracks. The timing of the valve events is
ated by one or two cam rings, depending upon the determined by the spacing of these lobes and the
number of rows of cylinders. In a single-row radial speed and direction at which the cam rings are
engine one ring with a double cam track is used. driven in relation to the speed and direction of the
One track operates the intake valves; the other, the crankshaft.
exhaust valves. The cam ring is a circular piece of The method of driving the cam varies on different
steel with a series of cams or lobes on the outer makes of engines. The cam ring can be designed
surface. The surface of these lobes and the space with teeth on either the inside or outside periphery.
between them (on which the cam rollers ride) is If the reduction gear meshes with the teeth on the
known as the cam track. As the cam ring revolves, outside 0.f the ring. the cam will turn in the direction
the lobes cause the cam roller to raise the tappet in of rotation of the crankshaft. If the ring is driven
the tappet guide, thereby transmitting the force from the inside, the cam will turn in the opposite
through the push rod and rocker arm to open the direction from the crankshaft. This method is illu-
valve. strated in figure 1-18.
In a single-row radial engine, the cam ring is A study of figure 1-20 will show that a four-lobe
usually located between the propeller reduction gear- cam may he used on either a seven-cylinder or nine-
ing and the front end of the power section. In a cylinder engine. On the seven-cylinder it will rotate
twin-row radial engine, a second cam for the opera- in the same direction as the crankshaft, and on the
tion of the valves in the rear row is installed between nine-cylinder, opposite the crankshaft rotation. On
the rear end of the power section and the super- the nine-cylinder engine the spacing between cylin-
charger section. ders is 40, and the firing order is 1-3-5-7-9-24-
The cam ring is mounted concentrically with the 6 8 . This means that there is a space of 80" between
crankshaft and is driven by the crankshaft at a firing impulses. The spacing on the four lobes of
reduced rate of speed through the cam intermediate the cam ring is 90, which is greater than the spacing
drive gear assembly. The cam ring has two parallel between in~pulses. Therefore, to obtain proper rela-
sets of lobes spaced around the outer periphery, one tion of valve operations and firing order, it is neces-
set (cam track) for the intake valves and the other sary to drive the cam opposite the crankshaft
for the exhaust valves. The cam rings used may rotation.

22

-, .., . . , , - ---- .
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Oil pressure chamber


Plunger spring I A
Push rod socket (

I
I
Tappet body
Cylinder Cam
Ball check valve
DI___"^.

FIGURE
1-22. Hydraulic valve tappets.

action forces the ball check valve onto its seat; the valve stem tip. The screw is adjusted to the
thus, the body of oil trapped in the pressure cham- specified clearance to make certain that the valve
ber acts as a cushion. During the interval when closes fully.
the engine valve is off its seat, a predetermined
Valve Springs
leakage occurs between plunger and cylinder bore
which compensates for any expansion or contrac- Each valve is closed by two or three helical-coiled
tion in the valve train. Immediately after the en- springs. If a single spring were used, it would
gine valve closes, the amount of oil required to fill vibrate or surge at certain speeds. To eliminate
the pressure chamber flows in from the supply this difficulty, two or more springs (one inside the
chamber, preparing for another cycle of operation. other) are installed on each valve. Each spring will
therefore vibrate at a different engine speed, and
Push Rod rapid damping out of all spring-surge vibrations
The push rod, tubular in form, transmits the lift- during engine operation will result. Two or more
ing force from the valve tappet to the rocker arm. springs also reduce danger of weakness and possible
A hardened-steel ball is pressed over or into each failure by breakage due to heat and metal fatigue.
end of the tube. One ball end fits into the socket The springs are held in place by split locks
of the rocker arm. In some instances the balls are installed in the recess of the valve spring upper
on the tappet and rocker arm, and the sockets are retainer or washer, and engage a groove machined
on the push rod. The tubular form is employed into the valve stem. The functions of the valvr
because of its lightness and strength. It permits springs are to close the valve and to hold the valve
the engine lubricating oil under pressure to pass securely on the valve seat.
through the hollow rod and the drilled ball ends to
lubricate the ball ends, rocker-arm bearing, and Hydraulic Valve Lifters
valve-stem guide. The push rod is enclosed in a Hydraulic valve lifters are normally adjusted at
tubular housing that extends from the crankcase to the time of overhaul. They are assembled dry (no
the cvlinder head. lubrication).
. . clearances checked. and adiustments
are usually made by use of pushrods having dif-
Rocker Arms
ferent lengths. A minimum and maximum valve
The rocker arms transmit the lifting force from clearance is established. Any measurement be-
the cams to the valves. Rocker arm assemblies tween these extremes is acceptable but approx-
are supported by a plain, roller, or ball hearing, or imately half way between the extremes is desired.
a combination of these, which serves as a pivot. Hydraulic valve lifters require less maintenance,
Generally one end of the arm bears against the are better lubricated, and operate more quietly than
push rod and the other bears on the valve stem. the screw adjustment type.
One end of the rocker arm is sometimes slotted to
accommodate a steel roller. The opposite end is BEARINGS
constructed with either a threaded split clamp and A bearing is any surface which supports, or is
locking bolt or a tapped hole. supported by, another surface. A good bearing
The arm may have an adjusting screw for ad- must be composed of material that is strong enough
justing the clearance between the rocker arm and to withstand the pressure imposed on it and should
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permit the other surface to move with a minimum


of friction and wear. The parts must be held in
position within very close tolerances to provide
efficient and quiet operation, and yet allow freedom
of motion. To accomplish this, and at the same time
reduce friction of moving parts so that power loss
is not excessive, lubricated bearings of many types
are used. Bearings are rewired to take radial
loads, thrust loads, or a combination of the two.
There are two ways in which bearing surfaces
move in relation to each other. One is by the slid-
ing movement of one metal against the other, and
the second is for one surface to roll over the other.
The three different types of bearings in general use Plain
are plain, roller, and ball (see figure 1-23).
Plain Bearings
Plain bearings are generally used for the crank-
shaft, cam ring, camshaft, connecting rods, and the
accessory drive shaft hearings. Such bearings are
usually subjected to radial loads only, although
some have been designed to take thrust loads.
Plain bearings are usually made of nonferrous
(having no iron) metals, such as silver, bronze,
aluminum, and various alloys of copper, tin, or lead.
Master rod or crankpin bearings in some engines
are thin shells of steel, plated with silver on both
the inside and the outside surfaces and with lead-tin
plated over the silver on the inside surface only. Roller
Smaller bearings, such as those used to support
various shafts in the accessory section, are called
bushings. Porous Oilite bushings are widely used
in this instance. They are impregnated with oil so
that the heat of friction brings the oil to the bearing
surface during engine operation.
Ball Bearings
A ball bearing assembly consists of grooved inner
and outer races, one or more sets of balls, and, in
hearings designed for disassemhly, a bearing retain-
er. They are used for supercharger impeller shaft
bearings and rocker arm bearings in some engines.
Special deep-groove ball bearings are used in air- Ball
craft engines to transmit propeller thrust to the
engine nose section. FIGURE
1-23. Bearings.
Roller Bearings also used in other applications where radial loads
Roller bearings are made in many typrs and are high.
shapes, but the two types generally used in the
aircraft engine are the straight roller and the tapered PROPELLER REDUCTION GEARING
roller bearings. Straight roller hearings are used The increased brake horsepower delivered by a
where the hearing is subjected to radial loads only. high-horsepower engine rcsults partly from in-
In tapered roller bearings, the inner- and outer-race creased crankshaft r.p.m. It is therefore nrcessary
bearing surfaces are cone shaped. Such bearings to provide rrduction gears to limit the propeller
will withstand both radial and thrust loads. Straight rotation speed to a valuc at which efficient operation
roller bearings are used in high-power aircraft is obtained. Whenever the npced of the blade tips
engines for the crankshaft main bearings. They art, approaches the speed of sound, the efficiency of the
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propeller decreases rapidly. The general practice PROPELLER SHAFTS


has been to provide reduction gearing for propellers
Propeller shafts may be three major types; ta-
of engines whose speeds are above 2,000 r.p.m.,
pered, splined, or flanged. Tapered shafts are iden-
because propeller efficiency decreases rapidly above
tified by taper numbers. Splined and flanged shafts
this speed.
are identified by SAE numbers.
Since reduction gearing must withstand extreme-
ly high stresses, the gears are machined from steel The propeller shaft of most low-power output en-
forgings. Many types of reduction gearing systems gines is forged as part of the crankshaft. It is
are in use. The three types (fig. 1-24) most com- tapered and a-milled slot is provided so that the
monly used are: propeller hub can be keyed to the shaft. The k e y
way and key index of the propeller are in relation
(1) Spur planetary.
to the #1 cylinder top dead center. The end of
( 2 ) Bevel planetary.
the shaft is threaded to receive the propeller re-
( 3 ) Spur and pinion.
taining nut. Tapered propeller shafts are common
The planetary reduction gear systems are used on older and in-line engines.
with radial and opposed engines, and the spur and
The propeller shaft of a high-output engine gen-
pinion system is used with in-line and V-type en-
erally is splined. It is threaded on one end for a
gines. Two of these types, the spur planetary and
propeller huh nut. The thrust bearing, which ah-
the bevel planetary, are discussed here.
sorbs propeller thrust, is located around the shaft
The spur planetary reduction gearing consists of and transmits the thrust to the nose-section hous-
a large: driving gear or sun gear splined (and some- ing. The shaft is threaded for attaching the thrust-
times shrunk) to the crankshaft, a large stationary bearing retaining nut. On the portion protruding
gear, called a hell gear, and a set of small spur from the housing (betwren the two sets of threads),
planetary pinion grars mounted on a carrier ring. splines are located to receive the splined propeller
The ring is fastened to the propeller shaft, and the hub. The shaft is generally machined from a steel-
planetary gears mesh with both the sun gear and alloy forging throughout its length. The propeller
the stationary bell'or ring gear. The stationary shaft may be connected by reduction gearing to thr
gear is holted or splined to the front-section housing. engine crankshaft, but in smaller engines the pro-
When the engine is operating, the sun gear rotates. peller shaft is simply an rxtension of the engin?
Because the planetary gears are meshed with this crankshaft. To turn the propeller shaft, the engine
ring, they also must rotate. Since they also mrsh crankshaft must revolve.
with the stationary gear,, they will walk or roll
around it as they rotate, and the ring in which they Flanged propeller shafts are used on medium or
are mounted will rotate the propeller shaft in the low powered reciprocating and turbojet en,'01nes.
same dirrction as the crankshaft but at a reduced One end of the shaft is flanged with drilled holes to
speed. accept the propeller mounting bolts. The installa-
tion may he a short shaft with internal threading
In some engines, the hell gear is mounted on the
to accept the distrihutor valve to he used with a
propeller shaft, and the planetary pinion grar cage
controllable propeller. The flanged propeller shaft
is held stationary. The sun-gear is splined to the
is a normal installation on most approved recipro-
crankshaft and thus acts as a driving gear. In such
cating engines.
an arrangement, the propeller travels at a r c d u c d
speed, but in opposite direction to the crankshaft. RECIPROCATING ENGINE
In the hevrl planrtary reduction gearing systrm, OPERATING PRINCIPLES
the driving gear is machined with beveled external
treth and is attached to the crankshaft. A set of A study of this section will help in understanding
mating hevrl pinion grars is mounted in a cage the basic operating principles of reciprocating en-
attached to the m d of the propeller shaft. The gines. The principles which govern the relationship
pinion gears are driven by the drive gear and between the pressure, volume, and temperature of
walk around the stationary gear, which is h o l t d or gases are the basic principles of engine operation.
splinrd to the front-section housing. The thrust of An internal-combustion engine is a device for
the hcvel pinion gears is absorhed by a thrust ball convrrting heat energy into mechanical energy.
hearing of special design. The drive and thc fixrd Gasoline is vaporized and mixed with air, forced or
gears are generally supported by hravy-duty hall drawn into a cylinder, compressed by a piston, and
hrarings. This typr of planetary rrduction assem- then ignited by an electric spark. The conversion
bly js morr compact than the other onr described oE the resultant heat energy into mechancial energy
and can thewfore he used whrre a smaller propel- and then into work is accomplished in the cylinder.
ler gear step-down is desired. Figure 1-25 illustrates the various engine compo-

26
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Bevel planetary

Spur and pinion

FIGURE1-24. Reduction gears.


27
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Spark plug A valve in the top or head of the cylinder opens


Intake valve Exhaust valve
to allow the burned gases to escape, and the momen-
tum of the crankshaft and the propeller forces the
piston back up in the cylinder where it is ready
for the next event in the cycle. Another valve in
the cylinder head then opens to let in a fresh
charge of the fuel/air mixture.
T.D.C. The valve allowing for the escape of the burning
exhaust gases is called the exhaust valve, and the
valve which lets in the fresh charge of the fuel/air
mixture is called the intake valve. These valves
are opened and closed mechanically a t the proper
times by the valve.operating mechanism.
The bore of a cylinder is its inside diameter. The
stroke is the distance the piston moves from one end
of the cylinder to the other, specifically, from T.D.C.
(top dead center) to B.D.C. (bottom dead center),
o r vice versa (see figure 1-25).

OPERATING CYCLES
There are two operating cycles in general use:
( 1 ) The two-stroke cycle, and ( 2 ) the four-stroke
cycle. At the present time, the two-stroke-cycle
engine is fast disappearing from the aviation scene
and will not be discussed. As the name implies,
two-stroke.cycle engines require only one upstroke
and one downstroke of the piston to complete the
required series of events in the cylinder. Thus the
engine completes the operating cycle in one revolu-
tion of the crankshaft.
Most aircraft reciprocating engines operate on the
four-stroke cycle, sometimes called the Otto cycle
after its originator, a German physicist. The four-
stroke-cycle engine has many advantages for use in
Bottom center
aircraft. One advantage is that it lends itself readily
to high performance through supercharging.
FIGURE
1-25. Components and terminology In this type of engine, four strokes are required
of engine operation. to complete the required series of events or operat-
ing cycle of each cylinder, as shown in figure 1-26.
nents necessary to accomplish this conversion and Two complete revolutions of the crankshaft (720)
also presents the principal terms used to indicate are required for the four strokes; thus, each cylin-
engine operation. der in an engine of this type fires oncr in every two
The operating cycle of an internal combustion revolutions of the crankshaft.
reciprocating engine includes the series of events
required to induct, compress, ignite, burn, and FOUR-STROKE CYCLE
expand the fuel/air charge in the cylinder, and to In the following discussion of the fonr-stroke-
scavenge or exhaust the byproducts of the combus- cycle engine operation, it should be realized that the
tion process. timing of the ignition and the valve events will vary
When the compressed mixture is ignited, the considerably in different mgines. Many factors
resultant gases of combustion expand very rapidly influence the timing of a specific engine, and it is
and force the piston to move away from the cylinder most important that the engine manufacturer's rec-
head. This downward motion of the piston, acting ommendations in this respect be followed in main-
on the crankshaft through the connecting rod, is tenance and overhaul. The timing of the valve and
converted to a circular or rotary motion by the ignition events is always specified in degrees of
crankshaft. crankshaft travel.

28
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dead center at the start of the intake stroke. As


mentioned above, the intake ralve opens beiore top
dead center on the exhaust stroke (\-alvr lead), and
the closing of the exhaust valve is delayed consid-
erably after the piston has top dead center
and has started the intake stroke (valvr lag). This
- -
timine is called valve overlan and is designed to aid
in cooling the cylinder internally by circulating thr
cool incoming fuel/air mixture, to increase tllr
amount of the fuel/air mixture indueed into tlir
cylinder, and to aid in s c a v e. ~ ~-~ thr
i n g byproducts
..
of combustion.
The
- - - ~ intake
- valve is timed to close about 50 to
.~~~~ ~ ~~

7S0 past bottolu dead centrr on tlir con~prrssion


stroke depending upon the specific cnginr, to allow
the momentum of the incoming gasrs to chargr thr
cylinder more completrly. Because of the con]-
paratively large volu~ueof the cylinder abovr thr
piston when the piston is liear botto~ndead crntrr,
the slight upward travel of thr piston during this
titnr does not have a great effect on the incoming
flow of gases. This late timing can b r carrird too
far because thr gases may he forcrd hack through
the intake valve and defeat the purposr of tbr
FIGURE
1-26. Four-stroke cycle. late closing.

I n the following paragraphs, the timing of each Compression Stroke


event is specified in terms of degrees of crankshaft After the intake valve is closed, the continued
travel on the stroke during which the event occurs. upward travel of the piston colnprrssrs the lurl/air
It should be remembered that a certain amount of mixture to obtain the desired burning and rxpan-
crankshaft travel is required to open a valve fully; sion characteristics.
therefore, the specified timing represents the start The charge is fired by mrans of an rlrctric spark
of opening rather than the full-open position 01 the as the piston approachrs top dead crnter. Thr timr
valve. of ignition will vary from 20 to 3S0 beforr top
Intake Stroke dead center, depending upon tlir rrquirrmnits of
During the intake stroke, the piston is pulled the specific engine, to ensure coluplctr comhustiol~
downward in the cylinder by the rotation of the of the charge by the timr thr piston is slidltly past
crankshaft. This reduces the pressure in the cylin- the top dead center position.
der and causes air under atmosphrric pressure to Many factors affect ignition timing, and thr -I-
flow through the carburetor, which meters the cor- gine manufacturer has expended considvrablr tilnc
rect amount of fuel. The furl/air mixture passrs in researcli and testing to drtrrminr thr hrst srt-
through the intake pipes and intake valves into tllr ting. All engines incorporate dcvicrs for adjustillg
cylinders. The quantity or weight of thr furl/air the ignition timing, and it is most important that
charge depends upon the degree of throttle opening. the ignition systrm be timrd according to t l ~ Ir ' I I ~ ~ I I ~ ~
The intake valvr is opened considerably beforr manufacturer's recommrndations.
the piston reaches top dead center on the exhaust
stroke, in order to induce a greatrr quantity of the Power Stroke
fuel/air charge into the cylinder and thus increasr As the piston moves through tho top drad crntcr
the horsepower. The distance the valvt may be position at the end of the comprrssion stroke and
opened before top dead crnter, howcver, is limited starts down on the power strokr, it is pushcd down-
by several factors, such as the possibility that hot ward by tlir rapid rxpansion of thv burlling gnsrs
gases remaining in the cylinder from thr previous within the cylinder hcad with a forcv that can br
cycle may flash hack into the intakr pipr and the greatrr than 15 tons (30,000 p.s.i.) at maximum
induction system. power output of the engine. Thr ttmprraturts or
In all high-power aircraft engines, both the intake thrsr burnning gasrs may he brtwrrn 3,000 and
and the exhaust valves are off the valvc seats at top 4,,000F.
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As the piston is forced downward during the Work is measured by several standards, the most
power stroke by the pressure of the burning gases common unit is called foot-pound. If a 1-pound
exerted upon it, the downward movement of the mass is raised 1 foot, 1 ft.-lb. (foot-pound) of work
connecting rod is changed to rotary movement by has been performed. The greater the mass and the
the crankshaft. Then the rotary movement is trans- greater the distance, the greater the work.
mitted to the propeller shaft to drive the propeller. Horsepower
As the burning gases are expanded, the temperature
The common unit of mechanical power is the hp.
drops to within safe limits before the exhaust gases
(horsepower). Late in the 18th century, James
flow out through the exhaust port.
Watt, the inventor of the steam engine, found that
The timing of the exhaust valve opening is deter- an English workhorse could work at the rate of
mined by, among other considerations, the desir- 550 ft.-lb. per second, or 33,000 ft.-lb. per minute,
ability of using as much of the expansive force as for a reasonable length of time. From his observa-
possible and of scavenging the cylinder as com- tions came the hp., which is the standard unit of
pletely and rapidly as possihle. The valve is opened power in the English system of measurement. To
considerahly before bottom dead center on the calculate the hp. rating of an engine. divide the
power stroke (on some engines at SO0 and 7S0 power developed in ft.-lh. per minute by 33,000, or
before B.D.C.) while there is still some pressure in the power in ft:lb. per second by 550.
the cylinder. This timing is used so that the pres-
ft.-lb. per min.
sure can force the gases out of the exhaust port as hp. = or
soon as possible. This process frees the cylinder 33,000
of waste heat after the desired expansion has been - ft.-lb. per sec.
-
obtained and avoids overheating the cylinder and 550
the piston. Thorough scavenging is very important, As stated above, work is the product of force and
because any exhaust products remaining in the ditsance, and power is work per unit of time. Con-
cylinder will dilute the incoming fuel/air charge a t sequently, if a 33,000-lb. weight is lifted through a
the start of the next cycle. vertical distance of 1ft. in lmin., the power expend-
ed is 33,000 ft.-lb. per min., or exactly 1 hp.
Exhaust Stroke
Work is performed not only when a force is ap-
As the piston travels through bottom dead center
plied for lifting; force may be applied in any
at the completion of the power stroke and starts
direction. If a 100-lb. weight is dragged along
upward on the exhaust stroke, it will begin to push
the ground, a force is still being applied to perform
the burned exhaust gases out the exhaust port. The
work, although the direction of the resulting motion
speed of the exhaust gases leaving the cylinder
is approximately horizontal. The amount of this
creates a low pressure in the cylinder. This low
force would depend upon the roughness of the
or reduced pressure speeds the flow of the fre-h
ground.
fuel/air charge into the cylinder as the intake valve
is beginning to open. The intake valve oprning is If the weight were attached to a spring scale
timed to occur at So to S5O before top dead center graduated in ~ o u n d s ,then dragged by ~ u l l i n gon
on the exhaust stroke on various engines. the scale handle, the amount of force required
could be measured. Assume that the force required
RECIPROCATING ENGINE POWER AND EFFICIEN-
is 90 lbs., and the 100-lh. weight is dragged 660 ft.
in 2 min. The amount of work performed in the
CIES
2 min. will he 59,400 ft:lb., or 29,700 ft.-lh. per
All aircraft engines are rated according to their min. Since 1 bp. is 33,000 ft.-lb. per min., the hp.
ability to do work and produce power. This section expended in this case will be 29,700 divided by
presents an explanation of work and power and how 33,000, or 0.9 hp.
they are calculated. Also discussed are the various
Piston Displacement
efficiencies that govern the power output of a recip.
When other factors remain equal, the greater
rocating engine.
the piston displacement the greater the maximum
Work horsepower an engine will he capable of developing.
The physicist defines work as "Work is force When a piston moves from bottom dead center to
times distance. Work done by a force acting on a top dead center, it displaces a specific volume. The
volume displaced by the piston is known a s piston
body is equal to the magnitude of the force multi-
displacement and is expressed in cubic inches for
plied by the distance through which the force acts." most American.made engines and cubic centimeters
Work (W) =Force ( F ) x Distance ( D ) . for others.
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The piston displacement of one cylinder may he Rounded off to the n r s t whole number total piston
obtained by multiplying the area of the cross sec- displacenlrnt equals 1830 cu. in.
tion of the cylinder by the total distance the piston Another method of calculating the piston dis-
moves in the cylinder in one strokr. For multi- placement uses the diameter of thr piston instead
cylinder engines this product is ~nultiplird by of tlle radius in the for~nulafor tbr arra of the
the number of cylinders to get the total piston dis- base.
placement of the engine. A=%, ( n , (Dl-)
Since the volume (V) of a geometric cylinder Substituting A=% x 3.1416 x 5.5 x 6.5
equals the area (A) of the base multiplied by the A=.7854 x 30.25 As23.758 square incllrs.
altitude ( H ) , it is expressed mathematically as:
From this point on t l ~ ecalculations are identical
V = A x H. to the preceding examplr.
For our purposes, the area of the base is the area
of the cross section of the cylinder or of the piston Compression Ratio
UP. All internal-combustion rnginrs n ~ u s t clmpress
the fuel/air mixture toreceivc a rrasonahlr alllou~it
Area Of A Circle of work from each power stroke. Thr fuel/air
T o find the area of a circle it is necessary to use charge in the cylinder can be conlparcd to a coil
a number called pi. This number represents thr spring, in that the more it is conlprrssrd thr lnorc
ratio of the circumference to the diameter of any work it is potentially capablc of doing.
circle. Pi cannot be found exactly because it is a The compressio~~ ratio of an engine (scr figure
never-ending decimal, but expressed to four decimal 1-27) is a comparison of thr volnmr of spacc in a
places it is 3.1416, which is accurate enough for cylinder when the piston is at the b o t t ~ mof t l ~ c
most computations. stroke to the volume of spacr when tlle pistol, is at
The area of a circle, as in a rectangle or triangle, the top of the strokc. This comparison is rxprcssrd
must be expressed in square units. Tbr distance as a ratio, b ~ n c e the term "compresion ratio."
that is one-half the diameter of a circle is known as Compression ratio is a controlling factor in thr
the radius. The area of any circle is found by maximum horsepower developed by an engino, but
squaring the radius and multiplying by pi. ( n ) . The it is limited by present-day fuel gradrs and tbc
formula is expressed thus: high engine speeds and manifold pressures required
A=nR'. for takeoff. For example, if there are 140 cu. in.
Where A is the area of a circle; pi is the givt,n of spacr in tbe cylindrr whrn tllr piston is at thr
constant; and r is the radius of the circle, which is bottom and tl~ereare 20 cu. in. of space whrn the
D piston is a t the top of the strokr, the compression
equal to % the diameter or R =
- ratio would he 140 to 20. If this ratio is rrpressrd
in fraction form, it would be 14,0/20, or 7 to 1,
Example usually represrnted a s 7:I.
Compute the piston displacement of the PWA To grasp marc thoroughly the limitation placed
14 cylinder engine having a cylinder with a 5.5 on compression ratios, manifold pressurr and its
inch diameter and a 5.5 inch stroke. Formulas effect on .compression pressurrs should b r undrr-
required are: stood. Manifold prcssure is the avrragr absolutr
pressure of thr air or fucl/air cliargc in the
intake manifold and is mrasurcd in nnits of incl~rs
of mercury (Hg) . Manifold prcssurr is drprndrnt
-
on engine speed (throttle srtting) and suprrcl~arg-
ing. The engine.drivtsn intrrnal suprrchargrr
Total V = V x N (number of cylinders)
(blower) and the extrrnal cxhaust-drivrn suprr-
Substitute values into thesr formulas and romplctr
the calculation. charger (turbo) are actually crntrilugal-typr air
compressors. T11c operation of thesr superchargers
D increases the weight of the cl~argc rntering thr
R=- R=5.5/2=2.75
2 cylinder. When either o r ~ ror both arc uscd wit11
A=nR2 A ~ 3 . 1 4 1 6(2.75 x 2.75) the aircraft isnginc, the manifold pressurc may bc:
A=3.1416 x 7.5625=23.7584, sq. inches considerably higher than tllc prcssure of t11c outsid,.
V = A x H V=23.7584 x 5.5 V = 130.6712 atmosphere. The advantage of tbis condition is
Total V = V x N Total V=130.6712 x 14 Total that a greater amount 01 cl~argris forced into a
V = 1829.3968 given cylinder volum,., and a greatrr powcr results.
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FIGURE
1-27. Compression ratio.

Compression ratio and manifold pressure deter- economy, that is, to convert more heat energy into
mine the pressure in the cylinder in that portion of useful work than is done in engines of low com-
the operating cycle when both valves are closed. pression ratio. Since more heat of the charge is
The pressure of the charge before compression is converted into useful work, less heat is absorbed
determined by manifold pressure, while the pressure by the cylinder walls. This factor promotes cooler
at the height of compression (just prior to ignition) engine operation, which in turn increases the
is determined by manifold pressure times the com- thermal efficiency.
pression ratio. For example, if an engine were Here, again, a compromise is needed between
operating at a manifold pressure of 30" Hg with a the demand for fuel economy and the demand for
compression ratio of 7:1, the pressure at the maximum horsepower without knocking. Some
instant before ignition would be approximately manufacturers of high-compression engines suppress
210" Hg. However, at a manifold pressure of 60" knock at high manifold pressures by injecting an
Hg the pressure would be 420" Hg. antiknock fluid into the fuel/air mixture. The
Without going into great detail, it has been fluid acts primarily as a coolant so that more
shown that the compression event magnifies the power can be delivered by the engine for short
effect of varying the manifold pressure, and the periods, such as at takeoff and during emergencies,
magnitude of both affects the pressure of the fuel when power is critical. This high power should be
charge just before the instant of ignition. If the used for short periods only.
pressure at this time becomes too high, premature
ignition or knock will occur and produce Indicated Horsepower
overheating. The indicated horsepower produced by an engine
One of the reasons for using engines with high is the horsepower calculated from the indicated
compression ratios is to obtain long-range fuel mean effective pressure and the other factors which
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affect the power output of an engine. Indicated L = Length of the stroke in ft. or in fractions of
horsepower is the power developed in the combus- a foot.
tion chambers without reference to friction losses A = Area of the piston head or cross-sectional
within the engine.
- area of the cvlinder. in so. in.
This horsepower is calculated as a function of the r.p.m.
actual cylinder pressure recorded during engine N = Number of power strokes per minute; -.
2
operation. To facilitate the indicated horsepower K = Number of cylinders.
calculations, a mechanical indicating device, at- In the formula above, the area of the piston times
tached to the engine cylinder, scribes the actual the indicated mean effective pressure gives the force
pressure existing in the cylinder during the complete acting on the piston in pounds. This force multi-
operating cycle. This pressure variation can be plied by the length of the stroke in feet gives the
represented by the kind of graph shown in figure work performed in one power stroke, which, multi-
1-28. Notice that the cylinder pressure rises on plied by the number of power st~okesper minute,
the compression stroke, reaches a peak after top gives the number of it.-lb. per minute of work
center, then decreases as the piston moves down on produced by one cylinder. Multiplying this result
the power stroke. Since the cylinder pressure varies hy the number of cylinders in the engine gives the
during the operating cycle, an average pressure, amount of work performed, in ft.-lb., by the engine.
line AB, is computed. This average pressure, if Since hp. is defined as work done at the rate of
applied steadily during the time of the power stroke, 33,000 ft.-lb. per min., the total number of ft.-lb.
would do the same amount of rvork as the varying of work performed by the engine is divided by
pressure during the same period. This average 33,000 to find the indicated horsepower.
pressure is known as indicated mean effective pres-
Example
sure and is included in the indicated horsepower
calculation with other engine specifications. If the Given:
characteristics and the indicated mean effective pres- Indicated mean
sure of an engine are known, it is possible to calcu- effective pressure ( P ) = 165 lbs./sq. in.
late the indicated horsepower rating. Stroke (L) = 6 in. or .5 ft.
Bore -
- 5.5 in.
The indicated horsepower for a four-stroke-cycle
engine can be calculated from the following formula, r.p.m. = 3,000
in which the letter symbols in the numerator are No. of cylinders (K) = 12
arranged to spell the word "plank" to assist in PLANK
Indicated hp. =
memorizing the formula: 33,000 ft.-lbs./min.
PLANK Find indicated hp.:
Indicaled horsepower = - A is found by using the equation
33.003
,~ '
A =1 / & ~ 2 -
~

Where:
P = Indicated mean effective pressure in p.s.i. A = 1/4 x 3.1416 x 5.5 x 5.5

Compression 4 Power Exhaust Intake 4

A Peak pressure

Indicated mean effective pressure


(ILIEP)

IC E I
4
Bottom center Top center BC TC BC
Piston travel

FIGURE
1-28. Cylinder pressure during power cycle.

33
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= 23.76 sq. in. Torque = Force x Distance


N is found by multiplying the r.p.m. by 1/2: (at right angles to the force).
N = 1/2 x 3,000 Torque is a measure of load and is properly
= 1,500 r.p.m. expressed in pound-inches (Ib.-in.) or pound.feet
Now, substituting in the formula: (1b.-f~) and should not be confused with work,
165 x .5 x 23.76 x 1,500 x 12 which is expressed in inch-pounds (in.-lbs.) or foot-
Indicated hp. = pounds (ft..lbs.).
33,000 ft.-lbs./min.
There are a number of devices for measuring
torque, of which the.Prony brake, dynamometer,
Brake Horsepower and torquemeter are .examples. Typical of these
The indicated horsepower calculation discussed devices is the Prony brake (figure 1-29), which
in the preceding paragraph is the theoretical power measures the usable power output of an engine on
of a frictionless engine. The total horsepower lost a test stand. It consists essentially of a hinged
in overcoming friction must be subtracted from collar, or brake, which can be clamped to a drum
the indicated horsepower to arrive at the actual splined to the propeller shaft. The collar and drum
horsepower delivered to the propeller. The power form a friction brake which can be adjusted by a
delivered to the propeller for useful work is known wheel. An arm !o a known length is rigidly
as b.hp. (brake horsepower). The difference be- attached to or is a part of the hinged collar and
tween indicated and brake horsepower is known as terminates at a point which bears on a set of scales.
friction horsepower, which is the horsepower re- As the propeller shaft rotates, it tends to carry the
quired to overcome mechanical losses such as the hinged collar of the brake with it and is prevented
pumping action of the pistons and the friction of the from doing so only by the arm that bears on the
pistons and the friction of all moving parts. scale. The scale reads the force necessary to arrest
In practice, the measurement of an engine's the motion of the arm. If the resulting force
b.hp. involves the measurement of a quantity known registered on the scale is multiplied by the length
as torque, or twisting moment. Torque is the of the arm, the resulting product is the torque
product of a force and the distance of the force exerted by the rotating shaft. Example: If the
from the axis about which it acts. or scale resisters 200 lbs. and the length of the arm is

Friction adjusting wheel


Collar I

Length of arm
3.18 fect
FIGURE1-29. Typical Prony brake.
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3.18 h., the torque exerted by the shaft is: r.p.m. is inversely proportional to the change in
200 lb. x 3.18 ft. = 636 1b.-ft. torque, their product will remain unchanged.
Once the torque is known, the work done per Therefore, h.hp. remains unchanged. This is
revolution of the propeller shaft can be computed important. It shows that horsepower is the function
without difficulty by the equation: of both torque and r.p.m., and can be changed by
Work per revolution = 2 r x torque. changing either torque or r.p.m., or both.
If work per revolution is multiplied by the r.p.m.,
Friction Horsepower
the result is work per minute, or power. If the
work is expressed in ft.-lbs. per min., this quantity Friction horsepower is the indicated horsepower
is divided by 33,000; the result is the brake horse- minus brake horsepower. It is the horsepower used
power of the shaft. In other words: by an engine in overcoming the friction of moving
parts, drawing in fuel, expelling exhaust, driving
Power = Work per revolution x r.p.m. oil and fuel pumps, and the like. On modem air-
x r.p.m.
and b.hp. = Work per revolution
33,000
craft engines, this power loss through friction may
be as high as 10 to 15% of the indicated horsepower.
297 x force on the scales (Ibs.) x
length of arm (ft.) x r.p.m. Friction and Brake Mean Effective Pressures
or b.hp. = 33,000
The IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure),
Example discussed previously, is the average pressure pro-
Cwen: duced in the combustion chamber during the
Force on scales = 200 lbs. operating cycle and is an expression of the
Length of arm = 3.18 ft. theoretical, frictionless power known as indicated
r.p.m. = 3,000 horsepower. In addition to completely disregarding
r = 3.1416.
power lost to friction, indicated horsepower gives
Find b.hp.: no indication as to how much actual power is
Substituting in equation- delivered to the propeller shaft for doing useful
work. However, it is related to actual pressures
which occur in the cylinder and can be used as a
measure of these pressures.
To compute the friction loss and net power output,
As long as the friction between the brake collar the indicated horsepower of a cylinder may be
and propeller shaft drum is great enough to impose thought of as two separate powers, each producing
an appreciable load on the engine, but is not great a different effect. The first power overcomes
enough to stop the engine, it is not necessary to internal friction, and the horsepower thus consumed
know the amount of friction between the collar and is known as friction horsepower. The second
drum to compute the b.hp. If there were no load power, known as brake horsepowe;, produces useful
imposed, there would be no torque to measure, and work at the propeller. Logically, therefore, that
the engine would "run away." If the imposed load portion of IMEP that produces brake horsepower is
is so great that the engine stalls, there may be called BMEP (brake mean effective pressure). The
considerable torque to measure, but there will be no remaining pressure used to overcome internal
r.p.m. In either case it is impossible to measure the friction is called FMEP (friction mean effective
b.hp. of the engine. However, if a reasonable pressure). This is illustrated in figure 1-30. IMEP
amount of friction exists between the brake drum is a useful expression of total cylinder power output,
and the collar and the load is then increased, the but is not a real physical quantity; likewise, FMEP
tendency of the propeller shaft to carry the collar and BMEP are theoretical but useful expressions of
and arm about with it becomes greater, thus impos- friction losses and net power output.
ing a greater force upon the scales. As long as the Although BMEP and FMEP have no real existence
torque increase is proportional to the r.p.m. in the cylinder, they provide a convenient means of
decrease, the horsepower delivered at the shaft representing pressure limits, or rating engine per-
remains unchanged. This can he seen from the formance throughout its entire operating range.
equation in which 2 r and 33,000 are constants and This is true since there is a relationship between
torque and r.p.m. are variables. If the change in IMEP, BMEP, and FMEP.
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One of the basic limitations placed on engine Example


operation is the pressure developed in the cylinder Given :
during combustion. In the discussion of compres- h.hp. = 1,000
sion ratios and indicated mean effective pressure, it Stroke = 6 in.
was found that, within limits, the increased pres- Bore = 5.5 in.
sure resulted in increased power. It was also noted
r.p.m. = 3,000
that if the cylinder pressure was not controlled No. of cyls. = 12.
Find BMEP:
It-- Power stroke ---+I Find length of stroke (in ft.) :
L = 0.5.
Find area of cylinder bore:
A = 1/4"rD2
= 0.7854 x 5.5 x 5.5
= 23.76 sq. in.
Find No. of power strokes per min.:
N = 1/2 x r.p.m.
= 1/2 x 3,000
= 1,500.
-
Then substituting in the eouation:
1,000 x 33,000
BMEP =
.5 x 23.76 x 1,500 x 12
= 154.32 lbs. per sq. in.
Thrust Horsepower
Thrust horsepower can he considered as the result
of the engine and the propeller working together.
If a propeller could he designed to be 100% efficient,
the thrust- and the brake-horsepower would be the
same. However, the efficiency of the propeller var-
ies with the engine speed, attitude, altitude, temper-
ature, and airspeed, thus the ratio of the thrust
horsepower and the brake horsepower delivered to
the propeller shaft will never be equal. For ex-
ample, if an engine develops 1,000 b.hp., and it is
used with a propeller having 85 percent efficiency,
the thrust horsepower of that engine-propeller com-
bination is 85 percent of 1,000 or 850 thrust hp.
Of the four tvnes of horse~owerdiscussed, it is the
,A

thrust horsepower that determines the performance


of the engine-propeller combination.
EFFICIENCIES
FIGURE
1-30. Powers and pressures.
Thermal Efficiency
Any study of engines and power involves consid.
within close limits, it would impose dangerous eration of heat as the source of power. The heat
internal loads that might result in engine failure. produced by the burning of gasoline in the cylin-
It is therefore important to have a means of deter- ders causes a rapid expansion of the gases in the
mining these cylinder pressures as a protective cylinder, and this, in turn, moves the pistons and
measure and for efficient application of power. creates mechanical energy.
If the b.hp. is known, the BMEP can he computed It has long been known that mechanical work can
by means of the following equation: be converted into heat and that a given amount of
heat contains the energy equivalent of a certain
amount of mechanical work. Heat and work are
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theoretically interchangeable and bear a fixed rela- pression ratios causes the material in the cylinder
tion to each other. Heat can therefore be meas- to deterioriate rapidly and the fuel to detonate.
ured in work units (for example, ft.-lbs.) as well The thermal efficiency of an engine may be
a s in heat units. The B.t.u. (British thermal unit) based on either b.hp. or i.hp. and is represented by
of heat is the quantity of heat required to raise the the formula:
temperature of 1 lb. of water l o F. It is equivalent Indicated thermal efficiency =
to 778 ft.-lbs. of mechanical work. A pound of i.hp. x 33.000
petroleum fuel, when burned with enough air to weight of fuel burned/min. x heat value x 778'
consume it completely, gives up about 20,000 B.t.u., The formula for brake thermal efficiency is the
the equivalent of 15,560,000 ft.-lhs. of mechanical same as shown above, except the value for b.hp. is
work. These quantities express the heat energy of inserted instead of the value for i.hp.
the fuel in heat and work units, respectively. Example
The ratio of useful work done by an engine to
An engine delivers 85 b.hp. for a period of 1 hr.
the heat energy of the fuel it uses, expressed in
and during that time consumes 50 lbs. of fuel.
work or heat units, is called the thermal efficiency
Assuming the fuel has a heat content of 18,800 B.t.u.
of the engine. If two similar engines use equal
per lb., find the thermal efficiency of the en,'-me:
amounts of fuel, obviously the engine which con-
verts into work the greater part of the energy in the
fuel (higher thermal efficiency) will deliver the , ,
greater amount of power. Furthermore, the en- Brake thermal efficiency = 0.23 or 23%.
gine which has the higher thermal efficiency will Reciprocating engines are only about 34% ther-
have less waste beat to dispose of to. the valves, mally efficient; that is. they transform only about
cylinders, pistons, and cooling system of the engine. 34% of the total heat produced by the burning fuel
A high thermal efficiency also means a low specific into mechanical energy. The remainder of the
fuel consumption and, therefore, less fuel for a heat is lost through the exhaust gases, the cooling
flight of a given distance at a given power. Thuq, system, and the friction within the engine. Ther-
the practical importance of a high thermal efi- mal distribution in a reciprocating engine is illus-
ciency is threefold, and it constitutes one of the trated in figure 1-31.
most desirable features in the performance of an
Mechanical Efficiency
aircraft engine.
Of the total heat produced, 25 to 30% is utilized Mechanical efficiency is the ratio that shows how
for power output; 15 to 20% is lost in cooling much of the power developed by the expanding
(heat radiated from cylinder head fins) ; 5 to 10% gases in the cylinder is actually delivered to the
is lost in overcoming friction of moving parts; and output shaft. It is a comparison between the b.hp.
40 to 4570 is lost through the exhaust. Anything and the i.hp. It can be expressed by the formula:
which increases the heat content that goes into b.hp.
Mechanical efficiency = 7.
mechanical work on the piston, which reduces the 1.h~.
friction and pumping losses, or which reduces the Brake horsepower is the useful power delivered
quantity of unburned fuel or the heat lost to the to the propeller shaft. Indicated horsepower is the
engine parts, increases the thermal efficiency. total hp. developed in the cylinders. The differ-
The portion of the total heat of combustion which ence between the two is f.hp. (friction horsepower),
is turned into mechanical work depends to a great the power lost in overcoming friction.
extent upon the compression ratio. Compression The factor that has the greatest eirect on me-
ratio is the ratio of the piston displacement plus chanical efficiency is the friction within the engine
combustion chamber space to the combustion cham- itself. The friction between moving parts in an
ber space. Other things being equal, the higher engine remains practically constant throughout an
the compression ratio, the larger is the proportion engine's speed range. Therefore, the mechanical
of the heat energy of combustion turned into useful efficiency of an engine will be highest when the
work at the crankshaft. On the other hand, increas- engine is running at the r.p.m. at which maximum
ing the compression ratio increases the cylinder b.hp. is developed. Mechanical efficiency of the
head temperature. This is a limiting factor, for the average aircraft reciprocating engine approaches
extremely high temperature created by high com- 90%.
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Heat released
by combustion
40-45s is carried 15.20% is removed
out with exhaust. by fins.

25-30!? is converted 5-10!? is removed . .


into useful power. by the oil.

FIGURE1-31. Thermal distribution in an engine.

Volumetric Efficiency (1) Part-throttle operation.


Volumetric efficiency, another engine efficiency, (2) Long intake pipes of small diameter.
is a ratio expressed in terms of percentages. It is (3) Sharp bends in the induction system.
a comparison of the volume of fuel/air charge ( 4 ) Carburetor air temperature too high.
(corrected for temperature and pressure) inducted (5) Cylinder-head temperature too high.
into the cylinders to the total piston displacement (6) Incomplete scavenging.
of the engine. Various factors cause departure (7) Improper valve timing.
from a 100% volumetric efficiency.
Propulsive Efficiency
The pistons of an unsupercharged engine displace
the same volume each time they sweep the cylin- A propeller is used with an engine to provide
ders from top center to bottom center. The amount thrust. The engine supplies b.hp. through a rotat-
of charge that iills this volume on the intake stroke ing shaft, and the propeller absorbs the b.hp. and
depends on the existing pressure and temperature converts it into thrust hp. In this conversion, some
of the surrounding atmosphere. Therefore, to find power is wasted. Since the efficiency of any ma-
the volumetric efficiency of an engine, standards chine is the ratio of useful power output to the
for atmospheric pressure and temperature had to power input, propulsive efficiency (in this case,
be estahlished. The U.S. standard atmosphere propeller efficiency) is the ratio of thrust hp. to
was established in 1958 and provides the necessary b.hp. On the average, thrust hp. constitutes ap-
pressure and temperalure values to calculate volu- proximately 80% of the h.hp. The other 20% is
metric elficiency. lost in friction and slippage. Controlling the blade
The standard sea-level temperature is 59' F. or angle of the propeller is the best method of obtain-
15' C. At this tpmperature the pressure of one ing maximum propulsive efficiency for all conditions
atmosphere is 14.63 lhs./sq. in., and this pressure encountered in flight.
will support a column of mercury 29.92 in. high. During takeoff, when the aircraft is moving at
These standard sea-level conditions determine a low speeds and when maximum power and thrust
standard density, and if the engine draws in a are required, a low propeller blade angle will give
volume of charge of this density exactly equal to maximum thrust. For high-speed flying or diving,
its piston displacen~ent,it is said to be operating the blade angle is increased to obtain maximum
at 100% volumetric efficiency. An engine drawing thrust and efficiency. The constant-speed propeller
in less volume than this has a volumetric efficiency is used to give required thrust at maximum efficiency
lower than 100%. An engine equipped with a for all flight conditions.
high-speed internal o r external blower may have a TURBINE ENGINE CONSTRUCTION
volumetric elficiency greater than 100%. The In a reciprocating engine the functions of intake,
equation for volumetric efficiency is: compression, combustion, and exhaust all take place
Volume of charge (corrected for in the same combustion chamber; consequently,
Volumetric - temperature and pressure) each must have exclusive occupancy of the chamber
elficiency - Piston displacement during its respective part of the combustion cycle.
Many factors decrease volumetric efficiency; some A significant feature of the gas turbine engine, how-
of these are: ever, is that a separate section ;s devoted to each
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function, and all functions are performed simultane- the component parts of various engines currently
ously without interruption. in use will vary slightly due to the difference in each
A typical gas turbine engine consists of: manufacturer's terminology. These differences are
(1) An air inlet. reflected in the applicable maintenance manuals.
(2) Compressor section. The greatest single factor influencing the con-
(3) Combustion section. struction features of any gas turbine engine is the
(4) Turbine section. type compressor (axial flow or centrifugal flow)
(5) Exhaust section. for which the engine is designed. Later in the chap-
(6) Accessory section. ter a detailed description of compressors is given,
(7) The systems necessary for starting, lubrica- but for the time being examine figures 1-32 and
tion, fuel supply, and auxiliary purposes, 1-33. Notice the physical effect the two types of
such as anti-icing, cooling, and pressuriza- compressors have on engine construction features.
tion. It is obvious that there is a difference in their length
The major components of all turbine engines are and diameter.
basically the same; however, the nomenclature of Note that in the axial-flow engine the air inlet

-Stitinless step1 fire seal

t
Air inlet
Accessory case

FIGURE
1-32. Axial-flow engine.
Accessory Combustion
case Compressor Exhaust duct
chamber

FIGURE
1-33. Centrifugal-flow engine.
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duct is one of the major engine components; on the (1) The compressor speed (r.p.m.) .
other hand, in the centrifugal-flow engine, air enters (2) The forward speed of the aircraft.
the air inlet and is directed to the compressor in- (3) The density of the ambient (surrounding) air.
ducer vanes through circumferential inlets located Inlets may be classified as:
in front and back of the impeller. The inlets are (1) Nose inlets, located in the nose of the fuse-
screened to prevent entry of foreign objects that lage, or powerplant pod or nacelle.
could cause serious damage to the metal components (2) Wing inlets, located along the leading edge
if allowed to enter the compressor. of the wing, usually at the root for single-
The accessories of the two types of engines are engine installations.
located at different points on the engines. This is ( 3 ) Annular inlets, encircling, in whole or in
necessary because of engine construction. The part, the fuselage or powerplant pod or
front of the axial-flow engine is utilized for air nacelle.
entrance; consequently, the accessories must be (4) Scoop inlets, which project beyond the im-
located elsewhere. mediate surface of the fuselage or nacelle.
Other than the features previously mentioned, (5) Flush inlets, which are recessed in the side
there is little visual dissimilarity between the re- of the fuselage, powerplant pod, or nacelle.
maining major components of the two engines. There are two basic types of air entrances in use:
the single entrance and the divided entrance. Gen-
AIR ENTRANCE erally, it is advantageous to use a single entrance
The air entrance is designed to conduct incoming with an axial-flow engine to obtain maximum ram
air to the compressor with a minimum energy loss pressure through straight flow. It is used almost
resulting from drag or ram pressure loss; that is, exclusively on wing or external installations where
the flow of air into the compressor should be free the unobstructed entrance lends itself readily to a
of turbulence to achieve maximum operating effi- single, short, straight duct.
ciency. Proper design contributes materially to A divided entrance offers greater opportunity to
aircraft performance by increasing the ratio of com- diffuse the incoming air and enter the plenum
pressor discharge pressure to duct inlet pressure. chamber with the low velocity required to utilize
The amount of air passing through the engine is efficiently a double-entry compressor. (The plenum
dependent upon three factors: chamber is a storage place for ram air, usually asso-

Oil ccrolrr
rlrivc

air r,otlct

FIGURE
1-34. Accessory location on a centrifugal-flow engine.
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ciated with fuselage installations.) It is also advan- The components of the accessory section of all
tageous when the equipment installation o r pilot centrifugal- and axial-flow engines have essentially
location makes the use of a single or straight duct the same purpose even though they often differ
impractical. In most cases the divided entrance quite extensively in construction details and nomen-
permits the use of very short ducts with a resultant clature.
small pressure drop through skin friction. The basic elements of the centrifugal-flow engine
ACCESSORY SECTION accessory section are (1) the accessory case, which
has machined mounting pads for the engine-driven
The accessory section of the turbojet engine has
accessories, and (2) the gear train, which is housed
various functions. The primary function is to pro-
vide space for the mounting of accessories necessary within the accessory case.
for operation and control of the engine. Generally, The accessory case may be designed to act as an
it also includes accessories concerned with the air- oil reservoir. If an oil tank is utilized, a sump is
craft, such as electric generators and fluid power- usually provided below the front bearing support
pumps. Secondary functions include acting as an for the drainage and scavenging of oil used to lubri-
oil reservoir and/or oil sump, and housing the cate bearings and drive gears.
accessory drive gears and reduction gean. The accessory case is also provided with adequate
The arrangement and driving of accessories have tubing or cored passages for spraying lubricating
always been major problems on gas turbine engines. oil on the gear train and supporting bearings.
Driven accessories are usually mounted on common The gear train is driven by the engine rotor
pads either ahead of or adjacent to the compressor through an accessory drive shaft gear coupling,
section, depending on whether the engine is centri- which splines with a shaft gear and the rotor assem-
fugal flow or axial flow. Figures 1-34 and 1-35 bly compressor hub. The reduction gearing within
illustrate the accessory arrangement of a centrifugal- the case provides suitable drive speeds for each
flow engine and an axial-flow engine, respectively. engine accessory or component. Because the rotor

FUEL CONTROL

ACCESSORY DRIVE GEARSOX BEARING OIL

TRANSFER SHAFT COVER TUBE


COMBUSTION CHAMSER
PLENUM DRAIN

\FLOW DlViDER AND DRAIN VALVE

FIGURE
1-35. Accessory arrangement on an axial-flow engine.

41
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operating r.p.m. is so high, the accessory reduction pressure fuel ~ u m p ( s ;) oil pressure pump and
gear ratios are relatively high. The accessory drives scavenge pump(s) ; auxiliary fuel pump and some-
are supported by ball bearings assembled in the times a starting fuel pump; and several engine
mounting pad bores of the accessory case. accessories including starter, generator, and tach-
The components of an axial-flow engine accessory ometer. Although these accessories are for the
section are an accessory gearbox and a power take- most part essential, the particular combination of
off assembly, housing the necessary drive shafts and engine-driven accessories depends upon the use for
reduction gears. Figure 1-36 shows the location of which the engine is designed.
the accessory gearbox. The accessories mentioned above (except start-
ers) are the engine-driven type. Also associated
Turbine with the engine systems are the nondriven acces-
and afterburner sories, such as ignition exciters, fuel o r oil filters,
Cornpresror section 1 -I
diffusrr section Afterburner section
barometric units, drip valves, compressor bleed
valves, and relief valves.
COMPRESSOR SECTION
The compressor section of the turbojet engine
Accessoiy gearbox (A) has many functions. Its primary function is to sup-
ply air in sufficient quantity to satisfy the require-
ments of the combustion burners. Specifically, to
fulfill its purpose, the compressor must increase the
pressure of the mass of air received from the air
inlet duct and then discharge it to the burners in
the quantity and at the pressures required.
Accessory gearbox (B) A secondary function of the compressor is to
supply bleed-air for various purposes in the engine
FIGURE1-36. (A) Accessory gearbox mounted and aircraft.
beneath the compressor; (B) Accessory gearbox The bleed-air is taken from any of the various
mounted beneath the front bearing support. pressure stages of the compressor. The exact loca-
tion of the bleed ports is, of course, dependent on
Although the close relationship of the accessory the pressure or temperature required for a par-
gearbox and the power takeoff necessitates their ticular job. The ports are small openings in the
being located near each other, two factors affect the compressor case adjacent to the particular stage
location of gearboxes. They are engine diameter from which the air is to be bled; thus, varying de-
and engine installation. grees of pressure or heat are available simply by
Designers are forever striving to reduce engine tapping into the appropriate stage. Air is often
diameter to make the engine more streamlined, bled from the final or highest pressure stage, since
thereby increasing aircraft performance by reducing at this point, pressure and air temperature are at a
drag. Also, engine installation in a particular air- maximum. At times it may be necessary to cool
craft may dictate the location or re-arrangement of this high-pressure air. If it is used for cabin pres-
the accessory gearboxes. surization or other purposes where excess heat
The accessory gearbox has basically the same would be uncomfortable or detrimental, the air is
functions as the accessory case of the centrifugal- sent through a refrigeration unit.
flow engine. It has the usual machined mounting Bleed air is utilized in a wide variety of ways,
pads for the engine accessories, and it houses and including driving the previously mentioned remote-
supports the accessory drive gear trains. Also in- driven accessories. Some of the current applica-
cluded are adequate tubing and cored passages for tions of bleed air are:
lubricating the gear trains and their supporting (1) Cabin pressurization, heating, and cooling.
hearings. (2) Deicing and anti-icing equipment.
The accessories usually provided on engines are (3) Pneumatic starting of engines.
the fuel control with its governing device; the high- (4) Auxiliary drive units (ADU).
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(5) Control-booster servosystems. The impeller, whose function is to pick up and


(6) Power for running instruments. accelerate the air outwardly to the diffuser, may be
The compressor section's location depends on the either of two types--single entry or double entry.
type of compressor. Figures 1-32 and 1-33 have Both are similar in construction to the reciprocat-
already illustrated how the arrangement of engine ing engine supercharger impeller, the double-entry
components varies with compressor type. In the type being similar to two impellers back to back.
centrifugal-flow engine, the compressor is located However, because of the much greater combustion
between the accessory section and the combustion air requirements in turbojet engines, the impellers
section; in the axial-flow engine the compressor is are larger than supercharger impellers.
located between the air inlet duct and the combns- The principal differences between the two types
tion section. of impellers are the size and the ducting arrange-
ment. The double-entry type has a smaller diam-
Compressor Types eter, but is usually operated at a higher rotational
The two principal types of compressors currently speed to assure sufficient airflow. The single.entry
being used in turbojet aircraft engines are centri- impeller permits convenient ducting directly to the
fugal flow and axial flow. The compressor type is impeller eye (inducer vanes) as opposed to the
a means of engine classification. more complicated ducting necessary to reach the
Much use has been made of the terms "centri- rear side of the double-entry type. Although slightly
fugal flow'' and "axial flow" to describe the engine more efficient in receiving air, the single.entry im-
and compressor. However, the terms are applica- peTer must be large in diameter to deliver the same
ble to the flow of air through the compressor. quantity of air as the double-entry type. This, of
In the centrifugal-flow engine, the compressor course, increases the overall diameter of the engine.
achieves its purpose by picking up the entering air Included in the ducting for double-entry compres-
and accelerating it outwardly by centrifugal action. sor engines is the plenum chamber. This chamber
In the axial-flow engine, the air is compressed while is necessary for a double-entry compressor because
continuing in its original direction of flow, thus the air must enter the engine at almost right angles
avoiding the energy loss caused by turns. From to the engine axis. Therefore, the air must, in order
inlet to exit the air flows along an axial path and is to give a positive flow, surround the engine com-
compressed at a ratio of approximately 1.25:l per pressor at a positive pressure before entering the
stage. The components of each of these two types compressor.
of compressors have their individual functions in Included in some installations, as a necessary
the compression of air for the combustion section. part of the plenum chamber, are the auxiliary air-
Centrifugal-flow Compressors intake doors (blow-in doors). These blow-in doors
The centrifugal-flow compressor consists basically admit air to the engine compartment during ground
of an impeller (rotor), a diffuser (stator), and a operation, when air requirements for the engine
compressor manifold, illustrated in figure 1-37. are in excess of the airflow through the inlet ducts.
The two main functional elements are the impeller The doors are held closed by spring action when
and the diffuser. Although the diffuser is a separate the engine is not operating. During operation, how-
unit and is placed inside and bolted to the manifold; ever, the doors open automatically whenever engine
the entire assembly (diffuser and manifold) is often compartment pressure drops below atmospheric
referred to as the diffuser. For clarification during pressure. During takeoff and flight, ram air pres-
compressor familiarization, the units are treated sure in the engine compartment aids the springs in
individually. holding the doors closed.
The impeller is usually made from forged alumi- The diffuser is an annular chamber provided with
num alloy, heat-treated, machined, and smoothed a number of vanes forming a series of divergent
for minimum flow restriction and turbulence. passages into the manifold. The diffuser vanes
In some types the impeller is fabricated from direct the flow of air from the impeller to the mani-
a single forging. This type impeller is shown in fold at an angle designed to retain the maximum
figure 1-37 (A). In other types the curved in- amount of energy imparted by the impeller. They
ducer vanes are separate pieces as illustrated in also deliver the air to the manifold at a velocity and
figure 1-38. pressure satisfactory for use in the combustion
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Impeller

Compressor manifold

FIGURE
1-37. (A) Components of a centrifugal compressor; (B)Air outlet elbow
with turning vanes for reducing air pressure losses.

chambers. Refer to figure 1 3 7 (A) and notice the bustion chambers. The manifold will have one
arrow indicating the path of airflow through the outlet port for each chamber so that the air is evenly
diffuser, then through the manifold. divided. A compressor outlet elbow is bolted to each
The compressor manifold shown in figure 1 3 7 of the outlet ports. These air outlets are constructed
(A) diverts the flow of air from the diffuser, which in the form of ducts and are known by a variety of
is an integral part of the manifold, into the c o m names, such as air outlet ducts, outlet elbows, or
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Compressor rrar indncrr /A\

Compressor
\YI
FIGURE
1-38. Double entry impeller with inducer vanes as separate pieces.

combustion chamber inlet ducts. Regardless of the increases the compression of the air at each stage
terminology used, these outlet ducts perform a very and accelerates it rearward through several stages.
important part of the diffusion process; that is, they With this increased velocity, energy is transferred
change the radial direction of the airflow to an axial from the.compressor to the air in the form of velocity
direction, where the diffusion process is completed energy. The stator blades act as diffusers at each
after the turn. To help the elbows perform this stage, partially converting high velocity to pressure.
function in an efficient manner, turning vanes (cas- Each consecutive pair of rotor and stator blades con-
cade vanes) are sometimes fitted inside the elbows. stitutes a pressure stage. The number of rows of
These vanes reduce air pressure losses by presenting blades (stages) is determined by the amount of air
a smooth, turning surface. (See figure 1-37 (B) .) and total pressure rise required. The greater the
Axial-flow Compressor number of stages, the higher the compression ratio.
The axial-flow compressor has two main elements, Most present-day engines utilize from 10 to 16
a rotor and a stator. The rotor has blades fixed on stages.
a spindle. These blades impel air rearward in the The stator has rows of blades, or vanes, dove-
same manner as a propeller because of their angle tailed into split rings, which are in turn attached
and airfoil contour. The rotor, turning at high inside an enclosing case. The stator vanes project
speed, takes in air at the compressor inlet and impels radially toward the rotor axis and fit closely on
it through a series of stages. The action of the rotor either side of each stage of the rotor.
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The compressor case, into which the stator vanes proper angle and impart a swirling motion to the
are fitted, is horizontally divided into halves. air entering the compressor. This pre-swirl, in the
Either the upper or lower half may be removed for direction of engine rotation, improves the aerody-
inspection or maintenance of rotor and stator blades. namic characteristics of the compressor by reducing
The function of the vanes is twofold. They ate the drag on the first-stage rotor hlades. The inlet
designed to receive air from the air inlet duct or guide vanes are curved steel vanes usually welded to
from each preceding stage of the compressor and steel inner and outer shrouds. The inlet guide vanes
deliver it to the next stage or to the burners at a may be preceded by a protective inlet screen. This
workable velocity and pressure. They also control screen reduces the chance of accidental entry of
the direction of air to each rotor stage to obtain foreign bodies, such as stones, dirt, clothing, or other
the maximum possible compressor blade efficiency. debris, into the compressor.
Shown in figure 1-39 are the rotor and stator ele- At the discharge end of the compressor, the
ments of a typical axial-flow compressor. stator vanes are constructed to straighten the airflow
The rotor blades are usually preceded by an inlet to eliminate turbulence. These vanes are called
guide vane assembly. The guide vanes direct the straightening vanes or the outlet vane assembly.
airflow into the first stage rotor blades at the
The casings of axial-flow compressors not only
support the stator vanes and provide the outer wall
of the axial path the air follows, but they also pro-
vide the means for extracting compressor air for
Front cnrrlpressor Rear ctxnpressoi
stator casing stator casing various purposes.
I I The stator vanes are usuallv made of steel with
corrosion- and erosion-resistant qualities. Quite
frequently they are shrouded (or enclosed) by a
band of suitable material to simplify the fastening
problem. The vanes are welded into the shrouds,
and the outer shroud is secured to the compressor
housing inner wall by radial retaining screws.
The rotor blades are usually made of stainless
Com~~r~ssor steel. Methods of attaching the blades in the rotor
rear frit~nr disk rims vary in different designs, but they are
I commonly fitted into disks by either bulb-type or
fir-tree-type roots. (See figure 1-40.) The blades
are then locked by means of screws, peening, lock-
ing wires, pins, or keys.
Compressor blade tips are reduced in thickness
by cutouts, referred to as blade "profiles." These
profiles paevent serious damage to the blade or
housinn- should the blades contact the compressor
housing. This condition can occur if rotor hlades
Rcnr become excessively loose or if rotor support is re-
Fmnt cc,rnpress<,r
compressor stittor duced by a malfunctioning bearing. Even though
stator casing blade profiles greatly reduce such possibilities, oc-
casionally a blade may break under stress of rub-
bing and cause considerable damage to compressor
blades and stator vane assemblies.
The blades vary in length from entry to discharge
because the annular working space (drum to cas-
ing) is reduced progressively toward the rear by
FIGURE
1-39. Rotor and stator components of an the decrease in the casing diameter (see figure
axial-flow compressor. 141).
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( A ) Bull, n,ot ( H )Fir-tree mot

FIGURE
1 4 0 . Common retention methods used on compressor rotor blades.

the front and rear of the assembly to provide bear-


ing support surfaces and splines for joining the tur-
bine shaft. The disk-type rotors are used ahnost
exclusively in all present.day, high-speed engines
and are the type referred to in this text. The drum-
type and disk-type rotors are illustrated in figures
1 4 1 and 142, respectively.

FIGURE
1 4 1 . Drum-type compressor rotor.

Before leaving the subject of rotor familiariza-


tion, it may be well to mention that the rotor fea.
tures either drum-type or disk-type construction.
The drum-type rotor consists of rings that are
flanged to fit one against the other, wherein the en-
tire assembly can then be held together by through
bolts. This type of construction is satisfactory for FIGURE
1 4 2 . Disk-type compressor rotor.
low-speed compressors where centrifugal stresses
are low. The coverage of axial.80~compressors up to this
The disk-type rotor consists of a series of disks point has dealt solely with the conventional single-
machined from aluminum forgings, shrunk over a rotor type. Actually, there are two configurations
steel shaft, with rotor blades dovetailed into the disk of the axial compressor currently in use, the single
rims. Another method of rotor construction is to rotor and the dual rotor, sometimes referred to as
machine the disks and shaft from a single alumi- solid spool and split spool, respectively.
num forging, and then to bolt steel stub shafts on One version of the solid-spool compressor uses
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variable inlet guide vanes. Also, the first few rows ( 2 ) Small frontal area for given airflow.
of stator vanes are variable. This is the arrange- (3) Straight-through flow, allowing high ram
ment on the General Electric CJ805 engine. It in- efficiency.
corporates a 17-stage compressor, and the angles of (4) Increased pressure rise by increasing num.
the inlet guide vanes and the first six stages of the ber of stages with negligible losses.
stator vanes are variable. During operation, air The axial-flow compressor's disadvantages are:
enters the front of the engine and is directed into 1 Good efficiencies over only narrow rota-
the compressor at the proper angle by the variable tional speed range.
inlet guide and variable stator vanes. The air is (2) Difficulty of manufacture and high cost.
compressed and forced into the combustion section. ( 3 ) Relatively high weight.
A fuel nozzle which extends into each combustion (41 High starting power requirements. 7 (This
liner atomizes the fuel for combustion. has been partially overcome by split com-
These variables are controlled in direct relation pressors.)
to the amount of power the engine is required to
COMBUSTION SECTION
produce by the pilot's power lever position.
One version of the split-spool compressor is The combustion section houses the combustion
found in Pratt and Whitney's JT3C engine. It incor- process, which raises the temperature of the air
porates two compressors with their respective tur- passing through the engine. This process releases
bines and interconnecting shafts, which form two energy contained in the air/fuel mixture. The
physically independent rotor systems. major part of this energy is required at the turbine to
As previously mentioned, centrifugal- and axial- drive the compressor. The remaining energy creates
flow engines dominate the gas-turbine field. There the reaction or propulsion and passes out the rear
are, however, several possible configurations of these of the engine in the form of a high.velocity jet.
engine types, some of which have been tried experi- The primary function of the combustion section
mentally, while others are still in the design or is, of course, to burn the fuel/air mixture, thereby
laboratory stage of development. adding heat energy to the air. To do this efficiently
From an analysis of the centrifugal- and axial- the combustion chamber must:
flow engine compressors at their present stage of (1) Provide the means for proper mixing of
development, the axial-flow type appears to have the fuel and air to assure good combus-
definite advantages. The advent of the split-spool tion.
axial compressor made these advanta,"es even more ( 2 ) Burn this mixture efficiently.
positive by offering greater starting flexibility and (31 Cool the hot combustion products to a
improved high-altitude performance. temperature which the turbine blades can
The advantages and disadvantages of both types withstand under operating conditions.
of compressors are included in the following list. 4 Deliver the hot gases to the turbine sec-
Bear in mind that even though each compressor tion.
type has merits and limitations, the performance The location of the combustion section is directly
~otentialis the key to further development and use. between the compressor and the turbine sections.
The centrifugal-flow compressor's advantages are: The combustion chambers are always arranged
(1) High pressure rise per stage. coaxially with the compressor and turbine regard-
( 2 ) Good efficiencies over wide rotational less of type, since the chambers must be in a
speed range. through-flow position to function efficiently.
( 3 ) Simplicity of manufacture, thus low cost. All combustion chambers contain the same basic
(4) Low weight. elements:
( 5 ) Low starting power requirements. (1) A casing.
The centrifugal-flow compressor's disadvantages (2) A perforated inner liner.
are: (3) A fuel injection system.
( 1 ) Large frontal area for given airflow. (4) Some means far initial ignition.
(2) More than two stages are not practical be- (5) A fuel drainage system to drain off un-
cause of losses in turns between stages. burned fuel after engine shutdown.
The axial-flow compressor's advantages are: There are currently three basic types of com-
(1) High peak efficiencies. bustion chambers, variations within these types be-
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ing in detail only. These types are: the smaller chamber cover encases the front or inlet
(1) The multiple-chamber or can type. end of the liner.
(2) The annular or basket type. The interconnector (flame propagation) tubes
(3) The can-annular type. are a necessary part of the can-type combustion
The can-type combustion chamber is typical of chambers. Since each can is a separate burner op-
the type used on both centrifugal- and axial-flow erating independently of the other cans, there must
engines. It is particularly well suited for the cen- be some way to spread combustion during the ini-
trifugal compressor engine, since the air leaving tial starting operation. This is accomplished by
the compressor is already divided into equal por- interconnecting all the chambers so that as the flame
tions as it leaves the diffuser vanes. It is then a is started by the spark igniter plugs in two of the
simple matter to duct the air from the diffuser into lower chambers, it will pass through the tubes and
the respective combustion chambers, arranged ra- ignite the combustible mixture in the adjacent
dially around the axis of the engine. The number chamber, and continue on until all the chambers are
of chambers will vary, since in the past (or devel- burning.
opment as few as two and as many as 16 The flame tubes will vary in construction details
chambers have been used. The present trend indi- from one engine to another, although the basic
cates the use of about eight or 10 combustion cham- components are almost identical.
bers. Figure 1-43 illustrates the arrangement for The interconnector tubes are shown in figure
can-type combustion chambers. On American-built 1-45. Bear in mind that not only must the chambers
engines these chambers are numbered in a clock- he interconnected by an outer tube (in this case a
wise direction facing the rear of the engine with the ferrule), but there must also be a slightly longer
No. 1 chamber at the top. tube inside the outer one to interconnect the cham-
Each of the can-type combustion chambers con- ber liners where the flame is located. The outer
sists of an outer case or housing, within which tubes or jackets around the interconnecting flame
there is a perforated stainless steel (highly heat- tubes not only afford airflow between the chambers,
resistant) combustion chamber liner or inner liner. but they also fulfill an insulating function around
(See figure 144.) The outer case is divided to the hot flame tubes.
facilitate liner replacement. The larger section or The spark igniters previously mentioned are
chamber body encases the liner at the exit end, and normally two in number, and are located in two

Torque meter pressure


Low torrIue tranarntter \ocket

tranmrtter rocket overflow


FIGURE
143. Can-type combustion chamber arrangement
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Flame tube suspension pins

Fueidrain

FIGURE
1 4 4 . Can-type combustion chamber.

Ferrule Elbow Extension tube


Interconneder

FIGURE145. Interconnecting flame tubes for can-type combustion chambers.

of the can-type combustion chambers. temperature will go beyond safe operating limits.
Another very important requirement in the con- The liners of the can-type combustors (figure
struction of combustion chambers is providing the 1-44) have perforations of various sizes and shapes,
means for draining unburned fuel. This drainage each hole having a specific purpose and effect on
prevents gum deposits in the fuel manifold, nozzles, the flame propagation within the liner. The air
and combustion chambers. These deposits are entering the combustion chamber is divided by the
caused by the residue left when the fuel evaporates. proper holes, louvers, and slots into two main
Probably most important is the danger of afterfire stream-primary and secondary air. The primary
if the fuel is allowed to accumulate after shutdown. or combustion air is directed inside the liner at the
If the fuel is not drained, a great possibility exists, front end, where it mixes with the fuel and is burned.
that at the next starting attempt, the excess fuel in Secondary or cooling air passes between the outer
the combustion chamber will ignite, and tailpipe casing and the liner and joins the combustion gases
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through larger holes toward the rear of the liner, more chambers are used, they are placed one outside
cooling the combustion gases from about 3,500' F. the other in the same radial plane, hence, the double-
to near 1,500' F. To aid in atomization of the fuel, annular chamber. The double-annular chamber is
holes are provided around the fuel nozzle in the -
illustrated in fieure 1-47.
dome or inlet end of the can-type combustor liner. The spark igniter plugs of the annular combustion
Louvers are also provided along the axial length of chamber are the same basic type used in the can
the liners to direct a cooling layer of air along the combustion chambers, although construction details
inside wall of the liner. This layer of air also tends may vary. There are usually two plugs mounted on
to control the flame pattern by keeping it centered the boss provided on each of the chamber housings.
in the liner, thereby preventing burning of the liner The plugs must be long enough to protrude from the
walls. housing into the outer annulus of the double-annular
Figure 1-46 illustrates the flow of air through the combustion chamber.
louvers in the double-annular combustion chamber.
Some provision is always made in the combustion The can-annular type combustion chamber is a
chamber case, or in the compressor air outlet elbow, development by Pratt and Whitney for use in their
for installation of a fuel nozzle. The fuel nozzle JT3 axial-flow turbojet engine. Since this engine
delivers the fuel into the liner in a finely atomized was to feature the split-spool compressor, it required
spray. The finer the spray, the more rapid and a combustion chamber capable of meeting the strin-
efficient the burning process. gent requirements of maximum strength and limited
Two types of fuel nozzles currently being used length with a high overall efficiency. These require-
in the various types of combustion chambers are ments were necessary because of the high air
the simplex nozzle and the duplex nozzle. The pressures and velocities present in a split-spool
construction features of these nozzles are covered compressor, along with the shaft length limitations
in greater detail in Chapter 3, "Engine Fuel and explained in the following two paragraphs.
Fuel Metering Systems." The split compressor requires two concentric
The annular combustion chamber consists basical- shafts joining the turbine stages to their respective
ly of a housing and a liner, as does the can type. compressors. The front compressor joined to the
The liner consists of an undivided circular shroud rear turbine stages requires the longest shaft.
extending all the way around the outside of the Because h i s shaft is inside the other, a limitation
turbine shaft housing. The chamber may be con. of diameter is imposed, with the result that the
s t ~ c t e dof one or more baskets; that is, if two or distance between the front compressor and the rear
Ooter burner shroud

-
-- Primary compressed air
Secondary comprrssed air
Srcnndary air - inlets

FIGURE1-46. Components and aidlow of a double-annular chamber.


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ustion
housing

FIGURE1-47. Double-annular combustion chamber.

turbine must be limited if critical shaft lengths are Figure 1-48 also shows that each combustion
to be avoided. chamber contains a central bullet-shaped perforated
Since the compressor and turbine are not suscep- lmer. The size and shape of the holes are designed
tible to appreciable shortening, the necessary shaft to admit the correct quantity of air at the proper
length limitation had to be absorbed by developing velocity and angle required. Cutouts are provided
a new type of burner. The designers had to develop in two of the bottom chambers for installation of the
a design that would give the desired performance in spark igniters. Notice also in figure 1-48 how the
much less relative distance than had been previously combustion chambers are supported at the aft end
assigned for this purpose. by outlet duct clamps which secure them to the
The can-annular combustion chambers are ar- turbine nozzle assembly.
ranged radially around the axis of the engine, the Again refer to figure 1-48 and notice how the
axis in this instance being the rotor shaft housing. forward face of each chamber presents six apertures
Figure 1-48 shows this arrangement to advantage. which align with the six fuel nozzles of the corre-
The combustion chambers are enclosed in a sponding fuel nozzle cluster. These nozzles are the
removable steel shroud, which covers the entire dual-orifice (duplex) type requiring the use of a
burner section. This feature makes the burners flow-divider (pressurizing valve), as mentioned in
readily available for any required maintenance. the can-tv~e,* combustion chamber discussion.
The burners are interconnected by projecting Around each nozzle are pre-swirl vanes for imparting
flame tubes which facilitate the engine-starting a swirling- motion to the fuel spray, which results in
process as mentioned previously in the can-type better atomization of the fuel, better burning and
combustion chamber familiarization. These flame efficiency.
tubes function identically with those previously dis- The swirl vanes perform two important functions
cussed, but they differ in construction details. imperative to proper flame propagation:
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Rotor

Furl nm

R c u ~ 1s 4 . Can-annular combustion chamber components and arrangement.

(1) High flame speed: Better mixing of air and Turbine Section
fuel, ensuring spontaneous burning. The turbine transforms a portion of the kinetic
(2) Low air velocity axially: Swirling eliminates (velocity) energy of the exhaust gases into mechan-
flame moving axially too rapidly. ical energy to drive the compressor and accessories.
The swirl vanes greatly aid flame propagation, This is the sole purpose of the turbine and this
since a high degree of turbulence in the early com- function absorbs approximately 60 to 80% of the
bustion and cooling stages is desirable. The total pressure energy from the exhaust gases. The
vigorous mechanical mixing of the fuel vapor with exact amount of energy absorption at the turbine is
the primary air is necessary, since mixing by determined by the load the turbine is driving; that
di5usion alone is too slow. This same mechanical is, the compressor size and type, number of acces-
midng is also established by other means, such as sories, and a propeller and its reduction gears if the
plaaing eoarse screens in the diffuser outlet, as is engine is a turbo-propeller type.
the case in most axial-flow engines. The turbine section of a turbojet engine is located
The can-annular combustion chambers also must aft, or downstream of the combustion chamber
have the required fuel drain valves located in two section. Specifically, it is directly behind the
or more of the bottom chambers, assuring proper combustion chamber outlet.
drainage and elimination of residual fuel burning The turbine assembly consists of two basic
at the next start. elements, the stator and the rotor, as does the
The flow of air through the holes and louvers of compressor unit. These two elements are shown in
the can-annular chambers is almost identical with figures 1-50 and 1-51, respectively.
the flow through other types of burners. Special The stator element is known by a variety of names,
baffling is used to swirl the combustion airflow and of which turbine nozzle vanes, turbine guide vanes,
to give it turbulence. Figure 1 4 9 shows the flow and nozzle diaphragm are three of the most com-
of combustion air, metal cooling air, and the diluent monly used. The turbine nozzle vanes are located
or gas cooling air. Pay particular attention to the directly aft of the combustion chambers and
direction of airflow indicated by the arrows. immediately forward of the turbine wheel.
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Combnstion air --)


hletal cooling air
Gas cooling air L-Y
-

FIGURE
1-49. Airflow through a can-annular chamber.

The function of the turbine nozzles is twofold.


First, after the combustion chamber has introduced
the heat energy into the mass airflow and delivered
it evenly to the turbine nozzles, it becomes the job
of the nozzles to prepare the mass air flow for driv-
ing the turbine rotor. The stationary blades or
vanes of the turbine nozzles are contoured and set
at such angle that they form a number of small
nozzles discharging the gas at extremely high speed;
thus, the nozzle converts a varying portion of the
heat and pressure energy to velocity energy which

FIGURE
1-50. Stator element of the FIGURE
1-51. Rotor element of the
turbine assembly. turbine assembly.
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can then be converted to mechanical energy through loosely in the supporting inner and outer shrouds.
the rotor blades. (See figure 1-52 (A) .)
The second purpose of the turbine nozzle is to Each vane fits into a contoured slot in the
deflect the gases to a specific angle in the direction shrouds, which conforms with the airfoil shape of
of turbine wheel r,otation. Since the gas flow from the vane. These slots are slightly larger than the
the nozzle must enter the turbine blade passageway vanes to give a loose fit. For further support the
-. it is essential to aim the
while it is still rotatine. inner and outer shrouds are encased by an inner
gas in the general direction of turbine rotation. and an outer support ring, which give increased
The turbine nozzle assembly consists of an inner strength and rigidity. These support rings also
shroud and an outer shroud between which are facilitate removal of the nozzle vanes as a unit;
fixed the nozzle vanes. The number of vanes otherwise, the vanes could fall out as the shrouds
employed vary with different types and sizes of were removed.
- -
~i~~~~ 1-52 illustrates typical
.- turbine Another method of tliermal expansion construc-
nozzles featuring loose and welded vanes. tion is to fit the vanes into inner and outer shrouds;
however, in this method the vanes are welded or
riveted into position. (See figure 1-52(B) .) Some
means must be provided to allow for thermal expan-
sion; therefore, either the inner or the outer shroud
ring is cut into segments. These saw cuts dividing
the segments will allow sufficient expansion to
prevent stress and warping of the vanes.
The rotor element of the turbine section consists
essentially of a shaft and a wheel. (See figure
1-51.)
The turbine wheel is a dynamically balanced
( A ) Turhint. nozzle vane nsscmhly with loost.
fitting vanes; unit consisting of blades attached to a rotating disk.
The disk. in turn. is attached to the main Dower-
transmitting shaft of the engine. The jet gases
leaving the turbine nozzle vanes act on the blades
of the turbine wheel, causing the assembly to
rotate at a very high rate of speed. The high rota-
tional speed imposes severe centrifugal loads on
the turbine wheel, and at the same time the elevated
temperatures result in a lowering of the strength of
( B ) Tarl,ine nozzle vane assembly with welded vanes. the material. Consequently, the engine speed and
temperature must be controlled to keep turbine
FIGURE1-52. Typical turbine nozzles. operation within safe limits.
The turbine disk is referred to as such when in
The blades or vanes of the turbine nozzle may be an unbladed form. When the turbine blades are
assembled between the outer and inner shrouds or installed, the disk then becomes the turbine wheel.
rings in a variety of ways. Although the actual The disk acts as an anchoring component for the
elements may vary slightly in their configuration turbine blades. Since the disk is bolted or welded
and construction features, there is one character- to the shaft, the blades can transmit to the rotor
istic peculiar to all turbine nozzles; that is, the shaft the energy they extract from the exhaust gases.
nozzle vanes must be constructed to allow for ther- The disk rim is exposed to the hot gases passing
mal expansion. Otherwise, there would he severe through the blades and absorbs considerable heat
distortion or warping of the metal components from these gases. In addition, the rim also absorbs
because of rapid temperature changes. heat from the turbine buckets (blades) by conduc-
The thermal expansion of turbine nozzles is tion. Hence, disk rim temperatures normally are
accomplished by one of several methods. One high and well above the temperatures of the more
method necessitates the vanes being assembled remote inner portion of the disk. As a result of
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these temperature gradients, thermal stresses are


added to the rotational stresses.
There are various means to relieve, at least par-
tially, the aforementioned stresses. One such means
is to bleed cooling air back onto the face of the disk.
Another method of relieving the thermal stresses
of the disk is incidental to blade installation. A
series of grooves or notches, conforming to the
blade root design, are broached in the rim of the
disk. These grooves attach the turhine blades to the
disk, and at the same time space is provided by the
notches for thermal expansion of the disk. Sufficient
clearance exists between the blade root and the
notch to permit movement of the turbine blade when
the disk is cold. During engine operation, expan-
FIGURE1-53. Turbine blade with fir-tree design
and lock-tab method of blade retention.
sion of the disk decreases the clearance. This causes
the bucket root to fit tightly in the disk rim.
The turhine shaft, illustrated in figure 1-51, is
usually fabricated from alloy steel. It must be
capable of absorbing the high torque loads that are
exerted when a heavy axial-flow compressor is
started.
The methods of connecting the shaft to the turhine
disk vary. In one method, the shaft is welded to the
disk, which has a butt or protrusion provided for the
joint. Another method is by bolting. This method
requires that the shaft have a hub which matches a
machined surface on the disk face. The bolts then
-
are inserted through holes in the shaft hub and
anchored in tapped holes in the disk. Of the two FIGURE
1-54.. Riveting method of turbine
'methods, the latter is more common. blade retention.
The turbine shaft must have some means for
attachment to the compressor rotor hub. This is The peening method of blade retention is used
usually accomplished by a spline cut on the forward frequently in various ways. One of the most com-
end of the shaft. The spline fits into a coupling mon applications of peening requires a small notch
device between the compiessor and turbine shafts. to be ground in the edge of the blade fir.tree root
If a coupling is not used, the splined end of the prior to the blade installation. After the hlade is
turbine shaft may fit into a splined recess in the inserted into the disk, the notch is filled by the disk
compressor rotor hub. This splined coupling metal, which is "flowed" into it by a small punch-
arrangement is used almost exclusively with cen- mark made in the disk adjacent to the notch. The
trifugal compressor engines, while the axial tool used for this job is similar to a center punch.
compressor engine may use either of these described
methods. Another method of blade retention is to construct
There are various ways of attaching turbine the root of the hlade so that it will contain all the
blades or buckets, some similar to compressor blade elements necessary for its retention. This method,
attachment. The most satisfactory method used is illustrated in figure 1 5 5 , shows that the hlade root
the fir-tree design shown in figure 1-53. has a stop made on one end of the root so that the
The blades are retained in their respective grooves blade can be inserted and removed in one direction
by a variety of methods; some of the more common only, while on the opposite end is a tang. This
ones are peening, welding, locktabs, and riveting. tang is bent to secure the blade in the disk.
Figure 1-54. shows a typical turbine wheel using Turbine blades may be either forged or cast,
rivets for blade retention. depending on the composition of the alloys. Most
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In turbiue rotor construction, it occasionally


becomes necessary to utilize turbines of more than
one stage. A single turbine wheel often cannot
absorb enough power from the exhaust gases to
drive the components dependent on the turbine for
rotative power, and thus, it is necessary to add
additional turbine stages.
A turbine stage consists of a row of stationary
vanes or nozzles, followed by a row of rotating
blades. In some models of turboprop engine, as
many as five turbine stages have been utilized
successfully. It should be remembered that, regard-
less of the number of wheels necessary for driving
engine components, there is always a turbine nozzle
preceding each wheel.
As was brougbt out in the preceding discussion of
turbine stages, the occasional use of more than one
turbine wheel is warranted in cases of heavy rota-
tional loads. It should also be pointed out that the
same loads that necessitate multiplestage turbines
often make it advantageous to incorporate multiple
compressor rotors.
L Stop locates against wheel
\ In the single-stage rotor turbine (figure 1-57),
the power is developed by one rotor, and all engine-

FIGURE
Tang is peened over to secure
155. Turbine bucket, featuring tang
1 driven parts are driven by this single wheel. This
arrangement is used on engines where the need for
low weight and compactness predominates.
method of blade retention.

blades are precision-cast and finish-ground to the


desired shape.
Most turbines are open at the outer perimeter of
the blades; however, a second type called the
shrocded turbine is sometimes used. The shrouded FIGURE
1-57. Single-stage rotor turbine.
turbine blades, in effect, form a band around the
outer perimeter of the turbine wheel. This improves In the multiple-rotor turbiue the power is devel-
efficiency and vibration characteristics, and permits oped by two or more rotors. It is possible for each
lighter stage weights; on the other hand, it limits turbine rotor to drive a separate part of the engine.
turbine speed and requires more blades (see figure For example, a triple-rotor turbine can be so
1-56). arranged that the first turbine drives the rear half
of the compressor and the accessories, the second
turbine drives the front half of the compressor, and
the third turbine furnishes power to a propeller.
(See figure 1-58.)

FIGURE
1-56. Shrouded turbine blades. FIGURE
1-58. Multiple-rotor turbine.
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FIGW 1-59. Dual-rotor turbine for split-spool compressor.

The turbine rotor arrangement for a dual-rotor turbine section and ends when the gases are ejected
turbine, such as required for a split-spool compres- at the rear in the form of a high-velocity jet. The
sor, is similar to the arrangement in figure 1-58. components of the exhaust section include the
The difference is that where the third turbine is used exhaust cone, tailpipe (if required), and the exhaust
for a propeller in figure 1-58, it would be joined or jet nozzle. Each component is discussed
with the second turbine to make a two-stage turbine individually.
for driving the front compressor. This arrangement The exhaust cone collects the exhaust gases dis-
is shown in figure 1-59. charged from the turbine buckets and gradually
The remaining element to be discussed concern- converts them into a solid jet. In performing this,
ing turbine familiarization is the turbine casing or the velocity of the gases is decreased slightly and
housing. The turbine casing encloses the turbine the pressure increased. This is due to the diverging
wheel and the nozzle vane assembly, and at the same passage between the outer duct and the inner cone;.
time gives either direct or indirect support to the that is, the annular area between the two units in-
stator elements of the turbine section. It always has creases rearward.
flanges provided front and rear for bolting the The exhaust cone assembly consists of an outer
assembly to the combustion chamber housing and shell or duct, an inner cone, three or four radial
the exhaust cone assembly, respectively. A turbine hollow struts or fins, and the necessary number of
casing is illustrated in figure 1-60. tie rods to aid the struts in supporting the inner
cone from the outer duct.
The outer shell or duct is usually made of stainless
steel and is attached to the rear flange of the turbine
case. This element collects the exhaust gases and
delivers them either directly or via a tailpipe to the
jet nozzle, depending, of course, on whether or not
a tailpipe is required. In some engine installations
a tailpipe is hot needed. For instance, when the
FIGURE
1-60. Turbine casing a~sembly. engine is installed in nacelles or pods, a short tail-
pipe is all that is required, in which case the exhaust
Exhaust Section duct and exhaust nozzle will suffice. The duct must
The exhaust section of the turbojet engine is made be constructed to include such features as a prede-
up of several components, each of which has its termined number of thermocouple bosses for install-
individual functions. Although the components ing tailpipe temperature thermocouples, and there
have individual purposes, they also have one com- must also be the insertion holes for the supporting tie
mon function: They must direct the flow of hot rods. In some cases, tie rods are not used for
gases rearward in such a manner as to prevent supporting the inner cone. If such is the case, the
turbulence and at the same time impart a high final hollow struts provide the sole support of the inner
or exit velocity to the gases. cone, the struts being spot-welded in position to the
In performing the various functions, each of the inside surface of the duct and to the inner cone,
components affects the flow of gases in different respectively (see figure 1-61).
ways as described in the following paragraphs. The radial struts actually have a twofold function.
The exhaust section is located directly behind the They not only support the inner cone in the exhaust
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installations use a single direct exhaust as opposed


to a dual exit exhaust to obtain the advantages of
low-weight, simplicity, and minimum duct losses
(see figure 1-62).

+l+
( A ) Single exit Lllilpipe

FIGURE1-61. Exhaust collector with welded


support struts.
duct, hut they also perform the important function
of straightening the swirling exhaust gases that
would otherwise leave the turbine at an angle of
approximately 4S0.
The centrally located inner cohe fits rather closely
against the rear face of the turbine disk, preventing
turbulence of the gases as they leave the turbine
wheel. The cone is supported by the radial struts. FIGURE
1-62. (A) Single exit tailpipe,
In some configurations a small hole is located in (B) Divided exit tailpipes.
the exit tip of the cone. This hole allows cooling The tailpipe is usually constructed so that it is
air to be circulated from the aft end of the cone, semiflexible. Again the necessity for this feature is
where the pressure of the gases is relatively high, dependent on its length. On extremely long tail-
into the interior of the cone and consequently against pipes, a bellows arrangement is incorporated in its
the face of the turbine wheel. The flow of air is construction, allowing movement both in installation
positive, since the air pressure at the turbiue wheel and maintenance, and in thermal expansion. This
is relatively low due to rotation of the wheel; thus eliminates stress and warping which would other-
air circulation is assured. The gases used for cool- wise be present.
ing the turbiue wheel will return to the main path The heat radiation from the exhaust cone and
of flow by passing through the clearance between the tailpipe could damage the airframe components
turbine disk and the inner cone. surrounding these units. For this reason, some
The exhaust cone assembly is the terminating means of insulation had to he devised. There are
component of the basic engine. The remaining several suitable methods of protecting the fuselage
components (the tailpipe and jet nozzle) are usually structure; two of the most common are insulation
considered airframe components. blankets and shrouds.
The tailpipe is used primarily to pipe the exhaust The insulation blanket, illustrated in figures 1 4 3
gases out of the airframe. The use of a tailpipe and 1-64, consists of several layers of aluminum
imposes a penalty on the operating efficiency of the foil, each separated by a layer of fiber glass or some
engine in the form of heat and duct (friction) losses. other suitable material. Although these blankets
These losses materially affect the final velocity of the protect the fuselage from heat radiation, they are
exhaust gases and, hence, the thrust. primarily used to reduce heat losses from the exhaust
The tailpipe terminates in a jet nozzle located system. The reduction of heat losses improves
just forward of the end of the fuselage. Most engine performance. A typical insulation blanket
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r Insulation blanket

Ram air --c


Induction air -- - L

FIGURE1-63. Exhaust system insulation blanket.


and the temperatures in the exhaust section are The exhaust or jet nozzle imparts to the exhaust
shown in figure 1-64. This blanket contains fiber gases the all-important final boost in velocity. The
glass as the low conductance material and aluminum jet nozzle, like the tailpipe, is not included as part
foil as the radiation shield. The blanket should be of the basic powerplant, but is supplied as a com-
suitably covered to prevent its becoming soaked with ponent of the airframe. The nozzle is attached to
oil. the rear of the tailpipe, if a tailpipe is required, o r
The heat shroud consists of a stainless steel to the rear flange of the exhaust duct if a tailpipe
envelope enclosing the exhaust system (see figure is not necessary.
1-65). r--7 There are two types of jet nozzle design. They

--
Cooling air
A-
Fiberglass
I

I
L-----I
Exhaust gas
1

I
I 120F.

1000F.
+Stainless steel shroud

-Aluminum
-Fiberglass
-Jet
Silver
foil
foil
tailpipe 900F
- 350F.

FIGURE
1-64. Insulation blanket with the temperatures which would be obtained at
the various locations shown.
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Flush louvers cooling air inlet


Exhaust system shroud

FIGURE1-65. Exhaust system shroud.

are the converging design, for subsonic gas Air Adapters


velocities, and the convergingdiverging design for The air adapters of the centrifugal compressor are
supersonic gas velocities. These are discussed in illustrated in figure 1 3 7 along with the diffuser.
greater detail in Chapter 2, "Induction and Exhaust The purpose of the air outlet ducts is to deliver air
Systems." from the diffuser to the individual can-type com-
The jet nozzle opening may be either fixed-area or bustion chambers. In some instances, fuel nozzles
variable-area. The fixed-area is the simpler of the or igniter plugs are also mounted in the air outlet
two jet nozzles. Since there are no moving parts, duct.
any adjustment in nozzle area must be made me-
chanically. Engine Rotor
Adjustments in nozzle area are sometimes neces- The engine rotor is a combination of the com-
sary because the size of the exit orifice will directly pressor and turbine rotors on a common shaft. The
affect the operating temperature of the engine. common shaft is provided by joining the turbine
When necessary, a fixed-area nozzle can be adjusted and compressor shafts by a suitable method. The
in one of several ways. One method of changing engine rotor is supported by bearings, which are
nozzle area is to use inserts, which fit inside the noz- seated in suitable bearing housings.
zle and are held in place by screws.
Main Bearings
The inserts are of varying curvatures and sizes.
The different size inserts allow a change in nozzle The main bearings have the critical function of
area to be made in varying increments. Thus, supporting the main engine rotor. The number of
through experience a mechanic can run the engine bearings necessary for proper engine support will,
at maximum speed with one combination of inserts: for the most part, be decided by the length and
check the temperature, and substitute another com- weight of the engine rotor. The length and weight
bination to make up a temperature deficiency or are directly affected by the type of compressor used
remedy an excess temperature situation. in the engine. Naturally, a split-spool axial com-
pressor will require more support than a centrifugal
MAJOR SUBASSEMBLIES compressor.
The assemblies included in the discussion that Probably the minimum number of bearings re-
follows are integral parts of, or a combination of, the quired would be three, while some of the later
components which comprise the major sections of a models of split.spoo1 axial compressor engines re-
turbojet engine. quire six or more.
Diffiser The gas turbine rotors are usually supported by
The diffuser is the divergent section of the.engine. either ball or roller bearings. Hydrodynamic or
It has the all-important function of changing high. slipper-type bearings are receiving some attention
velocity compressor discharge air to static pressure. for use on turbine powerplants where operating rotor
This prepares the air for entry into the burner cans speeds approach 45,000 r.p.m. and where excessive
at low velocity so that it will bum with a flame that bearing loads during flight are anticipated. (See
will not blow out. figure 1-66.) In general, the ball or roller anti-
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FIGURE1-66. Type of main bearings used for gas turbine rotor support.

friction bearings are preferred largely on the basis a bearing support housing, which must be strongly
that they: constructed and supported in order to carry the
( 1 ) Offer little rotational resistance. radial and axial loads of the rapidly rotating rotor.
(2) Facilitate precision alignment of rotating The bearing housing usually contains oil seals to
elements. prevent the oil leaking from its normal path of flow.
(3) Are relatively inexpensive. It also delivers the oil to the bearing for its lubrica-
(4) Are easily replaced. tion, usually through spray nozzles.
(5) Withstand high momentary overloads. The oil seals may be the labyrinth or thread
(6) Are simple to cool, lubricate, and maintain. (helical) type. These seals also may be pressurized
(7) Accommodate both radial and axial lods. to minimize o(l leaking along the compressor shaft.
(8) Are relatively resistant to elevated tempera- The labyrinth seal is usually pressurized, but the
tures. helical seal depends solely on reverse threading to
The main disadvantages are their vulnerability to stop oil leakage. These two types of seals are very
foreign matter and tendency to fail without appre- similar, differing only in thread size and the fact that
ciable warning. the labyrinth seal is pressurized.
Usually the ball bearings are positioned on the Another type of oil seal used on some of the later
compressor or turbine shaft so that they can absorb engines is the carbon seal. These seals are usually
any axial (thrust) loads or radial loads. Because spring loaded and are similar in material and appli-
the roller beavings present a larger working sur- cation to the carbon brushes used in electrical
face, they are better equipped to support radial loads motors. Carbon seals rest against a surface provided
than thrust loads. Therefore, they are used pri- to create a sealed bearing cavity or void; thus, the
marily for this purpose. oil is prevented from leaking out along the shaft
A typical ball or roller bearing assembly includes into the compressor airflow or the turbine section.
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Figure 1-67 illustrates an oil seal of the spring. compressor and accessories, the turboprop turbine
loaded carbon type. transmits increased power forward, through a shaft
The ball or roller bearing is fitted into the bearing and a gear train, to drive the propeller. The
housing and may have a self-aligning feature. If a increased power is generated by the exhaust gases
bearing is self-aligning, it is usually seated in a passing through additional stages of the turbine.
spherical ring, thus allowing the shaft a certain Refer to figure 1-58, which shows a multiple-rotor
amount of radial. movement without transmitting turbine with coaxial shafts for independent driving
stress to the bearing inner race. of the compressor and propeller. Although there

Seal housing -4 are three turbines utilized in this illustration, as


many as five turbine stages have been used for
driving the two rotor elements, propeller, and
accessories.
The exhaust gases also contribute to engine power
output through jet reaction, although the amount of
energy available for jet thrust is considerably
reduced.
Since the basic components of the turbojet and the
turboprop engines differ only slightly in design
features, it should be fairly simple to apply acquired
knowledge of the turbojet to the turboprop.
The typical turboprop engine can be broken
down into assemblies as follows:
Seals (1) The power section assembly, which contains
the usual major components of gas turbine
engines (compressor, combustion chamber,
turbine, and exhaust sections).
(2) The reduction gear or gearbox assembly
which contains those sections peculiar to
turboprop configurations.
FIGURE
1-67. Carbon oil seal. (3) The torquemeter assembly, which transmits
the torque from the engine to the gearbox of
The bearing surface is usually provided by a the reduction section.
machined journal on the appropriate shaft. The
(4) The accessory drive housing assembly.
bearing is usually locked in position by a steel
snapring, or other suitable locking device. These assemblies are illustrated in figure 1-68.
The rotor shaft also provides the matching surface The turboprop engine can be used in many
for the oil seals in the bearing housing. These different configurations. It is often used in
machined surfaces are called lands and fit in rather transport aircraft, but can be adapted for use in
close to the oil seal, although not actually touching. single-engine aircraft.
If rubbing occurs, eventual wear and leakage will TURBOSHAFT ENGINES
result.
A gas turbine engine that delivers power through
TURBOPROP ENGINES a shaft to operate something other than a propeller
The turboprop (turbo-propeller) engine is a is referred to as a turboshaft engine. Turboshaft
combination of a gas turbine and a propeller. engines are similar to turboprop engines. The
Turboprops are basically similar to turbojet engines power takeoff may he coupled directly to the engine
in that both have a compressor, combustion turbine, or the shaft may be driven by a turbine of
chamber(s), turbine, and a jet nozzle, all of which its own (free turbine) located in the exhaust stream.
operate in the same manner on both engines. The free turbine rotates independently. This
However, the difference is that the turbine in the principle is used extensively in current production
turboprop engine usually has more stages than that turboshaft engines. The turboshaft engine is cur-
in the turbojet engine. In addition to operating the rently being used to power helicopters.
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1b ~ l . : ~ ~-j- -
-1 l'owrr section assemblyI-
---
Torquemeter

t- assembly Turbine assembly

Reduction gear aasrmbly -4 l--4


Accessory drive
housing assemhly
FIGURE
148. Turboprop engine major components.

TURBOFAN ENGINES pressure in the turbofan engine, another stage must


The turbofan gas turbine engine (figure 1-69) is, be added in the turbine to provide the power to
in principle, the same as a turboprop, except that drive the fan, and thus increase the expansion
the propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed axial- through the turbine. This means that there will
flow fan. The fan can be a part of the first-stage be less energy left over and less pressure in back of
compressor blades or can be mounted as a separate the turbine. Also, the jet nozzle has to be larger in
set of fan blades. The blades can be mounted for- area. The end result is that the main engine does
ward of the compressor, or aft of the turbine wheel. not develop as much jet nozzle thrust as a straight
The general principle of the fan engine is to turbojet engine.
convert more of the fuel energy into pressure. The fan more than makes up for the dropoff in
With more of the energy converted to pressure, a thrust of the main engine. Depending on the fan
greater product of pressure times area can be design, it will produce somewhere around 50% of
achieved. One of the big. advantages is that the the turbofan engine's total thrust. In an 18,000 lb.
turbofan produces this additional thrust without thrust engine about 9,000 lhs. will be developed by
increasing fuel flow. The end result is savings in the fan and the remaining 9,000 lbs. by the main
fuel with the consequent increase in range. engine. The same basic turbojet engine without a
Because more of the fuel energy is turned into fan will develop about 12,000 lhs. of thrust.

FIGURE1-69. Forward turbofan engine.

a
.. . . .. , , - , ., . ., , .
., .- -
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exhaust

FIGURE1-70. Forward-fan turbofan engine installation.

Two different duct designs are used with forward- hot gas by expanding through a turbine which
fan engines. The air leaving the fan can be ducted drives the compressor, and by expanding through a
overboard (figure 1-70), or it can be ducted along tailpipe designed to discharge the exhaust gas at
the outer case of the basic engine to be discharged high velocity to produce thrust.
through the jet nozzle. The fan air is either mixed The high-velocity jet from a turbojet engine may
with the exhaust gases before it is discharged or it be considered a continuous recoil, imparting force
passes directly to the atmosphere without prior against the aircraft in which it is installed, thereby
mixing. producing thrust. The formula for thrust can be
Turbofans, sometimes called fanjets, are becoming derived from Newton's second law, which states that
the most widely used gas turbine engine. The force is proportional to the product of mass and
turbofan is a compromise between the good operat- acceleration. This law is expressed in the formula:
ing efficiency and high-thrust capability of a turbo- F=MxA
prop and the high-speed, high-altitude capability of where;
a turbojet. F = Force in pounds.
TURBINE ENGINE OPERATING PRINCIPLES M = Mass in slugs.
The principle used by a turbojet engine as it A = Acceleration in ft. per sec.
provides force to move an airplane is based on per sec.
Newton's law of momentum. This law shows that In the above formula "mass" is similar to
a force is required to accelerate a mass; therefore, "weight," hut it is actually a different quantity.
if the engine accelerates a mass of air, it will apply Mass refers to the quantity of matter, while weight
a force on the aircraft. The propeller and turbojet refers to the pull of gravity on that quantity of
engines are very closely related. The propeller matter. At sea level under standard conditions, 1
generates thrust by giving a relatively small Ib. of mass will have a weight of 1lb.
acceleration to a large quantity of air. The turbo- To calculate the acceleration of a given mass, the
jet engine achieves thrust by imparting greater gravitational constant is used as a unit of compari-
acceleration to a smaller quantity of air. son. The force of gravity is 32.2 f t . / s e ~ . (or
~ feet
The mass of air is accelerated within the engine by per second squared). This means that a free-falling
the use of a continuous-flow cycle. Ambient air 1-lb. object will accelerate at the rate of 32.2 feet
enters the inlet diffuser where it is subjected to per second each second that gravity acts on it.
changes in temperature, pressure, and velocity due Since the object mass weighs 1 lb., which is also the
to ram effect. The compressor then increases actual force imparted to it by gravity, we can
pressure and temperature of the air mechanically. assume that a force of 1 lb. will accelerate a 1-lb.
The air continues at constant pressure to the burner object at the rate of 32.2 ft./sec.Z.
section where its temperature is increased by Also, a force of 10 lbs. will accelerate a mass of
combustion of fuel. The energy is taken from the 10 lbs. at the rate of 32.2 ft./sec.*. This is assuming
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there is no friction or other resistance to overcome. As an example, to use the formula for changing
I t is now apparent that the ratio of the force (in the velocity of 100 lbs. of mass airflow per sec.
pounds) is to the mass (in pounds) as the accelera- from 600 ft./sec. to 800 ft./sec., the formula can
-
tion in f t . / s e ~ . ~is to 32.2. Usinrr M to remesent
the mass in pounds, the formula may he expressed
..
be a ~ ~ l i as
e dfollows:

thus:

F = 621 pounds.
- As shown by the formula, if the mass airflow per
where ;
F = Force. second and the difference in the velocity of the air
M = Mass. from the intake to the exhaust is known, it is easy
A = Acceleration. to compute the force necessary to produce the
g = gravity. change in the velocity. Therefore, the jet thrust
In any formula involving work, the time factor of the engine must be equal to the force required
must be considered. It is convenient to have all time to accelerate the airmass through the engine. Then,
factors in equivalent units; i.e., seconds, minutes, or by using the symbol "T" for thrust pounds, the
hours. In calculating jet thrust, the term "pounds formula becomes:
T = Ms (Vz - VIJ
of air per second" is convenient, since the time
factor is the same as the time in the force of gravity, g
namely, seconds. It is easy to see from this formula that the thrust
.YmII~. of a gas turbine engine can be increased by two
annual
methods: first, by increasing the mass flow of air
Using the the force through the engine, and second, by increasing the
necessary to accelerate a mass of 50 lbs., 100 ft./ iet velocitv.
s e ~ . as
~ ,follows:
If the velocity of the turbojet engine remains con-
F = 50 lb. x 100 f t . / s e ~ . ~ stant with respect to the aircraft, the jet thrust
will decrease if the speed of the aircraft is increased.
32.2 f t . / s e ~ . ~
50 x 100 This is because Vl will increase in value. This
F= does not present a serious problem, however, he-
32.2
cause as the aircraft speed increases, more air enters
F = 155 Ib. the engine, and jet velocity increases. The result-
This illustrates that if the velocity of 50 lbs. of ant net thrust is almost constant with increased
mass per sec. is increased by 100 ft./se~.~,the airspeed.
resulting thrust is 155 lhs. The Brayton cycle is the name given to the
Since the turbojet engine accelerates a mass of thermodynamic cycle of a gas turbine engine to
air, the following formula can be used to determine produce thrust. This is a varying volume constant-
jet thruut: pressure cycle of events and is commonly called
F = M* (V2 - VI) the constant-pressure cycle. A more recent term is
R continuous combustion cycle.
where; The four continuous and constant events are the
F = Force in lbs. intake, compression, expansion (includes power),
MS = Mass flow in lbs./sec. and exhaust. These cycles will be discussed as they
VI = Inlet velocity. apply to a gas turbine engine.
v2 = Jet velocity (exhaust). In the intake cycle, air enters at ambient p r a -
Vz -V, = Change in velocity; difference sure and a constant volume. It leaves the intake at
between inlet velocity and an increased pressure and a decrease in volume.
jet velocity. At the compressor section, air is received from the
B = Acceleration of gravity, or intake at an increased pressure, slightly above am-
32.2 ft./sec.Z. bient, and a slight decrease in volume. Air enters

66
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the compressor where it is compressed. I t leaves


the compressor with a large increase in pressure
and decrease in volume. This is caused by the
mechanical action of the compressor. The next
step, the expansion, takes place in the combustion
chamber by burning fuel which expands the air by
heat. The pressure remains relatively constant,.but
a marked increase in volume takes place. The
expanding gases move rearward through the tur-
bine assembly and are converted from velocity en-
ergy to mechanical energy by the turbine. T - temperature
The exhaust section, which is a convergent duct,
converts the expanding volume and decreasing pres-
sure of the gases to a final high velocity. The force
created inside the jet engine to keep this cycle
continuous has an equal and opposite reaction Conrpression ratio
(thrust) to move the aircraft forward.
Bernoulli's principle (whenever a stream of any FIGURE
1-71. The effect of compression ratio on
fluid has its velocity increased at a given point, thermal efficiency.
the pressure of the stream at that point is less than
the rest of the stream) is applied to the jet engine compression ratio. R.P.M. is a direct measure of
through the design of the air ducts. The two types compression ratio; therefore, at constant r.p.m.
of ducts are the convergent and the divergent. maximum thermal efficiency can be obtained by
The convergent duct increases velocity and de- maintaining the highest possible tailpipe tempera-
creares pressure. The divergent duct decreases ture. Since engine life is greatly reduced at a
velocity and increases pressure. The convergent high turbine inlet temperature, the operator should
principle is usually used for the tailpipe and exhaust not exceed the tailpipe temperatures specified for
nozzle. The divergent principle is used in the com- continuous operation. Figure 1-73 illustrates the
pressor where the air is slowing and pressurizing. effect of turbine inlet temperature on turbine
bucket life.
GAS TURBINE ENGINE PERFORMANCE In the previous discussion, it has been assumed
Thermal efficiency is a prime factor in gas turbine that the state of the air at the inlet to the com-
performance. It is the ratio of ne: work produced
by the engine to the chemical. energy supplied in
the form of fuel.
The three most important factors affecting the
thermal efficiency are turbine inlet temperature,
compression ratio, and the component efficiencies
of the compressor and turbine. Other factors that
affect thermal efficiency are compressor inlet tem-
perature and burner efficiency.
Figure 1-71 shows the effect that changing com-
pression ratio has on thermal efficiency when com-
pressor inlet temperature and the component
efficiencies of the compressor and turbine remain
constant.
The effect that compressor and turbine compo-
nent efficiencies have on thermal efficiency when
turbine and compressor inlet temperatures remain Compression ratio
constant is shown in figure 1-72. In actual opera-
tion, the turbine engine tailpipe temperature varies FICURE
1-72. Turbine and compressor efficiency
directly with turbine inlet temperature at a constant vs. thermal efficiency.
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Turhine bucket life in hours Outside air temperature

FIGURE
1-73. Effect of turbine inlet temperature on FIGURE1-74. Effect of OAT on thrust output.
turbine bucket life.
pressure lapse rate as altitude is increased, the
pressor remained constant. Since the turbojet en- density is decreased. Although the decreased tem-
gine is a practical application of a turbine engine, peraturb increases thrust, the effect of decreased
it becomes necessary to analyze the effect of varying density more than offsets the effect of the colder
inlet conditions on the power produced. The three temperature. The net result of increased altitude
principal variables that affect inlet conditions are is a reduction in the thrust output.
the speed of the aircraft, the altitude of the aircraft, The effect of airspeed on the thrust of a turbojet
and the ambient temperature. To make the analy- engine is shown in figure 1-76. To explain the
sis simpler, the combination of these three variables airspeed effect, it is first necessary to understand
can be represented by a single variable, called "stag- the effect of airspeed on the factors which combine
nation density." to ~ r o d u c enet thrust. These factors are specific
The power produced by a turbine engine is pro- thrust and engine airflow. Specific thrust is the
portional to the stagnation density at the inlet. pounds of net thrust developed per pound of airflow
The next three illustrations show how changing the
density by varying altitudes, airspeed, and outside \ Constant airspeed & r.p.m
air temperature affects the power level of the engine.
Figure 1-74 shows that the thrust output im-
proves rapidly with a reduction in OAT (outside
air temperature) at constant altitude, r.p.m., and
airspeed. This increase occurs partly because the
energy required per pound of airflow to drive the
compressor varies directly with the temperature,
thus leaving more energy to develop thrust. In
addition, the thrust output will increase since the
air at reduced temperature has an increased den-
sity. The increase in density causes the mass flow
through the engine to increase.
The altitude effect on thrust, as shown in figure
0J
1-75, can also be discussed as a density and tem- 50,000 Ft
perature effect. In this case, an increase in altitude Altitude
causes a decrease in pressure and temperature.
Since the temperature lapse rate is less than the FIGURE1-75. Effect of altitude on thrust output.
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d With ram

FIGURE1-76. Effect of airspeed on net thrust.


FIGURE
h TAS lncrpase -
1-77. Effect of airspeed on specific thrust
and total engine airflow.

per second. It is the remainder of specific gross forward velocity of an aircraft, is referred to as ram.
thrust minus specific ram drag. Since any ram effect will cause an increase in
As airspeed is increased, the ram drag increases compressor entrance pressure over atmospheric, the
rapidly. The exhaust jet velocity remains relative. resulting pressure rise will cause an increase in the
ly constant; thus the effect of the increase in air- mass airflow and jet velocity, both of which tend
speed results in decreased specific thrust as shown to increase thrust.
in figure 1-76. In the low-speed range, the spe- Although ram effect increases the engine thrust,
cific thrust decreases faster than the airflow in- the thrust being produced by the engine decreases
creases and causes a decrease in net thrust. As for a given throttle setting as an aircraft gains
the airspeed increases into the higher range, the airspeed. Therefore, two opposing trends occur
airflow increases faster than the specific thrust de- when an aircraft's speed is increased. What actu-
creases and causes the net thrust to increase until ally takes place is the net result of these two dif-
sonic velocity is reached. The effect of the com- ferent effects.
bination on net thrust is illustrated in figmre 1-77. An engine's thrust output temporarily decreases
as aircraft speed increases from static, but soon
Ram Recovery ceases to decrease; towards the high speeds, thrust
A rise in pressure above existing outside atmos- output begins to increase again.
pheric pressure at the engine inlet, as a result of the
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CHAPTER 2
INDUCTION AND EXHAUST SYSTEMS
RECIPROCATING ENGINE INDUCTION SYSTEMS loaded warm-air valve. If the engine should back-
The induction system of an aircraft reciprocating fire with the warm-air valve open, spring tension
engine consists of a carburetor, an airscoop or automatically closes the warm-air valve to keep
ducting that conducts air to the carburetor, and an flames out of the engine compartment.
intake manifold. These units form a long curved The carburetor air filter is installed in the air
channel which conducts air and the fuel/air mix- scoop in front of the carburetor air duct. Its
ture to the cylinders. purpose is to stop dust and other foreign matter
These three units of a typical induction system are from entering the engine through the carburetor.
usually supplemented by a temperature-indicating The screen consists of an aluminum alloy frame
system and temperature.controlling unit in some and a deeply crimped screen, arranged to present
form of alternate air valve and a carburetor heat maximum screen area to the airstream.
source. Additionally, a system for compressing the The carburetor air ducts consist of a fixed duct
fuel/air mixture may be included. riveted to the nose cowling and a flexible duct
Since many engines installed in light aircraft do between the fixed duct and the carburetor air valve.
not use any type of compressor or supercharging The carburetor air ducts provide a passage for
device, induction systems for reciprocating engines cold, outside air to the carburetor.
can be broadly classified as supercharged or natu- Air enters the system through the ram-air intake.
rally aspirated (nonsupercharged) . The intake opening is located in the slipstream so
the air is forced into the induction system, giving
Nonsupercharged Induction Systems a ram effect.
The nonsupercharged engine is commonly used The air passes through the ducts to the carbure-
in light aircraft. The induction systems of these tor. The carburetor meters the fuel in proportion
engines may be equipped with either a carburetor to the air and mixes the air with the correct amount
or a fuel-injection system. If a carburetor is used, of fuel. The carburetor can be controlled from
it may be a float-type or a pressure-type carburetor. the cockpit to regulate the flow of air and, in this
If fuel injection is used, it will normally be either way, power output of the engine can be controlled.
a constant flow or a pulsed system. The carburetor air temperature indicating system
Figure 2-1 is a diagram of an induction system shows the temperature of the air at the carburetor
used in a nonsupercharged engine equipped with a inlet. If the bulb is located at the engine side of
carburetor. In this induction system, carburetor the carburetor, the system measures the tempera-
cold air is admitted at the leading edge of the nose ture of the fuel/air mixture.
cowling below the propeller spinner, and is passed
through an air filter into air ducts leading to the Additional Units of the Induction System
carburetor. An air valve is located at the carbure- The units of a typical induction system previous-
tor for selecting an alternate warm air source to ly discussed satisfy the needs of the engine insofar
prevent carburetor icing. as its ability to produce power is concerned. There
The cold-air valve admits air from the outside air are two additional units that add nothing to help
scoop for normal operation and is controlled by a the engine do its work but are vital to efficient
control knob in the cockpit. The warm-air valve engine operation. One unit is the preheater; the
admits warm air from the engine compartment for other is the fluid deicing unit.
operation during icing conditions and is spring Induction system ice can be prevented or elim-
loaded to the "closed" position. When the cold air inated by raising the temperature of the air that
door is closed, engine suction opens the spring. passes through the system, using a preheater lo-
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\ Air filter
Carburetor

bulb

Carburetor air valve

cold air

FIGURE
2-1. Nonsupercharged induction system using a carburetor.

cated upstream near the induction system inlet and just as dangerous as the most advanced stage of
well ahead of the dangerous icing zones. Heat is induction system ice. Increasing the temperature
usually obtained through a control valve that opens of the air causes it to expand and decrease in
the induction system to the warm air circulating in density. This action reduces the weight of the
the engine compartment. When there is danger of charge delivered to the cylinder and causes a
induction system icing, move the cockpit control noticeable loss in power because of decreased volu-
toward the "hot" position until a carburetor air metric efficiency. In addition, high intake air tem-
temperature is obtained that will provide the neces- perature may cause detonation and engine failure,
sary protection. especially during takeoff and high-power operation.
Throttle ice or any ice that restricts airflow or Therefore, during all phases of engine operation,
reduces manifold pressure can best be removed by the carburetor temperature must afford the greatest
using full carburetor heat. If the heat from the protection against icing and detonation. When
engine compartment is sufficient and the application there is no danger of icing, the heat control is
has not been delayed, it is only a matter of a few normally kept in the "cold" position. It is best to
minutes until the ice is cleared. If the air tempera- leave the control in this position if there are
ture in the engine compartment is not high enough particles of dry snow or ice in the air. The use of
to be effective against icing, the preheat capacity heat may melt the ice or snow, and the resulting
can he increased by closing the cowl flaps and moisture may collect and freeze on the walls of
increasing engine power. However, this may prove the induction system.
ineffective if the ice formation has progressed so To prevent damage to the heater valves in the
far that the loss of power makes it impossible to case of backfire, carburetor heaters should not be
generate sufficient heat to clear the ice. used while starting the engine. Also, during ground
Improper or careless use of carburetor heat can be operation only enough carburetor heat should be used
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to give smooth engine operation. The carburetor icing because of its effect on engine performance.
air inlet temperature gage must he monitored to be Even when inspection shows that everything is in
sure the temperature does not exceed the maximum proper working order, induction system ice can
value specified by the engine manufacturer. cause an engine to act erratically and lose power in
On some aircraft the basic deicing system is the air, yet the engine will perform perfectly on the
supplemented by a fluid deicing system. This ground. Many engine troubles commonly attrib.
auxiliary system consists of a tank, a pump, suitable uted to other sources are actually caused by induc-
spray nozzles in the induction system, and a cockpit tion system icing.
control unit. This system is intended to clear ice Induction system icing is an operating hazard
whenever the heat from the engine compartment because it can cut off the flow of the fuel/air
is not high enough to prevent or remove ice. The charge or vary the fuel/air ratio. Ice can form
use of alcohol as a deicing agent tends to enrich in the induction system while an aircraft is flying
the fuel mixture, hut at a high-power output such in clouds, fog, rain, sleet, snow, or even clear air
slight enrichment is desired. At low throttle set- that has a high moisture content (high humidity).
tings, however, the use of alcohol may over-enrich Induction system icing is generally classified in
the mixture; therefore, alcohol should he applied three types: (1) Impact ice, (2) fuel evaporation
with great care. ice, and (3) throttle ice. Chapter 3 discusses types
INDUCTION SYSTEM ICING of icing in more detail.
A short discussion concerning the formation and To understand why part-throttle operation can
the place of formation of induction system ice (fig. lead to icing, the throttle area during this operation
2-2) is helpful to the mechanic, even though he is not must he examined. When the throttle is placed in a
normally concerned with operations that occur only partly closed position, it, in effect, limits the amount
when the aircraft is in flight. But the mechanic of air available to the engine. The glide which wind-
should know something about induction system mills a fixed-pitch propeller causes the engine to con-
sume more air than it normally would at this same
throttle setting, thus aggravating the lack of air be-
hind the throttle. The partly closed throttle, under
these circumstances, establishes a much higher than
normal air velocity past the throttle, and an extremely
low pressure area is produced. The low-pressure
area lowers the temperature of the air surrounding
the throttle valves by the same physical law that raises
the temperature of air as it is compressed. If the
temperature in this air falls below freezing and
moisure is present, ice will form on the throttles
and nearby units in much the same manner that im-
pact ice forms on units exposed to below freezing
temperatures.
Throttle ice may be minimized on engines
equipped with controllable-pitch propellers by the
use of a higher than normal BMEP (brake mean
effective pressure) at this low power. The high
BMEP decreases the icing tendency because a large
throttle opening at low engine r.p.m. partially
removes the temperature-reducing obstruction that
part-throttle operation offers.
Induction System Filtering
While dust is merely an annoyance to most indi-
viduals, it is a serious source of trouble to an
aircraft engine. Dust consists of small particles of
FIGURE
2-2. Types of induction system ice. hard, abrasive material that can be carried into the
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engine cylinders by the very air the engine breathes. sively restricted. Thii prevents the airflow from
It can also collect on the fuel-metering elements of being cut off when the filter is clogged with ice
the carburetor, upsetting the proper relation be- or dirt. Other systems use an ice guard in the
tween airflow and fuel flow at all powers. It acts filtered-air entrance.
on the cylinder walls by grinding down these The ice guard consists of a coarse-mesh screen
surfaces and the piston rings. It then contami- located a short distance from the filtered-air en-
nates the oil and is carried through the engine, trance. In this location the screen is directly in
causing further wear on the bearings and gears. the path of incoming air so that the air must pass
In extreme cases an accumulation may clog an oil through or around the screen. When ice forms
passage and cause oil starvation. on the screen, the air, which has lost its heavy
Although dust conditions are most critical at moisture particles, will pass around the iced screen
ground level, dust of sufficient quantity to obscure a and into the filter element.
pilot's vision has been reported in flight. In some The efficiency of any filter system depends upon
parts of the world, dust can be carried to extremely proper maintenance and servicing. Periodic re-
high altitudes. Continued operation under such moval and cleaning of the filter element is essential
,,, conditions without engine protection will result in to satisfactory engine protection.
extreme engine wear and produce excessive oil Induction Svsfem lns~ectionand Maintenance
consumption.
The induction system should be checked for
When operation in dusty atmosphere is neces- cracks and leaks during all regularly scheduled en-
sary, the engine can be protected by an alternate gine inspections. The units of the system should
induction system air inlet which incorporates a dust be checked for security of mounting. The system
filter. This type of air filter system normally con- should be kept clean at all times, since pieces of
sists of a filter element, a door, and an electrically rags or paper can restrict the airflow if allowed to
operated actuator. When the filter system is oper- enter the air intakes or ducts, and loose bolts and
ating, air is drawn through a louvered access panel nuts can cause serious damage if they pass into
that does not face directly into the airstream. With the engine.
this entrance location, considerable dust is removed On systems equipped with a carburetor air filter,
as the air is forced to turn and enter the duct. the filter should be checked regularly. If it is dirty
Since the dust particles are solid, they tend to con- or does not have the proper oil film. the filter
tinue in a straight line, and most of them are element should be removed and cleaned. After it
separated at this point. Those that are drawn into has dried, it is usually immersed in a mixture of oil
the louvers are easily removed by the filter. and rust-preventive compound. The excess fluid
In flight, with air filters operating, consideration should be allowed to drain off before the filter ele-
must be given to possible icing conditions which ment is reinstalled.
may occur from actual surface icing or from freez-
ing.of the filter element after it becomes rainsoaked. Induction System Troubleshooting
Some installations have a spring-loaded filter door The following chart provides a general guide to
which automatically opens when the filter is exces- the most common induction system troubles.

PROBABLE CAUSE ISOLATION PROCEDURE CORRECTION


1. Engine fails t o start-
(a) Induction system (a) Inspect airscoop and air (a) Remove obstructions.
obstructed. ducts.
( b ) Air leaks. (b) Inspect carburetor ( b ) Tighten carburetor and
mounting and intake pipes. repair or replace intake pipe.

2. Engine r u n s rough-
(a) Loose air ducts. ( a ) Inspect air ducts. (a) Tighten air ducts.
( b ) Leaking intake pipes. (b) Inspect intake pipe (b) Tighten nuts.
packing nuts.
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PROBABLE CAUSE ISOLATION PROCEDURE CORRECTION


(c) Engine valves sticking. (c) Remove rocker arm cover (c) Lubricate and free sticking
and check valve action. valves.
(d) Bent or worn valve (d) Inspect push rods. (d) Replace w o n or damaged
push rods. push rods.

3. Low power-
(a) Restricted intake duct. (a) Examine intake duct. (a) Remove restrictions.
(b) Broken door in carburetor (b) Inspect air valve. (b) Replace air valve.
air valve.
(c) Dirty air filter. (c) Inspect air filter. (c) Clean air filter.

4. Engine idles improperly-


(a) Shrunken intake packing. (a) Inspect packing for proper (a) Replace packing.
fit.
(b) Hole in intake pipe. (b) Inspect intake pipes. ( b ) Replace defective
intake pipes.
(c) Loose carburetor (c) Inspect mount bolts. (c) Tighten mount bolts.
mounting.

Supercharged Induction Systems INTERNALLY DRIVEN SUPERCHARGERS


Supercharging systems used in reciprocating Internally driven superchargers are used almost
engine induction systems are normally classified as exclusively in high-horsepower reciprocating en.
either internally driven or externally driven gines. Except for the construction and arrangement
(turbosupercharged) . of the various types of superchargers, all induction
Internally driven superchargers compress the systems with internally driven superchargers are
fuel/air mixture after it leaves the carburetor, while almost identical. The reason for this similarity is
externally driven superchargers (turbochargers) that all modern aircraft engines require the same
compress the air before it &.mixed with the metered air temperature control to produce good combustion
fuel from the carburetor. Each increase in the in the engine cylinders. For example, the tempera-
pressure of the air or fuel/air mixture in an induc- ture of the charge must be warm enough to ensure
tion system is called a stage. Superchargers can be complete fuel vaporization and, thus, even distribu-
classified as single-stage, two-stage, or multi-stage, tion; but at the same time it must not be so hot that
depending on the number of times compression it reduces volumetric effidieucy or causes detoua-
occurs. Superchargers may also operate at different tion. With these requirements, all induction
systems that use internal.driven superchargers must
speeds. Thus, they can be referred to as single-
include pressure .and temperature-sensing devices
speed, two-speed, or variable-speed superchargers.
and the necessary units required to warm or cool
Combining the methods of classification provides the air.
the nomenclature normally used to describe super-
charger systems. Thus, from a simple single-stage Single-Stage, Single-Speed Supercharger Systems
system that operates at one fixed speed ratio, it is The simple induction system shown in figure 2-3
possible to progress to a single-stage, two-speed, is used to explain the location of units and the path
mechanically clutched system or a single-stage, of the air and fuel/air mixture.
hydraulically clutched supercharger. Even though Air enters the system through the ram air intake.
two-speed or multi-speed systems permit varying The intake opening is located so that the air is
the output pressure, the system is still classified as a forced into the induction system, giving a ram
single-stage of compression if only a single impeller effect.
is used, since only one increase (or decrease) in The air passes through ducts to the carburetor.
compression can be obtained at a time. The carburetor meters the fuel in proportion to the
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Carburetor heat valve

Carburetor air temperature bulb

FIGURE
2-3. Simple induction system.

air and mixes the air with the correct amount of fuel. distribution impeller. The impeller is attached
The carburetor can be controlled from the cockpit directly to the end of the rear shank of the crankshah
to regulate the flow of air. In this way, the power by bolts or studs. Since the impeller is attached to
output of the engine can be controlled.
The manifold pressure gage measures the pressure Primer
nozzle
of the fuel/air mixture before it enters the cylinders.
It is an indication of the performance that can be
expected of the engine. Large
The carburetor air temperature indicator measures diameter
either the temperature of the inlet air or of the
fuel/air mixture. Either the air inlet or the mixture
temperature indicator serves as a guide so that the
temperature of the incoming charge may be kept
within safe limits.
If the temperature of the incoming air at the
entrance to the carburetor scoop is 100" F., there
will be approximately a 50a F. drop in temperature
because of the partial vaporization of the fuel at the
carburetor discharge nozzle. Partial vaporization
takes place and the air temperature falls due to
absorption of the heat by vaporization. The final
vaporization takes place as the mixture enters the
cylinders where higher temperatures exist. Counterweight
The fuel, as atomized into the airstream which Manifold ring
flows in the induction system, is in a globular form.
The problem, then, becomes one of uniformly Slip
breaking up and distributing the fuel remaining in. pk.t Rubber gasket
globular form to the various cylinders. On engines Cland nut
equipped with a large number of cylinders, the uni-
form distribution of the mixture becomes a greater
problem, especially at high engine speeds when full
advantage is taken of large air capacity.
One method of improving fuel distribution is FIGURE
2-4. Distribution impeller arrangement
shown in figure 2-4. This device is known as a used on a radial engine.
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the end of the crankshaft and operates at the same On 1arge.volume engines ranging from 450 bp.
speed, it does not materially boost or increase the upwards, in which the volume of mixture is to be
pressure on the mixture flowing into the cylinders. handled at higher velocities and turbulence is a more
But the fuel remaining in the globular form will be important factor, either a vane o r airfoil type dif-
broken up into finer particles as it strikes the impel- fuser is widely used. The vanes or airfoil section
ler, thereby coming in contact with more air. This straightens the airflow within the diffuser chamber
will create a more homogeneous mixture with a con- to obtain an efficient flow of gases.
sequent improvement in distribution to the various The intake pipes on early model engines extended
cylinders, especially on acceleration of the engine or in a direct path from the manifold ring to the intake
when low temperatures prevail. port on the cylinder. In the more recent designs,
When greater pressure is desired on the fuel/air however, the intake pipes extend from the manifold
dixture in the induction system to charge the cylin- ring on a tangent and the pipe is curved as it extends
ders more fully, the diffuser or blower section con- toward the intake port, which has also been stream-
tains a high-speed impeller. Unlike the distribution lined or shaped to promoteefficient flow of gases into
impeller, which is connected directly to the crank- the cylinder. This reduces turbulence to a minimum.
shaft, the supercharger, or blower impeller, is driven This has been one of the important methods of in-
through a gear train from the crankshaft. creasing the breathing capacity or volume of air
The impeller is located centrally within the dif- which a given design of engine might handle. In-
fuser chamber. The diffuser chamber surface may creases in supercharger efficiency have been one of
be any one of three general designs: (1) Venturi the major factors in increasing the power output of
type (figure 2-41, (2) vaned type (A of figure 2-5), modem engines.
or (3) airfoil type (B of figure 2-5). The gear ratio of the impeller gear train varies
The venturi-type diffuser is equipped with plain from approximately 6:l to 12:l. Impeller speed on
surfaces, sometimes more or less restricted section- an engine equipped with a 10:l impeller gear ratio
ally to form the general shape of a venturi between operating at 2,600 r.p.m. would be 26,000 r.p.m.
the impeller tips and the manifold ring. This type This requires that the impeller unit be a high-grade
has been most widely used on medium-powered, forging, usually of aluminum alloy, carefully de-
supercharged engines or those in which lower vol- signed and constructed. Because of the high ratio
umes of mixtures are to be handled and where turbu- of all supercharger gear trains, considerable accele.
lence of the mixture between the impeller tips and ration and deceleration forces are created when the
the manifold chamber is not critical. engine speed is increased or decreased rapidly. This

A. B.
Vaned type Airfoil section type
FIGURE
2-5. Supercharger diffuser design (vaned and airfoil section types).
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necessitates that the impeller be splined on the shaft. approximately 7:l relative to crankshaft speed.
In addition, some sort of spring-loaded or antishock (See figure 2-7.) This condition is called "low
device must be incorporated in the gear train be- blower" and is used during takeoff and for all alti-
tween the crankshaft and impeller. tudes below those at which best efficiency can be
An oil seal is usually provided around the obtained in "high blower."
impeller shaft just forward of the impeller unit. The In effect, this gives two engines in one. It im-
functions of the seal on this unit are to minimize the proves the power output characteristics over a range
passage of lubricating oil and vapors from the crank- of operating conditions varying from sea level to
case into the diffuser chamber when the engine is approximately 20,000 ft. Naturally, a device of
idling and to minimize the leakage bf the fuel/air this kind complicates and increases considerably the
mixture into the crankcase when the pressure on the initial and maintenance costs of the engine. A higher
mixture is high at open throttle. grade fuel is also required to withstand the addi-
The clearance between the diffuser section and the tional pressures and, in some cases, higher tempera-
impeller is obtained by varying the length of the oil tures created within the combustion chamber due to
seal or the thickness of spacers commonly called more complete fuel charging of the cylinder. The
shims. Close clearance is necessary to give the addition of this unit also complicates the operation
greatest possible compression of the mixture and to of the powerplant because it requires more attention
eliminate, insofar as possible, leakage around the and adds to the variables which must be controlled.
fore and aft surfaces of the impeller. The impeller Another example of a two-stage, two.speed super-
shaft and intermediate drive shaft assemblies may charger system is shown in figure 2-8, where the
be mounted on antifriction ball or roller bearings blower and intermediate rear sections are opened to
or on friction-type bushings. show their internal construction. In this example,
The impeller shaft and gear are usually forged inte- the blower case supports the engine in the aircraft.
grally of very high grade steel. The impeller end of It has eight pads on the outer circumference for the
the shaft is splined to give as much driving surface engine mounting brackets. A liner in the center of
as possible. The intermediate shaft and large and the case accommodates the oil seal rings in the
small gears also are one piece. Both of these units impeller shaft front ring carrier. The blower case
are held within very close running balance or dynam- houses the impeller, which is driven by clutches at
ic limits due to the high speeds and stresses involved. either 7.15 or 8.47 times crankshaft speed. An an-
Single-Stage, Two-Speed Supercharger Systems nulus around the case delivers the fuel and air mix-
ture'from the impeller to 14 ports in the case.
Some aircraft engines are equipped with interfially
Attached to each of these ports is an intake pipe
driven superchargers which are single-stage, two-
through which the fuel and air mixture proceeds to
speed systems. The impeller in such systems can be
the inlet valve of its cylinder.
driven at two different speeds by means of clutches.
A schematic of such a supercharger is shown in Intermediate Rear Case
figure 2-6. The intermediate rear case houses the impeller
This unit is equipped with a means of driving the drive gear train and supports a vaned diffuser (see
impeller directly from the crankshaft at a ratio of figure 2-9). The impeller ratio selector valve is
10:1, which is accomplished by moving the control mounted on a pad on the top left of the case. From
in the cockpit, thereby,applying oil pressure through the carburetor mounting flange on the top of the
the high-speed clutch and thus locking the entire case, a large duct leads down to carry the intake air
intermediate gear assembly. This is called "high to the impeller. The fuel transfer pipe from the car-
blower" and is used above a specified altitude rang- buretor connects with a passage in the case behind
ing from 7,000 to 12,000 ft. Below these levels, the the carburetor mounting flange. This passage leads
control is positioned to release the pressure on the to the fuel feed valve. The fuel feed valve delivers
high-speed clutch and apply it to the low-speed fuel to the fuef slinger, which mixes the fuel with the
clutch. This locks the sun pinion of the small plane- intake air. The cover and diaphragm assembly of
tary gear. The impeller then is driven through the the fuel feed valve are mounted on the forward side
spider and shaft assembly on which the planetary of the carburetor flange. An accelerating pump is
pinions are caused to rotate by the large bell gear. fastened to a pad on the right side of the case just
In this case, the impeller is driven at a ratio of below the carburetor flange. At the lowest point in
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spring-~cressor)r
-
/drive gear driven by

FIGURE
2-6. Schematic diagram of two-speed supercharger in high ratio.

the carburetor air duct, drilled passages lead down cones are splined to the clutch shafts and, when
to the automatic fuel drain valve in the bottom of the engaged, drive the clutch gears, which, in turn, drive
case, which discharges any fuel that may accumulate the spur gears on the impeller shaft. The selector
while the engine is being started. valve directs pressure oil to oil chambers between
The intermediate rear case also houses the dual. the cones and the gears of either the two low or the
ratio clutches and the impeller ratio selector valve. two high clutches. The oil pressure causes the cones
Both a high(8.47:l)-and a low(7.15:l)-ratio to engage the segments that, in turn, engage the
clutch are mounted on each of two shafts, one on gears of whichever pair of clutches are selected to
each side of the impeller shaft. These shafts are s u p drive the impeller. Drain oil from the disengaged
ported at the front end by bushings in the rear case. pair of clutches is forced back through the selectnr
The shafts are driven by the accessory drive gear valve and discharged into the intermediate rear case.
through splined to the shafts. The clutch To assist in cleaning sludge out of the clutches,

79
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each clutch gear is equipped with a creeper gear energy of engine exhaust gases directed against some
having one more tooth than the clutch gear. A form of turbine. For this reason, they are common-
bleed hole in the creeper gear itself alines momen- ly called turbosuperchargers or turbochargers.
tarily with each of the bleed holes in the correspond-
TURBOSUPERCHARGER SYSTEM FOR LARGE
ing clutch gear. The pressure oil within the engaged
RECIPROCATING ENGINES
clutch spurts out, carrying the sludge with it.
In some high-altitude aircraft the internal super-
EXTERNALLY PRIVEN SUPERCHARGERS charger is supplemented by an external turbosuper-
Externally driven superchargers are designed to charger driven by a portion of the exhaust gas
deliver compressed air to the inlet of the carburetor from the aircraft engine. This type of supercharger
or fuel/air control unit of an engine. Externally is mounted ahead of the carburetor as shown in
driven superchargers derive their power from the figure 2-10 to pressurize the air at the carburetor

FIGURE
2-7. Schematic diagram of two-speed supercharger in low ratio.

80
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FICWE2-8. Blower and intermediate rear sections.

inlet. If the air pressure entering the carburetor curring. Control for the cooling air is provided by
is maintained at approximately sea level density intercooler shutters which regulate the amount of
throughout the aircraft's climb to altitude, there air that passes over and around the tubes of the
will be none of the power loss experienced in air- intercooler.
craft not equipped with turbos. However, this The typical turbosupercharger is composed of
type of supercharger imposes an induction system three main pans:
requirement not needed in other supercharger in- (1) The compressor assembly.
stallations. As air moves through the turbo, its (2) The exhaust gas turbine assembly.
temperature is raised because of compression. If (3) The pump and bearing casing.
the hot air charge is not properly cooled before it These major sections are shown in figure 2-11. In
reaches the internal supercharger, the second stage addition to the major assemblies, there is a baffle
of supercharging will produce a final charge tem- between the compressor casing and the exhaust-gas
perature that is too great. turbine that directs cooling air to the pump and
The air in turbo.equipped induction systems is bearing casing, and also shields the compressor
cooled by an intercooler (figure 2-10), so called from the heat radiated by the turbine. In installa-
because it cools the charge between compression tions where cooling air is limited, the baffle is
stages rather than after the last stage. The hot replaced by a regular cooling shroud that receives
air flows through tubes in the intercooler in much its air directly from the induction system.
the same manner that water flows in the radia- The compressor assembly (A of figure 2-11) is
tor of an automobile. Fresh outside air, separate made up of an impeller, a diffuser, and a casing.
from the charge, is collected and piped to the inter- The air for the induction system enters through a
cooler so that it flows over and cools the tubes. As circular opening in the center of the compressor
the induction air charge flows through the tubes, casing, where it is picked up by the blades of the
heat is removed and the charge is cooled to a degree impeller, which gives it high velocity as it travels
that the engine can tolerate without detonation oc- outward toward the diiuser. The diffuser vanes
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FIGURE
2--9. Intermediate rear and rear case sections.

FIGURE
2-10. Induction system with turbosupercharger.
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direct the airflow as it leaves the impeller and also ball bearings at the rear end of the pump and bearing
converts the high velocity of the air to high pressure. casing and the roller bearing at the turbine end.
Motive power for the impeller is furnished through The roller bearing carries the radial (centrifugal)
the impeller's attachment to the turbine wheel shaft load of the rotor, and the ball bearing supports the
of the exhaust-gas turbine. This complete assembly rotor at the impeller end and bears the entire
is referred to as the rotor. The rotor revolves on the thrust (axial) load and part of the radial load.
The exhaust gas turbine assembly (B of figure
2-11) consists of the turbine wheel (bucket wheel),
nozzle box, butterfly valve (waste gate), aria cool-
ing cap. The turbine wheel, driven by exhaust
gases, drives the impeller. The nozzle box collects
and directs the exhaust gases onto the turbine wheel,
and the waste gate regulates the amount of exhaust
gases directed to the turbine by the nozzle box.
The cooling cap controls a flow of air for turbine
cooling.
The waste gate (figure 2-12) controls the volume
of the exhaust gas that is directed onto the turbine
--
A. Compressor assembly
and thereby regulates the speed of the rotor (turbine
and impeller).

-
B. Exhaust gas turbine assembly

FtGu~~.2-12.Waste gate assembly.

If the waste gate is completely closed, all the ex-


haust gases are "backed up'' and forced through the
nozzle box and turbine wheel. If the waste gate is
partially closed, a corresponding amount of exhaust
gas is directed to the turbine. The nozzles of the
nozzle box allow the gases to expand and reach high
velocity before they contact the turbine wheel. The
exhaust gases, thus directed, strike the cuplike buck.
ets, arranged radially around the outer edge of the
turbine, and cause the rotor (turbine and impeller)
-- to rotate. The gases are then exhausted overboard
C. Pump and bearing casli:g
through the spaces between the buckets. When the
FIGURE
2-11. Main sections of a typical waste gate is fully open, nearly all of the exhaust
turbosupercharger. gases pass overboard through the tailpipe.
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TURBOCHARGER of filter clogging. A separately mounted exhaust-


An increasing number of engines used in light air- driven turbocharger is included in each air induction
craft are equipped with externally driven super- system. The turbocbarger is automatically con-
charger systems. These superchargers are powered trolled by a pressure controller, to maintain mani-
by the energy of exhaust gases and are usually re- fold pressure at approximately 34.5 in. Hg from sea
ferred to as "turbocbarger" systems rather than level to the critical altitude (typically 16,000 ft.)
,turbosuperchargers." regardless of temperature. The turbocbarger is com-
On many small aircraft engines, the turbocharger pletely automatic, requiring no pilot action up to
system is designed to be operated only above a cer- the critical altitude.
tain altitude; for example, 5,000 ft., since maximum
Controllers and Waste-Gate Actuator
power without supercharging is available below that
altitude. The waste-gate actuator and controllers use engine
The location of the air induction and exhaust oil for power supply. (Refer to turbocharger sys-
systems of a typical turbocharger system for a small tem schematic in figure 2-15.) The turbocharger
aircraft is shown in figure 2-13. is controlled by the waste gate and waste-gate actu-
ator, an absolute pressure and a rate-of-change con-
Induction Air System troller. A pressure ratio controller controls the
The induction air system shown in figure 2-14 waste-gate actuator above critical altitude (16,000
consists of a filtered ram-air intake located on the ft.). The waste-gate bypasses the engine exhaust
side of the nacelle. An alternate air door within the gases around the turbocharger turbine inlet. The
nacelle permits compressor suction to automatically waste.gate actuator, which is physically connected to
admit alternate air (heated engine compartment air) the waste gate by mechanical linkage, controls the
if the induction filter becomes clogged. The slter- position of the waste-gate butterfly valve. The
nate air door can be operated manually in the event absolute pressure controller and the rate.of-change

FIGURE
2-13. Turbocharger induction and exhaust systems.
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Induction system
balance tube

right hand

Ram filtered air

Waste gate controller

1
Waste gate actuator
\--Alternate air-do,
(normally close,
Waste gate

Induction system balance tube


n nduction manifold

Induction manifold
left hand bank

Waste gate controller

-
Waste gate actuator

Code

-
- - -Mechanical linkage a Ram ail Compressed air

---- Ooiill ieturn


vressure
Ram filtered air " Heated air

FIGURE
2-14. Induction air system schematic.
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controller have a two-fold function: (1) The abso- lected, the turbocharger's critical altitude has been
lute pressure controller controls the maximum tur. reached. Beyond this altitude, the power output
bocharger compressor discharge pressure (34 f.5 will continue to decrease.
in. Hg to critical altitude, approxil~lately16,000 ft.) ; The position of the waste gate valve, which deter-
and (2) the rate-of-change controller controls the mines power output, is controlled by oil pressure.
rate at which the turbocharger compressor discharge Engine oil pressure acts on a piston in the waste gate
pressure will increase. assembly which is connected by linkage to the waste
gate valve. When oil pressure is increased on the
SEA-LEVEL BOOSTED TURBOCHARGER SYSTEM
piston, the waste gate valve moves toward the
Some turbocharger systems are designed to oper- "closed" position, and engine output power in-
ate from sea level up to their critical altitude. These creases. Conversely, when the oil pressure is de-
engines, sometimes referred to as rea.leve1 boosted creased, the waste gate valve moves toward the
engines, can develop more power at sea level than an 6' open" position, and output power is decreased.

engine without turbocharging.


The position of the piston attached to the waste
Figure 2-16 is a schematic of a sea level booster gate valve is dependent on bleed oil which controls
turbocharger system. This system is automatically the engine oil pressure applied to the top of the pis-
regulated by three components shown in the sche- ton. Oil is returned to the engine crankcase through
matic: (1) The exhaust bypass valve assembly, (2) two control devices, the density controller and the
the density controller, and (3) the differential pres- differential pressure controller. These two control-
sure controller. It should be noted that some turbo- lers, acting independently, determine how much oil
charger systems are not equipped with automatic is bled back to the crankcase, and thus establishes
control devices. They are similar in design and the oil pressure on the piston.
operation to the system shown in figure 2-16, except The density controller is designed to limit the
that the turbocharger output is manually controlled. manifold pressure below the turbocharger's critical
By regulating the waste gate position and the altitude, and regulates bleed oil only at the "full
"fully open" and "closed" positions (figure 2-16), throttle" position. The pressure- and temperature-
a constant power output can be maintained. When sensing bellows of the density controller react to
the waste gate is fully open, all the exhaust gases are pressure and temperature changes between the fuel
directed overboard to the atmosphere, and no air is injector inlet and the turbocharger compressor.
compressed and delivered to the engine air inlet. The bellows, filled with dry nitrogen, maintains a
Conversely, when the waste gate is fully closed, a constant density by allowing the pressure to increase
maximum volume of exhaust gases flows into the as the temperature increases. Movement of the bel-
turbocharger turbine, and maximum supercharging lows re-positions the bleed valve, causing a change
is accomplished. Between these two extremes of in the quantity of bleed oil, which changes the oil
waste gate position, constant power output can be pressure on top of the waste gate piston. (See figure
achieved below the maximum altitude at which the 2-16.)
system is designed to operate. The differential pressure controller functions dur-
A critical altitude exists for every possible power ing all ~ositionsof the waste gate valve other than
setting below the maximum operating ceiling, and the "fully open" position, which is controlled by the
if the aircraft is flown above this altitude without a density controller. One side of the diaphragm in
corresponding change in the power setting, the waste the differential pressure controller senses air pres-
gate will be automatically driven to the "fully sure upstream from the throttle; the other side
closed" position in an effort to maintain a constant samples pressure on the cylinder side of the throttle
power output. Thus, the waste gate will be almost valve (figure 2-16). At the "wide open" throttle
fully open at sea level and will continue to move position when the density controller controls the
toward the 'Lclosed" position as the aircraft climbs, waste gate, the pressure across the differential pres-
in order to maintain the re selected manifold pres- sure controller diaphragm is at a minimum and the
sure setting. controller spring holds the bleed valve closed. At
When the waste gate is fully closed (leaving only "part throttle" position, the air differential is in-
a small clearance to prevent sticking) the manifold creased, opening the bleed valve to bleed oil to the
pressure will begin to drop if the aircraft continues engine crankcase and re-position the waste gate
to climb. If a higher power setting cannot be se- piston.
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ressure gage vent port

Throttle connected
variable controller

One way check valve

Control sys. q m p tank Vent overboard

FIGURE
2-15. Schematic of a typical turbocharger system.
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I
L.ong solid arrows indicate air
Broken arrows indicate oil
Short solid arrows indicate pxhnust Ras

FIGURE
2-16. Turbocharger controllers and waste-gate actuater system schematic.
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Thus, the two controllers operate independently of turbocharger speed changes, overshoot must be
to control turbocharger operation at all positions of controlled by the operator. This can best be accom-
the throttle. Without the overriding function of the plished by slowly making changes in throttle setting,
differential pressure controller during part.throttle accompanied by a few seconds' wait for the system
operation, the density controller would position the- to reach a new equilibrium. Such a procedure is
waste gate valve for maximum power. The differ- effective with turbocharged engines, regardless of
ential pressure controller reduces injector entrance the degree of throttle sensitivity.
pressure and continually re-positions the valve over Turbocharger System Troubleshooting
the whole operating range of the engine. Table 1 includes some of the most common turbo-
The differential pressure controller reduces the charger system malfunctions, together with their
unstable condition known as "bootstrapping" during cause and repair. These troubleshooting procedures
part.throttle operation. Bootstrapping is an indica- are presented as a guide only and should not be
tion of unregulated power change that results in the substituted for applicable manufacturer's instruc-
continual drift of manifold pressure. This condition tions or troubleshooting procedures.
can be illustrated by considering the operation of a
TURBOCOMPOUND SYSTEMS FOR RECIPROCAT-
system when the waste gate is fully c!osed. During ING ENGINES
this time, the differential pressure controller is not The turbocompound engine consists of a conven-
modulating the waste gate valve position. Any slight tional, reciprocating engine in which exhanst-driven
change in power caused by a change in temperature turbines are coupled to the engine crankshaft. This
or r.p.m. fluctuation will be magnified and will result system of obtaining additional power is sometimes
in manifold pressure change since the slight change called a PRT (power recovery turbine) system. It
will cause a change in the amount of exhaust gas is not a supercharging system, and it is not connected
flowing to the turbine. Any change in ex- in any manner to the air induction system of the
haust gas flow to the turbine will cause a change in aircraft.
power output and will be reflected in manifold pres- The PRT system enables the engine to recover
sure indications. Bootstrapping, then, is an undesir- power from the exhaust gases that would be other-
able cycle of turbocharging events causing the mani- wise directed overboard. Depending on the type of
fold pressure to drift in an attempt to reach a state engine, the amount of horsepower recovered varies
of equilibrium. with the amount of input power. An average of
Bootstrapping is sometimes confused with the 130 horsepower from each of three turbines in a
condition known as "overboost," hut bootstrapping system is typical for large reciprocating engines.
is not a condition which is detrimental to engine A power recovery turbine's geared connection to
life. An overboost condition is one in which mani. the engine crankshaft is shown in figure 2-17.
fold pressure exceeeds the limits prescribed for a Typically there are three power-recovery turbines
particular engine and can cause serious damage. on each engine, located 120' apart. They are num-
Thus, the differential pressure controller is essen- bered, viewed from the rear of the engine, in a clock-
tial to smooth functioning of the automatically con- wise direction. Number 1 turbine is located in the
trolled turbocharger, since it reduces bootstrapping 3-o'clock position, and number 3 turbine in the
by reducing the time required to bring a system into ll-o'clock position. Turbine position in relationship
equilibrium. There is still a great deal more throttle to the exhaust system of the various cylinders on an
sensitivity with a turbocharged engine than with a 18-cylinder engine is shown in the schematic of
naturally aspirated engine. Rapid movement of the figure 2-18.
throttle can cause a certain amount of manifold The exhaust collector nozzle for each segment of
pressure drift in a turbocharged engine. This con- cylinders (figure 2-18) directs the exhaust gases
dition, less severe than bootstrapping, is called onto the turbine wheel. The turbine wheel shaft
'C
overshoot." While overshoot is not a dangerous transmits the power to the engine crankshaft through
condition, it can be a source of concern to the pilot gears and a fluid coupling. The fluid coupling pre-
or operator who selects a particular manifold pres- vents torsional vibration from being transmitted to
sure setting only to find it has changed in a few the crankshaft.
seconds and must be reset. Since the automatic Power recovery turbine systems, because of weight
controls cannot respond rapidly enough to abrupt and cost considerations, are used exclusively on very
changes in throttle settings to eliminate the inertia large reciprocating engines.
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TABLE 1. Troubleshooting turbocharger system.


Trouble Probable Cause Remedy
Aircraft fails to reach Damaged compressor or Replace turbocharger.
critical altitude. turbine wheel.
Exhaust system leaks. Repair leaks.
Faulty turbocharger bearings. Replace turbocharger.
Waste gate will not close fully. Refer to "waste gate" in the
trouble column.
Malfunctioning controller. Refer to "differential controller"
in the trbuble column.
Engine surges. Bootstrapping. Ensure engine is operated in
proper range.
Waste gate malfunction. Refer to "waste gate" in the
trouble column.
Controller malfunction. Refer to "differential controller"
in the trouble column.
Waste gate will not Waste gate bypass valve Replace bypass valve.
close fully. bearings tight.
Oil inlet orifice blocked. Clean orifice.
Controller malfunction. Refer to "controller" in the
trouble column.
Broken waste gate linkage. Replace linkage and adjust waste
gate for proper opening and
closing.
Waste gate will Oil outlet obstructed. Clean and reconnect oil return
not open. line.
Broken waste gate linkage. Replace linkage and adjust
waste gate opening and closing.
Controller malfunction. Refer to "controller" in the
trouble column.
Differential controller Seals leaking. Replace controller.
malfunctions. Diaphragm broken. Replace controller.
Controller valve stuck. Replace controller.
Density controller Seals leaking. Replace controller.
malfunctions. Bellows damaged. Replace controller.
Valve stuck. Replace controller.

TURBOJET ENGINE INLET DUCT SYSTEMS flow is necessary to avoid compressor stall and exces-
Although no direct parallel can be drawn, the sive internal engine temperatures at the turbine.
turbine engine air-inlet duct is somewhat analogous The high energy enables the engine to produce an
to 'be air induction system of reciprocating engines. optimum amount of thrust. Normally, the air-inlet
The engine inlet and the inlet ducking of a turbine duct is considered an airframe part, and not a part
engine furnish a relatively distortion-free, high- of the engine. However, the duct is so important
energy supply of air, in the required quantity, to the to engine performance that it must be considered in
face of the compressor. A uniform and steady air. any discussion of the complete engine.
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Exhaust gases-

FIGURE
2-17. Transmission of turbine power to crankshaft.

Top ot Engine Bottom of Engine

I I

FIGURE
2-18. Schematic diagram of a PRT system.

A gas turbine engine consumes six to 10 times as engine and aircraft performance, especially at high
much air per hour as a reciprocating engine of airspeeds. Inefficiencies of the duct result in suc-
equivalent size. The air-entrance passage is corre- cessively magnified losses through other components
spondingly larger. Furthermore, it is more critical of the engine.
than a reciprocating engine airscoop in determining The inlet duct has two engine functions and one
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aircraft function. First, it must he able to recover


as much of the total pressure of the free airstream
as possible and deliver this pressure to the front of
the engine with a minimum loss of pressure or differ-
ential. p i s is known as "ram recovery" or, some-
times, as "total pressure recovery." Secondly, the
duct must uniformly deliver air to the compressor
inlet with as little turbulence and pressure variation
as possible. As far as the aircraft is concerned, the
duct must hold to a minimum the drag effect, which
it creates.
Pressure drop or differential is caused by the fric-
tion of the air along both sides of the duct and by
the bends in the duct system. Smooth flow depends
upon keeping the amount of turbulence to a mini-
mum as the air enters the duct. The duct must have FIGURE
2-19. Aircraft with single-entrance duct.
a sufficiently straight section to ensure smooth, even
airflow within. The choice of configuration of the Divided-Entrance Duct
entrance to the duct is dictated by the location of the The requirements of high-speed, single-engine air-
engine within the aircraft and the airspeed, altitude, craft, in which the pilot sits low in the fuselage and
and attitude at which the aircraft is designed to oper- close to the nose, render it difficult to employ the
ate. There are two basic types of inlet ducts, the single-entrance duct. Some form of a divided duct
single-entrance duct and the divided-entrance duct. which takes air from either side of the fuselage may
With ducts of any type, careful construction is be required. This divided duct can be either a wing-
very essential. Good workmanship is also needed root inlet or a scoop at each side of the fuselage, as
when an inlet duct is repaired. Surprisingly small shown in figure 2-20. Either type of duct presents
amounts of airflow distortion can result in appre- more problems to the aircraft designer than a single-
ciable loss in engine efficiency or can he responsible entrance duct because of the difficulty of obtaining
for otherwise unexplainable compressor stalls. Pro- sufficient airscoop area without imposing prohibi-
truding rivet heads or poor sheet metal work can tive amounts of drag. Internally, the problem is the
play havoc with an otherwise acceptable duct instal- same as that encountered with the single-entrance
lation. duct: that is. to construct a duct of reasonable leneth.
" ,
yet with as few bends as possihle.
Single-Entrance Duct
The wiugroot inlet on aircraft on which the wing
The single-entrance type of duct is the simplest
is located fairly far aft presents a design problem
and most effective because the duct inlet is located
because, although short, the duct must have consid-
directly ahead of the engine and aircraft in such a
erable curvature to deliver air properly to the com-
position that it scoops undisturbed air. Figure 2-19
pressor inlet. Scoops at the sides of the fuselage are
illustrates the single-entrance duct on a single-
often used. These side scoops are placed as far for-
engine, turbojet aircraft. Also, the duct can be
ward as possible to permit a gradual bend toward
built either in a straight configuration or with only
the compressor inlet, making the airflow character-
relatively gentle curvatures. In a single-engine air-
istics approach those of a single-entrance duct. A
craft installation where the engine is mounted in the
series of small rods is sometimes placed in the side-
fuselage, the duct is necessarily long. While some
scoop inlet to assist in straightening the incoming
pressure drop is occasioned by the long duct, the
airflow and to prevent turbulence.
condition is offset by smooth airflow characteristics.
In multi-engine installations, a short, straight duct, Variable-Geometry D u d
or one that is nearly straight, is a necessity. Al- The main function of an inlet duct is to furnish
though this short, straight duct results in minimum the proper amount of air to the engine inlet. In a
pressure drop, the engine is apt to suffer from inlet typical turbojet engine, the maximum airflow
turbulence, especially at slow airspeeds or high requirements are such that the Mach number of the
angles of attack. airflow directly ahead of the face of the engine is
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FIGURE
2-21. Divergent subsonic inlet duct.

Divergent
subsonic
section

FIGURE
2-22. Supersonic inlet duct.

uration until the velocity of the incoming air is


reduced to Mach 1.0. The aft section of the duct
will then commence to increase in area, since this
part must act as a subsonic diffuser. (See figure
2-22.) In practice, inlet ducts for supersonic
aircraft will only follow this general design insofar
as practical, depending upon the design features
B Wing I n l e t
of the aircraft. For very high speed aircraft, the
u inside area of configuration of the duct will be
FIGURE
2-20. Two types of divided-entrance ducts.
changed by a mechanical device as the speed of the
about 0.5, or a little less. Therefore, under aircraft increases or decreases. A duct of this type
practically all flight conditions except takeoff or is usually known as a variable-geometry inlet duct.
landing, the velocity of the airflow as it enters the Two methods are used to diffuse the inlet air and
air-inlet duct must be reduced through the duct slow the inlet airflow at supersonic flight speeds.
before the same air is ready to enter the compressor. One is to vary the area, or geometry, of the inlet
To accomplish this, inlet ducts are designed to duct either by using a movable restriction, such as
function as diffusers, and thus decrease the velocity a ramp or wedge, inside the duct. Still another
and increase the static pressure of the air passing system is some sort of a variable airflow bypass
through them. For subsonic multi-engine aircraft, arrangement which extracts part of the inlet airflow
a normal inlet duct, therefore, increases in size, front from the duct ahead of the engine. In some cases,
to rear, along the length of the duct, as illustrated in a combination of both systems is used.
figure 2-21. The other method is the use of a shock wave in
A supersonic diffuser progressively decreases in the airstream. A shock wave is a thin region of
area in the downstream direction. Therefore, a discontinuity in a flow of air or gas, during which
supersonic inlet duct will follow this general config- the speed, pressure, density, and temperature of the
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air or gas undergo a sudden change. Stronger


shock waves produce larger changes in the proper-
ties of the air or gas. A shock wave is willfully set
up in the supersonic flow of the air entering the
duct, by means of some restriction or small
obstruction which automatically protrudes into the
duct at high flight Mach numbers. The $hock
wave results in diffusion of the airflow, which, in
turn, slows down the velocity of the airflow. In at
least one aircraft installation, both the shock
method and the variable-geometry method of causing
diffusion are used in combination. The same
device which changes the area of the duct also sets
up a shock wave that further reduces the speed of
the incoming air within the duct. The amount of
change in duct area and the magnitude of the shock
are varied automatically with the airspeed of the
aircraft.
,.
With a variahle.eeometrv inlet. the so-called inlet
"buzz" which sometimes occurs during flight at
high Mach numbers can often be prevented by
FIGURE
2-23. Bellmouth compressor inlet.
changing the amount of inlet-area variation that
which is lost as the air passes through the screen
takes place when the variahle.geometry inlet system
must be taken into account when very accurate
is in operation. The "buzz" is an airflow instability
engine data are necessary:
which occurs when a shock wave is alternately
swallowed and regurgitated by the inlet. At its TURBOPROP COMPRESSOR INLETS
worst, the condition can cause violent fluctuations The air inlet on a turboprop is more of a problem
in pressure through the inlet, which may result in than that on a turbojet because the propeller drive
damage to the inlet structure or, possibly, to the shaft, the hub, and the spinner must he considered
engine itself. A suitable variahle-geometry duct in addition to the usual other inlet design factors.
will eliminate the "buzz" by increasing the stability The ducted spinner arrangement (figure 2-24A)
of the airflow within the inlet duct. is generally considered the best inlet design of the
turboprop engine as far as airflow and aerodynamic
Bellmouth Compressor Inlets characteristics are concerned. However, the ducted
Although not a duct in the true sense of the word, spinner is heavier, and is more dilficult to maintain
a hellmouth inlet is usually installed on an engine and to anti-ice than the conventional streamline
being calibrated in a ground test stand, to lead the spinner arrangement which is frequently used. A
outside static air to the inlet guide vanes of the conical spinner, which is a modified version of the
compressor. This type of inlet is easily attached streamline spinner, is sometimes employed. In
and removed. It is designed with the single either event, the arrangement of the spinner and the
objective of obtaining very high aerodynamic inlet duct is similar to that shown in figure 2-24B.
efficiency. Essentially, the inlet is a bell-shaped When the nose section of the turboprop engine is
funnel having carefully rounded shoulders which offset from the main axis of the engine, an arrangc-
offer practically no air resistance (see figure 2-23). ment similar to that in figure 2-24C may be
Duct loss is so slight that it is considered zero. The employed.
engine can, therefore, be operated without the com- Compressor-Inlet Screens
plications resulting from losses common to an The appetite of a gas turbine for nuts, small bolts,
installed aircraft duct. Engine performance data, rags, small hand tools, and the like, is well known.
such as rated thrust and thrust specific fuel To prevent the engine from readily ingesting sucli
consumption, are obtained while using a bellmouth items, a compressor-inlet screen is sometimes placed
compressor inlet. Usually, the inlets are fitted with across the engine air inlet at some location along the
protective screening. In this casc, the efficiency inlet duct.

94
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almost a necessity. Screens, however, add appreci-


ably to inlet-duct pressure loss, and are very
susceptible to icing. Failures due to fatigue are
also a problem. A failed screen can sometimes
cause more damage than no screen at all. In some
instances, inlet screens are made retractable and
may be withdrawn from the airstream after takeoff
or whenever icing conditions prevail. Such screens
are subject to mechanical failure, and add both
weight and bulk to the installation. In large engines
having steel or titanium compressor blades which
do not damage easily, the disadvantages of compres-
sor screens outweigh the advantages, so they are not
generally used.
Turbofan Engine Fan Sections
Although some turbofan engines have their fan
section, or blades, integral with the turbine, aft of
the combustion chamber, other versions are usually
constructed with the fan at the forward end of the
compresser. In dual-compressor engines, the fan is
integral with the relatively slow.turning, low-
pressure compressor, which allows the fan blades to
rotate at low tip speed for best fan efficiency. The
forward fan permits the use of a conventional
air.inlet duct, resulting in low inlet-duct loss. The
forward fan reduces engine damage from ingested
foreign material because much of any material that
may be ingested will be thrown radially outward,
and will pass through the fan discharge rather than
through the main part of the engine.
The fan consists of one or more stages of rotating
blades and stationary vanes that are somewhat
larger than the forward stages of the compressor to
which they are attached. The air accelerated by
the fan tips forms a secondary airstream which is
ducted overboard without passing through the main
engine. The air which passes through the center of
the fan becomes the primary airstream through the
engine itself (see figure 2-25).
The air from the fan exhaust, which is ducted
overboard, may be discharged in either of two ways:
(1) To the outside air through short ducts, directly
behind the fan, as shown in figure 2-26 and in the
sketch of a bifurcated duct configuration, figure
2-27, or (2) ducted all the way to the rear of the
FIGURE
2-24. Turboprop compressor inlets. engine, where it is exhausted to the outside air in
the vicinity of the engine tailpipe.
The advantages and disadvantages of a screen of
this type vary. If the engine is readily subject to RECIPROCATING ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEMS
internal damage, as would be the case for instance, The reciprocating engine exhaust system is
of an engine having an axial compressor fitted with fundamentally a scavenging system that collects
aluminum compressor blades, an inlet screen is and disposes of the high-temperature, noxious
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FIGURE
2-25. Airflow through a forward-fan engine.

FIGURE
2-26. Typical forward-fan turbofan
w
engine installation. FIGURE
2-27. Bifurcated duct configuration.

gares as they are discharged by the engine. Its compressor of the supercharger. Such systems
basic requirement is to dispose of the gases with have individual exhaust headers which empty into
complete safety to the airframe and the occupants a common collector ring with only one outlet. From
of the aircraft. The exhaust system can perform this outlet, the hot exhaust gas is routed via a
many useful functions, but its first duty is to provide tailpipe to the nozzle box of the turbosupercharger
protection against the potentially destructive action to drive the turbine. Although the collector system
of the exhaust gases. Modern exhaust systems, raises the back pressure of the exhaust system, the
though comparatively light, adequately resist high gain in horsepower from turbosupercharging more
temperatures, corrosion, and vibration to provide than offsets the loss in horsepower that results from
long, trouble-free operation with a minimum of increased back pressure.
maintenance. The short stack system is relatively simple, and
There are two general types of exhaust systems its removal and installation consists essentially of
in use on reciprocating aircraft engines: the short removing and installing the holddown nuts and
stack (open) system and the collector system. The clamps.
s h o ~stack system is generally used on nonsuper- In figure 2-28, the location of the exhaust system
charged engines and low-powered engines where components of a horizontally opposed engine is
noise level is not too objectionable. The collector shown in a side view. The exhaust system in this
system is used on most large nonsupercharged installation consists of a down-stack from each
engines and on all turbosupercharged engines and cylinder, an exhaust collector tube on each side of
installations where it would improve nacelle the engine, and an exhaust ejector assembly
streamlining or provide easier maintenance in the protruding aft and down from each side of the
nacelle area. On turbosupercharged engines the firewall. The down-stacks are connected to the
exhaust gases must be collected to drive the turbine cylinders with high-temperature locknuts and
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FIGURE
2-28. Exhaust system of a horizontally
opposed engine. A. Upper sheet jacket.
B Heat exchanger collector tube.
secured to the exhaust collector tube by ring clamps. C. Lower sheet jacket.
A cabin heater exhaust shroud is installed around
each collector tube. (See figure 2-29.) FIGURE
2-29. Exploded view of heater exhaust
The collector tubes terminate at the exhaust shroud assembly.
ejector openings- at the firewall and are tapered to
deliver the exhaust gases at the proper velocity to
induce an airflow through the exhaust ejectors.
The exhaust ejectors consist of a throat and d u n
assembly which utilizes the pumping action of the
exhaust gases to induce a flow of cooling air through
all parts of the engine compartment.
Radial Engine Exhaust Collector Ring System
Figure 2-30 shows the exhaust collector ring
installed on a 14-cylinder radial engine. The
collector ring is a welded corrosion-resistant steel
assembly manufactured in seven sections, with each
section collecting the exhaust from two cylinders.
The sections are graduated in size (figure 2-31).
The small sections are on the inboard side, and the
largest sections are on the outboard side at the
point where the tailpipe connects to the collector
ring. Each section of the collector ring is bolted
to a bracket on the blower section of the engine,
and is partly supported by a sleeve connection
between the collector ring ports and the short stack
on the engine exhaust ports. The exhaust tailpipe A. Clamp assembly D. Engine diaphrngm
is joined to the collector ring by a telescoping 8 . Telescoping flange E. Clamp assembly
expansion joint, which allows enough slack for the C. Main exhaust segment F . Clevis pin b washer
removal of segments of the collector ring without
removing the tailpipe. FIGURE
2-30. Installed exhaust collector ring.
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An augmentor vane is located in each tailpipe.


When the vane is fully closed, the cross-s6ctional
area of the tailpipe is reduced by appraximately
4570. The augmentor vanes are operated by an
electrical actuator, and indicators adjacent to the
au,gnentor vane switches in the cockpit show vane
positions. The vanes may be moved toward the
"closed" position to decrease the velocity of flow
through the augmentor to raise the engine
temperature.

RECIPROCATING ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM


MAINTENANCE PRACTICES
Any exhaust system failure should be regarded
as a severe hazard. Depending on the location and
type of failure, an exhaust system failure can result
in carbon monoxide poisoning of crew and passen-
gers, partial or complete loss of engine power, or an
aircraft fire. Exhaust system failures generally
reach a maximum rate of occurrence at 100 to 200
hours of aircraft operating time. More than 50%
of all exhaust system failures occur within 4QOhours.
FIGURE
2-31. Exhaust collector ring.
Exhaust System Inspection
While the type and location of exhaust system
The exhaust tailpipe is a welded, corrosion- components vary somewhat with the type of aircraft,
resistant steel assembly consisting of the exhaust the inspection requirements for most reciprocating
tailpipe and, on some aircraft, a muff-type heat engine exhaust systems are very similar. The
exchanger. following paragraphs include a discussion of the
most common exhaust system inspection items and
Manifold and Augmentor Exhaust Assembly
procedures for all reciprocating engines. Figure
Some radial engines are equipped with a combi- 2-33 shows the primary inspection areas of three
nation exhaust manifold and augmentor assembly. tvnes of exhaust svstems.
,A

On a typical 18-cylinder engine, two exhaust Before the removal and installation of representa-
assemblies and two augmentor assemblies are used. tive exhaust systems are discussed, a precaution to
Each manifold assembly collects exhaust gases from be observed when performing maintenance on any
nine cylinders and discharges the gases into the exhaust system should be mentioned. Galvanized
forward end of an augmentor assembly. or zinc-plated tools should never be used on the
Four stacks of each manifold assembly are Siamese exhaust syitem, and exhaust system parts should
exhaust stacks, each receiving the exhaust from two never be marked with a lead pencil. The lead, zinc,
cylinders (see figure 2-32). The firing order of or galvanized mark is absorbed by the metal of the
the two cylinders exhausting into each exhaust stack exhaust system when healed, creating a distinct
is as widely separated as possible. Front row change in its molecular structure. This change
cylinders are connected to stacks by port extensions. softens the metal in the area of the mark, causing
This type of exhaust manifold is manufactured cracks and eventual failure.
from corrosion-resistant steel, and has either a plain After a complete exhaust system has been
sandblast or a ceramic-coated finish. installed, the air induction scoop or duct, the fuel
The exhaust gases are directed into the augmentor drain lines, the cowl flaps, and all pieces of engine
bellmouths. The augmentors are designed to cowl are installed and secured. When these items
produce a venturi effect to draw an increased airflow have been inspected for security, the engine is
over the engine to augment engine cooling. operated to allow the exhaust system to heat up to
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FIGURE
2-32. Exhaust manifold installation.

normal operating temperatures. The engine is then by a flat gray or a sooty black streak on the pipes
shut down and the cowling removed to expose the in the area of the leak. An exhaust leak is usually
exhaust system. the result of poor alignment of two mating exhaust
Each clamped connection and each exhaust port system members. When a leaking exhaust con-
connection should be inspected for evidence of nection is discovered, the clamps should be loosened
exhaust gas leakage. An exhaust leak is indicated and the leaking units repositioned to ensure a gas-
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& ing operations can be performed. Some exhaust


~ ~

units are manufactured with a plain sandblast fin-


ish. Others may have a ceramic-coated finish.
Ceramiocoated stacks should be cleaned by de-
greasing only. They should never be cleaned with
sandblast or alkali cleaners.
During the inspection of an exhaust system, close
attention should be given to ali external surfaces
of the exhaust system for cracks, dents, or missing
parts. This also applies to welds, clamps, sup-
ports, and support attachment lugs, bracing, slip
joints, stack flanges, gaskets, and flexible couplings.
Each bend should he examined, as well as areas
adjacent to welds; and any dented areas or low
spots in the system should bk inspected for thinning
and pitting due to internal erosion by combustion
~roductsor accumulated moisture. An ice pick or
similar pointed instrument is useful in probing
suspected areas. The system should be disassem-
bled as necessary to inspect internal baffles or
diffusers.
If a component of the exhaust system is inacces-
-
sible for a thorough visual inspection or is hidden
by nonremovable parts, it should be removed and
checked for possible leaks. This can often best be
accomplished by plugging the openings of the com-
ponent, applying a suitable internal pressure (ap-
proximately 2 p.s.i.), and submerging it in water.
Any leaks will cause bubbles that can be readily
detected.
The procedures required for an installation in-
spection are also performed during most regular
inspections. Daily inspection of the exhaust sys-
tem usually consists of checking the exposed exhaust
system for cracks, scaling, excessive leakage, and
Z
loose clamps.

Muffler and Heat Exchanger Failures


FIGURE2-33. Primary inspection areas (A. Sep- Approximately half of all muffler and heat ex-
arate system; B. Crossover-type system; C. changer failures can be traced to cracks or ruptures
Exhaust/augmentor system.) in the heat exchanger surfaces used for cabin and
carburetor heat sources. Failures in the heat ex-
tight fit. After repositioning, the system nuts changer surface (usually in the outer wall) allow
should be re-tightened enough to eliminate any exhaust gases to escape directly into the cabin heat
looseness without exceeding the specified torque. system. These failures, in most cases, are caused
If tightening to the specified torque does not elim- by thermal and vibration fatigue cracking in areas
inate looseness, the bolts and nuts should be re- of stress concentration.
placed, since they have probably stretched. After Failure of the spot-welds which attach the heat
tightening to the specified torque, all nuts should transfer pins can result in exhaust gas leakage. In
be safetied. addition to a carbon monoxide hazard, failure of
With the cowling removed, all necessary clean- heat exchanger surfaces can permit exhaust gases
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to be drawn into the engine induction system, Augmentor Exhaust System


causing engine overheating and power loss. On exhaust systems equipped with augmentor
tubes, the augmentor tubes should be inspected at
Exhaust Manifold and Stack Failures regular intervals for proper alignment, security of
Exhaust manifold and stack failures are usually attachment, and general overall condition. Even
fatigue failures at welded or clamped points; for where augmentor tubes do not contain heat ex-
example, stack-to-flange, stack-to-manifold, and changer surfaces, they should he inspected for
crossover pipe or muffler connections. Although cracks along with the remainder of the exhaust
these failures are primarily fire hazards, they also system. Cracks in augmentor tubes can present
present carbon monoxide problems. Exhaust gases a fire or carbon monoxide hazard by allowing
can enter the cabin via defective or inadequate seals exhaust gases to enter the nacelle, wing, or cabin
at firewall openings, wing strut fittings, doors, and areas.
wing root openings.
Exhaust System Repairs
Internal Muffler Failures It is generally recommended that exhaust stacks,
Internal failures (baffles, diffusers, etc.) can mufflers, tailpipes, etc., be replaced with new or
cause partial or complete engine power loss by reconditioned components rather than repaired.
restricting the flow of the exhaust gases. As op. Welded repairs to exhaust systems are complicated
posed to other failures, erosion and carburization by the difficulty of accurately identifying the base
caused by the extreme thermal conditions are the metal so thet the proper repair materials can he
primary causes of internal failures. Engine back. selected. Changes in composition and grain struc-
firing and combustion of unburned fuel within the ture of the original base metal further complicate
exhaust system are probable contributing factors. the repair.
In addition, local hot-spot areas caused by uneven However, when welded repairs are necessary, the
exhaust gas flow can result in burning, bulging, or original contours should be retained; the exhaust
rupture of the outer muffler wall. system alignment must not he warped or otherwise
affected. Repairs or sloppy weld beads which pro-
Exhaust Systems with Turbocharger trude internally are not acceptable as they cause
When a turbocharger or a turbosupercharger local hot-spots and may restrict exhaust gas flow.
system is included, the engine exhaust system oper- When repairing or replacing exhaust system com-
ates under greatly increased pressure and tempera- ponents, the proper hardware and clamps should
ture conditions. Extra precautions should be taken always be used. Steel or low-temperature, self-
in exhaust system care and maintenance. During locking nuts should not be substituted for brass or
high-pressure altitude operation, the exhaust system special high-temperature locknuts used by the man-
pressure is maintained at or near sea level values. ufacturer. Old gaskets should never he re-used.
Due to the pressure differential, any leaks in the When disassembly is necessary, gaskets should be
system will allow the exhaust gases to escape with replaced with new ones of the same type provided
torch-like intensity that can severely damage adja- by the manufacturer.
cent structures. TURBINE ENGINE EXHAUST DUCTS
A common cause of malfunction is coke deposits The term "exhaust duct" is applied to the engine
(carbon buildup) in the waste gate unit causing exhaust pipe, or tailpipe, which connects the tur-
erratic system operation. Excessive deposit build- bine outlet to the jet nozzle of a non-afterburning
ups may cause the waste gate valve to stick in the engine. Although an afterburner might also be
"closed" position, causing an overboost condition. considered a type of exhaust duct, afterbnrning is
Coke deposit buildup in the turbo itself will cause a subject in itself which is discussed later in this
a gradual loss of power in flight and low manifold chapter.
pressure reading prior to takeoff. Experience has If the engine exhaust gases could he discharged
shown that periodic de-coking, or removal of carbon directly to the outside air in an exact axial direction
deposits, is necessary to maintain peak efficiency. at the turbine exit, an exhaust duct might not be
Clean, repair, overhaul, and adjust the system necessary. This, however, is not practical. A
components and controls in accordance with the larger total thrust can be obtained from the engine
applicable manufacturer's instructions. if the gases are discharged from the aircraft at a
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higher velocity than is permissible at the turbine When this is the case, small tabs, which may be bent
outlet. An exhaust duct is therefore added, both to as required, are provided on the exhaust duct at the
collect and straighten the gas flow as it comes from nozzle opening; or small, adjustable pieces called
the turbine and to increase the velocity of the gases "mice" are fastened, as needed, around the perimeter
before they are discharged from the exhaust nozzle of the nozzle to change the area.
at the rear of the duct. Increasing the velocity of
Convergent-Divergent Exhaust Nozzle
the gases increases their momentum and increases
the thrust produced. Whenever the engine pressure ratio is high
An engine exhaust duct is often referred to as enough to produce exhaust gas velocities which
might exceed Mach 1 at the engine exhaust nozzle,
the engine tailpipe; although the duct, itself, is
essentially a simple, stainless steel, conical or cylin. more thrust can be gained by using a conaergent-
drical pipe. The assembly also includes an engine divergent type of nozzle (figure 2-5). The ad-
vantage of a convergent-divergent nozzle is greatest
tailcone and the struts inside the duct. The tailcone
and the struts add strength to the duct, impart an at high Mach numbers because of the resulting
higher pressure ratio across the engine exhaust
axial direction to the gas flow, and smooth the gas
nozzle.
flow.
Immediately aft of the turbine outlet, and usual. To ensure that a constant weight or volume of a
gas will flow past any given point after sonic veloc-
ly just forward of the flange to which the exhaust
duct is attached, the engine is instrumented for ity is reached, the rear part of a supersonic exhaust
turbine discharge pressure. One or more pressure duct is enlarged to accolnmodate the additional
probes are inserted into the exhaust duct to provide weight or volume of a gas that will flow at super-
adequate sampling of the exhaust gases. In large sonic rates. If this is not done, the nozzle will
not operate efficiently. This section of the exhaust
engines, it is not practical to measure the internal
temperature at the turbine inlet, so the engine is duct is known as divergent.
often also instrumented for exhaust gas temperature When a divergent duct is used in combination with
a conventional exhaust duct, it is called a convergent-
at the turbine outlet.
divergent exhaust duct. In the convergent-divergent,
Conventional Convergent Exhaust Nozzle or C-D nozzle, the convergent section is designed
The rear opening of a turbine engine exhaust to handle the gases while they remain subsonic,
duct is called the exhaust nozzle (figure 2-34.). and to deliver the gases to the throat of the nozzle
The nozzle acts as an orifice, the size of which just as they attain sonic velocity. The divergent
determines the density and velocity of the gases section handles the gases, further increasing their
as they emerge from the engine. velocity, after they emerge from the throat and
In most non-afterburning engines the exhaust become supersonic.
nozzle area is quite critical. Adjusting the area of TURBOPROP EXHAUST SYSTEM
the exhaust nozzle will change both the engine
In a typical turboprop exhaust system, the ex-
performance and the exhaust gas temperature.
haust gases are directed from the turbine section
Some engines are trimmed to their correct exhaust
gas temperature by altering the exhaust nozzle area.

,-Tail cone

7
LGas attains

FIGURE2-34. Conventional convergent FIGURE


2-35. Convergent-divergent exhaust
exhaust duct. duct (nozzle).
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of the engine to the atmosphere through a tailpipe THRUST REVERSERS


assembly. The difficult problem of stopping an aircraft after
In a typical installation the tailpipe assembly is landing greatly increases with the higher airspeeds
mounted in the nacelle and is attached at its for- and greater gross weights, common to most of the
ward end to the firewall. The forward section of larger, modem aircraft, which result in higher wing
the tailpipe is funnel shaped and surrounds but loadings and increased landing speeds. In many
does not contact the turbine exhaust section. This instances, wheel brakes can no longer be entirely
arrangement forms an annular gap which serves relied upon to slow the aircraft within a reasonable
as an air ejector for the air surrounding the engine distance, immediately after touchdown. The re.
hot section. As the high-velocity exhaust gases versible pitch propeller has solved the problem for
enter the tailpipe, a low pressure effect is pro- reciprocatingengine 'and turboprop-powered air-
duced which causes the air around the engine hot planes. Commercial turbojet aircraft, however,
section to flow through the annular gap into the must rely upon reversing the thrust produced by
tailpipe. their engines.
An exhaust tailpipe of this type is usually manu- An engine thrust reverser (see figure 2-37) not
factured in two sections (see figure 2-36). Both only provides a ground-speed braking force, but, if
the forward funnel-shaped section and the rear suitable, is desirable for in-flight use prior to land-
section are made of corrosion-resistant steel, and a ing. Some means of slowing the airspeed and
corrosion.resistant, high-temperature clamp secures increasing the rate of sink during descent, such as
the two sections together in a gastight joint. a dive brake, some form of wing spoiler, or a
The mounting flange welded to the forward edge thrust reverser that can be used while airborne, is
of the forward tailpipe section mates to the engine almost a necessity for turbojet aircraft.
side of the firewall and is secured to it with screws. Many forms of thrust reversers have been pro-
An integral bellows section permits expansion be- posed, and quite a number have been tested with
tween the firewall and two fixed bearing fittings, a considerable degree of success. The most suc-
which can be adjusted to move the tailpipe in a cessful thrust reversers can be divided into two
vertical plane. categories, the mechanical-blockage type and the
The rear section of the tailpipe is secured to the aerodynamic-blockage type. Mechanical blockage
airframe by two support arms, one on each side of is accomplished by placing a removable obstruction
the tailpipe. The support arms are attached to the in the exhaust gas stream, usually somewhat to the
upper surface of the wing in such a way that free rear of the nozzle. The engine exhaust gases are
movement fore and aft is permitted to compensate mechanically blocked and diverted at a suitable
for expansion. angle in the reverse direction by an inverted cone,
The tailpipe assembly is wrapped in an insulating halfsphere, or other means of obstruction, which
blanket to shield the surrounding area from the is placed in position to reverse the flow of exhaust
high heat produced by the exhaust gases. Such gases. In the aerodynamic-blockage type of
blankets may be made of stainless steel laminated thrust reverser, thin airfoils or obstructions are
sheet on the outside and fiber glass on the inside. placed in the gas stream, either along the length
of the exhaust duct or immediately aft of the
exhaust nozzle. In one adaptation of the aero-
dynamic reverser, vanes inside the duct create swirl-
ing of the gases in a manner which centrifuges
them into a cascade of turning vanes. At least one
current-model, commercial turbojet aircraft uses a
combination of the mechanical-blockage and

FIGURE
2-36. Two-section turboprop
exhaust tailpipe. FIGURE
2-37. Operation of the thrust reverser.
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aerodynamic-blockage type reversers. whenever prolonged engine operation is anticipat-


A thrust reverser must not affect engine operation ed. The other type of noise suppressor is an
either when the reverser is operating or when it is integral, airborne part of the aircraft engine instal-
not. It must be able to withstand high tempera- lation or engine tailpipe. Only this latter form of
tures, and must be mechanically strong, relatively suppressor, which primarily suppresses engine
light in weight, reliable, and "fail-safe." When not noise during takeoff, climb, approach, and landing,
in use, it should not add appreciably to the engine will be discussed here.
frontal area, and must be streamlined into the It is generally accepted that the amount of sound
configuration of the engine nacelle. To satisfy the attenuation required for turbojet aircraft wiU be
minimum braking requirements after landing, a the amount necessary to moderate the engine noise
thrust reverser should be able to produce in to a level which will be no more objectionable than
reverse at least 50% of the full forward thrust of the noise produced by a reciprocating engine and
which the engine is capable. propeller combination, operating under similar con-
The clamshell-type of mechanical.blockage re- ditions. Although the amount of attenuation nec.
verser (figure 2 3 8 ) adequately satisfies most of essary is usually about 12 decibels, the manner in
these requirements and, in one form or another, which the noise of a turbojet aircraft can be
has been adopted for use on non-afterburning en- reduced to a level that is as acceptable as that of a
gines. At throttle positions below idle, the reverser reciprocating-engine aircraft is not simple to deter-
operates to form a turning barrier in the path of mine. The propeller, which is a major source of
escaping exhaust gases, which, in turn, nullifies noise in reciprocating-engine aircraft, has a noise
and reverses the forward thrust of the engine. pattern which rises sharply to a maximum level as
Throttle positions below idle cause the engine to the plane of the propeller passes an individual on
accelerate in controllable amounts up to full r.p.m. the ground, and then drops off almost as sharply
so that either partial or full reverse thrust may be after the propeller has gone by. The turbojet
used at will. When the reverser is not in use, the aircraft produces a sharp rise in noise, which
clamshell doors retract and nest neatly around the reaches a peak after the aircraft has passed an indi-
engine exhaust duct, usually forming the rear see- vidual on the ground, and is at an angle of approxi-
tion of the engine nacelle. Most thrust reversers mately 45' to him. The noise then persists at a
in use at this time are combined with an engine high level for a considerable period of time as
exhaust silencer. compared with that of a reciprocating engine with
a propeller (see figure 2-39).
Engine Noise Suppressors
There are three sources of noise involved in the
Aircraft powered by large turbojet engines re-
operation of a gas turbine engine. The engine air
quire some sort of silencing device or noise sup-
intake and vibration from engine housing are
pressor for the engine exhaust gases when operating
sources of some noise, but the noise thus gener-
from airports located in or near thickly populated
ated does not compare in magnitude with that pro-
areas. Two types of noise suppressors are used,
duced by the engine exhaust as illustrated in figure
one being a portable device, separate from the air-
2-40. The noise produced by the engine exhaust
craft, for use on the ground by maintenance activi-
is caused by the high degree of turbulence of a
ties; it is positioned at the rear of an engine
high-velocity jet stream moving through a relative-
ly quiet atmosphere.
For a distance of a few nozzle diameters down-
stream behind the engine, the velocity of the jet
stream is high, and there is little mixing of the
atmosphere with the jet stream. In this region,
the turbulence within the high-speed jet stream is
a very fine grain turbulence, and produces relative-
ly high-frequency noise.
Farther downstream, as the velocity of the jet
stream slows down, the jet stream mixes with the
FIGURE
2-38. Mechanical blockage atmosphere, and turbulence of a coarser type be-
thrust reverser. gins. Compared with noise from other portions of
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whistle, even though hoth may have the same over-


all volume (decibels) at their source.
Noise levels vary with engine thrust and are
proportional to the amount of work done by the
engine on the air which passes through it. An
engine having relatively low airflow but high thrust
due to high turhine discharge (exhaust gas) tem-
perature, pressure, and/or afterburning will pro-
duce a gas stream of high velocity and therefore
high noise levels. A larger engine, handling more
air, will be quieter at the same thrust. Thus, the
noise level can be considerably reduced by operat-
ing the engine at lower power settings, and large
engines operating at partial thrust will be less noisy
than smaller engines operating at full thrust.
FIGURE
2-39. Noise levels.
Compared with a turbojet, a turbofan version of
the jet stream, noise from this portion has a much the same engine will be quieter during takeoff.
lower frequency. As the energy of the jet stream The noise level produced by a fan-type engine is
finally is dissipated in large turbulent swirls, a less, principally because the exhaust gas velocities
greater portion of the energy is converted into ejected at the engine tailpipe are slower than those
noise. The noise generated as the exhaust gases for a turbojet of comparative size.
dissipate is at a frequency near the low end of the Fan engines require a larger turhine to provide
audible range. The lower the frequency of the additional power to drive the fan. The large
noise, the greater the distance that it will travel. turhine, which usually has an additional turbine
This means that the low-frequency noises will stage, reduces the velocity of the gas and therefore
reach an individual on the ground in greater vol- reduces the noise produced, because exhaust gas
ume than the high-frequency noises, and hence will noise is proportional to exhaust gas velocity. The
he more objectionable. High-frequency noise is exhaust from the fan, itself, is at a relatively low
weakened more rapidly than low-frequency noise, velocity, and therefore does not create a noise
hoth by distance and the interference of buildings, problem.
terrain, and atmospheric disturbances. A deep. Because of the characteristic of low-frequency
voiced, low-frequency foghorn, for example, may noise to linger at a relatively high volume, effective
he heard much farther than a shrill, high-frequency noise reduction for a turbojet aircraft must he

Most of the noise radiates from


low frequency turbulence region
D = Nozzle diameter

FIGURE
2-40. Turbojet exhaust noise pattern.
-
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achieved by revising the noise pattern or by chang- the exhaust stream. This has two effects. First,
ing the frequency of the noise emitted by the jet the change in frequency may put some of the noise
nozzle. above the audibility range of the human ear, and,
The noise suppressors in current use are either of secondly, high frequencies within the audible range,
the corrugated-perimeter type, shown in figure 2-41, while perhaps more annoying, are more highly
or the multi-tube type, shown in figure 2 4 2 . Both attenuated by atmospheric absorption than are low
types of suppressors break up the single, main jet frequencies. Thus, the falloff in intensity is greater
exhaust stream into a number of smaller jet streams. and the noise level is less at any given distance
This increases the total perimeter of the nozzle area from the aircraft.
and reduces the size of the eddies created as the ENGINE AIR-INLET VORTEX DESTROYER
gases are discharged into the open air. Although When turbojet engines are operating on the
the total noise.energy remains unchanged, the fre- ground, an engine air-inlet vortex can sometimes
quency is raised considerably. The size of the
eddies scales down, at a linear rate, with the size of

FIGURE
2-41. Rear view of corrugated-perimeter FIGURE
2-42. Rear view of multi-tube
noise suppressor. noise suppressor.

FIGURE2 4 3 . Inlet vortex destroyer jet stream.

106
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form between the engine air inlet and the ground. illustrates the general direction and size of the
This vortex can causr: a strong suction force cap- vortex-destroying jet blast.
able of lifting small foreign objects from the ground Figure !Z44 is a diagram showing the location
into the engine inlet. The ingestion of such debris of the jet stream nozzle and the control valve.
can cause engine damage or even failure. Bleed air from the engine is used as the vortex-
To minimize the ingestion of runway debris, destroying air stream. I t is controlled by a valve
some turbojet engines are equipped with an engine located in the nose cowl. The control valve is
air-inlet vortex destroyer. This destroyer is a usually a two-position valve that is opened by a
small jet stream directed downward from the lower landing gear safety switch. The valve closes when
leading edge of the noise cowl to the ground to the aircraft leaves the runway and the weight of
destroy the swirling vortex base. Figure 2-43 the aircraft is removed from the landing gear.

Jet stream nozzle '


M .Location of vortex datroyer components.
FIGURE
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CHAPTER 3
ENGINE FUEL A N D FUEL METERING SYSTEMS
FUEL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS low pressure to increase vapor formation. This is
~~~~~~~~~~t~ in aircraft and engines have in. most apt to occur during a rapid climb on a hot
creased the demands on the fuel making it day. As the aircraft climbs, the outside tempera-
more complicated and increasing the installation, ture drops, but the fuel does not lose temperature
adjustment, and maintenance problems. Thq fuel rapidly. If the fuel is warm enough at takeoff, it
system must supply fuel to the carburetor or other retains enough heat to boil easily at high altitude.
metering device under all conditions of ground The chief causes of fuel turbulence are sloshing
and air operation. I t must function properly at of the fuel in the tanks, the mechanical action of
constantly changing altitudes and in any climate. the engine-driven pump, and sharp bends or rises
The system should be free of tendency to vapor in the fuel lines. Sloshing in the tank tends to mix
lock, which can result from changes in ground and air with the fuel. As this mixture passes through
in-flight climatic conditions. the lines, the trapped air separates from the fuel
On small aircraft a simple gravity-feed fuel sys- and forms vapor pockets at any point where there
tem consisting of a tank to supply fuel to the engine are abrupt changes in direction or steep rises.
is often installed. On multi-engine aircraft, complex Turbulence in the fuel pump often combines with
systems are necessary so that fuel can be pumped the low pressure at the pump inlet to form a vapor
from any combination of tanks to any combination lock at this point.
of engines. Provisions for transferring fuel from vapor lock can become serious enough to block
One tank be included On large the fuel flow completely and stop the engine. Even
aircraft. small amounts of vapor in the inlet line restrict the
Vapor Lock flow to the engine-driven pump and reduce its
output pressure.
Normally the fuel remains in a liquid state until
it is discharged into the air stream and then TO reduce the possibility of vapor lock, fuel lines
instantly changes to a vapor. Under certain condi- are kept away from sources of heat; also, sharp
tions, however, the fuel may vaporize in the lines, bends and steep rises are avoided. In addition,
pumps, or other units. ~h~ vapor pockets formed the volatility of the fuel is controlled in manufac-
by this premature vaporization restrict the fuel ture so that it does not vaporize too readily. The
flow through units which are designed to handle major improvement in reducing vapor lock, how-
liquids rather than gases. The resulting partial ever, is the incorporation of booster pumps in the
or complete interruption of the fuel flow is called system. These Pumps keep the fuel in the
vapor lock. The three general causes of vapor lock lines to the engine-driven Pump under Pressure.
are the lowering of the pressure on the fuel, high The slight Pressure on the fuel reduces vapor for-
fuel temperatures, and excessive fuel turbulence. mation and aids in moving a vapor pocket along.
At high altitudes, the pressure on the fuel in the The Pump also releases vapor from the
tank is low. This lowers the boiling point of the fuel as it Passes through the Pump. The vapor
fuel and causes vapor bubbles to form. This vapor moves upward through the fuel in the tank and
trapped in the fuel may cause vapor lock in the Out the tankvents.
fuel system. To prevent the small amount of vapor which
Transfer of heat from the engine tends to cause remains in the fuel from upsetting its metering
boiling of the fuel in the lines and the pump. This action, vapor eliminators are installed in some fuel
tendency is increased if the fuel in the tank is systems ahead of the metering device or are built
warm. High fuel temperatures often combine with into this unit.
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BASIC FUEL SYSTEM engine fuel system. The rate of fuel delivery is a
The basic parts of a fuel system include tanks, function of air mass flow, compressor inlet tem-
booster pumps, lines, selector valves, strainers, perature, ComPreSSor discharge Pressure, r.P.m.9
engine-driven pumps, and pressure gages. A re- and combustion chamber Pressure.
view of chapter 4 in the ceneral ~ ~ ~ willd b The~ fuel~ metering
k system must operate satisfacto-
provide some information concerning these rily to ensure efficient engine operation as measured
ponents. Additional information is resented later by power output, operating temperatures, and range
in this chapter. of the aircraft. Because of variations in design of
Generally, there are several tanks, even in a different fuel metering 'systems, the expected per-
simple system, to store the required amount of fuel. formance of any One piece Of s' as
The location of these tanks depends on both the the difficulties it can vary.
fuel system design and the structural design of the FUEL METERING DEVICES FOR RECIPROCATING
aircraft. From each tank, a line leads to the selec- ENGINES
tor valve. This valve is set from the cockpit to his section explains the systems deliver
select the tank from which fuel is to be delivered the correct mixture of fuel and air to the engine
to the engine. The booster pump forces fuel combustion chambers. In the discussion of each
through the selector valve to the main line strainer. system, the general purpose and operating principles
This filtering unit, located in the lowest part of the stressed, with particular emphasis on the basic
system, removes water and dirt from the fuel. principles of operation. No attempt is made to
During starting, the booster pump forces fuel give detailed operating and maintenance instruc-
through a bypass in the engine-driven pump t~ the tions for specific types and makes of equipment.
metering device. Once the engine-driven pump is ror the specific information needed to inspect or
rotating at sufficient speed, it takes over and delivers maintain a particular installation or unit, consult
fuel to the metering device at the specified pressure. the manufacturer's instructions.
The airframe fuel system begins with the fuel The basic requirement of a fuel metering system
tank and ends at the engine fuel system. The
engine fuel system usually includes the engine- T~picalF/A mixhue me-float-* carburetor
driven pumps and the fuel metering systems. In
aircraft powered with a reciprocating engine, the
fuel metering system consists of the air- and fuel-
control devices from the point where the fuel
enters the first control unit until the fuel is injected
into the supercharger section, intake pipe, or cylin-
der. For example, the fuel metering system of the
Continental 10-470L engine consists of the fuel/air
control unit, the injector pump, the fuel manifold
valve, and the fuel discharge nozzles. On the Pratt
and Whitney R-1830-94 engine, the fuel metering
system consists of the carburetor, the fuel feed
valve, and the carburetor accelerating pump. In
the latter case, the fuel feed valve and the accelerat-
ing pump are mounted on the engine and are
engine manufacturer's parts. However, they still
constitute a part of the basic fuel metering system.
The fuel metering system on current reciprocat-
ing engines meters the fuel at a predetermined ratio
to airflow. The airflow to the engine is controlled
by the carburetor or fuel/air control unit.
The fuel metering system of the gas turbine
engine consists of a jet fuel control and may extend
to and include the fuel nozzles. On some turboprop
engines a temperature datum valve is a part of the FIGURE
3--1. Fuel/air mixture curves.

110
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is the same, regardless of the type of system used the fuel mixture must become gradually richer as
or the model engine on which the equipment is powers above cruise are used. (See figure 3-1.)
installed. It must meter fuel proportionately to In the power range, the engine will run on a much
air to establish the proper fuel/air mixture ratio leaner mixture, as indicated in the curves. How-
for the engine at all speeds and altitudes at which ever, on the leaner mixture, cylinder-head tempera-
the engine may be operated. In the fuel/air mix- ture would exceed the maximum permissible
ture curves shown in figure 3-1, note that the temperatures and detonation would occur.
basic hest power and best economy fuel/air mix- The best economy setting is established by run-
ture requirements for aU reciprocating engines are ning a series of curves through the cruise range, as
approximately the same. shown in the graph in figure 3-3, the loy point
A second requirement of the fuel metering sys- (auto-lean) in the curve being the fuel/air mixture
tem is to atomize and distribute the fuel from the where the minimum fuel per horsepower is used.
carburetor into the mass airflow in such a manner In this range the engine will operate normally on
that the air charges going to all cylinders will hold slightly leaner mixtures and will obviously operate
similar amounts of fuel so that the fuel/air mix- on richer mixtures than the low-point mixture. If
ture reaching each cylinder is of the same ratio. a mixture leaner than that specified for the engine
Carburetors tend to run richer at altitude than is used, the leanest cylinder of the engine is apt
at ground level, because of the decreased density to backfire, because the slower burning rate of the
of the airflow through the carburetor throat for a lean mixture results in a continued burning in the
given volume of air per hour to the engine. Thus, cylinder when the next intake stroke starts.
it is necessary that a mixture control be provided Fuel/Air Mixtures
to lean the mixture and compensate for this natural
enrichment. Some aircraft use carburetors in which Gasoline and other liquid fuels will not burn at
the mixture control is operated manually. Other all unless they are mixed with air. If the mixture
aircraft employ carburetors which automatically is to burn properly within the engine cylinder, the
lean the carburetor mixture at altitude to main- ratio of air to fuel must be kept within a certain
tain the proper fuel/air mixture. range.
The rich mixture requirements for an aircraft It would be more accurate to state that the fuel
engine are established by running a power curve is burned with the oxygen in the air. Seventy-eight
to determine the fuel/air mixture for obtaining percent of air by volume is nitrogen, which is inert
and does not participate in the combustion process,
maximum usable power. This curve (figure 3-2)
is plotted at 100-r.p.m. intervals from idle speed to and 21% is oxygen. Heat is generated by burning
the mixture of gasoline and oxygen. Nitrogen and
takeoff speed.
gaseous byproduch of combustion absorb this heat
Since it is necessary in the power range to add
energy and turn it into power by expansion. The
fuel to the basic fuel/air mixture requirements to
mixture proportion of fuel and air by weight is of
keep cylinder-head temperatures in a safe range,
extreme importance to engine performance. The

High
High

Brake Specific
HP fuel
mnsumption

h,I I I I I I I I l l l I ~ l I l Low
Lean Fuel/air mixture Rich
Lean Fuel/air mixture Rich

FIGURE
3-2. Power versus fuel/air mixture curve. FIGURE
3-3. Specific fuel consumption curve.
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characteristics of a given mixture can be measured Enriching a fuel/air ratio above 0.080 results in
in terms of flame speed and comhustion temperature. the loss of power besides reduction of temperature,
The composition of the fuel/air mixture is as the cooling effects of excess fuel overtake the
described by the mixture ratio. For example, a favorable factor of increased mass. The reduced
mixture with a ratio of 12 to 1 (12:l) is made up temperature and slower rate of burning lead to an
of 12 lbs. of air and 1 lb. of fuel. The ratio is increasing loss of comhustion efficiency.
expressed in weight hecause the volume of air varies If, with constant airflow, the mixture i s leaned
greatly with temperature and pkessure. The mix- below 0.067 fuel/air ratio, power and temperature
ture ratio can also he expressed as a decimal. Thus, will decrease together. This time, the loss of power
a fuel/air ratio of 12:l and a fuel/air ratio of 0.083 is not a liability but an asset. The purpose in
describe the same mixture ratio. Air and gasoline leaning is to save fuel. Air is free and available
mixtures as rich as 8:l and as lean as 16:l will in limitless quantities. The object is to obtain the
burn in an engine cylinder. The engine develops required power with the least fuel flow and to let
maximum p6wer with a mixture of approximately the air consumption take care of itself.
1 2 parts of air and 1part of gasoline. A measure of the economical use of fuel is called
From the chemist's point of view the perfect SFC (specific fuel consumption), which is the lbs.
mixture for comhustion of fuel and air would be of fuel per hr. per hp. Thus, SFC = Ihs. fuel/hr./
0.067 lh. of fuel to 1 lh. of air (mixture ratio of hp. By using this ratio, the engine's use of fuel at
15:l). The scientist calls this chemically correct various power settings can be compared. When
combination a stoichiometric mixture (pronounced leaning below 0.067 fuel/air ratio with constant
stoy-key-o.metric) . With this mixture (given sufi- airflow, even though the power diminishes, the cost
cient time and turbulence), all the fuel and all the in fuel to support each horsepower hour (SFC)
oxygen in the air will be completely used in the also is lowered for a while. While the mixture
combustion process. The stoichiometric mixture charge is becoming weaker, this loss of strength
produces the highest comhustion temperatures be- occurs at a rate slower than that of the reduction
cause the proportion of heat released to a mass of of fuel flow. This favorable tendency continues
charge (fuel and air) is the greatest. However, the until a mixture strength known as best economy is
mixture is sefdom used because it does not result reached. With this fuel/air ratio, the required hp.
in either the greatest economy or the greatest power is developed with the least fuel flow, or, to put it
for the airflow or manifold pressure. another way, a given fuel flow produces the most
If more fuel is added to the same quantity of air power.
charge than the amount giving a chemically perfect The best economy fuel/air ratio varies some-
mixture, changes of power and temperature will what with r.p.m. and other conditions, hut, for
occur. The combustion gas temperature will he cruise powers on most reciprocating engines, it is
lowered as the mixture is enriched, and the power sufficiently accurate to define this range of opera-
will increase until the fuel/air ratio is approximate- tion as being from 0.060 to 0.065 fuel/air ratios
ly 0.0725. From 0.0725 fuel/air ratio to 0.080 with retard spark, and from 0.055 to 0.061 fuel/air
fuel/air ratio the power will remain essentially ratios with advance spark. These are the most
constant even though the comhustion temperature commonly used fuel/& ratios on aircraft where
continues downward. Mixtures from 0.0725 fuel/ manual leaning is practiced.
air ratio to 0.080 fuel/air ratio are called best
power mixtures, since their use results in the Below the best economical mixture strength,
greatest power for a given airflow or manifold power and temperature continue to fall with con-
pressure. In this fuel/air ratio range, there is no stant airflow while the SFC increases. As the
increase in the total heat released, hut the weight fuel/air ratio is reduced further, comhustiou be-
of nitrogen and combustion products is augmented comes so cool and slow that power for a given
by the vapor formed with the excess fuel; thus, the manifold pressure becomes so low as to be uneco-
working mass of the charge is increased. In addi- nomical. The cooling effect of rich or lean
tion, the extra fuel in the charge (over the stoichio- mixtures results from the excess fuel or air over that
metric mixture) speeds up the comhustion process, needed for combustion. Internal cylinder cooling
which provides a favorable time factor in convert- is obtained from unused fuel when fuel/air ratios
ing fuel energy into power. above 0.067 are used. The same function is per-
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formed by excess air when fuel/air ratios below CARBURETION PRINCIPLES


0.067 are used. Venturi Principles
Varying the mixture strength of the charge The carburetor must measure the airflow through
produces changes in the engine operating condi- the induction system and use this measurement to
ition affecting power, temperature, and spark- regulate the amount of fuel discharged into the
timing requirements. The best power fuel/air ratio airstream. The air measuring unit is the venturi,
is desirable when the greatest power from a given which makes use of a basic law of physics: as the
airflow is required. The best economy mixture velocity of a gas or liquid increases, the pres-
results from obtaining the given power output with sure decreases. As shown in the diagram of the
the least fuel flow. The fuel/air ratio which gives simple venturi (figure 3-41, it is a passageway or
most efficient operation varies with engine speed tube in which there is a narrow portion called the
and power output. throat. As the air speeds up to get through the
In the graph showing this variation in fuel/air narrow portion, its pressure drops. Note that the
ratio (figure 3-l), note that the mixture is rich pressure in the throat is lower than that in any
at both idling and high-speed operation and is lean other part of the venturi. This pressure drop is
through the cruising range. At idling speed, some proportional to the velocity and is, therefore, a
air or exhaust gas is drawn into the cylinder measure of the airflow. The basic operating prin-
through the exhaust port during valve overlap. The ciple of most carburetors depends on the differen-
-
mixture which enters the cvlinder t h r o u ~ hthe intake tial pressure between the inlet and the venturi throat.
port must be rich enough to compensate for this Application of Venturi Principle to Carburetor
gas or additional air. At cruising power, lean
The carburetor is mounted on the engine so that
mixtures save fuel and increase the range of the
air to the cylinders passes through the barrel, the
airplane. An engine running near full power
part of the carburetor which contains the venturi.
requires a rich mixture to prevent overheating and
The size and shape of the venturi depends on the
detonation. Since the engine is operated at full
requirements of the engine for which the carburetor
power for only short periods, the high fuel con-
is designed. A carburetor for a high-powered
sumption is not a serious matter. If an engine is
engine may have one large venturi or several small
operating on too lean a mixture and adjustments
ones. The air may flow either up or down the
are made to increase the amount of fuel, the power
venturi, depending on the design of the engine and
output of the engine increases rapidly at first, then
the carburetor. Those in which the air passes
gradually until maximum power is reached. With
downward are known as downdraft carburetors,
a further increase in the amount of fuel, the power
and those in which the air passes upward are called
output drops gradually at first, then more rapidly
updraft carburetors.
as the mixture is further enriched.
There are specific instructions concerning mix. As aix passes through the throat of
ture ratios for each type of engine under various the venturi, there.is an increase in
velocity and a drop in pressure
operating conditions. Failure to follow these in-
structions will result in poor performance and often
in damage to the engine. Excessively rich mix-
tures result in loss of power and waste of fuel.
With the engine operating near its maximum output,
very lean mixtures will cause a loss of power and
under certain conditions, serious overheating.
Venturi
When the engine is operated on a lean mixture, the
cylinder head temperature gage should be watched

-
closely. If the mixture is excessively lean, the
engine may backfire through the induction system
or stop completely. Backfire results from slow
burning of the lean mixture. If the charge is still
burning when the intake valve opens, it ignites the
---
C-

fresh mixture and the flame travels back through


the combustible mixture in the induction system. FIGURE
3-4. Simple venturi.
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Air can be drawn through a rubber tube by figure 3-5. Note how it restricts the airflow more
placing one end in the mouth and exerting a sucking and more as it rotates toward the closed position.
action. Actually, the pressure inside the tube is
Metering and Discharge of Fuel
lowered and atmospheric pressure pushes air into the
In the illustration showing the discharge of fuel
open end. Air flows through the induction system
into the airstream (figure 3 4 ) , locate the inlet
in the same manner. When a piston moves toward
through which fuel enters the carburetor from the
the crankshaft on the intake stroke, the pressure in
engine-driven pump. The float-operated needle
the cylinder is lowered. Air rushes through the
valve regulates the flow through the inlet and, in
carburetor and intake manifold to the cylinder due
this way, maintains the correct level in the fuel
to the higher pressure at the carburetor intake.
chamber. This level must be slightly below the
Even in a supercharged engine operating at high
manifold pressure, there is still a low pressure at
the engine side of the carburetor. Atmospheric
pressure at the air intake pushes air through the
carburetor to the supercharger inlet.
The throttle valve is located between the venturi
and the engine. Mechanical linkage connects this
valve with the throttle lever in the cockpit. By
means of the throttle, airflow to the cylinders is
regulated and controls the power output of the
engine. It is the throttle valve in your automobile
carburetor which opens when you "step on the gas."
Actually, more air is admitted to the engine, and the
carburetor automatically supplies enough additional
gasoline to maintain the correct fuel/air ratio. FIGURE
3-5. Throttle action.
The throttle valve obstructs the passage of air very
little when it is parallel with the flow. This is the
wide-open position. Throttle action is illustrated in

From fuel
P-P

I ;::..
.......
.............
..............
...
.i..

FIGURE
56. Fuel discharge.

114
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outlet of the discharge nozzle to prevent overflow The accelerating system supplies extra fuel during
when the engine is not running. increases in engine power. When the throttle is
The discharge nozzle is located in the throat of opened to obtain more power from the engine, the
the venturi at the point where the lowest drop in airflow through the carburetor increases. The main
pressure occurs as air passes through the carburetor metering system then increases the fuel discharge.
to the engine cylinders. Thus, there are two differ- During sudden acceleration, however, the increase
ent pressures acting on the fuel in the carburetor- in airflow is so rapid that there is a slight time
a low pressure at the discharge nozzle and a higher lag before the increase in fuel discharge is sufficient
(atmospheric) pressure in the float chamber. The to provide the correct mixture ratio with the new
higher pressure in the float chamber forces the airflow. By supplying extra fuel during this period,
fuel through the discharge nozzle into the air- the accelerating system prevents a temporary leaning
stream. If the throttle is opened wider to increase out of the mixture and gives smooth acceleration.
the airflow to the engine, there is a greater drop in The mixture control system determines the ratio
pressure at the venturi throat. Because of the of fuel to air in the mixture. By means of a cockpit
higher differential pressure, the fuel discharge control, the mechanic, pilot, or engineer can select
increases in proportion to the increase in airflow. the mixture ratio to suit operating conditions. In
If the throttle is moved toward the "closed" position, addition to these manual controls, many carburetors
the airflow and fuel flow decrease. have automatic mixture controls so that the fuel/air
The fuel must pass through the metering jet ratio, once it is selected, does not change with
(figure 36)to reach the discharge nozzle. The variations in air density. This is necessary because,
size of this jet determines the rate of fuel discharge as the airplane climbs and the atmospheric pressure
at each differential pressure. If the jet is replaced decreases, there is a corresponding decrease in the
with a larger one, the fuel flow will increase, result- weight of air passing through the induction system.
ing in a richer mixture. If a smaller jet is installed, The volume, however, remains constant, and, since
there will be a decrease in fuel flow and a leaner it is the volume of airflow which determines the
mixture. pressure drop at the throat of the venturi, the
CARBURETOR SYSTEMS carburetor tends to meter the same amount of fuel
To provide for engine operation under various to this thin air as to the dense air at sea level. Thus,
loads and at different engine speeds, each carburetor the natural tendency is for the mixture to become
has six systems: richer as the airplane gains altitude. The automatic
(1) Main metering. mixture control prevents this by decreasing the rate
(2) Idling. of fuel discharge to compensate for the decrease in
air density.
(3) Accelerating.
( 4 ) Mixture control. The carburetor has an idle cutoff system so that
(5) Idle cutoff. the fuel can be shut off to stop the engine. This
(6) Power enrichment or economizer. system, incorporated in the manual mixture control,
Each of these systems has a definite function. It stops the fuel discharge from the carburetor
may act alone or with one or more of the others. completely when the mixture control lever is set to
The main metering system supplies fuel to the the "idle cutoff" position. In any discussion of the
engine at all speeds above idling. The fuel dis- idle cutoff system, this question usually comes up:
charged by this system is determined by the drop in Why is an aircraft engine stopped by shutting off
pressure in the venturi throat. the fuel rather than by turning off the ignition?
A separate system is necessary for idling because To answer this question, it is necessary to examine
the main metering system is unreliable at very low the results of both methods. If the ignition is
engine speeds. At low speeds the throttle is nearly turned off with the carburetor still supplying fuel.
closed. As a result, the velocity of the air through fresh fuel/air mixture continues to pass through the
the venturi is low and there is little drop in pressure. induction system to the cylinders while the engine
Consequently, the differential pressure is not is coasting to a stop. If the engine is excessively
sufficient to operate the main metering system, and hot, this combustible mixture may be ignited by
no fuel is discharged from this system. Therefore, local hot spots within the combustion chambers, and
most carburetors have an idling system to supply the engine may keep on running or kick backward.
fuel to the engine at low engine speeds. Again, the mixture may pass out of the cylinders
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unburned but be ignited in the hot exhaust manifold. suddenly opened wide, the accelerating and power
More often, however, the engine will come to an enrichment systems act to add fuel to that already
apparently normal stop but have a combustible being discharged by the main metering system.
mixture in the induction passages, the cylinders,
CARBURETOR TYPES
and the exhaust system. This is an unsafe condition
since the engine may kick over after it has been In the discussion of the basic carburetor prin-
stopped and seriously injure anyone near the ciples, the fuel was shown stored in a float chamber
propeller. On the other hand, when the engine is and discharged from a nozzle located in the venturi
shut down by means of the idle cutoff system, the throat. With a few added features to make it
spark plugs continue to ignite the fuel/air mixture workable, this becomes the main metering system of
until the fuel discharge from the carburetor ceases. the float-type carburetor.- This type of carburetor,
This alone should prevent the engine from coming complete with idling, accelerating, mixture control,
to a stop with a combustible mixture in the idle cutoff, and power enrichment systems, is
cylinders. probably the most common of all carburetor types.
Some engine manufacturers suggest that just However, the float-type carburetor has several
before the propeller stops turning, the throttle be distinct disadvantages. In the first place, imagine
the effect that abrupt maneuvers have on the float
opened wide so that the pistons can pump fresh air
through the induction system, the cylinders, and the action. In the second place, the fact that its fuel
exhaust system as an added precaution against must be discharged at low pressure leads to incom-
accidental kick-over. After the engine has come to plete vaporization and difficulty in discharging fuel
a complete stop, the ignition switch is turned to the into some types of supercharged systems. The chief
"
off" position. disadvantage of the float carburetor, however, is its
icing tendency. Since the float carburetor must dis.
The power enrichment system automatically
charge fuel at a point of low pressure, the discharge
increases the richness of the mixture during high-
nozzle must be located at the venturi throat, and the
power operation. In this way, it makes possible
throttle valve must be on the engine side of the
the variation in fuel/air ratio necessary to fit differ-
discharge nozzle. This means that the drop in
ent operating conditions. Remember that at cruising
temperature due to fuel vaporization takes place
speeds a lean mixture is desirable for economy
within the venturi. As a result, ice readily forms in
reasons, while at high-power output the mixture the venturi and on the throttle valve.
must be rich to obtain maximum power and to aid
A pressure.type carburetor discharges fuel into
in cooling the engine. The power enrichment
the airstream at a pressure well above atmospheric.
system automatically brings about the necessary
This results in better vaporization and permits the
change in the fuel/air ratio. Essentially, it is a
discharge of fuel into the airstream on the engine
valve which is closed at cruising speeds and opens
side of the throttle valve. With the discharge nozzle
to supply extra fuel to the mixture during high-
located at this point, the drop in temperature due to
power operation. Although it increases the fuel
fuel vaporization takes place after the air has passed
flow at high power, the power enrichment system is
the throttle valve and at a point where engine heat
actually a fuel saving device. Without this system,
tends to offset it. Thus, the danger of fuel vaporiza-
it would be necessary to operate the engine on a rich
tion icing is practically eliminated. The effects of
mixture over the complete power range. The mix-
rapid maneuvers and rough air on the pressure.type
ture would then be richer than necessary at cruising
carburetors are negligible since its fuel chambers
speed to ensure safe operation at maximum power.
remain filled under all operating conditions.
The power enrichment system is sometimes called
an "economizer" or a "power cdmpensator." CARBURETOR ICING
Although the various systems have been discussed There are three general classifications of carbure-
separately, the carburetor functions as a unit. The tor icing that are common for all aircraft:
fact that one system is in operation does not neces- (1)Fuel evaporation ice.
sarily prevent another from functioning. At the (2) Throttle ice.
same time that the main metering system is discharg. (3) Impact ice.
ing fuel in proportion to the airflow, the mixture Fuel evaporation ice or refrigeration ice is formed
control system determines whether the resultant because of the decrease in air temperature resulting
mixture will be rich or lean. If the throttle is from the evaporation of fuel after it is introduced
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into the airstream. It frequently occurs in those affect engine airflow or manifold pressure. This
systems where the fuel is injected into the air ice may enter the carhuretor and gradually build up
upstream from the carburetor throttle, as in the internally in the carburetor air metering passages
-
case of float-type
, carburetors. It occurs less -
and affect carburetor metering characteristics.
frequently in the systems in which the fuel is iuject-
FLOAT-TYPE CARBURETORS
ed into the air downstream from the carburetor.
Engines employing spinner or impeller injection of A float-type carburetor consists essentially of a
fuel are free of this type of ice, except those that main air passage through which the engine draws
have turning vanes (to change the direction of flow) its supply of air, a mechanism to control the quantity
at the entrance to the impeller. I n this type, ice can of fuel discharged in relation to the flow of air, and
be deposited on the turning vanes. Refrigeration a means of regulating the quantity of fuel/air
ice can be formed at carburetor air temperatures as mixture delivered to the engine cylinders.
high as 100' F. over a wide range of atmospheric The essential parts of a float-type carburetor are
humidity conditions, even at relative humidities well illustrated in figure 3-7. These parts are:
below 100%. Generally, fuel evaporation ice will ( l )The mechanism and its chamber.
tend to accumulate on the fuel distribution nozzle, (2) The main metering system.
the turning vanes, and any protuberances in the (3) The
(4) The mixture
carburetor. This tyDe -
. of ice can lower manifold
(5) The accelerating system.
pressure, interfere with fuel flow, and affect mixture
distribution. (6) The economizer system.
Throttle ice is formed on the rear side of the Float Mechanism
throttle, usually when the throttle is in a partially A float chamber is provided between the fuel
"closed" position. The rush of air across and supply and the metering system of the carhuretor.
around the throttle valve causes a low pressure on The float chamber provides a nearly constant level
the rear side; this sets up a pressure differential of fuel to the main discharge nozzle. This level is
across the throttle, which has a cooling effect on the usually about 1/8 in. below the holes in the main
fuel/air charge. Moisture freezes in this low- discharge nozzle. The fuel level must he maintained
pressure area and collects as ice on the low-pressure slightly below the discharge nozzle outlet holes to
side. Throttle ice tends to accumulate in a restricted provide the correct amount of fuel flow and to
passage. The occurrence of a small amount of ice prevent fuel leakage from the nozzle when the
may cause a relatively large reduction in airflow and engine is not operating.
manifold pressure. A large accumulation of ice The level of fuel in the float chamber is kept
may jam the throttles and cause them to become nearly constant by means of a float-operated needle
inoperable. Throttle ice seldom occurs at tempera- valve and a seat. The needle seat is usually made
tures above 38" F. of bronze. The needle valve is constructed of
Impact ice is formed either from water present in hardened steel, or it may have a synthetic rubber
the atmosphere as snow, sleet, or subcooled liquid section which fits the seat. With no fuel in the
water, or from liquid water which impinges on float chamber, the float drops toward the bottom of
surfaces that are at temperatures below 30' F. the chamber and allows the needle valve to open
Because of inertia effects, impact ice collects on or wide. As fuel is admitted from the supply line, the
near a surface that changes the direction of the float rises and closes Ae valve when the fuel reaches
airflow. This type of ice may build up on the a predetermined level. When the engine is running
carburetor elbow, as well as the carburetor screen and fuel is being drawn out of the float chamber, the
and metering elements. The most dangerous impact valve assumes an intermediate position so that the
ice is that which collects on the carhuretor screen valve opening is just sufficient to supply the required
and causes a very rapid throttling of airflow and amount of fuel and keep the level constant.
power. In general, danger from impact ice exists With the fuel at the correct level, the discharge
only when ice forms on the leading edges of the rate is controlled accurately by the air velocity
aircraft structure. through the carhuretor and the atmospheric pres-
Under some conditions ice may enter the sure on top of the fuel in the float chamber. A vent
carhuretor in a comparatively dry state and will not or small opening in the top of the float chamber
adhere to the screen or walls; therefore, it will not allows air to enter or leave the chamber as the level
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Fuel inlet
screen

3-7. A float-type carburetor.


FIGURE

of fuel rises or falls. This vent passage is open throat or narrowest part of the venturi.
into the engine air intake; thus, the air pressure in A main metering orifice, or jet, is placed in the
the chamber is always the same as that existing in
the air intake.
Main Metering System
The main metering system supplies fuel to the
engine at all speeds above idling and consists of:
(1)A venturi.
(2) A main metering jet.
(3) A main discharge nozzle.
(4) A passage leading to the idling system.
(5) The throttle valve.
Since the throttle valve controls the mass airflow
through the carburetor venturi it must be considered
a major unit in the main metering system as well as
in other carburetor systems. A typical main meter-
ing system is illustrated in figure 3-8.
The venturi performs three functions: (1) Pro-
portions the fuel/air mixture, (2) decreases the
pressure at the discharge nozzle, and (3) limits the
airflow at full throttle. .4irflow
The fuel discharge nozzle is located in the
carburetor barrel so that its open end is in the FIGURE
U. Main metering system.
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fuel passase between the float chamber and the the walls of the discharge nozzle and break off
discharge nozzle to limit the fuel flow when the intermittently in large drops instead of forming a
throttle valve is wide open. fine spray, and (2) a part of the metering force is
When the engine crankshaft is revolved with the required to raise the fuel level from the float cham-
carburetor throttle open, the low pressure created ber level to the discharge nozzle outlet.
in the intake manifold acts on the air passing The basic principle of the air bleed can be
through the carburetor barrel. Due to the difference explained by simple diagrams as shown in figure
in pressure between the atmosphere and the intake 3-9. In each case, the same degree of suction is
manifold, air will flow from the air intake through applied to a vertical tube placed in the container of
the carburetor barrel into the intake manifold. The liquid. As shown in A, the suction applied on the
volume of airflow depends upon the degree of upper end of the tube is sufficient to lift the liquid
throttle opening. a distance of about 1-in. above the surface. If a
As the air flows through the venturi, its velocity small hole is made in the side of the tube above the
increases. This velocity increase creates a low surface of the liquid, as in B, and suction is applied,
pressure area in the venturi throat. The fuel bubbles of air will enter the tube and the liquid will
discharge nozzle is exposed to this low pressure. be drawn up in a continuous series of small slugs or
Since the float chamber is vented to atmospheric drops. Thus, air "bleeds" into the tube and partially
pressure, a pressure drop across the discharge reduces the forces tending to retard the flow of
nozzle is created. It is this pressure difference, or liquid through the tube. However, the large open-
metering force, that causes fuel to flow from the ing at the bottom of the tube effectively preveiits
discharge nozzle. The fuel comes out of the nozzle any great amount of suction from being exerted on
in a fine spray, and the tiny particles of fuel in the the air bleed hole or vent. Similarly, an air bleed
spray quickly vaporize in the air. hole which is too large in proportion to the size of
The metering force in most carburetors increases the tube would reduce the suction available to lift
as the throttle opening is increased. A pressure the liquid. If the system is modified by placing a
drop of at least 0.5 in. Hg is required to raise the metering orifice in the bottom of the tube and air is
fuel in the discharge nozzle to a level where it will taken in below the fuel level by means of an air
discharge into the airstream. At low engine speeds bleed tube, a finely divided emulsion of air and
where the metering force is considerably reduced, liquid is formed in the tube, as shown in C.
the fuel delivery from the discharge nozzle would In a carburetor, a small air bleed is led into the
decrease if an air bleed (air metering jet) were not fuel nozzle slightly below the fuel level. The open
incorporated in the carburetor. end of the air bleed is in the space behind the
The decrease in fuel flow in relation to airflow is venturi wall, where the air is relatively motionless
due to two factors: (1) The fuel tends to adhere to and approximately at atmospheric pressure. The

+ +
Pin hole

H c
FIGURE3-9. Air bleed principle.

119
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low pressure at the tip of the nozzle not only draws as it does at a low altitude. Therefore, the fuel
fuel from the float chamber but also draws air from mixture becomes richer as altitude increases. This
behind the venturi. Air bled into the main metering can be overcome either by a manual or an automatic
fuel system decreases the fuel density and destroys mixture control.
surface tension. This results in better vaporization On float.type carburetors two types of purely
and control of fuel discharge, especially at lower manual or cockpit controllable devices are in general
engine speeds. use for controlling fuel/air mixtures, the needle type
The throttle, or butterfly valve, is located in the and the back-suction type. The two types are illus-
carburetor barrel near one end of the venturi. It trated in figures 3-11 and 3-12.
provides a means of controlling engine speed or
power output by regulating the airflow to the engine.
This valve is a disk which can rotate on an axis, so
that it can be turned to open or close the carburetor
air passage. Where more than one throttle valve is
necessary, they may be attached to the same throttle
shaft or to separate shafts. In the latter case, it is
necessary to check the uniformity of opening or
synchronization.
Idling System
With the throttle valve closed at idling speeds, air
velocity through the venturi is so low that it cannot
draw enough fuel from the main discharge nozzle;
in fact, the spray of fuel may stop altogether. How-
ever, low pressure (piston suction) exists on the
engine side of the throttle valve. In order to allow
the engine to idle, a fuel passageway is incorporated
to discharge fuel from an opening in the low pres-
sure area near the edge of the throttle valve. This
opening is called the idling jet. With the throttle FIGURE
3-10. Idling system.
open enough so that the main discharge nozzle is
operating, fuel does not flow out of the idling jet.
As soon as the throttle is closed far enough to stop Full rich
the spray from the main discharge nozzle, fuel flows
out the idling jet. A separate air bleed, known as
the idle air bleed, is included as part of the idling
system. It functions the same as the main air bleed.
An idle mixture adjusting device is also incorpo-
rated. A typical idling system is illustrated in
figure 3-10.
Mixture Control System
As altitude increases, the air becomes less dense.
At an altitude of 18,000 ft. the air is only half as
dense as it is at sea level. This means that a cubic
foot of space contains only half as much air at
18,000 ft. as at sea level. An engine cylinder full of
air at 18,000 ft. contains only half as much oxygen
compared to a cylinder full of air at sea level.
The low pressure area created by the venturi is
dependent upon air velocity rather than air density.
The action of the venturi draws the same volume of
fuel through the discharge nozzle at a high altitude FIGURE:
3-11. Needle-type mixture control system.
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back-suction mixture controls, a separate idle cutoff


line, leading to the extreme low pressure on the
engine side of the throttle valve, is incorporated.
(See the dotted line in figure 3-12.) The mixture
control is so linked that when it is placed in the "idle
cutoff" position, it opens another passage which
leads to piston suction; when placed in other posi-
tions, the valve opens a passage leading to the
atmosphere. To stop the engine with such a sys-
tem, close the throttle and place the mixture in the
"idle cutoff" position. Leave the throttle closed
until the engine has stopped turning over and then
open the throttle completely.
Accelerating System
When the throttle valve is opened quickly, a large
volume of air rushes through the air passage of the
carburetor. However, the amount of fuel that is
mixed with the air is less than normal. This is
FIGURE3-12. Back-suction type mixture control because of the slow response rate of the main meter-
system. ing system. As a result, after a quick opening of
the throttle, the fuel/air mixture leans out momen-
With the needle-type system, manual control is tarily.
provided by a needle valve in the base of the float To overcome this tendency, the carburetor is
chamber (figure 3-11). This can be raised or equipped with a small fuel pump called an acceler-
lowered by adjusting a control in the cockpit. Mov- ating pump. A common type of accelerating system
ing the control to "rich" opens the needle valve wide, used in float carburetors is illustrated in figure 3-13.
which permits the fuel to flow unrestricted to the It consists of a simple piston pump operated through
nozzle. Moving the control to "lean" closes the linkage, by the throttle control, and a line opening
valve part way and restricts the flow of fuel to the into the main metering system or the carburetor
nozzle. barrel near the venturi. When the throttle is closed,
The back-suction type mixture control system is the piston moves back and fuel fills the cylinder.
the most widely used. In this system (figure 3-12) If the piston is pushed forward slowly, the fuel
a certain amount of venturi low pressure acts upon seeps past it back into the float chamber, but if
the fuel in the float chamber so that it opposes the pushed rapidly, it will emit a charge of fuel and
low pressure existing at the main discharge nozzle. enrich the mixture in the venturi.
An atmospheric line, incorporating an adjustable Economizer System
valve, opens into the float chamber. When the valve For an engine to develop maximum power at full
is completely closed, pressures on the fuel in the throttle, the fuel mixture must be richer than for
float chamber and at the discharge nozzle are almost cruise. The additional fuel is used for cooling the
equal and fuel flow is reduced to maximum lean. engine to prevent detonation. An economizer is
With the valve wide open, pressure on the fuel in the essentially a valve which is closed at throttle settings
float chamber is greatest and fuel mixture is richest. below approximately 60 to 70% of rated power.
Adjusting the valve to positions between these two This system, like the accelerating system, is operated
extremes controls the mixture. by the throttle control.
The quadrant in the cockpit is usually marked A typical economizer system, as shown in figure
"lean" near the back end and "rich" at the forward 3-14, consists of a needle valve which begins to open
end. The extreme back position is marked "idle when the throttle valve reaches a predetermined
cutoff" and is used when stopping the engine. point near the wide-open position. As the throttle
On float carburetors equipped with needle-type continues to open, the needle valve is opened further
mixture control, placing the mixture control in idle and additional fuel flows through it. This additional
cutoff seats the needle valve, thus shutting off fuel fuel supplements the flow from the main metering
flow completely. On carburetors equipped with jet direct to the main discharge nozzle.
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FIGURE3-15. A pressure-operated economizer


system.

FIGURE
3-13. Accelerating system. cruising is provided by reducing the effective pres-
sure acting on the fuel level in the float compart-
ment. With the throttle valve in cruising position,
suction is applied to the float chamber through an
economizer hule and back-suction economizer chan.
nel and jet. The suction thus applied to the float
chamber opposes the nozzle suction applied by the
venturi. Fuel flow is reduced, thus leaning the
mixture for cruising economy.
Another type mixture control system uses a meter-
ing valve which is free to rotate in a stationary
metering sleeve. Fuel enters the main and idling
systems through a slot cut in the mixture sleeve.
Fuel metering is accomplished by the relative posi-
tion between one edge of the slot in the hollow
metering valve and one edge of the slot in the meter-
ing sleeve. Moving the mixture control to reduce
the size of the slot provides a leaner mixture for
metering jet / I altitude compensation.

FIGURE
3-14. A needle.valve type economizer PRESSURE INJECTION CARBURETORS
system. Pressure injection carburetors are distinctly dif-
ferent from float-type carburetors, as they do not
A pressure-operated economizer system is shown incorporate a vented float chamber or suction pickup
in figure 3-15. This type has a sealed bellows from a discharge nozzle located in the venturi tube.
located in an enclosed compartment. The compart- Instead, they provide a pressurized fuel system that
ment is vented to engine manifold pressure. When is closed from the engine fuel pump to the discharge
the manifold pressure reaches a certain value, the nozzle. The venturi serves only to create pressure
bellows is compressed and opens a valve in a carbu- differentials for controlling the quantity of fuel to
retor fuel passage, supplementing the normal quan- the metering jet in proportion to airflow to the
tity of fuel being discharged through the main engine.
nozzle. Typical Injection Carburetor
Another type of economizer is the hack.suction The injection carburetor is a hydromechanical
system shown in figure 3-16. Fuel economy in device employing a dosed feed system from the fuel
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Main
blet

Air

FIGURE
3-16. Backsuction economizer system.

pump to the discharge nozzle. It meters fuel through sprays into the airstream. The distance the fuel
fixed jets according to the mass airflow through the valve opens is determined by the difference between
throttle body and discharges it under a positive the two pressures acting on the diaphragm. This
pressure. difference in pressure is proportional to the airflow
The illustration in figure 3-17 represents a through the carburetor. Thus, the volume of air-
pressure-type carburetor simplified to the extent that flow determines the rate of fuel discharge.
only the basic parts are shown. Note the two small The pressure injection carburetor is an assembly
passages, one leading from the carburetor air inlet of the following units:
to the left side of the flexible diaphragm and the (1) Throttle body.
other from the venturi throat to the right side of (2) Automatic mixture control.
the diaphragm. (3) Regulator unit.
When air passes through the carburetor to the (4) Fuel control unit; some are equipped with
engine, the pressure on the right of the diaphragm an adapter.
is lowered because of the drop in pressure at the
venturi throat. As a result, the diaphra-gn moves Throttle Body
to the right, opening the fuel valve. Pressure from The throttle body contains the throttle valves,
the engine-driven pump then forces fuel through main venturi, boost venturi, and the impact tubes.
the open valve to the discharge nozzle, where it All air entering the cylinders must flow through the
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fuel can be added to meet the engine demands under


all conditions.
As air flows through the venturis, its velocity is
increased and its pressure is decreased (Bernoulli's
principle). This low pressure is vented to the low-
pressure side of the air diaphragm (chamber B,
figure 3-18), in the regulator assembly. The im-
pact tubes sense carburetor inlet air pressure and
direct it to the automatic mixture control, which
measures the air density. From the automatic mix.
ture control the air is directed to the high-pressure
side of the air diaphragm (chamber A). The pres-
sure differential of the two chambers acting upon
the air diaphragm is known as the air metering
force which opens the fuel poppet valve.
The throttle body controls the airflow with the
throttle valves. The throttle valves may be either
rectangular or disk shaped, depending on the design
of the carburetor. The valves are mounted on a
shaft which is connected by linkage to the idle valve
and to the throttle control in the cockpit. A throttle
stop limits the travel of the throttle valve and has an
FIGURE
3-17. Pressure-type carburetor. adjustment which sets engine idle speed.

throttle body; therefore, it is the air control and Regulator Unit


measuring device. The airflow is measured by vol- The regulator (figure 3-18) is a diaphragm.con-
ume and by weight so that the proper amount of trolled unit which is divided into five chambers and

Vent chamber

------

Mixture control
bleeds
/ Fuel diaphragm \ \
Fuel inlet
Fuel pressure
gage connection

FIGURE
3-18. Regulator unit.
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contains two regulating diaphragms and a poppet Manual


valve assembly. Chamber A is regulated air-inlet
pressure from the air intake. Chamber B is boost Fuel control unit
venturi pressure. Chamber C contains metered fuel
pressure controlled by the discharge nozzle or fuel
feed valve. Chamber D contains unmetered fuel
pressure controlled by the opening of the poppet
valve. Chamber E is fuel pump pressure, controlled
by the fuel pump pressure relief valve. The poppet
valve assembly is connected by a stem to the two
main control diaphragms.
The carburetor fuel strainer, located in the inlet
to chamber E, is a fine mesh screen through which
all the fuel must pass as it enters chamber D. The
strainer must be removed and cleaned at scheduled
intervals. wer enrichment
jet
The purpose of the regulator unit is to regulate
the fuel pressure to the inlet side of the metering jets FIGURE
3-19. Fuel control unit.
in the fuel control unit. This pressure is automati-
cally regulated according to the mass airflow to the across the metering jets will remain the same.
engine. If the fuel inlet pressure is increased or decreased,
Referring to figure 3-18, assume that for a given the fuel flow into chamber D will tend to increase
airflow in lbs./hr. through the throttle body and or decrease with the pressure change, causing the
venturi, a negative pressure of one-fourth p.s.i. is chamber D pressure to do likewise. This will upset
established in chamber B. This tends to move the the balanced condition previously established, and
diaphragm assembly and the poppet valve in a direc- the poppet valve and diaphragm assembly will re-
tion to open the poppet valve, permitting more fuel spond by moving to increase or decrease the flow to
to enter chamber D. The pressure in chamber C is re.establish the pressure at the one-fourth p.s.i.
held constant at 5 p.s.i. (10 p.s.i. on some installa. differential.
tions) by the discharge nozzle or impeller fuel feed When the mixture control plates are moved from
valve. Therefore, the diaphragm assembly and auto-lean to auto-rich or vice versa, thereby
poppet valve will move in the open direction until selecting a different set of jets or cutting one or two
the pressure in chamber D is 5-1/4 p.s.i. Under in or out of the system, the fuel flow changes. How-
these pressures, there is a balanced condition of the ever, when the mixture position is altered, the dia-
diaphragm assembly with a pressure drop of one- phragm and poppet valve assembly will reposition
fourth p.s.i. across the jets in the fuel control unit to maintain the established pressure differential of
(auto-rich or autoJean). one-fourth p.s.i. between chambers C and D, main-
taining the established differential across the jets.
Fuel Control Unit
Under low-power settings (low airflows), the dif-
The fuel control unit (figure 3-19) is attached ference in pressure created by the boost venturi is
to the regulator assembly and contains all metering not sufficient to accomplish consistent regulation of
jets and valves. The idle and power enrichment the fuel. Therefore, an idle spring, shown in figure
valves, together with the mixture control plates, 3-18, is incorporated in the regulator. As the pop-
select the jet combinations for the various settings, pet valve moves toward the closed position, it con-
i.e., auto-rich, auto-lean, and idle cutoff. tacts the idle spring. The spring holds the poppet
If nozzle pressure (chamber C pressure) rises to valve off its seat far enough to provide more fuel
5-1/2 p.s.i., the diaphragm assembly balance will be than is needed for idling. This potentially over-rich
upset, and the diaphragm assembly will move to mixture is regulated by the idle valve. At idling
open the poppet valve to establish the necessary speed the idle valve restricts the fuel flow to the
5-3/4 p.s.i. pressure in chamber D. Thus, the one- proper amount. At higher speeds it is withdrawn
fourth p.s.i. differential between chamber C and from the fuel passage and has no metering effect.
chamber D is reestablished, and the pressure drop Vapor vent systems are provided in these carbu-
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retors to eliminate fuel vapor created by the fuel receive fuel under pressure from the regulator unit
pump, heat in the engine compartment, and the pres- and then meter the fuel as it goes to the discharge
sure drop across the poppet valve. The vapor vent nozzle. The manual mixture control valve controls
is located in the fuel inlet (chamber E) or, on some the fuel flow. By using proper size jets and regu-
models of carburetors, in both chambers D and E. lating the pressure differential across the jets, the
The vapor vent system operates in the following right amount of fuel is delivered to the discharge
way. When air enters the chamber in which the nozzle, giving the desired fuel/air ratio in the vari-
vapor vent is installed, the air rises to the top of the ous power settings. It should be remembered that
chamber, displacing the fuel and lowering its level. the inlet pressure to the jets is regulated by the regu-
When the fuel level has reached a predetermined lator unit and the outlet pressure is controlled by
position, the float (which floats in the fuel) pulls the the discharge nozzle.
vapor vent valve off its seat, permitting the vapor in The jets in the basic fuel control unit are the auto-
the chamber to escape through the vapor vent seat, lean jet, the auto-rich jet, and power enrichment jet.
its connecting line, and back to the fuel tank. The basic fuel flow is the fuel required to run the
If the vapor vent valve sticks in a closed position engine with a lean mixture and is metered by the
or the vent line from the vapor vent to the fuel tank auto-lean jet. The auto-rich jet adds enough fuel to
becomes clogged, the vapor-eliminating action will the basic flow to give a slightly richer mixture than
be stopped. This will cause the vapor to build up best power mixture when the manual mixture con-
within the carburetor to the extent that vapor will trol is in the "auto-rich" position.
pass through the metering jets with the fuel. With The four valves in the basic fuel control unit are:
a given-size carburetor metering jet, the metering of (1) The idle needle valve.
vapor will reduce the quantity of fuel metered. This (2) The power enrichment valve.
will cause the fuel/air mixture to lean out, usually (3) The regulator fill valve.
intermittently. (4) The manual mixture control.
If the vapor vent valve sticks open or the vapor The functions of these valves are as follows:
vent float becomes filled with fuel and sinks, a con- (1) The idle needle valve meters the fuel in the
tinuous flow of fuel and vapor occurs through the idle range only. I t is a round, contoured
vent line. It is important to detect this condition, needle valve or a cylinder valve placed in
as the fuel flow from the carburetor to the fuel sup- series with all other metering devices of the
ply tank may cause an overflowing tank with result- basic fuel control unit. The idle needle
ant increased fuel consumption. valve is connected by linkage to the throttle
To check the vent system, disconnect the vapor shaft so that it will restrict the fuel flowing
vent line where it attaches to the carburetor, and at low-power settings (idle range).
turn the fuel booster pump on while observing the ( 2 ) The manual mixture control is a rotary disk
vapor vent connection at the carburetor. Move the valve consisting of a round stationary disk
carburetor mixture control to auto-rich; then return with ports leading from the auto-lean jet,
it to idle cutoff. When the fuel booster pump is the auto-rich jet, and two smaller ventholes.
turned on, there should be an initial ejection of fuel Another rotating part, resembling a clover-
and air followed by a cutoff with not more than a leaf, is held against the stationary disk by
steady drip from the vent connection. On installa- spring tension and rotated over the ports in
tions where a fixed bleed from the D chamber is that disk by the manual mixture control
connected to the vapor vent in the fuel inlet by a lever. All ports and vents are closed in the
short external line, there should be an initial ejec- "idle cutoff position. In the "auto-lean"
tion of fuel and air followed by a continuing small position, the ports from the auto-lean jet
stream of fuel. If there is no flow, the valve is stick- and the two ventholes are open. The port
ing closed; if there is a steady flow, it is sticking from the auto-rich jet remains closed in this
open. position. In the "auto.rich" position, all
The purpose of the fuel control unit is to meter ports are open. The valve plate positions
and control the fuel flow to the discharge nozzle. are illustrated in figure 3-20. The three
The basic unit consists of three jets and four valves positions of the manual mixture control
arranged in series, parallel, and series-parallel hook. lever make it possible to select a lean mix-
ups. (See figure 3-19.) These jets and valves ture or a rich mixture, or to stop fuel flow
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sure and spring tension. The power enrich-


ment valve continues to open wider and
wider during the power range until the com-
bined flow through the valve and the auto-
rich jet exceeds that of the power enrich-
ment jet. At this point the power enrich-
Full rich ment jet takes over the metering and meters
fuel throughout the power range.
(5) Carburetors equipped for water injection
are modified by the addition of a derich-
ment valve and a derichment jet. The
derichment valve and derichment jet are in
series with each other and parallel with the
power enrichment jet.
The carburetor control' fuel flow by varying two
basic factors. The fuel control unit, acting as a
Channel from pressure-reducing valve, determines the metering
auto rich jet pressure in response to the metering forces. The
regulator unit, in effect, varies the size of the orifice
Channel from through which the metering pressure forces the fuel.
auto lean jet It is a basic law of hydraulics that the amount of
fluid that passes through an orifice varies with the
\-vent for space size of the orifice and the pressure drop across it.
above valve The internal automatic devices and mixture control
act together to determine the effective size of the
metering passage through which the fuel passes.
The internal devices, fixed jets, and variable power
enrichment valve are not subject to direct external
control.
Idle cutoff
Automatic Mixture Control (AMC)
FIGURE3-20. Manual mixture control valve The automatic mixture control unit (figure 3-21)
plate positions.

entirely. The "idle cutoff" position is used


for starting or stopping the engine. During
starting, fuel is supplied by the primer.
(3) The regulator fill valve is a small poppet-type
valve located in a fuel passage which sup-
plies chamber C of the regulator unit with
metered fuel pressure. In idle cutoff, the
flat portion of the cam lines up with the
valve stem, and a spring closes the valve. Impact tuber
This provides a means of shutting off the
fuel flow to chamber C and thus provides
for a positive idle cutoff.
(4) The power enrichment valve is another
poppet-type valve. It is in parallel with the
auto-lean and auto-rich jets, but it is in
series with the power enrichment jet. This
J 'Throttle valve
valve starts to open at the beginning of the
power range. It is opened by the unmetered FIGURE
3-21. Automatic mixture control and
fuel pressure overcoming metered fuel pres- throttle body.
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consists of a bellows assembly, calibrated needle,


and seat. The purpose of the automatic mixture
control is to compensate for changes in air density
due to temperature and altitude changes.
The automatic mixture control contains a metallic
bellows, sealed at 28 in. Hg, absolute pressure, which
responds to changes in pressure and temperature.
In the illustration, note that the automatic mixture
control is located at the carburetor air inlet. As the
density of the air changes, the expansion and con-
traction of the bellows moves the tapered needle in
the atmospheric line. At sea level, the bellows is
contracted and the needle is not in the atmospheric
passage. As the aircraft climbs and the atmospheric
pressure decreases, the bellows expands, inserting
the tapered needle farther and farther into the
atmospheric passage and restricting the flow of air
to chamber A of the regulator unit (figure 3-18). FIGURE
3-22. Adapter.
At the same time, air leaks slowly from chamber A
to chamber B through the small bleed (often referred is designed to improve distribution and atomization
to as the back-suction bleed, or mixture control of the fuel into the airstream. There are three types
bleed). The rate at which air leaks through this of diffusers used in adapter-mounted discharge noz-
bleed is about the same at high altitude as it is at zle-the rake, the bar, and the bow tie. Two other
sea level. Thus, as the tapered needle restricts the diffusers built into some engines are the slinger ring
flow of air into chamber A, the pressure on the left used with the fuel feed valve and the spinner ring
side of the air diaphragm decreases; as a result, the used with the spinner injection discharge valve.
poppet valve moves toward its seat, reducing the The acceleration pump is used to compensate for
fuel flow to compensate for the decrease in air the inherent lag in fuel flow during rapid accelera-
density. The automatic mixture control can be tion of the engine.
removed and cleaned, provided the lead seal at the
point of adjustment is not disturbed. Pressure lnjecfion Carburetor Systems
The pressure-type carburetor, like the float-type
Adapter Unit
carburetor, contains a main metering system, an
The purpose of the adapter is to adapt the carbu- idling system, an accelerating system, a mixture
retor to the engine. This unit may also contain the control system (both manual and automatic), an
discharge nozzle and the accelerating pump (see idle cutoff system, and a power enrichment system.
figure 3-22). On engines using fuel feed valves, A schematic representation of a pressure injection
however, the discharge nozzle is eliminated, since carburetor, PD series, is illustrated in figure 3-23.
the fuel feed valve serves the same purpose and is
built into the engine. Where a spinner injection Main Metering System
discharge valve is used in place of'the discharge Perhaps the most noticeable feature of the main
nozzle, the accelerating pump is usually housed on metering system is the double venturi. In figure
the side of the throttle body, and the adapter is then 3-23, note that the lower opening of the boost ven-
nothing more than a spacer and has no working turi is near the throat of the main one. Thus, the
parts. drop in pressure within the main venturi causes an
The discharge nozzle is a spring-loaded valve acceleration in airflow through the boost venturi
which maintains metered fuel pressure. Before fuel and, consequently, a still greater pressure drop at
can pass through the discharge nozzle, enough pres- its throat. As a result, a greater differential in pres-
sure must be built up against the diaphragm to over- sure and a greater air metering force are obtained.
come the tension of the spring which is on the air TOmake use of this metering force, the throat of
side of the diaphragm. The diaphragm then rises, the boost venturi and the inlet to the main venturi
lifting the attached valie, and the fuel is sprayed out are connected to the air chambers of the carburetor.
the nozzle. Secured to the nozzle is a diffuser which There are two of these air chambers, A and B.
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Boost
venturi

FIGURE3-23. Schematic representation of a pressure injection carburetor, PD series.

Chambers C and D are fuel chambers. The passages engine-driven pump delivers fuel to the carburetor
from chamber B to the throat of the boost venturi varies with different models. However, it is always
can be easily traced. The other passage is less well above the discharge nozzle setting.
direct. It leads from chamber A to the space behind Chamber C is filled with fuel at the same pressure
the main venturi. The impact tubes vent this space as that in the discharge line. The function of cham-
to the pressure at the carburetor air inlet. In some ber C is to allow fuel to he discharged under pres-
induction systems, the pressure at the carburetor air sure and to compensate for variations of pressures
inlet is slightly above atmospheric because of ram in the discharge line. The discharge nozzle acts as
effect. If there is a turbo or other supercharger a relief valve to hold this pressure relatively constant
ahead of the carburetor, the inlet pressure is con. regardless of the volume of fuel being discharged.
siderabl~higher than atmospheric under certain This metered fuel pressure acts on the left side of the
operating conditions. fuel diaphragm. The fuel admitted to chamber D
In all systems, the drop in pressure at the throat through the poppet valve exerts pressure against the
of the boost venturi is proportional to the airflow. opposite side of the diaphragm. The untnetered
This causes a lowering of the pressure in chamber fuel pressure in chamber D varies with the position
B. Thus the pressures in the two air chambers of the poppet valve and the rate of fuel discharge.
differ, impact pressure in chamber A and boost During engine operation, it is higher than that in
venturi suction in chamber B. This pressure differ- chamber C. Thus, there are two forces acting on
ence is a measure of airflow. The air-chamber dia- the poppet valve: (1) A force on the air diaphragm
phragm moves in the direction of the lower pressure (difference in pressure between chambers A and B)
(to the right), opening the poppet valve. This tending to open the valve, and (2) a force on the
allows fuel, delivered to the carburetor inlet under fuel diaphragm (difference in pressures between
pressure from the engine-driven pump, to enter chambers D and C ) tending to close the valve. The
chamber D. This fuel passes through the control poppet valve moves toward the open position until
unit to the discharge nozzle, where it forces the the fuel pressure in chamber D is high enough to
valve off its seat and sprays into the airstream. The make these forces balance. This balance is reached
pressure in the fuel discharge line is determined by when the fuel discharge and the airflow are in the
setting of the nozzle. The pressure at which the correct proportion.
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To prevent air in the fuel from upsetting the Accelerating System


metering of the carburetor, there is a vapor sepa- The accelerating pump is entirely automatic in
rator at the fuel inlet. A small float and needle valve operation. In the illustration in figure 3-24, note
are positioned in the vapor separator chamber. that the vacuum passage connects the pump vacuum
When there are no vapors in the chamber, the float chamber with the air passage at the engine side of
is raised and holds the needle valve closed. As the throttle valve. The air pressure at the engine
vapors gather, the fuel level in the chamber drops, side of the throttle valve varies with the throttle
lowering the float until the needle valve opens. The position. When the throttle is nearly closed and is
vapors then escape through the vent line to one of restricting the airflow to the engine, the pressure is
the fuel tanks. This action is not an opening and low because of piston suction. In the left-hand
closing process, but one in which the needle takes drawing, the throttle is nearly closed, and, as a
an intermediate position which allows vapors to result, the low pressure in the vacuum chamber has
escape as fast as they gather. caused the diaphragm to move to the right. This
compresses the spring and stores fuel on the left side
Idling System
of the diaphragm. When the throttle is opened, the
In the pressure-type carburetor, the fuel follows pressure on the engine side of the throttle valve
the same path at idling as it does when the main increases. As a result, the low pressure in the vac-
metering system is in operation. Because of the uum chamber is lost, and the spring moves the dia-
low velocity of the air through the venturi, however, phra,m to the left, discharging the fuel stored dur-
the differential pressure on the air diaphra,m is not ing the lower throttle setting. This fuel, added to
sufficient to regulate the fuel flow. Instead, the idle that from the main metering system, compensates
spring in chamber D holds the poppet valve off its for the sudden increase in airflow and gives smooth
seat to admit fuel from the carburetor inlet during acceleration.
operation at idling speeds. The inset in figure 3-23
shows how the idle valve meters this fuel from cham- Mixture Control System
ber D to the discharge nozzle. This valve is con- The mixture control system contains both auto-
nected to the throttle linkage in such a manner that matic and manually operated units. The automatic
it regulates the fuel flow only during the first few mixture control varies the air pressure in chamber
degrees of throttle opening. At higher speeds, it is A to compensate for changes in air density. The
withdrawn from the fuel passage and has no meter. manual mixture control provides for selecting the
ing effect. fuel/air ratio to fit engine operating conditions.

Metered fuel from


fuel wotml unit

q'va~ve spring
. , Valve diaphragm
Airflowdiredio'' Discharge nozzle valve

Loaded Discharged

FIGURE
3-24. A single-diaphragm accelerating pump.

130
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The automatic mixture control contains a sealed, the poppet valve moves toward its seat, reducing the
metallic bellows, which responds to changes in pres- fuel flow to compensate for the decrease in air
sure and temperature. As the density of the air density.
changes, the expansion and contraction of the bel- In the illustration of the manual mixture control,
lows moves the tapered needle in the atmospheric figure 3-23, note that fuel enters the control unit
line. At sea level, the bellows is contracted and the from chamber D, passes through it, and out to the
needle is withdrawn from the atmospheric passage. discharge nozzle. The path of the fuel through the
Refer to the illustration showing the sea level con- control unit is determined by the cloverleaf valve.
dition in figure 3-25. As the aircraft climbs and The movable disk of this valve is rotated from the
the atmospheric pressure decreases, the bellows cockpit by means of a mixture control lever, which
expands, inserting the tapered needle farther and is linked to the lever on the carburetor.
farther into the atmospheric passage and restricting The position that the movable disk takes when the
the flow of air to chamber A. At the same time, air cockpit control is set to auto-lean is shown in figure
leaks slowly from chamber A to chamber B through 3-26. Note that the large opening in the fixed disk
the small bleed. Thus, as the tapered needle restricts is partially uncovered. This allows the fuel deliv-
the flow of air into chamber A, the pressure on the ered to the control unit from chamber D to pass
left side of the air diaphragm decreases; as a result, through the auto-lean metering jet, the auto-lean

Automatic mixture control

Contour needle

At sea level

Contour needle

At altitude
FIGURE
3-25. Automatic mixture control system.

131
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channel, and the opening in the fixed disk into the able disk determines which jets will meter the fuel.
discharge line. The rate of flow depends on the size The fuel discharge then depends on the size (md
of the jet and the fuel pressure from chamber D. number of jets through which fuel can pass and on
The cloverleaf valve has no metering effect since the the fuelpressure as determined by the pressure drop
opening in the fixed disk is larger than the metering in the carburetor venturi. the ~ ~ ~and ~ ~ ~ .
jet. "auto-rich" settings of the manual mixture control,
In figure 3-27 note that, in the "auto.rich" set-
the automatic mixture control varies the fuel pres-
ting, the movable disk uncovers two additional open-
ings in the fixed disk. Fuel then flows into the sure with changes in air density. Thus, during
discharge line through both the automatic lean and "auto-lean" and "auto-rich" operation, the rate of
the automatic rich metering jets. Thus, for each fuel discharge depends on three factors: (1) The
pressure, the fuel flow increases and a richer mixture volume of airflow through the ventnri, (2) the air
is supplied to the engine. density, and (3) the setting of the manual mixture
In all mixture settings, the position of the mov- control.

Auto rich channel


-r

FIGURE
3-26. Manual mixture control, auto-lean setting.

-
. . - . .~...
. .--~~.
~~~
~.- ~
... ~.
~ .. .
~ ~ ~.... ~
~
~ ~

FIGURE
3-27. Manual mixture control, auto-rich setting.

132
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Idle Cutoff System phra,p with the automatic lean channel. Thus,
To stop the engine, the manual mixture control metered fuel pressure (the pressure at the discharge
lever in the cockpit is set to idle cutoff. This rotates nozzle and in chamber C ) , acts on the right side of
the cloverleaf valve to the corresponding position. the diaphragm. At low engine speeds, the metered
As shown in figure 3-28, the movable disk then fuel pressure plus the force of the spring holds the
covers all the openings and completely stops the fuel valve on its seat. As the poppet valve opens farther
discharge. at higher engine speeds, the pressure in chamber D
increases. When this pressure, acting on the left
Power Enrichment System side of the diaphragm, is high enough to overcome
The power enrichment system is illustrated in the combined forces of the spring and the metered
figure 3-29. Note that the power enrichment valve fuel pressure, the power enrichment valve opens.
is diaphragm operated. The chamber to the left of Note how this increases the fuel flow to the discharge
the diaphragm is connected to chamber D. A pas- nozzle to provide a richer mixture for operation at
sage connects the chamber to the right of the dia. high power output.

FIGURE3-28. Manual mixture control in idle cutoff.

Metered Unmetered
fuel fuel

FIGURE
3-29. Power enrichment system.

133
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STROMBERG PS SERIES CARBURETOR Any increase or decrease in fuel inlet pressure will
The PS series carburetor is a low-pressure, single- tend to upset the balance in the various chambers
barrel, injection.type carburetor. The carburetor in the manner already described. When this occurs,
consists basically of the air section, the fuel section, the main fuel regulator diaphragm assembly reposi-
and the discharge nozzle, all mounted together to tions to restore the balance.
form a complete fuel metering system. This carbu- The mixture control, whether operated manually
retor is similar to the pressure-injection carburetor; or automatically, compensates for enrichment at
therefore, its operating principles are the same. altitude by bleeding impact air pressure into B
In this type carburetor (figure 3-30),metering is chamber, thereby increasing the pressure (decreas-
accomplished on a mass airflow basis. Air flowing ing the suction) in B chamber. Increasing the pres-
through the main venturi creates a suction at the sure in chamber B tends to move the diaphragm and
throat of the venturi which is transmitted to the poppet valve more toward the closed position, thus
B chamber in the main regulating part of the carbu- restricting fuel flow to correspond proportionately
retor and to the vent side of the fuel discharge noz- to the decrease in air density at altitude.
zle diaphragm. The incoming air pressure is trans- The idle valve and economizer jet can be com-
mitted to A chamber of the regulating part of the bined in one assembly. The unit is controlled manu-
carburetor and to the main discharge bleed in the ally by the movement of the valve assembly. At low
main fuel discharge jet. The discharge nozzle con- airflow positions, the tapered section of the valve
sists of a spring-loaded diaphragm connected to the becomes the predominant jet in the system, con-
discharge nozzle valve, which controls the flow of trolling the fuel flow for the idle range. As the
fuel injected into the main discharge jet. Here it is valve moves to the cruise position, a straight section
mixed with air to accomplish distribution and on the valve establishes a fixed orifice effect which
atomization into the airstream entering the engine. controls the cruise mixture. When the valve is
In the PS series carburetor, as in the pressure- pulled full-open by the throttle valve, the jet is pulled
injection carburetor, the regulator spring has a fixed completely out of the seat, and the seat size becomes
tension, which will tend to hold the poppet valve the controlling jet. This jet is calibrated for takeoff
open during idling speeds, or until the D chamber power mixtures.
pressure equals approximately 4 p.s.i. The dis- An airflow.control1ed power enrichment valve can
charge nozzle spring has a variable adjustment also be used with this carburetor. It consists of a
which, when tailored to maintain 4 p.s.i., will result spring-loaded, diaphragm-operated metering valve.
in a balanced pressure condition of 4 p.s.i. in cham- Refer to figure 3-31 for a schematic view of an air-
ber C of the discharge nozzle assembly, and 4 p.s.i. flow power enrichment valve. One side of the dia-
in chamber D. This produces a zero drop across phragm is exposed to unmetered fuel pressure, and
the main jets at zero fuel flow. the other side to venturi suction plus spring tension.
At a given airflow, if the suction created by the When the pressure differential across the diaphragm
venturi is equivalent to one-fourth pound, this pres- establishes a force strong enough to compress the
sure decrease is transmitted to chamber B and to spring, the valve will open and supply an additional
the vent side of the discharge nozzle. Since the area amonnt,of fuel to the metered fuel circuit in addi-
of the air diaphragm between chambers A and B tion to the fuel supplied by the main metering jet.
is twice as great as that between chambers B and D,
the one-fourth.pound decrease in pressure in cham- Accelerating Pump
her B will move the diaphragm assembly to the right The accelerating pump is a springloaded dia-
to open the poppet valve. Meanwhile the decreased phragm assembly located in the metered fuel chan-
pressure on the vent side of the discharge nozzle nel with the opposite side of the diaphragm vented
assembly will cause a lowering of the total pressure to the engine side of the throttle valve. With this
from 4 Ibs. to 3-314' lbs. The greater pressure of arrangement, opening the throttle results in a rapid
the metered fuel (41/4lbs.) results in a differential decrease in suction. This decrease in suction per-
across the metering head of one-fourth pound (for mits the spring to extend and move the accelerating
the one-fourth pound pressure differential created pump diaphragm. The diaphragm and spring
by the venturi) . action displace the fuel in the accelerating pump
The same ratio of pressure drop across the jet to and force it out the discharge nozzle.
venturi suction will apply throughout the range. Vapor is eliminated from the top of the main fuel
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Discharge Discharge nozzle Discharge air bleed

Manual idle control

Impact air a
UnmetFredfuel

Metered fuel

Inlet fuel pressure

Venturi suction
m
d
.:.
.*,
:<
Innpact sir
Presure above throttle
rn Venturi suetion

FIGURE
3-30. Schematic diagram of the PS series carburetor.
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Enrichment valve and


scat assembly

nh, screw
Metered fuel
chamber C
pressure ,

pressure

Metering jet pressure

FIGURE
3-31. Airflow power enrichment valve.

chamber D through a bleed hole, then through a improved because of the positive action of the injec-
vent line back to the main fuel tank in the aircraft. tion system. In addition, direct fuel injection
improves fuel distribution. This reduces the over-
Manual Mixture Control
heating of individual cylinders often caused by vari-
A manual mixture control provides a means of ation in mixture due to uneven distribution. The
correcting for enrichment at altitude. It consists of fuel-injection system also gives better fuel economy
a needle valve and seat that form an adjustable bleed than a system in which the mixture to most cylinders
between chamber A and chamber B. The valve can must be richer than necessary so that the cylinder
be adjusted to bleed off the venturi suction to main- with the leanest mixture will operate properly.
tain the correct fuel/air ratio as the aircraft gains Fuel-injection systems vary in their details of
altitude. construction, arrangement, and operation. The
When the mixture control lever is moved to the Bendix and Continental fuel-injection systems will
"idle cutoff" position, a cam on the linkage actuates be discussed in this section. They are described
a rocker arm which moves the idle cutoff plunger to provide an understanding of the operating prin-
inward against the release lever in chamber A. The ciples involved. For the specific details of any one
lever compresses the regulator diaphragm spring to system, consult the manufacturer's instructions for
relieve all tension on the diaphragm between A and the equipment involved.
B chambers. This permits fuel pressure plus poppet
valve spring force to close the poppet valve, stopping Bendix Fuel-Injection System
the fuel flow. Placing the mixture control lever in The Bendix RSA series fuel-injection system con-
idle cutoff also positions the mixture control needle sists of an injector, flow divider, and fuel discharge
valve off its seat and allows metering suction within nozzle. It is a continuous-flow system which meas-
the carburetor to bleed off. ures engine air consumption and uses airflow forces
to control fuel flow to the engine.
DIRECT FUEL-INJECTION SYSTEMS
The direct fuel-injection system has many advan- Fuel Injector
tages over a conventional carburetor system. There The fuel injector assembly consists of (1)an air-
is less danger of induction system icing, since the flow section, (2) a regulator section, and (3) s fuel
drop in temperature due to fuel vaporization takes metering section. Some fuel injectors are equipped
place in or near the cylinder. Acceleration is also with an automatic mixture control unit.
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Airflow Section air velocity in the venturi. When airflow through


The airflow consumption of the engine is meas- the engine increases, the pressure on the left of the
ured by sensing impact pressure and venturi throat diaphragm is lowered (figure 3-32) due to the
pressure in the throttle body. These pressures are drop in pressure at the venturi throat. As a result,
vented to the two sides of an air diaphragm. Move- the diaphragm moves to the left, opening the ball
ment of the throttle valve causes a change in engine valve. This pressure differential is referred to as
air consumption. This results in a change in the the air metering force.

-
-- -----
-- --- ,
-----
---- II
Metered fuel
pressure

Throttle valve

Air inlet Impact tube

Venturi suction.

Inlet air pressure.

Fuel inlet pressure.

Metered fuel pressure..

FIGURE
3-32. Airflow section of a fuel injector.

137
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Regulator Section Fuel Metering Section


The regulator section consists of a fuel diaphragm The fuel metering section, shown in figure 3-33,
which opposes the air metering force. Fuel inlet is attached to the air metering section and contains
pressure is applied to one side of the fuel diaphragm an inlet fuel strainer, a manual mixture control
and metered fuel pressure is applied to the other valve, an idle valve, and the main metering jet. In
side. The differential pressure across the fuel dia- some models of injectors, a power enrichment jet is
phragm is called the fuel metering force. also located in this section. The purpose of the fuel
The distance the hall valve opens is determined by metering section is to meter and control the fuel
the difference between the pressures acting on the flow to the flow divider.
diaphragms. This difference in pressure is propor. Flow Divider
tional to the airflow through the injector. Thus, the The metered fuel is delivered from the fuel control
volume of airflow determines the rate of fuel flow. unit to a pressurized flow divider. This unit keeps
Under low power settings the difference in metered fuel under pressure, divides fuel to the
pressure created by the venturi is insufficient to various cylinders at all engine speeds, and shuts off
accomplish consistent regulation of the fuel. A the individual nozzle lines when the control is
constant-head idle spring is incorporated to provide placed in idle cutoff.
a constant fuel differential pressure. This allows an Referring to the schematic diagram in figure
adequate final flow in the idle range. 3-34, metered fuel pressure enters the flow divider

Fuel inlet pressure.

Metered fuel pressure.

Fuel strainer
I a

-J'ldle valve lever


connected to
throttle lever
linkage
Manual mixture
control and idle
cut-off lever
-
FIGURE
3-33. Fuel metering section of the injector.
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.;..<.%<;s::&.
Flow divider ...:5);:,:$.%2:&.::.
:................
4-
-
Fuel nozzle

,"
.:..
..
3.
.:?.

Yk,EYSe
flow (gage)

Nozzle discharge pressure

Metered fuel pressure.

Ambient air pressure.

FIGURE
3-34. Flow divider.

through a channel that permits fuel to pass through fuel for the individual cylinders is divided at idle
the inside diameter of the flow divider needle. At by the flow divider.
idle speed, the fuel pressure from the regulator As fuel Bow through the regulator is increased
must build up to overcome the spring force applied above idle requirements, fuel pressure builds up in
to the diaphragm and valve assembly. This moves the nozzle lines. This pressure fully opens the Bow
the valve upward until fuel can pass out through divider valve, and fuel distribution to the engine
the annulus of the valve to the fuel nozzle. Since becomes a function of the discharge nozzles.
the regulator meters and delivers a fixed amount of A fuel pressure gage, calibrated in pounds-per-
fuel to the flow divider, the valve will open only as hour fuel flow can be used as a fuel flow meter
far as necessary to pass this amount to the nozzles. with the Bendix RSA injection system. This gage
At idle the opening required is very small; thus the is connected to the Bow divider and senses the
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pressure being applied to the discharge nozzle. Fuel-lnjecfion Pump


This pressure is in direct proportion to fuel flow The fuel pump is a positive-displacement, rotary.
and indicates the engine power output and fuel vane type, with a splined shaft for connection to the
consumption. accessory drive system of the engine. A spring-
Fuel Discharge Nozzles loaded, diaphragm-type relief valve is provided.
The fuel discharge nozzles (figure 3-34) are of The relief valve diaphragm chamber is vented to
the air bleed configuration. There is one nozzle atmospheric pressure. A sectional view of a fuel-
for each cylinder located in the cylinder head. The injection pump is shown in figure 3-35.
nozzle outlet is directed into the intake port. Each Fuel enters at the swirl well of the vapor separator.
nozzle incorporates a calibrated jet. The jet size is Here, vapor is separated by a swirling motion so
determined by the available fuel inlet pressure and that only liquid fuel is delivered to the pump. The
the maximum fuel flow required by the engine. The vapor is drawn from the top center of the swirl well
fuel is discharged through this jet into an ambient by a small pressure.jet of fuel and is directed into
air pressure chamber within the nozzle assembly. the vapor return line. This line carries the vapor
Before entering the individual intake valve cham- back to the fuel tank.
bers, the fuel is mixed with air to aid in atomizing Ignoring the effect of altitude or ambient air
the fuel. conditions, the use of a positive-displacement,
Continental Fuel-Injection System engine-driven pump means that changes in engine
The Continental fuel-injection system injects fuel speed affect total pump flow proportionally. Since
into the intake valve port in each cylinder head. The the pump provides greater capacity than is required
system consists of a fuel injector pump, a control by the engine, a recirculation path is required. By
unit, a fuel manifold, and a fuel discharge nozzle. arranging a calibrated orifice and relief valve in
It is a coutinuous-flow type which controls fuel flow this ~ a t h the
, pump delivery pressure is also main-
to match engine airflow. The continuous-flow tained in proportion to engine speed. These
system permits the use of a rotary vane pump which provisions assure proper pump pressure and fuel
does not require timing to the engine. delivery for all engine operating speeds.

Orifice

FIGURE
3-35. Fuel-injection pump.
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A check valve is provided so that boost pump which contains the shaft and butterfly-valve
pressure to the system can bypass the engine.driven assembly. The casting bore size is tailored to the
pump for starting. This feature also suppresses engine size, and no venturi or other restriction is
vapor formation under high ambient temperatures used.
of the fuel. Further, this permits use of the
Fuel Control Assembly
auxiliary pump as a source of fuel pressure in the
The fuel control body is made of bronze for best
event of engine-driven pump failure.
bearing action with the stainless steel valves. Its
Fuel/Air Control Unit central bore contains a metering valve at one end
The function of the fueVair control assembly is and a mixture control valve at the other end. Each
to control engine air intake and to set the metered stainless steel rotary valve includes a groove which
fuel pressure for proper fuel/air ratio. The air forms a fuel chamber.
throttle is mounted at the manifold inlet, and its Fuel enters the control unit through a strainer
butterfly valve, positioned by the throttle control in and passes to the metering valve (figure 3-37).
the aircraft, controls the flow of air to the engine This rotary valve has a cam-shaped edge on the
(see figure 3-36Y. outer part of the end face. The position of the cam
The air throttle assembly is an aluminum casting at the fuel delivery port controls the fuel passed to
the manifold valve and the nozzles. The fuel return
Intake air
port connects to the return passage of the center
metering plug. The alignment of the mixture
control valve with this passage determines the
amount of fuel returned to the fuel pump.

FIGURE
3-37. Fuel control assembly.

By connecting the metering valve to the air


throttle, the fuel flow is properly proportioned to
airflow for the correct fuel/air ratio. A control
level is mounted on the mixture control valve shaft
and connected to the cockpit mixture control.
Fuel Manifold Valve
The fuel manifold valve (figure 3-38) contains a
fuel inlet, a diaphragm chamber, and outlet ports
for the lines to the individual nozzles. The spring-
loaded diaphragm operates a valve in the central
bore of the body. Fuel pressure provides the force
for moving the diaphragm. The diaphragm is
FIGURE
3-36. Fuel/air control unit. enclosed by a cover that retains the diaphragm

I
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Diaphragm loading spring

upper
bber
vent
Diaphragm .

Fuel
inlet
Valve

\ Fuel outlet /
to nozzles
FIGURE
3-38. Fuel manifold valve assembly.

loading spring. When the valve is down against orifice for calibrating the nozzles. Nozzles are
the lapped seat in the body, the fuel lines to the calibrated in several ranges, and all nozzles
cylinders are closed off. The valve is drilled for furnished for one engine are of the same range and
passage of fuel from the diaphragm chamber to its are identified by a letter stamped on the hex of the
base, and a ball valve is installed within the valve. nozzle body.
All incoming fuel must pass through a fine screen Drilled radial holes connect the upper counterbore
installed in the diaphragm chamber. with the cutside of the nozzle body. These holes
From the fuel-injection control valve, fuel is enter the counterbore above the orifice and draw air
delivered to the fuel manifold valve, which provides through a cylindrical screen fitted over the nozzle
a central point for dividing fuel flow to the individ- body. A shield is press-fitted on the nozzle body
ual cylinders. In the fuel manifold valve a and extends over the greater part of the filter screen,
diaphragm raises or lowers a plunger valve to open leaving an opening near the bottom. This provides
or close the individual cylinder fuel supply ports both mechanical protection and an abrupt change in
simultaneously. -
the direction of airflow which keeps dirt and foreign
material out of the nozzle interior.
Fuel Discharge Nozzle
The fuel discharee " nozzle is located in the CARBURETOR MAINTENANCE
cylinder head with its outlet directed into the intake The removal procedures will vary with both the
port. The nozzle body, illustrated in figure 3-39, type of carburetor concerned and the type of engine
contains a drilled central passage with a counterhore on which it is used. Always refer to the applicable
at each end. The lower end is used as a chamber manufacturer's technical instructions for a particular
for fuel/air mixing before the spray leaves the installation. Generally the procedures will be much
nozzle. The upper bore contains a removable the same, regardless of the type of carburetor con-
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downdraft carburetor, use extreme care to ensure


that nothing is dropped into the engine. Remove
the carburetor. Immediately install a protective
cover on the carburetor mounting flange of the
engine to prevent small parts or foreign material
from falling into the engine. When there is danger
Calibrated orifice of foreign material entering open fuel lines during
removal or installation of the carburetor, plug or
cover them with tape.
Installation of Carburetor
Check the carburetor for proper lockwiring before
installation on an engine. Be sure that all shipping
plugs have been removed from the carburetor
openings.
Remove the protective cover from the carburetor
mounting flange on the engine. Place the carburetor
mounting flange gasket in position. On some
engines, bleed passages are incorporated in the
mounting pad. The gasket must he installed so
that the bleed hoIe in the gasket is aligned with the
FIGURE
3-39. Fuel discharge nozzle. passage in the mounting flange.
Inspect the induction passages for the presence
cerned. Some general precautions are discussed
of any foreign material before installing the
below.
carburetor.
Before removing a carburetor, make sure the As soon as the carburetor is placed in position on
fuel shutoff (or selector) valve is closed. Discon- the engine, close and lockwire the throttle valves in
nect the throttle and mixture control linkages, and the "closed" position until the remainder of the
lockwire the throttle valve in the closed position. installation is completed.
Disconnect the fuel inlet line and all vapor return, Where it is feasible, place the carburetor deck
gage, and primer lines. Figure 3-40 illustrates the screen in position to further eliminate the possibility
instalIation connection points on a typicalcarburetor. of foreign objects entering the induction system.
If the same carburetor is to be re-installed, do When instglling a carburetor that uses diaphragms
not alter the rigging of the throttle and mixture for controlling fuel flow, connect the fuel lines and
controls. Remove the airscoop or airscoop adapter. fill the carburetor with fuel. To do this, turn on the
Remove the air screens and gaskets from the fuel booster pump and move the mixture control
carhuretor. Remove the nuts and washers securing from the "idle cutoff position. Continue the flow
the carburetor to the engine. When removing a until oil-free fuel flows from the supercharger drain
valve. This indicates that the preservative oil has
Vapw vent return line-
2 been flushed from the carburetor.
Mixture control Turn off the fuel flow, plug the fuel inlet and
mnnection
vapor vent outlet, and then allow the carburetor,
filled with fuel, to stand for a minimum of 8 hours.
This is necessary in order to soak the diaphragms
Throttle control and render them pliable to the degree they were
connection when the unit was originally calibrated.
Tighten the carburetor mounting bolts to the
value specified in the table of torque limits in the
applicable maintenance manual. Tighten and
safety any other nuts and bolts incidental to the
FIGURE
3-40. Carburetor installation installation of the carburetor before connecting the
connecting points. throttle and mixture-control levers. After the
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carburetor has been bolted to the engine, check the an engine will not respond to idle mixture adjust-
throttle and mixture-control lever on the unit for ment with the resultant stable idling characteristics
freedom of movement before connecting the coutrol previously outlined, it is an indication that some
cables or linkage. Check the vapor vent lines from other phase of engine operation is not correct. In
the carburetor to the aircraft fuel tank for restriction such cases, determine and correct the cause of the
by blowing through the line. difficulty. On all aircraft installations where
manifold pressure gages are used, the manifold
Rigging Carburetor Controls
pressure gage will give a more consistent and larger
Connect and adjust carburetor or fuel metering indication of power change at idle speed than will
equipment throttle controls so that full movement the tachometer. Therefore, utilize the manifold
of the throttle is obtained with corresponding full pressure gage when adjusting the idle fuel/air
movement of the control in the cockpit. In addition, mixture. Check and adjust the idle mixture and
check and adjust the throttle-control linkages so speed on all type reciprocating engines as discussed
that springback on the throttle quadrant in the in the following paragraphs.
aircraft is equal in both the "full open" and "full Always make idle mixture adjustments with
closed" positions. Correct any excess play or loose- cylinder bead temperatures at normal values (about
ness of control linkage or cables. 150' to 170' C.) and never with temperatures
When installing carburetors or fuel metering approaching the maximum allowable.
equipment incorporating manual-type mixture con- The idle mixture adjustment is made on the idle
trols that do not have marked positions, adjust the fuel control valve. It should not be confused with
mixture control mechanism to provide an equal the adjustment of the idle speed stop. The impor-
amount of springback at both the rich and lean tance of idle mixture adjustment cannot be
end of the control quadrant in the cockpit when the overstressed. Optimum engine operation at low
mixture control on the carburetor or fuel metering speeds can be obtained only when proper fuellair
equipment is moved through the full range. Where mixtures are delivered to every cylinder of the
mixture controls with detents are used, rig the engine. Excessively rich idle mixtures and the
control mechanism so that the designated positions resultant incomplete combustion are responsible for
on the control quadrant in the aircraft will agree more spark plug fouling than any other single
with the corresponding positions on the carburetor cause. Excessively lean idle mixtures result in
or fuel metering equipment. faulty acceleration. Furthermore, the idle mixture
In all cases check the controls for proper position- adjustmeut affects the fuel/air mixture and engine
ing in both the "advance" and "retard" positions. operation well up into the cruise range.
Correct excess play or looseness of control linkage
On an engine having a conventional carburetor,
or cables. Safety all controls properly to eliminate
the idle mixture is checked by manually leaning the
the possibility of loosening from vibration during
mixture with the cockpit mixture control. Move
operation.
the carburetor mixture control slowly and smoothly
Adjusting Idle Mixtures toward the "idle cutoff" position. At the same
Excessively rich or lean idle mixtures result in time, watch the manifold pressure gage to determine
incomplete combustion within the engine cylinder, whether the manifold pressure decreases prior to
with resultant formation of carbon deposits on the increasing as the engine ceases firing. The optimum
spark plugs and subsequent spark plug fouling. In mixture is obtained when a manifold pressure
addition, excessively rich or lean idle mixtures make decrease immediately precedes the manifold pres-
it necessary to taxi at high idle speeds with resultant sure increase as the engine ceases firing. The
fast taxi speeds and excessive brake wear. Each amount of decrease will vary with the make and
engine must have the carburetor idle mixture model engine and the installation. As a general
tailored for the particular engine and installation, rule, the amount of manifold pressure decrease will
if best operation is to be obtained. be approximately one-fourth inch.
Engines which are properly adjusted, insofar as On installations that do not use a manifold
valve operation, cylinder compression, ignition, and pressure gage, it will be necessary to observe the
carburetor idle mixture are concerned, will idle at tachometer for an indication of an r.p.m. change.
the prescribed r.p.m. for indefinite periods without With most installations, the idle mixture should be
loading up, overheating, or spark plug fouling. If adjusted to provide an r.p.m. rise prior to decreas-
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ing as the engine ceases to fire. This r.p.m. increase improved and the idle speed picks up. After each
will vary from 10 to 50 r.p.m., depending on the adjustment, "clear" the engine by briefly running it
installation. at higher r.p.m. This prevents fouling of the plugs
Following the momentary increase in r.p.m., the which might otherwise be caused by incorrect idle
engine speed will start to drop. Immediately move mixture.
the mixture control back to auto.rich to prevent After adjusting the idle mixture, recheck it several
the engine from cutting out completely. times to determine definitely that the mixture is
On direct fuel-injection engines, the mixture correct and remains constant on repeated changes
change during manual leaning with the mixture from high power back to idle. Correct any incon-
control is usually so rapid that it is impossible to sistency in engine idling before releasing the aircraft
note any momentary increase in r.p.m. or decrease for service.
in manifold pressure. Therefore, on these engines, On Stromberg injection-type carburetors and
the idle mixture is set slightly leaner than best power direct fuel-injection master control units, the idle
and is checked by enriching the mixture with the control link located between the idle valve stem in
primer. To check the idle mixture on a fuel- the fuel control unit and the idle control lever on
injection installation,.first set the throttle to obtain the throttle shaft incorporates a bushing arrange-
the proper idle speed. Then momentarily depress ment at each end (see figure 3-41). Be sure that
the primer switch while observing the tachometer the bolt is tight and has the washers, wave washers,
and manifold pressure gage. If the idle mixture is and bushings assembled. In addition, there must he
correct, the fuel added by the primer will cause a no play between the link and the lever. If there is
momentary increase in engine speed and a momen- any play at either end of the link, erratic mixtures
tary drop in manifold pressure. If the increase in will result.
engine speed or the decrease in manifold pressure
exceeds the limits specified for the particular
installation, the idle mixture is too lean (too far on
the lean side of best power). If the r.p.m. drops
off when the mixture is enriched with the primer, the
idle mixture setting is too rich.
Before checking the idle mixture on any engine,
warm up the engine until oil and cylinder head
temperatures are normal. Keep the propeller control
in the increase r.p.m. setting throughout the entire
process of warming up the engine, checking the idle Idle \ eve
1m.e~ Theadd
mixture, and making the idle adjustment. Keep bushing
the mixture control in auto-rich except for the
manual leaning required in checking the idle mix- FIGURE3-41. Idle mixture adjusting mechanism
ture on carburetor-equipped engines. When using for Stromberg injection carburetors.
the primer to check the idle mixture on fuel-iniection
engines, merely flick the primer switch; otherwise, If sufficient mixture change cannot be accom-
too much additional fuel will be introduced and a plished by the normal idle mixture adjustment on
satisfactory indication will be obtained even though the Stromberg injection carburetor, disconnect the
the idle mixture is set too lean. link at the idle valve end by removing the bolt,
If the check of the idle mixture reveals it to he washers, and wave washers. Then, to further alter
too lean or too rich, increase or decrease the idle the mixture, turn out or in (out to enrich, in to
fuel flow as required. Then repeat the check. lean). One turn of the screw eye is equivalent to
Continue checking and adjusting the idle mixture 13 notches or clicks on the normal idle adjustment.
until it checks out properly. During this process,
it may be desirable to move the idle speed stop Idle Speed Adjustment
completely out of the way and to hold the engine After adjusting the idle mixture, reset the idle
speed at the desired r.p.m. by means of the throttle. stop to the idle r.p.m. specified in the aircraft
This will eliminate the need for frequent readjust- maintenance manual. The engine must be warmed
ments of the idle stop as the idle mixture is up thoroughly and checked for ignition system
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malfunctioning. Throughout any carburetor ad- Fuel Tanks


justment procedure, run the engine up periodically All applicable panels in the aircraft skin or
to approximately half of normal rated speed to structure should be removed and the tanks inspected
clear the engine. for corrosion on the external surfaces, for security
Some carburetors are equipped with an eccentric of attachment, and for correct adjustment of straps
screw to adjust idle 1.p.m. Others use a spring- and slings. Check the fittings and connections for
loaded screw to limit the throttle valve closing. In leaks or failures.
either case, adjust the screw as required to increase Some fuel tanks manufactured of light alloy
or decrease r.p.m. with the throttle retarded against materials are provided with inhibitor bartridges to
the stop. Open the throttle to clear the engine; reduce the corrosive effects of combined leaded
close the throttle and allow the r.p.m. to stabilize. fuel and water. Where applicable, the cartridge
Repeat this operation until the desired idling speed should be inspected and renewed at the specified
is obtained. periods.

Lines and Fittings


FUEL SYSTEM INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
Be sure that the lines are properly supported and
The inspection of a fuel system installation con- that the nuts and clamps are securely tightened. To
sists basically of an examination of the system for tighten hose clamps to the proper torque, use a
conformity to design requirements together with hose-clamp torque wrench If this wrench is not
functional tests to prove correct operation. available, tighten the clamp finger-tight plus the
Since there are considerable variations in the fuel number of turns specified for the hose and clamp.
systems used on different aircraft, no attempt has (Refer to Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics
been made to describe any articular system in General Handbook, AC 65-9, Chapter 5.) If the
detail. It is important that the manufacturer's clamps do not seal at the specified torque, replace
instructions for the aircraft concerned be followed the clamps, the hose, or both. After installing new
when performing inspection or maintenance hose. check the clamps daily and tighten if neces.
functions. sary. When this daily check indicates that cold
Complete System flow has ceased, inspect the clamps at less frequent
intervals.
Inspect the entire system for wear, damage, or Replace the hose if the plys have separated, if
leaks. Make sure that all units are securely there is excessive cold flow, or if the hose is hard
attached and properly safetied. and inflexible. Permanent impressions from the
The drain plugs or valves in the fuel system clamp and cracks in the tube or cover stock indicate
should be opened to check for the presence of excessive cold flow. Replace hose which has col-
sediment or water. The filter and sump should also lapsed at the bends or as a result of misaligned
be checked for sediment, water, or slime. The filters fittings or lines. Some hose tends to flare at the
or screens, including those provided for flowmeters ends beyond the clamps. This is not an unsatisfac-
and auxiliary pumps, must be clean and free from tory condition unless leakage is present.
corrosion. Blisters may form on the outer synthetic rubber
The controls should be checked for freedom of cover of hose. These blisters do not necessarily
movement, security of locking, and freedom from affect the serviceability of the hose. When a blister
damage due to chafing. is discovered on a hose, remove the hose from the
The fuel vents should be checked for correct aircraft and puncture the blister with a pin. The
positioning and freedom from obstruction; other- blister should then collapse. If fluid (oil, fuel, or
wise, fuel flow or pressure fueling may be affected. hydraulic) emerges from the pinhole in the blister,
Filler neck drains should be checked for freedom reject the hose. If only air emerges, pressure test
from obstruction. the hose at 1.1/2 times the working pressure. If no
If booster pumps are installed, the system should fluid leakage occurs, the hose can be regarded as
be checked for leaks by operating the pumps. serviceable.
During this check, the ammeter or loadmeter should Puncturing the outer cover of the hose may permit
be read and the readings of all the pumps, where the entry of corrosive elements, such as water, which
applicable, should be approximately the same. could attack the wire braiding and ultimately result
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in failure. For this reason, puncturing the outer Check the mechanical gages for free movement of
covering of hoses exposed to the elements should the float arm and for proper synchronization of the
be avoided. pointer with the position of the float.
The external surface may fine On the electrical and electronic gages, be sure that
cracks, usually short in length, which are caused by both the indicator and the tank units are securely
surface aging. The hose assembly be regarded mounted and that their electrical connections are
as serviceable, provided these cracks do not pene- tight,
trate to the first braid.

Fuel Pressure Gage


Check the pointer for zero tolerance and exces-
Selector Valves sive oscillation. Check the cover glass for looseness
Rotate selector valves and check for free opera. and for proper range markings. Check the lines
tiou, excessive backlash, and accurate pointer and connections for leaks. ~e sure that there is no
indication. If the backlash is excessive, check the obstruction in the vent. Replace the instrument if
entire operating mechanism for worn joints, loose it is defective.
pins, and broken drive lugs. Replace any defective
parts. Inspect cable control systems for worn or Pressure Warning Signal
frayed cables, damaged pulleys, or worn pulley
Inspect the entire installation for security of
bearings.
mounting and condition of the electrical, fuel, and
air connections. Check the lamp by pressing the
test switch to see that it lights. Check the opera-
tion by turning the battery switch on, building up
Pumps pressure with the booster pump, and observing the
During an inspection of booster pumps, check for pressure at which the light goes out. If necessary,
the following conditions: (1)Proper operation, (2) adjust the contact mechanism.
leaks and condition of fuel and electrical connec-
tions, and (3) wear of motor brushes. Be sure the
drain lines are free of traps, bends, or restrictions. WATER INJECTION SYSTEM FOR RECIPROCAT-
Check the engine-driven pump for leaks and se- ING ENGINES
curity of mounting. Check the vent and drain lines There are a few of these now being used, but the
for obstructions. water injection system enahles more power to be
obtained from the engine at takroff than is possible
without water injection. The carburetor (operating
at high-power settings) delivers more fuel to the
Main Line Strainers engine than it actually needs. A leaner mixture
~~~i~ water and sediment from the main line would produce more powrr; howevrr, the addi-
tional f u d is necessary to prevent overheating and
strainer at each preflight inspection. Remove and
detonation. With the injection of the antidetonant
clean the screen at the periods specified in the air- fluid, the mixture can be out to that
plane maintenance manual. Examine the sediment produces maxinlum power, and the vaporization of
removed from the housing. Particles of rubber are the wat~r-alcoholmixture then the cooling
often early warnings of hose deterioration. Check formerly supplied by the excess fuel, see fig. 3 4 2 .
for leaks and damaged gaskets. Operating on this best power mixture, the engine
develops morr power even though the manifold
pressure and r.p.m. settings remain unchanged. In
addition though,- the manifold prcssurr can be in-
Fuel Quantity Gages creased to a point which would causr detonation
- ~ without
.. ...--. iniertion of
. -~~ - the,~. water-alcohol mixturr.
If a sight gage is used, be sure that the glass is Thus, the increase in power with the antidetonant
clear and that there are no leaks at the connections. injection is two.fold: the rnginr can br operated
Check the lines leading to it for leaks and security on the best power mixture, and the maximum
of attachment. manifold pressure can he incrrased.

147
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Delay bleed

Unmetered fuel

--
Cz
Water pump pressure
r z a Unmetered water
Unmetered fuel
Metered fuel
Metered water
Vent lines

Water tank

Water pump

Unmetered water
chamber

FIGURE
3-42. Schematic diagram of a typical AD1 system.
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TURBINE ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM-GENERAL RE- Turbojet, turbofan, and turboprop engines are
QUIREMENTS equipped with a fuel control unit which automatical-
The fuel system is one of the more complex ly satisfies the requirements of the engine. Although
aspects of the gas turbine engine. The variety of the basic requirements apply generally to all gas
methods used to meet turbine engine fuel require- turbine engines, the way in which individual fuel
ments makes reciprocating engine earburetion seem controls meet these needs cannot be conveniently
a simple study by comparison. generalized. Each fuel control manufacturer has
It must be possible to increase or decrease the his own peculiar way of meeting the engine demands.
power at will to obtain the thrust required for any
operating condition. In turbine-powered aircraft
this control is provided by varying the flow of fuel
to the combustion chambers. However, turboprop
aircraft also use variable-pitch propellers; thus, the JET FUEL CONTROLS
selection of thrust is shared by two controllable
variables, fuel flow and propeller blade angle.
The quantity of fuel supplied must be adjusted Fuel controls can be divided into two basic
automatically to correct for changes in ambient groups: (1) Hydromechanical and (2) electronic.
temperature or pressure. If the quantity of fuel The electronic fuel control is a combination of the
becomes excessive in relation to mass airflow two basic groups. Most fuel controls in use today
through the engine, the limiting temperature of the are the completely hydromechanical type.
turbine blades can be exceeded, or it will produce Regardless of the type, all fuel controls accomplish
compressor stall and a condition referred to as "rich essentially the same functions, but some sense more
blowout." Rich blowout occurs when the amount engine variables than others. The fuel control
of oxygen in the air supply is insufficient to support senses power lever position, engine r.p.m., either
combustion and when the mixture is cooled below compressor inlet pressure or temperature, and
the combustion temperature by the excess fuel. burner pressure or compressor discharge pressure.
The other extreme, "lean die-out," occurs if the These variables affect the amount of thrust that an
fuel quantity is reduced proportionally below the engine will produce for a given fuel flow.
air quantity.
The fuel system must deliver fuel to the combus.
tion chambers not only in the right quantity, but Hydromechanical
also in the right condition for satisfactory combus-
tion. The fuel nozzles form part of the fuel system Jet fuel controls are extremely complicated
and atomize or vaporize the fuel so that it will devices. The hydromechanical types are composed
ignite and burn efficiently. The fuel system must of speed governors, servo systems, sleeve and pilot
also supply fuel so that the engine can be easily valves, feedback o r followup devices, and metering
started on the ground and in the air. This means systems. In addition, electronic fuel controls incor-
that the fuel must be injected into the combustion porate amplifiers, thermocouples, relays, electrical
chambers in a combustible condition when the servo systems, switches, and solenoids. Each fuel
engine is being turned over slowly by the starting control must be studied if it is to be understood.
system, and that combustion must be sustained However, it is not within the scope of this handbook
while the engine is accelerating to its normal running to discuss each type. Instead, one type of electronic
speed. fuel control system and a typical hydromechanical
Another critical condition to which the fuel fuel control will be discussed. In the discussion of
system must respond occurs during a slam accelera- each, the general purpose and operating principles
tion. When the engine is accelerated, energy must are stressed. No attempt is made to give detailed
be furnished to the turbine in excess of that neces- operating and maintenance instructions for specific
sary to maintain a constant r.p.m. However, if the types and makes of equipment. For the specific
fuel flow increases too rapidly, an overrich mixture information needed to inspect or maintain a partic-
can be produced, with the possibility of a rich ular installation or unit, consult the manufacturer's
blowout. instructions.
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Electronic
The principal components of the turboprop tem-
perature datum system (Allison 501-Dl3 engine)
are the temperature datum valve, coordinator, fuel
control, speed sensitive control, fuel manifold drain
valve, and electronic temperature datum control
(see figure 3 4 3 ) .

LOW-pressure fuel filter

- '7
=I

/
b--
. To thermocouples
L
*
Coordinator
Relay box Temperature datum control

FIGURE
3-43. Allison 501-Dl3 engine fuel system schematic.

Temperature Datum Valve across the metering valve orifice proportional to the
The temperature datum valve (figure 3-44] is a amount of fuel being supplied to the datum valve.
fuel flow trimming device in the engine fuel system The metering valve is positioned in its sleeve and
between the main fuel control and the engine fuel orifice by the datum valve motor in response to
manifold. The datum valve, operating in conjunc- signals from the associated electronic control. Mo-
tion with an associated electronic temperature datum tor rotation is applied through reduction gearing to
control, trims metered fuel supplied from the main the metering valve drive pinion. The metering valve
fuel control to maintain a preselected turbine inlet determines the percentage of fuel to be trimmed
temperature. from the metered engine fuel supply and bypassed
The valve consists of a venturi, a regulator valve, to the engine pumps.
a metering valve and sleeve assembly, and a pres- The pressurizing valve is located immediately
surizing valve. The datum valve features a variable- ahead of the datum valve fuel outlet. The valve is
take stop screw, actuated by a solenoid valve and a spring loaded to maintain a back pressure on the
drive piston. This limits the total amount that fuel system. The low-pressure side of the pressuriz-
engine fuel flow can be reduced. ing valve is vented, through a damping bleed, to
The regulator valve maintains a pressure head bypass pressure and the boost pump outlet. The
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Corrected

I 20% takk stop


508 take stop

FIGURE
3 4 4 . Temperature datum valve schematic.
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damping bleed minimizes effects of fuel pressure ments. Metering valve positioning signals are sup-
surges on pressurizing valve operation. plied from an associated electronic control that
The variable-take stop screw permits reduction senses the engine temperatures.
in nominal fuel flow to the engine. The stop is When the metering valve is driven towards its
positioned by a drive piston. A two-position sole- orifice, it moves in a put direction to reduce flow
noid valve directs fluid pressure to the drive piston, from the venturi throat to metered bypass. This
to establish the take position of the stop screw. causes fuel flow to the engine burners to be in-
Venturi and Regulator Valve creased above the nominal 100% supplied when the
Metered fuel under main fuel control outlet pres- metering valve is at the "null" position. Simultane.
sure enters the datum valve through a venturi. Fuel ously, metered bypass pressure is reduced, permit-
pressure at the venturi throat is sampled to provide ting venturi throat pressure to reduce the regulator
a pressure signal inversely proportional to the valve opening through which fuel is bypassed to the
amount of fuel entering the datum valve. engine pumps. Metering valve orifice closing can
Fuel under venturi throat pressure is applied to continue until the metering valve contacts the maxi-
one side of the regulator valve diaphragm to pro- mum put stop. The maximum put stop is adjusted
vide a valve-positioning force inversely proportional during datum valve calibration.
to fuel flow through the inlet venturi. When the metering valve is driven away from its
Fuel from the venturi outlet is channeled directly orifice, it moves in a take direction to increase the
to the pressurizing valve at the datum outlet. The flow from the venturi throat to metered bypass.
metering valve trims fuel in excess of engine This causes fuel flow to engine burners to be
requirements from this fuel flow and directs this reduced below that normally supplied when the
excess fuel to the regulator valve. Fuel under ven- metering valve is at the "null" position. Simul-
turi outlet pressure flows past the metering valve taneously, metered bypass pressure is increased to
and through the metering valve orifice to the regu- move the regulator valve diaphragm against venturi
lator valve. This fuel is hypassed through the throat pressure, thus increasing the regulator valve
opened valve to the hypass outlet and engine pump opening through which fuel is hypassed to the engine
inlets. Simultaneously, metered bypass pressure is pumps. Metering valve orifice opening can con-
reduced until it becomes equal to venturi throat tinue until the metering valve contacts the variable
pressure on the opposite side of the diaphragm. take stop. The variable take stop permits take
When metered bypass pressure equals venturi action by the datum valve. Engine fuel flow can
throat pressure on the opposite side of the regulator be reduced, providing maximum engine temperature
valve diaphragm, a regulated orifice bypassing ex- protection during starting. When engine speed
cess engine fuel is established by the regulator valve. reaches and exceeds a preselected value, the solenoid
Simultaneously, the proper pressure drop for trim- valve on the datum valve is de-energized. Solenoid
ming from the venturi throat fuel supply is estah- valve action repositions the variable take stop. Fuel
lished across the metering valve orifice. At this flow can then he reduced sufficiently to reduce any
balanced condition, the pressure rise from the inlet normal over-temperature conditions during engine
venturi throat to the venturi exit equals the pressure operation.
drop across the metering valve orifice.
Motor Operation
When the metering valve is at the "null" position,
approximately 20% of the total metered fuel sup. The metering valve is positioned in its orifice by
plied the datum valve is returned to the engine a two-phase motor within the datum valve. Motor
pumps. operating voltage is supplied from the electronic
control operating in association with the datum
Metering Valve valve. The phase of voltage supplied to the motor
The metering valve is repositioned in its orifice determines the direction of motor rotation and sub-
from the "null" position to vary the percentage of sequent metering valve movement. Voltage phase,
fuel trimmed from venturi fuel in the datum valve, in turn, is determined by the type of temperature
thus adjusting the amount of fuel delivered to en- correction required, i.e., if engine fuel flow should
gine burners. The metering valve is driven in be incr~asedto increase temperature, or reduced to
either a "put" or "take" direction from the "null" lower temperature. Motor rotation is transmitted
position, according to engine temperature require- through reduction gears to the metering valve drive
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gear on one end of the pinion shaft. The opposite shoe is located, is lifted against spring force into
end of the pinion shaft is welded to a tube carrying the core of the solenoid. This releases the power
the metering valve drive pinion. This type of transmission shaft and permits motor rotation to be
in ion shaft construction ~ r o v i d e sa torsion shaft
that reduces shock on the reduction gear train and
.. -
a u ~ l i e dto the reduction gearbox.
COORDINATOR
motor if the metering valve is driven against either
stop. The coordinator bolts to the rear face of the fuel
control and houses the power lever shaft, mechani-
Generator Operation cal discriminator, manual fuel cutoff shaft, switches
The datum valve motor has a generator coupled and actuating cams, temperature selector potenti-
on the motor shaft. While the motor is driving the ometer, potentiometer drive gears, and the necessary
metering valve to change valve position, this cou. electrical wiring.
pled generator produces an a.c. voltage proportional The unit coordinates the propeller, electronic tem-
to motor rotational speed. The a.c. voltage is fed perature datum control, and fuel control. I t receives
back to the associated electronic control. signals through linkage from the cockpit power
The phase of this a.c. voltage is determined by lever and the cockpit emergency handle and trans-
the direction of motor-generator rotation. Magni. mits these signals to the fuel control and propeller
tude of the a.c. voltage is proportional to rotational regulator through a system of levers and links.
speed. Thus, the feedback voltage provides a rate The potentiometer in the coordinator is driven
signal telling the electronic control the rate at which from the power lever shaft through a gear set.
the metering valve is moving. Above a certain nominal coordinator position, the
Within the electronic control, this voltage damps, potentiometer schedules the turbine inlet tempera-
or reduces, the temperature error signal that ture by sending an electrical signal for the desired
initiated motor rotation. The rate of error signal temperature to the electronic temperature datum
reduction is proportional to the rate at which the control.
motor-generator is rotating. Error signal reduction The switch in the coordinator is actuated by a
causes a corresponding reduction of variable phase cam on the power lever shaft to transfer the func-
voltage :;upplied to the datum valve motor. tion of the temperature datum control from tem-
The error signal damping approximates dashpot perature limiting to temperature controlling at a
action in achieving datum valve stability by reduc- certain nominal coordinator position.
ing inertia force without loss of torque under stall
FUEL CONTROL
conditions. Thus, as turbine inlet temperature ap-
proaches a corrected value, voltage to the motor is The fuel control is mounted on the accessories
reduced and the motor stalls. When the motor drive housing and is mechanically linked to the
stalls, the metering valve has been properly reposi- coordinator. The fuel control is designed to per-
tioned to provide a temperature-corrected fuel flow. form the following functions:
(1) Provide a means of varying fuel flow to
Motor Brake permit a selection of power that is coordi.
A solenoid-operated brake is incorporated on the nated with propeller blade angle and engine
motor output shaft between the motor and the speed.
reduction gearbox. The brake is disengaged when (2) Regulate the rate of fuel metering during
the solenoid is energized, and engaged when the acceleration to prevent excessive turbine
solenoid is de-energized. Brake operating voltage inlet temperature.
is controlled by engine, aircraft, and electronic (3) Control the rate of decrease of fuel metering
control circuitry. during deceleration to prevent flameout.
When the brake solenoid is de-energized and the (4) Control engine and propeller speed outside
brake engaged, spring loading holds the brake shoe the limits of operation of the propeller gov-
against a disk on the power transmission shaft ernor. This includes reverse thrust, low-
through the brake. This action prevents the motor speed ground idle, flight idle, and high-speed
from rotating even though variable-phase voltage ground idle.
is supplied to the motor. (5) Provide a measure of engine protection
When the solenoid is energized and the brake during overspeed conditions by reducing
released, the brake armature, on which the brake fuel flow and turbine inlet temperature.
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(6) Provide a starting fuel flow schedule which, control from start limiting and limits the tempera-
in conjunction with the temperature datum ture datum valve to a certain reduction of engine
valve, avoids over-temperature and compres- fuel flow.
sor surge.
FUEL MANIFOLD DRAIN VALVE
(7) Compensate for changes in air density
caused by variations in compressor inlet air The fuel output from the temperature datum
temperature and pressure. valve is connected to the fuel manifold. The mani-
(8) Provide a means of cutting off fuel flow fold consists of sections of flexible steel braided
electrically and manually. hose which connect at the hottom of the engine to a
drain valve. These sections connect directly to the
The fuel control senses compressor inlet pressure,
fuel nozzles.
compressor inlet temperature, and engine speed.
A spring-loaded, solenoid-operated drain valye is
Using these three factors and the setting of the
located at the bottom of the fuel manifold. It is
power lever, the fuel control meters the proper
designed to drain the manifold when the fuel
amount of fuel throughout the range of engine
pressure drops below a certain amount while the
operation. Pressure and temperature compensating
engine is being stopped to prevent fuel from drip-
systems are designed to maintain constant turbine
ping into the combustion chambers.
inlet temperature as the compressor inlet conditions
During the starting cycle, the valve is closed by
vary.
energizing the solenoid. I t is held closed by fuel
The fuel control is scheduled richer than the pressure within the manifold when the engine is
nominal engine requirements to accommodate the running.
temperature datum valve which bypasses part of the
control output when in the "null" position. This SYSTEM OPERATION
excess Row to the temperature datum valve gives it The temperature datum control system is essen.
the capacity to add as well as subtract fuel to tially a servo system. Thus, system operation is
maintain the temperature scheduled by the coor- based on any error, or variation from desired en-
dinator potentiometer and the temperature datum gine temperature conditions. The electronic tem-
control. perature datum control senses any temperature
The control includes a cutoff valve for stopping error and supplies an error-correcting signal to the
fuel flow to the engine. The cutoff valve, which two-phase servomotor in the associated temperature
can be manually or electrically controlled, is actu- datum valve.
ated by mechanical linkage and an electrical actua- The reference to which engine temperatures are
tor. The mechanical cutoff is tied in with the compared is established within the electronic con-
emergency control input linkage. Both must be in trol. This reference is a millivoltage equivalent to
the "open" position to permit fuel flow. During engine thermocouple-generated millivoltage for a
an engine start, the motor-operated valve remains desired temperature. Any variation between the
closed until the engine reaches a speed where the reference and thermocouple-generated millivoltages
speed-sensitive control actuates and opens the motor- causes an error-correcting signal to be supplied to
operated valve, permitting fuel flow to the engine. the temperature datum valve servomotor.
Three different reference temperature conditions
SPEED-SENSITIVE CONTROL are used during temperature datum control system
The speed-sensitive control (figure 3-45) is operation. These conditions are normal limiting,
mounted on the tachometer pad of the accessories start limiting, and controlling. Temperature value
housing. It contains three switches which are actu- of the controlling reference temperature is scheduled
ated at certain speeds by a flyweight system. Dur- as a function of power lever angle.
ing a start one switch turns on the fuel and ignition, The normal limiting reference temperature is
parallels fuel pump elements, energizes the starting available throughout the entire operating range of
fuel enrichment system when fuel enrichment switch the engine. It is the maximum safe engine-operating
is on, and closes the drip valve; another switch temperature. During limiting operation, engine
shuts off the ignition, de.energizes the drip valve temperature is prevented from exceeding this value
which is then held closed by fuel pressure, and shifts by the temperature datum control system. The nor-
the fuel pumps from parallel to series operation; mal limiting temperature is effective throughout the
and still another switch shifts the temperature datum power lever travel range below the angle at which
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FIGURE3-45, Speed-sensitive control.


crossover to controlling operation occurs, and when- Engine switches select which limiting temperature
ever the aircraft temperature datum control switch value, normal or start, is effective, and switch the
is moved to the "locked" position, as during air- temperature datum control system from limiting to
craft landing. controlling operations.
The start limiting temperature is effective only The speed-sensitive switch selects the desired
during engine starting and operation up to a pre- reference for start limiting operation during initial
selected speed. Temperature value of the start engine starting. The electronic control remains in
limiting temperature is less than the normal limiting the start limiting condition until the speed switch
temperature. The start limiting temperature pro- opens. When the speed switch opens, the electronic
tects the engine from excessive temperature tran- control is switched to normal limiting temperatnre
sients during engine starting. operation.
Reference temperature is scheduled according to The power-lever-actuated switches establish the
power lever angle in the controlling range of engine power lever angle at which crossover from tempera-
operation. Temperature value of the reference is ature limiting to temperatnre controlling operation
scheduled according to desired engine power. occurs. At power lever angles less than the cross-
Either temperature limiting or temperature con. over point, these switches hold the temperature
trolling operation is selected by engine and aircraft datum control system in limiting operation. After
switches. The engine switches include a speed- the crossover angle is reached and passed, these
sensitive switch and two power-lever-actuated switches re-align the temperature datum control
switches in the engine coordinator. The aircraft system for temperatnre controlling operation.
switch is the pilot-actuated temperature datum con- The temperature datum control switch provides
trol switch. for manually selecting a desired temperature datum
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control system operating mode. When the tempera- by burner pressure. Burner pressure alone is a
ture datum control switch is in the "locked" posi- rough measure of airflow and is used to schedule
tion, switching from start to normal limiting fuel flow during deceleration to prevent lean die-out.
operation is effected. When the switch is in the During acceleration, fuel flow is scheduled as a
"
automatic" position, other conditions occur. The function of r.p.m. and burner pressure to prevent
temperature datum control system is switched from rich blowout, surging, or overheating.
controlling to limiting operation whenever the tem- The equilibrium curve of an engine, illustrated in
perature datum control switch is moved to the figure 3-47, indicates the job the fnel control must
"locked" position. do. Fuel flow during starting is limited by the
acceleration line and will drop off to the value re-
HYDROMECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL
quired for idle operation as the engine r.p.m. in-
The JFC (jet fnel control) schedules the quantity creases to idle. This decrease in the fuel flow
of fuel flow required by a turbojet engine. It occurs along a droop line, which is a governing
provides fuel to the combustion chambers at the characteristic built into the fuel control for better
pressure and volume required to maintain the en- control of r.p.m. without surging or hunting. The
gine performance scheduled by power lever posi- power lever position varies compression of a speed-
tion. At the same time it limits fuel flow to er spring to select the proper droop line setting.
maintain operating conditions within safe limits. To accelerate from idle to maximum, the power
The JFC12-11 is an all-mechanical fuel control lever is moved forward. Fuel flow increases rapid-
for the Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine. A ly at first and then more gradually according to a
schematic operating diagram is shown in figure 3-46. schedule for acceleration that will avoid surge con-
The purpose of the JFC is to meter fuel to the ditions and overheating the engine. Just before
engine to control r.p.m., prevent overheating and maximum is reached, fuel flow begins to decrease
surging, and prevent either rich blowout or lean along a droop line so that the r.p.m. will level off
die-out. This is accomplished by supplying signals at maximum without hunting.
from engine r.p.m. (N2) and burner pressure (PB) . For deceleration from maximum, the fuel flow
The control then schedules fuel flow (Wr) in lbs./hr. drops abruptly to the minimum flow schedule and
to keep the engine running at the desired setting follows that back to idle. Although the minimum
selected by the power lever and within the engine's fuel flow ratio is shown as a straight line in figure
operating limits. 3-47, fuel flow varies with burner pressure and,
Two control levers are provided. The power thus, is higher at maximum r.p.m. than at idle r.p.m.
lever controls engine r.p.m. during all forward and
reverse thrust operations. A fuel shutoff lever con- FUEL CONTROL DESCRIPTION
trols engine starting and shutdown by operating the Metering System Operation
fuel shutoff, windmill bypass feature, and manifold Fuel is supplied to the inlet of the fuel control
dump valve signal in the proper sequence. unit from the aircraft tanks through a series of
When the power lever is moved to a selected set- boost pumps. The fuel is passed through the
ting, a certain percentage of available thrust is screens and filters of the aircraft fnel system before
expected from the engine. Thrust results from the it is directed to the fuel control. Fuel entering the
acceleration imparted to the mass of air flowing inlet port of the fuel control unit passes through a
through the engine. Consequently, any variation coarse 200-mesh screen filter (see figure 3 4 3 ) . If
in air density through changes in pressure or tem- the filter becomes clogged, it will allow unfiltered
perature will affect the thrust due to the change in fuel to bypass because it is spring loaded and will
mass airflow. In the range of engine operation be lifted off its seat if the differential pressure across
from sea level to altitude, atmospheric pressure vari- the screen becomes greater than 25 to 30 p.s.i. Some
ations have a greater effect on air density than the of the fuel that has passed through the coarse
changes in ambient temperature. For any steady filter is directed to the fine filter. All high-pressure
state condition of engine operation (mass airflow fuel used in the valves and servos of the fuel
through the engine constant), a definite amount of control passes through the fine filter. This filter
fuel is needed, and, therefore, the fuel/air ratio is a 35-micron screen and is also spring loaded.
( W ~ / P B )will be constant. If it becomes clogged, unfiltered fuel will bypass the
A measure of airflow through the engine is given filter when the differential pressure is 10 to 17 p.s.i.

I
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FIGURE
3-46. JFC12-11 schematic operating diagram.
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S&T = Surge & temperature


limiting valve
+ - - - - - C ----' - 4---
,---------,---
Maximum ratio line

S.L.
S.1..

Fuel
air
ratio

Lean flame out


I I I .--I
0 1 Idle r.p.m. 100%

FIGURE
3-47. Engine operating conditions (equilibrium curve).

Pressure-Regulating Valve positive minimum flow adjustment is provided on


The pressure-regulating valve diaphragm, shown the throttle valve. The valve is spring loaded to its
in figure 3-48, is exposed on one side to pump minimum flow position, but never closes completely.
output pressure and on the other side to the com- The throttle valve spring moves the valve in the
bined effect of throttle valve discharge pressure and decrease-flow direction, and the combined action of
a spring force preset to maintain the desired pres- the compressor pressure servo and the governor
sure drop across the throttle valve. The spring servo moves the valve in the increase.80~direction.
force is adjustable to allow compensation for use of The throttle valve outlet directs the metered fuel to
various fuels. With a constant pressure drop across the minimum pressure and shutoff valve. The me-
the throttle valve, flow through the throttle valve tered fuel also acts on the spring side of the pressure-
will be proportional to its orifice area. Any excess regulating valve and is delivered to the throttle-
fuel above that required to maintain the set pres- operated pilot valve, where it can bypass to drain
sure differential is bypassed back to the interstage when the fuel shutoff lever is placed in the "off"
section of the supply pump. The damping orifice position.
in the passage to the pressure-regulating valve mini- Shutoff and Minimum Pressure Valve
mizes valve chatter.
The shutoff and minimum pressure valve is a
Throttle Valve shuttle-type valve acted upon on one side by throttle
The throttle valve, figure 3-48, is the main meter- valve discharge pressure and on the other by a
ing valve. It consists of a spring-loaded, cylindrical combination of spring force and either high-pressure
contoured valve which moves within a sharpedged fuel during shutoff or JFC body drain pressure
orifice. This valve controls the main fuel flow from during normal operation. The spring also holds
the engine pump to the fuel nozzles. Since a con- the valve closed following engine shutdown. During
stant pressure differential is maintained across the normal operation, when the spring side of the valve
throttle valve by the pressure regulating valve, each is backed up by body drain pressure, if the throttle
position of the valve represents a definite fuel flow valve discharge pressure falls below a preset value,
regardless of throttle valve discharge pressure. A the valve will move toward the "closed" position,
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Pressure line from


throttle operated
pilot valve

Minimum flow
..

I
~

Contour valve
AZB Inc..- Dec.

Forw~rddamper- @-

To valves and
servos

Differetli
fuel adi.

Bypnss tosecond
stage pump inlet

Return t- -nn;nn

.*q;
From pump
.........
FIGURE
3-48. Metering system.
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restricting flow from the fuel control until the engine, metered fuel pressure is bled through the
throttle valve discharge pressure increases again bypass line and pilot valve housing to the low pres-
to the preset value. This ensures that sufficient sure of the body cavity. Decreased metered fuel
pressure is always available for operation of the pressure also reduces the force on the spring side of
servos and valves. The metered fuel flows from the the pressure regulator diaphragm. This allows the
minimum pressure and shutoff valve to the fuel regulator valve to open more fully and bypass the
outlet of the control and then to the manifold drain pump output.
valve and the engine manifolds. If a shutdown is made during a high-pressure
operating condition (maximum power lever posi-
Throttle-Operated Pilot Valve
tion), an orifice in the windmill bypass line is so
The pressure signal which actuates the shutoff designed that pressure in the body cavity cannot
and minimum pressure valve originates from the increase to a value that could damage the fuel
throttle-operated pilot valve (figure 3-49). In ad- control.
dition to this pressure signal, the throttle-operated
pilot valve performs two other functions. The port- Computing System Operation
ing of this valve determines the sequence of these By positioning the main metering valve, the com-
functions. This pilot valve is positioned by a cam puting system selects a fuel Row for each condition
mounted on a shaft rotated by the shutoff lever in of engine operation. This fuel flow is established
the cockpit. by the position of the contour valve. Figure 3-50
In the operating or "on" position, the pilot valve is a schematic representation of the computing sys-
directs high-pressure fuel to the engine-pressurizing tem. The units that comprise this system and their
and dump valve, where it works against a spring to operation are described in the following paragraphs.
hold the dump valve closed. As previously men-
tioned, the spring side of the minimum pressure Burner Pressure Servo Assembly
and shutoff valve is exposed to the body cavity The burner pressure servo assembly controls the
drain, allowing the downstream pressure from the position of the compressor pressure servo. The
throttle valve to force the valve open. The third position of the compressor pressure servo provides
function of the throttle-operated pilot valve is to the input to the multiplying linkage which acts
block the windmill bypass line. upon the throttle valve. The burner pressure servo
When the fuel shutoff lever is moved to the "off" assembly consists of two bellows, one of which is
position, the pilot valve is repositioned by the cam. vented to burner pressure and the other is evacu-
First, the windmill bypass line is opened. The pilot- ated. The two bellows are installed, diametrically
operated throttle valve also directs high-pressure opposed, on a rigid frame with their movable ends
fuel to the spring side of the minimum pressure and connected to a common link.
shutoff valve, ensuring closing of the valve. The If burner pressure increases during operation,
valve now allows the pressure line to the engine the left bellows extends. This motion is transmitted
pressurizing and dump valve to drain into the body through a lever connected to the bellows link and
cavity, permitting the spring to open the valve, and moves the pilot valve in the compressor pressure
any fuel in the engine manifold is drained. servo. Motion of the pilot valve directs high-
During shutdown in flight, the engine windmills, pressure fuel to the governor servo chamber. The
and the engine-driven fuel pump continues to oper- cross-sectional area of the governor servo valve is
ate. Since the outflow from the fuel control is shut larger at the servo chamber end than at the oppo-
off, the pump output must be relieved. This may site end, which is acted upon by high.pressure fuel.
be done by the pump relief valve (1,000 p.s.i.) or Therefore, the increased pressure in the servo cham-
by the fuel control. To avoid the conditions of ber causes the governor servo valve to move, thus
high pump load and high temperature which ac- changing the input to the multiplying linkage of the
company relief valve operation, the bypass function throttle valve. Assuming that the governor servo is
is performed within the fuel control at a minimum stationary, an increase in burner pressure will cause
pressure. an increase in fuel flow. As the compressor pres-
The windmill bypass line brings metered fuel pres. sure servo moves, the fuel passage opened by the
sure (metered by the throttle valve) to a port in the movement of the pilot valve is gradually closed so
throttle-operated pilot valve housing. If the pilot that the servo, by following the pilot valve, assumes
valve is positioned to shut off fuel flow to the a new equilibrium position.
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Throttle oyerated
pilot va ve
7

metered pressure
'LThrottle valvr Return to engine
pump inlet

FIGURE
3-49. Throttle-operated pilot valve.
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Compressor pressure
servo assembly

Throttle valve metered pressure

Rehlrn to engine pump inlet

FIGURE
3-50. Computing system.

If burner pressure decreases, the bellows con- servo is stationary, a decrease in burner pressure
tracts, moving the pilot valve so that the governor causes a decrease in fuel flow. The compressor
servo chamber is drained to body prasure. High pressure servo valve moves to a new equilibrium
fuel pressure acting on the small area end of the posilion as it again follows the pilot valve.
governor'valve servo moves the governor servo, thus
changing the input to the multiplying linkage of Governor Servo
the throttle valve. Assuming that the governor The governor servo controls fuel flow as a func.
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tion of set speed and engine speed, taking into droop lever alters the spekder spring compression.
account the effects of CIT (compressor inlet tem- The speeder spring force on the pilot valve and the
perature) and engine operating limitations. The r.p.m. centrifugal force on the flyweights balance,
governor servo (figure 3-50) acts upon the throttle resulting in an "on-speed" equilibrium condition.
valve through the multiplying linkage and in con. Conversely, if the high compressor r.p.m. is low-
junction with the compressor pressure servo. For er than the power lever setting demands, the fly.
a discussion of the governor servo operation, it will weights move in, allowing governor servo pressure
be assumed that the compressor pressure servo valve to drain to boost pressure. This permits the high.
is stationary. pressure fuel on the opposite end of the servo to
The governor servo is a shuttle valve with high- shift it downward to increase fuel/air ratio. Repo.
pressnre fuel acting on a small area at one end and sitioning the droop lever alters speeder spring force.
servo pressure from the pilot valve of the speed The flyweight and speeder spring forces will again
governor acting on the other end. If, because of balance to an "on-speed" condition.
a change in servo pressure, the force exerted by this Operating conditions are not constant; thus, the
pressure on the large area end of the governor position of the equilibrium curve may change. This
servo is greater than that exerted by the high pres- curve is illustrated in figure 3-47. Speed-set gov.
sure on the opposite end, the governor servo moves ernor droop characteristics are utilized to provide
and, through the multiplying linkage, allows the new on-speed settings. For example, dense air
throttle valve to travel in the decrease-flow direc- may load the engine compressor, causing speed to
tion. Conversely, if the force exerted by the servo decrease. In this case the flyweight force is less
pressure is less than that exerted by the high pres- than the speeder spring force, and the pilot valve
sure, the governor servo moves and drives the throt- moves down to increase fuel flow. This corrects
tle valve in the increase-flow direction. The flow of the drop in r.p.m. The droop lever decreases
servo fuel to the governor servo is controlled by speeder spring force on the pilot valve. The droop
( 1 ) the speed governor and (2) the surge and lever sets the slightly lower final r.p.m. as the
temperature limiting pilot valve. system comes "on-speed" for the new equilibrium
condition.
FUEL SCHEDULING SYSTEM The operating conditions may cause the engine
Speed-Set Governor speed to increase. Fuel flow is decreased to correct
The speed-set governor (figure 3-51) controls the condition, but the droop lever resets the speed-
the position of the governor servo. It is a centrifu- set governor to an "on-speed" condition at slightly
gal, permanent-droop type governor driven by the higher r.p.m. The droop characteristics indirectly
engine high-speed rotor ( N 2 ) through a gear train. control maximum turbine temperature by limiting
As engine speed incteases, the flyweights tend to turbine r.p.m.
move outward, lifting the speed set pilot valve. Starting
Conversely, when engine speed decreases, the fly- During start, a proper amount of fuel must be
weights move inward and the pilot valve is lowered. supplied to ensure rapid starts while maintaining
The power lever in the cockpit positions the speed- turbine inlet temperatures within specified limits.
setting cam in the fuel control unit to manipulate When starting an engine, the fuel shutoff lever is
a system of levers and thus rontrol the compression not moved until approximately 12 to 16% r.p.m. is
of the speeder spring. The speeder spring exerts indicated on the tachometer. At this speed the
force on the speed-set pilot valve. The condition shutoff lever is moved to the "on" position. The
of "on-cpeed" indicates the speedrr spring force and light-up speed has now been attained, but cranking
the flyweight force are equal. must continue until the engine can accelerate beyond
When the r.p.m. exceeds that for which the its self-sustaining speed. When the shutoff lever
power lever is set, the flyweights of the speed-set has been advanced to the "on" position, acceleration
governor move out, lifting the pilot valve. This proceeds as follows: (1) the power lever calls for
meters high-pressure fuel to the governor servo maximum increase of fuel flow, and (2) the speed-
through the override check valve. The servo moves set cam positions the speed linkage so that the
upward, causing a decrease in fuel/air ratio. As speed-set governor speeder spring is compressed
the governor servo position is altered, the droop beyond the force required to counterbalance the
lever moves about a pivot point. Movement of the forces of the centrifugal flyweights.
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FIGURE
3-51. Scheduling system.
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At start, the flyweights are turning so slowly that speed-sensing nnit driven by the engine through a
the speeder spring force is greater than the fly- gear train. A pilot valve is balanced between a
weight force, and the speed-setting pilot valve is fixed spring and flyweight forces. The flyweights
moved down. This exposes the governor servo do not move the 3-D cam directly. The cam is
pressure line to body drain, and the high pressure positioned by the 3-D cam translational servo con-
at the opposite end of the governor servo drives nected to the cam. The cam servo has high-
the servo downward to increase fuel flow. This ac- pressure fuel (7-50 p.s.i.) acting on its small area
. -
tion is reuresented bv, points 1 and 2 in figure 3-47. at all times. The large area of the 3-D cam servo
either is acted upon by high-~ressurefuel from the
Surge a n d Temperature Limiting Valve engine fuel pump or is vented to the fuel control
This limiting valve (figure 3-51) overrides the body drain.
action of the speed governor during rapid accelera- As engine speed increases, the flyweights move
tions to ensure that surge and temperature opera- outward. The force of the flyweights plus the feed-
tional limits of the engine are not exceeded. The back spring moves the pilot valve downward,
position of the limiting pilot valve is controlled by compressing the fixed spring. The pilot valve opens
a linkage. The linkage is actuated by the governor the port from the large area of the 3-D cam servo.
servo position and by engine r.p.m. and compressor When the servo pressure in the chamber is directed
inlet temperiture. to the body drain cavity, the high-pressure fuel
During steady state operation, a passage through acting on the small area lifts the cam servo piston
the limiting valve is open between the speed gover- and cam upward. As the cam translates (moves
nor and the governor servo, allowing a flow of fuel vertically], the force on the feedback spring is
so that the governor servo will be controlled by the decreased. This increases the net force opposing
speed governor. During rapid accelerations, how- the flyweight force. The result is that the pilot
ever, the limiting pilot valve is moved to restrict or valve re-centers itself and the cam servo stops
block this passage. Pressure is thus metered across moving.
the land of the limiting pilot valve, which will move When engine speed is reduced, the fixed spring
the governor servo to control the fuel flow to the forces the flyweights inward, allowing the fixed
engine at the maximum safe rate. spring to displace the pilot valve upward. This
As the engine reaches the set r.p.m., the speed directs high-pressure fuel to the cam servo chamber.
governor will direct high-pressure fuel to the gover- The servo and the cam move downward. As the
nor servo to decrease fuel flow. Since the passage cam translates, the increased force on the feedback
through the limiting pilot valve may still be blocked, spring re-centers the pilot valve.
an override check valve is provided so that the
high-pressure fuel can bypass the blocked passage, Engine Overspeed Proteeion
reach the governor servo, and decrease the fuel If the r.p.m. signal to the fuel control is disrupted,
flow to avoid speed overshoot. As the governor the speed-set governor will react as though an
servo moves to decrease fuel flow, the limiting pilot engine underspeed condition exists. The speeder
valve will be returned to the "steady state" operat- spring forces the pilot valve down and dumps gover-
ina-.
position. nor servo pressure. The governor servo calls for
more fuel, which tends to overspeed the engine.
Three-Dimensional Cam a n d Translating Unit
The 3-D cam translating pilot valve is also posi-
The three-dimensional cam operates through link- tioned by an r.p.m. signal. With the r.p.m. signal
ages to provide a speed surge limit input to the disrupted, the fixed spring pushes the pilot valve
surge and temperature limiting valve and a force upward. High-pressure fuel is directed through the
input to the speed governor speeder spring. The pilot valve and forces the cam servo and ,3-D cam
3-D cam is actually two cams on a common shaft. downward to the zero 7% r.p.m. position. The cam
Two separate contours (cams) have been machined contour at zero % r.p.m. provides a known, constant
on its surface. One contoured surface biases the fuel flow. This action prevents the scheduling of
surge and temperature limiting valve position. The excess fuel and protects the engine against overspeed
other cam surface is ineffective in the JFC12-11 if the fuel control drive fails.
fuel control. The 3-D cam and translating nnit are
shown in figure 3-52. Engine Acceleration
Engine r.p.m. is sensed by a centrifugal flyweight The acceleration schedule is shown as points 4, 5,
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Pump discharge
....i.s. pressure

~crvopressnre

Return to engine pump inlet

Fixed spring J
Pilot valve position
adjustment
FIGURE
3-52. Three-dimensional cam and translating unit.

6,7,8,and 9 in figure 3-47. Governor servo posi- acceleration, the power lever in the cockpit is moved
tioning is similar to that of the starting schedule. toward "takeoff," causing an immediate jump in
At "idle," the engine is operating at the left end of fuel flow.
the equilibrium curve at point 4. To initiate As the power lever is moved, the speed-set cam
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increases the load on the speeder spring. This ated lever linkage to the speed governor speeder
increase of speeder spring force causes the speed spring, increasing the fokce of the speeder spring
governor pilot valve to move down, allowing servo and increasing the set speed. Because the resulting,
pressure to drain from the large area end of the r.p.m. will usually be higher while water is flowing,
governor servo. High pressure at the opposite increased thrust during water injection is ensured.
end forces the governor servo down to increase If the water injection system is uot armed in the
fuel/air ratio. This action is represented between cockpit or if there is no water available, nothing
points 4 and 5. happens when the water injection switch in the fuel
Fuel scheduling during acceleration from points control unit is actuated. When water is available,
5 and 8 is similar to the operation discussed under a portion of it is directed to the water injection
starting with the power lever set at idle. speed re-set servo.
Beyond point 8, governor-droop characteristics JET FUEL CONTROL MAINTENANCE
reduce the fuel/air ratio as compressor speed in- The repair of-the jet fuel control is very limited.
creases until equilibrium operation is achieved at
The only repairs permitted in the field are the
point 9. replacement of the control and adjustments after-
Engine Deceleration wards. These adjustments are limited to the idle
When deceleration is desired, the power lever in r.p.m. and the maximum speed adjustment, com-
the cockpit is retarded, reducing the speeder spring monly called trimming the engine. Both adjust-
compression. The speed governor pilot valve moves ments are made in the normal range of operation.
up (from centrifugal forces), and high-pressure During engine trimming the fuel control is
fuel is directed to the underside of the governor checked for idle r.p.m., maximum r.p.m., accelera-
servo through the override check valve. This tion, and deceleration. The procedures used to
moves the governor servo up to minimum ratio, check the fuel control vary depending on the air-
represented as point 1 0 in figure 3-47. The fuel craft and engine installation.
flow from point 10 - 11 is determined by the posi- The engine is trimmed in accordance with the
tion of the compressor pressure servo. The burner procedures in the maintenance or overhaul manual
pressure schedules the fuel flow as the engine drops for a particular engine. In general, the procedure
in r.p.m. This continues until the throttle valve consists of obtaining the ambient air temperature
itself comes against its minimum flow stop, where it and the field barometric pressure (not sea level)
can close no further. This is point 11- 12 on the immediately preceding the trimming of the engine.
curve. The minimum flow limit represents the Care must be taken to obtain a true temperature
minimum self-sustaining ability of the engine. The reading comparable to that of the air which will
minimum fuel/air ratio is scheduled to avoid the enter the engine. Using these readings, the desired
lean flameout areas. turbine discharge pressure or EPR (engine pressure
ratio) reading is computed from charts published
WATER INJECTION RE-SET SYSTEM in the maintenance manual.
On warm days, thrust is reduced because of the The engine is operated at full throttle (or at the
decrease in air density. This can be compensated fuel control trim stop) for a sufficient period of time
for by injecting water at the compressor inlet or to ensure that it has completely stabilized. Five
diffuser case. This lowers the air temperature and minutes is the usual recommended stabilization
increases air density. A microswitch in the fuel period. A check should he made to ensure that the
control is actuated by the control shaft when the compressor air-bleed valves have fully closed and
power lever is moved toward the maximum power that all accessory drive air bleed for which the trim
position. curve has not been corrected (such as a cabin air-
A water injection speed re-set servo, figure 3-53, conditioning unit) has been turned off.
re-sets the speed adjustment to a higher value during When the engine has stabilized, a comparison is
water injection. Without this adjustment, the fuel made of the observed and the computed turbine
control would decrease r.p.m. so that no additional discharge pressure (or EPR) to determine the
thrust would be realized during water injection. approximate amount of trimming required. If a
The servo is a shuttle valve which is acted upon trim is necessary, the engine fuel control is then
by water pressure during water injection. Move- adjusted to obtain the target turbine discharge pres-
ment of the servo displaces a lever on the cam-oper- sure or EPR on the gage. Immediately following
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Fuel shutoff
lever

FIGURE
3-53. Water injection re-setsystem.

168
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the fuel control adjustment, the tachometer reading fuel pumps must be capable of delivering the maxi.
is observed and recorded. Fuel flow and exhaust mum needed flow at high pressure to obtain satis-
gas temperature readings should also he taken. factory nozzle spray and accurate fuel regulation.
On Pratt and Whitney engines, using a dual-spool Fuel pumps for turbojet engines are generally
compressor, the observed Nz tachometer reading is positive displacement gear or piston types. The
next corrected for speed bias by means of tempera- term "positive displacement" means that the gear or
piston will supply a fixed quantity of fuel to thr
ture/r.p.m. curve. The observed tachometer read- engine for every revolution of the pump gears or for
ing is divided by the percent trim speed obtained each stroke of the piston.
from the curve. The result is the new engine trim These fuel pumps may be divided into two dis-
speed in percent, corrected to standard day (59' F. tinct system categories: (1) Constant displacement
or 15' C.) temperature. The new trim speed in and (2) variable displacement. Their use depends
r.p.m. may be calculated when the r.p.m. at which on the system used to regulate the flow of fuel to the
the tachometer reads 100% is known. This value fuel controls. This may be a pressure relief valve
may be obtained from the appropriate engine man- (barometric unit) for constant displacement (gear)
ual. If all these procedures have been performed pumps, or a method for regulating pump output in
satisfactorily, the engine has been properly trimmed. the variable displacement (piston) pumps.
Engine trimming should always be carried out Constant Displacement Pump
under precisely controlled conditions with the air- Gear-type pumps have approximately straight line
craft headed into the wind. Precise control is flow characteristics, whereas fuel requirements fluc-
necessary to ensure maintenance of a minimum tuate with flight or ambient air conditions. Hence,
thrust level upon which the aircraft performance is a pump of adequate capacity at all engine operating
based. In addition, precise control of engine trim- conditions will have excess capacity over most of
ming contributes to better engine life in terms of the range of operation. This is the characteristic
both maximum time between overhaul and minimum which requires the use of a pressure relief valve for
out-of-commission time due to engine maintenance disposing of excess fuel. A typical constant dis-
requirements. Engines should never be trimmed if placement gear-type pump is illustrated in figure
icing conditions exist. 5-54. The impeller, which is driven at a greater
speed than the high-pressure elements, increases the
ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
fuel pressure from 15 to 45 p.s.i., depending upon
Main Fuel Pumps (Engine-Driven) engine speed.
Main fuel pumps deliver a continuous supply of The fuel is discharged from the boost element
fuel at the proper pressure and at all times during (impeller) to the two high-pressure gear elements.
operation of the aircraft engine. The engine-driven Each of these elements discharges fuel through a

inlet

I (
Bypass itlel inlet
High pressure gear element

FIGURE
3-54. Engine-driven fuel pump.
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check valve to a common discharge port. The high. a pressure-drop warning switch, which illuminates
pressure elements deliver approximately 51 gallons a warning light on the cockpit instrument panel.
per minute at a discharge pressure of 850 p.s.i.g. If ice begins to collect on the filter surface, the pres-
Shear sections are incorporated in the drive sys- sure across the filter will slowly decrease. When the
tems of each element. Thus, if one element fails, pressure reaches a predetermined value, the warning
the other element continues to operate. The check light flashes on.
valves prevent circulation through the inoperative
Fuel deicing systems are designed to be used
element. One element can supply enough fuel to
maintain moderate aircraft speeds. intermittently. The control of the system may be
A relief valve is incorporat~din the discharge manual, by a switch in the cockpit, or automatic,
port of the pump. This valve opens at approxi- using a thermostatic sensing element in the fuel
mately 900 p.s.i. and is capable of bypassing the heater to open or close the air or oil shutdff valve.
total flow at 960 p.s.i. This allows fuel in excess of A fuel heater that is automatic in operation is illus-
that required for engine operation to be recircu- trated in figure 3-55.
lated. The bypass fuel is routed to the inlet side of
Fuel Filters
the two high-pressure elements.
A low-pressure filter is installed between the sup-
Variable Displacement Pump
The variable displacement pump system differs ply tanks and the engine fuel system to protect the
from the constant displacement pump system. Pump engine-driven fuel pump and various control devices.
displacement is changed to meet varying fuel flow An additional high-pressure fuel filter is installed
requirements; that is, the amount of fuel discharged between the fuel pump and the fuel control to pro-
from the pump can be made to vary at any one tect the fuel control from contaminants.
speed. With a pump of variable flow, the applicable The three most common types of filters in use are
fuel control unit can automatically and accurately the micron filter, the wafer screen filter, and the
regulate the pump pressure and delivery to the plain screen mesh fiIter. The individual use of each
engine. of these filters is dictated by the filtering treatment
Where variable displacement pumps are installed, required at a particular location.
two similar pumps are provided, connected in paral- The micron filter (figure 3-56) has the greatest
lel. Either pump can carry the load if the other filtering action of any present-day filter type and,
fails during normal parallel operations. At times as the name implies, is rated in microns. (A micron
one pump may be insufficient to meet power require- is the thousandth part of 1 millimeter.) The porous
ments. Pump duplication increases safety in oper. cellulose material frequently used in construction of
ation, especially during takeoffs and landings. the filter cartridges is capable of removing foreign
The positive displacement, variable-stroke type matter measuring from 1 0 to 25 microns. The
pump incorporates a rotor, a piston, a maximum minute openings make this type of filter susceptible
speed governor, and a relief valve mechanism. to clogging; therefore, a bypass valve is a necessary
safety factor.
Fuel Heater Since the micron filter does such a thorough job
Gas turbine engine fuel systems are very suscep- of removing foreign matter, it is especially valuable
tible to the formation of ice in the fuel filters. When between the fuel tank and engine. The cellulose
the fuel in the aircraft fuel tanks cools to 32' F., or material also absorbs water, preventing it from
below, residual water in the fuel tends to freeze passing through the pumps. If water does seep
when it contacts the filter screen. through the filter, which happens occasionally when
A fuel heater operates as a heat exchanger to filter elements become saturated with water, the
warm the fuel. The heater can use engine bleed air water can and does quickly damage the working
or engine lubricating oil as a source of heat. The elements of the fuel pump and control units, since
former type is called an air-to-liquid exchanger, these elements depend solely on the fuel for their
and the latter type is known as a liquid-to-liquid lubrication. To reduce water damage to pumps and
exchanger. control units, periodic servicing and replacement of
The function of a fuel heater is to protect the filter elements is imperative! Daily draining of fuel
engine fuel system from ice formation. However, tank sumps and low-pressure filters will eliminate
should ice form, the heater can also be used to thaw much filter trouble and prevent undue maintenance
ice on the fuel screen. of pumps and fuel control units.
In some installations the fuel filter is fitted with The most widely used filter is the 200-mesh and
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Fuel .-:-
Compressor -*

Fuel temperature sensor Coaling fins Air shu;off 4


Air inlet

Fuel heater.

the 35-mesh micron filters. They are used in fuel rial. This type of filter is capable of removing
pumps, fuel controls, and between the fuel pump micronic-size particles. It also has the strength to
and fuel control where removal of micronic-size withstand high pressure.
particles is needed. These filters, usually made of The plain screen mesh filter is the most common
fine-mesh steel wire, are a series of layers of wire. type. It has long been used in internal-combustion
The wafer screen type of filter (figure 3-57) has engines of all types for fuel and oil strainers. In
a replaceable element, which is made of layers of present-day turbojet engines it is used in units
screen disks of bronze, brass, steel, or similar mate- where filtering action is not so critical, such as in
fuel lines before the high-pressure pump filters.
The mesh size of this type of filter varies greatly
according to the purpose for which it is used.
Fuel Spray Nozzles a n d Fuel Manifolds
Although fuel spray nozzles are an integral part
of the fuel system, their design is closely related to
the type of combustion chamber in which they are
installed. The fuel nozzles inject fuel into the com.
bustion area in a highly atomized, precisely pat-
terned spray so that burning is completed evenly
and in the shortest possible time and in the smallest
possible space. It is very important that the fuel be
evenly distributed and well centered in the flame
area within the liners. This is to preclude the for-

Drain mck v -' +4 4


mation of any hot spots in the combustion chambers
and to prevent the flame burning through the liner.
' ?
&- Fuel nozzle types vary considerably between en-
gines, although for the most part fuel is sprayed into
the combustion area under pressure through small
FIGURE3-56. Aircraft fuel filter. orifices in the nozzles. .The two types of fuel nozzles
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Filter head O-ring Filter sump

uman h a i r i s a b o u t
100 m i c r o n s i n d i a m e t e r

25,400 m i c r o n s
= 1 inch
FIGURE
3-57. Wafer screen filter.
generally used are the simplex and the duplex con- screen. A drilled passage in the nozzle stem directs
figurations. The duplex nozzle usually requires a the fuel through a second screen and into the pri-
dual manifold and a pressurizing valve or flow mary spin chamber. The entry ports to the spin
divider for dividing primary and main fuel flow, chamber are drilled to cause an abrupt change in
but the simplex nozzle requires only a single mani- direction of the fuel as it enters the chamber, thus,
fold for proper fuel delivery. imparting a spinning motion to the fuel. The spin-
The fuel nozzles can he constructed to he installed ning motion of the fuel establishes the spray angle
in various ways. The two methods used quite fre- and aids in atomization of the fuel for better com-
quently are: (1) External mounting wherein a bustion. Fuel from the spin chamber is discharged
mounting pad is provided for attachment of the through the primary spray tip into the combustion
nozzles to the case or the inlet air elbow, with the liner.
nozzle near the dome; or (2) internal mounting at
the liner dome, in which case the chamber cover Operating Principle
must he removed for replacement or maintenance When fuel pressure reaches approximately 90
of the nozzle. p.s.i.g., the pressure opens the flow divider and fuel
.
Sim~lexFuel Nozzle
~~ - ~ -
~ ~ ~~~
is directed into a second drilled passage in the stem.
Fuel from the secondary passag' is directed into the
The simplex fuel nozzle was the first type nozzle
used in turbojet engines and was replaced in most the
installations with the duplex nozzle, which gave secondary spin chamber is discharged through the
better atomization at starting and idling speeds, the liners.
The simplex nozzle (figure 3-58) is still being used Figure 3-60 illustrates the spray pattern of a typical
to a limited degree. Each of the simplex nozzles nozzle'
consists of a nozzle tip, an insert, and a strainer A small quantity of air is scooped out of the main
made up of fine-mesh screen and a support. airstream by the shroud around the nozzle tip, to
cool the nozzle tip. In addition, the cooling airflow
Duplex Fuel Nozzle improves combustion by retarding the accumulation
The dudex fuel nozzle is the nozzle most widelv of carbon deuosits on the face of the nozzle. and hv
used in present-day gas turbine engines. As men- providing some of the air .for combustion, which
tioned previously, its use requires a flow divider,
hut at the same time it offers a desirable spray pat-
tern for combustion over a wide range of operat-
ing pressures. A nozzle typical of this type is
illustrated in figure 3-59.
Flow Divider
A flow divider in each nozzle creates primary and
secondary fuel supplies which are discharged
through separate, concentric spray tips, thus provid-
ing the proper spray angle at all fuel flows. Fuel
enters the &let of the nozzle and passes through a FIGURE
3-58. A typical simplex fuel nozzle.
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Scmn

inlet port

discharge air

FIGURE
3-59. Duplex fuel nozzle.

helps contain the fire in the center of the liner. to a major degree after-fires and carbonization of
the fuel nozzles. Carbonization occurs because
Fuel Pressurizing a n d Dump Valves combustion chamber temperatures are lowered and
The fuel pressurizing valve is usually required on the fuel is not completely burned.
engines incorporating duplex fuel nozzles to divide A typical example of this arrangement is the fuel
the flow into primary and main manifolds. At the pressurizing and dump valve used on the Pratt and
fuel flows required for starting and altitude idling, Whitney JT3 engine. This valve performs two
all the fuel passes through the primary line. As major functions as indicated by its name: (I)
the fuel flow increases, the valve begins to open the During engine operation it divides metered fuel
main line until at maximum Bow the main line is flow into two portions, primary and secondary, as
passing approximately 90% of the fuel. required for atomization at the fuel nozzles; and
Fuel pressurizing valves will usually trap fuel (2) at engine shutdown it provides a dump system
forward of the manifold, giving a positive cutoff. which connects the fuel manifolds to an overboard
This cutoff prevents fuel from dribbling into the drain.
manifold and through the fuel nozzles, eliminating A flow divider performs essentially the same
function as a pressurizing valve. It is used, as the
name implies, to divide flow to the duplex fuel
nozzles. It is not unusual for units performing
identical functions to havp different nomenclature
between engines.

Drain Valves
The drain valves are units used for draining fuel
from the various components of the engine where
accumulated fuel is most likely to present operating
problems. The possibility of combustion chamber
accumulation with the resultant fire hazard is one
problem. A residual problem is leaving lead and/or
gum deposits, after evaporation, in such places a s
fuel manifolds and fuel nozzles.
In some instances the fuel manifolds are drained
FIGURE
3-60. Duplex nozzle spray pattern. by an individual unit known a s a drip or dump
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valve. This type of valve may operate by pressure augment tbe thrust output. Water injection is a
differential, or it may be solenoid operated. means of increasiug engine thrust. It reduces hot
The combustion chamber drain valve drains either section temperatures, fuel flow can be increased
fuel which accumulates in the combustion chamber and greater thrust thrrrby obtained.
after each shutdown or fuel that may have accumu- Thrust increase is particularly desirable. at take-
lated during a false start. If the combustion cham- off when an aircraft engine is called upon for the
greatest output of power, therefore the water injec-
bers are the can type, fuel will drain by gravity down tion system is designed to function only at high
through the flame tubes or interconnecter tubes until engine power.
it gathers in the lower chambers, which are fitted The effect upon engine thrust depends upon thr
with drain lines to the drain valve. If the combus- type of coolant used, the proportion of the in-
tion chamber is of the basket or annular type, the gredients, and the quantity of thr coolant flow.
fuel will merely drain through the airholes in the For effective cooling, a liquid with a high heat of
liner and accumulate in a trap in the bottom of the vaporization is required. Water, is tllc most desir-
chamber housing, which is connected to the drain able coolant. Alcohol is added occasionally ill
line. varying proportions, rither to lower the freezing
After the fuel accumulates in the drain lines, the poiut of the coolant or to eliminate the need for
separate enrichment of the fuel mixture, which
drain valve allows the fuel to be drained whenever
might be necessary if only pure water were used.
pressure within the manifold or the burner(s) has When alcohol is added, some sinall amount of ad-
been reduced to near atmospheric pressure. It is ditional thrust may be produced as tlie alcohol is
imperative that this valve be in good working con- bur~ird. However, the efficiency of tlir combustion
dition to drain accumulated fuel after each shut- of the alcohol is usually quite low. The heating
down. Otherwise, a hot start during the next start- value of methyl or ethyl alcohol is only about half
ing attempt or an after-fire after shutdown is likely that of kerosene or gasoline. Most of the flow oE
to occur. the alcohol/air mixture will not pass through that
part of the combustion zone where temperatures
FUEL QUANTITY INDICATING UNITS are high enough to support efficient combustion of
Fuel quantity units vary from one installation to tlie weak alcohol/air mixture.
the next. A fuel counter or indicator, mounted on Vrry few powerplants using water injection are
the instrument panel, is electrically connected to a in use today.
flowmeter installed in the fuel line to the engine.
The fuel counter, or totalizer, is similar in appear- Water Injection System Operation
ance to an automobile odometer. When the aircraft A typical dual water injection system is illustrated
is serviced with fuel, the counter is manually set to in figure 3-61. The dual system is actually two
the total number of pounds of fuel in all tanks. As independent systems. One system injects water at
fuel passes through the measuring element of the the compressor inlet section of the engine. Thrust
flowmeter, it sends electrical impulses to the fuel is augmented largely through the effect of increas-
counter. These impulses actuate the fuel counter ing mass airflow. The other system injects water
mechanism so that the number of pounds passing to into the engine diffuser case. Thii system increases
the engine is subtracted from the original reading. thrust largely through the cooling principle which
Thus, the fuel counter continually shows the total permits higher fuel flows.
quantity of fuel, in pounds, remaining in the air-
The water injection system is designed for dual
craft. However, there are certain conditions which
operation at ambient temperatures above 40' F.
will cause the fuel counter indication to be inaccu-
rate. Any jettisoned fuel is indicated on the fuel
(5' C.). At temperatures up to 40' F., compressor
inlet injection should not be used because of the
counter as fuel still available for use. Any fuel
hazardous inlet icing that could occur.
which leaks from a tank or a fuel line upstream of
the flowmeter is not counted. Water from the aircraft tank system is routed to
two shutoff valves which govern flow to the two
WATER OR COOLANT INJECTION water injection controls. The shutoff valves are
The sensitivity of turbine engines to compressor armed by the actuation of a cockpit switch. The
inlet temperature results in an appreciable loss of selected valve(s) open or close upon receipt of an
available thrust, or power in the case of a turboprop electrical signal from the fuel control water injec-
engine, on a hot day. It is sometimes necessary to tion switch. With the power lever advanced to
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takeoff, this switch supplies an "open" signal to the control is directed to a manifold and is sprayed
selected shutoff valve(s). Conversely, when the directly into the compressor at this point. Water
power lever is retarded below the water turn-on from the diffuser case control passes through a check
point, the switch supplies a "close" signal to the valve and is then directed to a split manifold from
shutoff valve(s) . which it is sprayed into the diffuser case. When the
Water from the open shutoff valve flows to the water injection system is not in use, the check valve
water injection controls. Since the water injkction prevents high-temperature compressor discharge air
system is used only when power settings are at, or from backing up into the water injection system
near, their maximum, the controls do not vary or plumbing, where it might damage the controls or
meter water flow. Instead, they maintain a con- valves.
stant pressure head across a fixed orifice, thereby Drain valves located downstream of the water
maintaining a constant water flow to the engine. shutoff valves d r a i ~the engine water lines when the
Water from the compressor inlet water injection injection system is.turned off, thus preventing water
from freezing in these lines.

Diffuser case

Compressor inlet

sensing drain valve

FIGURE
3--61. A typical water injection system.
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CHAPTER 4
ENGINE IGNITION AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

RECIPROCATING ENGINE IGNITION SYSTEMS


The basic requirements for reciprocating engine
ignition systems are the same, regardless of the type
of engine involved or the make of the components
of the ignition system. All ignition systems must
deliver a high-tension spark to each cylinder of the
engine in firing order at a predetermined number
of degrees ahead of the top dead center position of
the piston. The voltage output of the system must
be such that the spark will jump the gap in the
spark plug under all operating conditions.
Ignition systems can be divided into two clas-
sifications: battery-ignition or magneto-ignition FIGURE
4-1. Battery ignition system.
systems.
to the engine so that a spark occurs only when the
Ignition systems are also classified , a s either piston is on the proper stroke at a specified number
single or dual-ignition systems. The single-ignition of crankshaft degrees before the topdead-center
system, usually consisting of one magneto and the ......
.-...norition.
- -.
necessary wiring, was used on most small-volume, Aircraft magneto ignition systems can be classis
slow-speed engines. The single-ignition system is fied as either high tension or low tension. The
still use On a few small, O ~ ~ O s e d -light
aircraft engines.
t~~e
-
low.tension mameto svstem. covered in a later
tion of this chapter, generates a low voltage, which
BATTERY IGNITION SYSTEM is distributed to a transformer coil near each spark
plug. This system eliminates some problems inher-
A few aircraft still use a battery ignition system. ent in the high-tension system.
In this system, the source of energy is a battery or
The high-tension magneto system is the older of
rather than a This 'ystem is the two systems and, despite some disadvantages, is
similar to that used in most automobiles. A cam still the most used aircraft ignition system.
-
driven bv the engine oDens a set of ooints to inter-
rupt the 'flow of curreni in a prima& circuit. High-Tension Magneto System
The high-tension magneto system can be divided,
resulting collapsing magnetic field induces a high
for purposes of discussion, into three distinct cir-
voltage in the secondary of the ignition coil, which
cuits. These are: (1) Thd magnetic, (2) the pri-
is directed by a distributor to the proper cylinder.
mary electrical, and (3) the secondary electrical
Figure 4-1 shows a simplified schematic of a battery
ignition system. circuits.
The magnetic circuit consists of a permanent
lGNITION SYSTEM OPERATINGPRIN- multipole rotating magnet, a soft iron core, and
CIPLES
The magneto, a special type of engine.driven a.c.
- -
oole shoes. The maenet is eeared to the aircraft
engine and rotates in the gap between two pole
generator, uses a permanent magnet as a source shoes to furnish the magnetic lines of force (flux)
of energy. The magneto develops the high voltage necessary to produce an electrical voltage. The
which forces a spark to jump across the spark plug poles of the magnet are arranged in alternate polar-
gap in each cylinder. Magneto operation is timed ity so that the flux can pass out of the north pole
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Coil core

I. Flux to right
No flux Flux to left

0' 45" 90"


A B C
FIGURE
4-2. Magnetic flux at three positions of the rotating magnet.

through the coil core and back to the south pole of where one of the poles of the magnet is centered
the magnet. When the magnet is in the position between the pole shoes of the magnetic circuit. As
shown in A of figure 4-2, the number of magnetic the magnet is moved clockwise from this position,
lines of force through the coil core is maximum the lines of flux that had been short-circuited through
because two magnetically opposite poles are per- the pole-shoe ends begin to flow through the coil
fectly aligned with the pole shoes. core again. But this time the flux lines flow though
This position of the rotating magnet is called the the coil core in the opposite direction, as shown in
"full-register" position and produces a maximum C of figure 4-2. The flux flow reverses as the mag-
number of magnetic lines of force (flux flow) clock- net moves out of the neutral position because the
wise through the magnetic circuit and from left to north pole of the rotating permanent magnet is
right through the coil core. When the magnet is opposite the right pole shoe instead of the left, as
moved away from the full register position, the illustrated in A of figure 4-2.
amount of flux passing through the coil core begins When the magnet is again moved a total of 90,
to decrease. This results because the magnet's poles another full-register position is reached, with a
are moving away from the pole shoes, allowing some maximum flux flow in the opposite direction. The
lines of flux to take a shorter path through the ends 90' of magnet travel is illustrated graphically in
of the pole shoes. figure 4-3, where a curve shows how the flux density
in the coil core (without a primary coil around the
As the magnet moves farther and farther from
core) changes as the magnet is rotated.
the full-register position, more and more lines of
Figure 4-3 shows that as the magnet moves from
flux are short-circuited through the pole-shoe ends.
the full-register position (O0), flux flow decreases
FinalIy, at the neutral position (45O from the full.
and reaches a zero value as it moves into the neutral
register position) all flux lines are short-circuited,
position (45'). While the magnet moves through
and no flux flows through the coil core (Bof figure
the neutral position, flux flow reverses and begins
4-2). As the magnet moves from full register to to increase as indicated by the curve below the hori-
the neutral position, the number of flux lines through zontal line. At the 90" position another position of
the coil core decreases in the same manner as the maximum flux is reached. Thus, for one revolution
gradual collapse of flux in the magnetic field of an (360") of the four-pole magnet, there will be four
ordinary electromagnet. positions of maximum flux, four positions of zero
The neutral position of the magnet is that position flux, and four flux reversals.
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Neutral closed, the primary electrical circuit is completed,


and the rotating magnet will induce current flow in
the primary circuit. This current flow generates its
own magnetic field, which is in such a direction that
it opposes any change in the magnetic flux of the
Full register permanent magnet's circuit.
FIGURE
4-3. Change in flux density as magnet While the induced current is flowing in the pri-
rotates. mary circuit, it will oppose any decrease in the
magnetic flux in the core. This is in accordance
This discussion of the magnetic circuit demon- with Lenz's law, stated as follows: "An induied
strates how the coil core is affected by the rotating current always flows in such a direction that its
magnet. It is subjected to an increasing and de- magnetism opposes the motion or the change that
creasing magnetic field, and a change in polarity induced it." (For a review of Lenz's law, refer to
each 90' of magnet travel. the Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics General
Handbook, AC 65-9, Chapter 8.) Thus, the
When a coil of wire as part of the magneto's pri-
current flowing in the primary circuit holds the flux
mary electrical circuit is wound around the coil
in the core at a high value in one direction until the
core, it is also affected by the varying magnetic field.
rotating magnet has time to rotate through the
The primary electrical circuit (figure 4 4 ) con- neutral position, to a point a few degrees beyond
sists of a set of breaker contact points, a condenser, neutral. This position is called the E-gap position
and an insulated coil. (E stands for "efficiency").
The coil is made up of a few turns of heavy cop- With the magnetic rotor in E-gap position and
per wire, one end of which is grounded to the coil the primary coil holding the magnetic field of the
core, and the other end to the ungrounded aide of magnetic circuit in the opposite polarity, a very high
the breaker points. (See figure 4 4 ) The primary rate of flux change can be obtained by opening the
circuit is complete only when the ungrounded break- primary breaker points. Opening the breaker
er point contacts the grounded breaker point. The points stops the flow of current in the primary cir-
third unit in the circuit, the condenser (capacitor), cuit, and allows the magnetic rotor to quickly
is wired in parallel with the breaker points. The
reverse the field through the coil core. This sudden
condenser prevents arcing at the points when the flux reversal produces a high rate of flux change in
circuit is opened, and hastens the collapse of the the core, which cuts across the secondary coil of the
magnetic field about the primary coil. magneto (wound over and insulated from the pri-
The primary breaker closes at approximately full- mary coil), inducing the pulse of high-voltage cur-
register position. When the breaker points are rent in the secondary needed to fire a spark plug.
As the rotor continues to rotate to approximately
Primary coil full-register position, the primary breaker points
Breaker contact voints
close again and the cycle is repeated to fire the next
spark plug in firing order.
The sequence of events can now be reviewed in
greater detail to explain how the state of extreme
magnetic stress occurs.
With the breaker points, cam, and condenser
connected in the circuit as shown in figure 4-5, the
action that takes place as the magnetic rotor turns
is depicted by the graph curve in figure 4-6. At the
top (A) of figure W5 the original static flux curve
of the magnets is shown. Shown below the static
flux curve is the sequence of opening and closing the
magneto breaker points. Note that opening and
closing the breaker points is timed by the breaker
FIGURE
4 A Primary electrical circuit of a cam. The points close when a maximum amount of
high-tension magneto. flux is passing through the coil core and open at a
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Coil winding discharges across the gap in the spark plug


(About 180 turns no. 18 wire) to ignite the fuel/air mixture in the engine cylinder
Each spark actually consists of one peak discharge,
after which a series of small bscillations takes place.
They continue to occur until the voltage becomes
too low to maintain the discharge. Current flows
in the secondary winding during the time that it
takes for the spark to completely discharge. Thc
energy or stress in the magnetic circuit is com-
pletely dissipated by the time the contacts close for
the production of the next spark.
Breaker Assembly
Breaker assemblies, used in high-tension magneto
ignition systems, automatically open and close the
primary circuit at the proper time in relation to
piston position in the cylinder to which an ignition
spark is being furnished. The interruption of the
primary current flow is accomplished through a pair
of hreaker contact points, made of an alloy which
resists pitting and burning.
Most breaker points used in aircraft ignition sys-
FIGURE
4-5. Components of a high-tension tems are of the pivotless type, in which one of the
breaker points is movable and the other stationary
magneto circuit.
(see figure 4-7). The movahle hreaker point
position after neutral. Since there are four lobes on attached to the leaf spring is insulated from the
the cam, the hreaker points will close and open in magneto housing and is connected to the primary
the same relation to each of the four neutral posi- coil (figure 4-7). The stationary breaker point is
tions of the rotor magnet. Also, the point opening grounded to the magneto housing to complete thc
and point closing intervals are approximately equal. primary circuit when the points are closed, and can
Starting at the maximum flux position (marked he adjusted so that the points can open at the proper
" 0,)
0 at the top of figure 4-6), the sequence of time.
events in the following paragraphs occurs. Another part of the hreaker assembly is the cam
As the magnet rotor is turned toward the neutral follower which is spring-loaded against the cam by
position, the amount of flux through the core starts the metal leaf spring. The cam follower is a Micarta
to decrcase ( D of figure 4-6). This change in flux hlock (or similar material) which rides the cam
linkages induces a currrnt in the primary winding and moves upward to force the movahle breaker
( C of figure 4-6). This induced current creates a contact away from the stationary hreaker contact
magnetic field of its own. This magnetic field op- each time a lobe of the cam passes beneath the fol-
poses the change of flux linkages inducing the cur- lower. A felt oiler pad is located on the underside
rent. Without current flowing in the primary coil, of the metal spring leaf to lubricate and prevent
the flux in the coil core decreases to zero as the corrosion of the cam.
magnet rotor turns to neutral, and starts to increase A simpler type of breaker assemhly may still be
in thc opposite direction (dotted static flux curve in found on some aircraft engines in the lower power
D of figure 4-6). But the electromagnetic action range. This type, called the pivot type, has one
of the primary current prevents the flux from hinged or pivoted arm with a contact point on the
changing and temporarily holds the field instead of end opposite to the pivot or hinge point. The other
allowing it to change (resultant flux line in D of contact point is secured to a stationary plate. A
figure 4-6). rubbing hlock, usually made of fibrous material, is
As a result of the holding process, there is a very located nrar the middle point of the movable
high stress in the magnetic circuit by the time the hreaker arm. When the engine rotates the cam, the
magnet rotor has rcachcd the position where the lobrs exert pressure against the rubbing hlock,
hreaker points drr about to open. causing the movable hreaker arm to swing on its
The hrcakrr points, when opened, function with pivot point, opening the contact points.
the condenser to interrupt the flow of current in the The breaker-actuating cam may be directly driven
primary coil, causing an extremely rapid change in by the magneto rotor shaft or through a gear train
flux linkages. The high voltage in the secondary from the rotor shaft. Most large radial engines use
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A
Static f:lw
cmve

B
Breaker timing
Point opening
Before neutral
closing 'interval
Point closing
" E gap

C
Rimary current

D
Resultant flux -

FIGURE
4-6. Magneto flux curves.

a compensated cam, which is designed to operate scribed marks on the magneto housing, places the
with a specific engine and has one lobe for each rotating magnet in the E-gap position for the timing
cylinder to be fired by the magneto. The cam lobes cylinder. Since the breaker points should begin to
are machine ground at unequal intervals to compeu- open when the rotating magnet moves into the E-gap
sate for the top-dead-center variations of each posi- position, alignment of the step on the cam with
tion. A compensated lklobe cam, together with a marks in the housing provides a quick and easy
two., four-, and eight-lobe uncompensated cam, is method of establishing the exact E.gap position to
shown in figure 4-8. check and adjust the breaker points.
The unequal spacing of the compensated cam
Coil Assembly
lobes, although it provides the same relative piston
position for ignition to occur, causes a slight varia- The magneto coil assembly consists of the soft
tion of the E-gap position of the rotating magnet iron core around which is wound the primary coil
and thus a slight variation in the high-voltage im- and the secondary coil, with the secondary coil
pulses generated by the magneto. Since the spacing wound on top of the primary coil.
between each lobe is tailored to a particular cylinder The secondary coil is made up of a winding con-
of a particular engine, compensated cams are marked taining approximately 13,000 turns of fine, insu-
to show the series of the engine, the location of the lated wire, one end of which is electrically grounded
master rod or rods, the lobe used for magneto tim. to the primary coil or to the coil core and the other
iug, the direction of cam rotation, and the E-gap end connected to the distributor rotor. The primary
specification in degrees past neutral of magnet rota- and secondary coils are encased in a nonconducting
tion. In addition to these markings, a step is cut material of bakelite, hard rubber, or varnished
across the face of the cam, which, when aligned with cambric. The whole assembly is then fastened to
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Upper contad leaf spring rotor and the stationary part is called a distributor
block. The rotating part, which may take the shape
of a disk, drum, or finger, is made of a nonconduct-
ing material with an embedded conductor. The
stationary part consists of a block also made of
nonconducting material that contains terminals and
terminal receptacles into which the wiring that con-
nects the distributor to the spark plug is attached.
In some ignition systems, the distrihutor assembly
is an integral part of the magneto assembly, but
others are remotely located and separately driven.
As the magnet moves into the E-gap position for
the No. 1cylinder and the hreaker points just sepa-
rate, the distributor rotor aligns itself with the No. l
electrode in the distributor block. The secondary
FIGURE
4-7. Pivotless type breaker assembly voltage induced as the breaker points open enters
and cam. the rotor where it arcs a small air gap to the No. 1
electrode in the block.
the pole shoes with screws and clamps. Since the distributor rotates at one-half crank-
When the primary circuit is closed, the current shaft speed on all four-stroke-cycle engines, the dis-
flow through the primary coil produces magnetic tributor block will have as many electrodes as there
lines of force that cut across the secondary windings, are engine cylinders, or as many electrodes as cylin-
inducing an electromotive force. When the primary ders served by the magneto. The electrodes are
circuit is broken, the magnetic field about the located circumferentially around the distributor
primary windings collapses, causing the secondary block so that, as the rotor turns, a circuit is com-
windings to be cut by the lines of force. The pleted to a different cylinder and spark plug each
strength of the voltage induced in the secondary time there is alignment between the rotor finger and
windings, when all other factors are constant, is an electrode in the distrihutor block. The electrodes
determined by the number of turns of wire. Since of the distributor block are numbered consecutively
most high-tension magnetos have many thousands in the direction of distributor rotor travel (see
of turns of wire in the secondary, a very high figure 4-9).
voltage, often as high as 20,000 volts, is generated The distributor numbers represent the magneto
in the secondary circuit to jump the air gap of the sparking order rather than the engine cylinder num-
spark plug in the cylinder. bers. The distributor electrode marked "1" is con-
Distributor nected to the spark plug in the No. 1 cylinder;
The high voltage induced in the secondary coil distributor electrode marked "2" to the second
is directed to the distributor, which consists of two cylinder to be fired; distributor electrode marked
parts. The revolving part is called a distributor "3" to the third cylinder to be fired, and so forth.

Two-lobe cam Four-lobecam Eight-lobe cam Compensated 14 lobe cam

FIGURE4-4. Typical breaker assemhlies.


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In figure 4-9 the distributor rotor finger is Magneto and Distributor Venting
aligned with the distributor electrode marked "3," Since magneto and distributor assemblies are sub-
which fires the No. 5 cylinder of a 9-cylinder radial jected to sudden changes in temperature, the prob-
engine. Since the firing order of a 9.cylinder radial lems of condensation and moisture are considered
engine is 1-3-5-7-9-2-4-6-8, the third electrode in the design of these units. Moisture in any form
in the magneto sparking order serves the No. 5 is a good conductor of electricity; and if absorbed
cylinder. by the nonconducting material in the magneto, such
In installations where the magneto and distributor as distributor blocks, distributor fingers, and coil
rotors are combined in one assembly, the dis- cases, it can create a stray electrical conducting path.
tributor finger will have been timed at the time of The high-voltage current that normally arcs across
overhaul or manufacture. On engines where the the air gaps of the distributor can flash across a wet
distributor is separate from the magneto, the dis- insulating surface to ground, or the high-voltage cur-
tributor, as well as the magneto, must be manually rent can be misdirected to some spark plug other
adjusted to the timing cylinder to effect proper dis- than the one that should be fired. This condition is
tribution of the high-voltage impulses. called "flashover" and usually results in cylinder
misfiring. For this reason coils, condensers, dis-
tributors and distributor rotors are waxed so that
moisture on such units will stand in separate beads
and not form a complete circuit for flashover.
Flashover can lead to carbon tracking, which
appears as a fine pencil-like line on the unit across
which flashover occurs. The carbon trail results
from the electric spark burning dirt particles which
contain hydrocarbon materials. The water in the
hydrocarbon material is evaporated during flash-
over, leaving carbon to form a conducting path for
current. And when moisture is no longer present,
the spark will continue to follow the track to the
ground.
Magnetos cannot be hermetically sealed to prevent
moisture from entering a unit because the magneto
is subject to pressure and temperature changes in
altitude. Thus, adequate drains and proper ventila-
tion reduce the tendency of flashover and carbon
tracking. Good magneto circulation also ensures
that corrosive gases produced by normal arcing
across the distributor air gap are carried away. In
some installations, pressurization of various parts
of the ignition system is essential to maintain a high-
er absolute pressure and to eliminate flashover.
Regardless of the method of venting employed, the
vent bleeds or valves must be kept free of obstruc-
tions. Further, the air circulating through the com-
ponents of the ignition system must be free of oil,

n
since even minute amounts of oil on ignition parts
will result in flashover and carbon tracking.
Ignition Harness
Coil The ignition harness contains an insulated wire
for each cylinder that the magneto serves in the
engine. One end of each wire is connected to the
FIGURE
4-9. Relation between distributor terminal distributor block and the other end is connected to
numbers and cylinder numbers. the proper spark plug. . The ignition harness serves
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a dual purpose. It supports the wires and protects where they are connected to the magneto. (See
them from damage by engine heat, vibration, or figure 4-11.) In this type of ignition harness, the
weather. It also serves as a conductor for stray ignition wires are continuous from the distributor
magnetic fields that surround the wires as they mo- block to the spark plug. If trouble develops, the
mentarily carry high-voltage current. By conduct- entire lead must be replaced.
ing these magnetic lines of force to the ground, the
ignition harness cuts down electrical interference Ignition Switches
with the aircraft radio and other electrically sensi. All units in an aircraft ignition system are con-
tive equipment. When the radio and other electrical trolled by an ignition switch in the cockpit. The
equipment are protected in this manner, the ignition type of switch used varies with the number of
harness wiring is said to be a shield. Without this engines on the aircraft and the type of magnetos
shielding radio communication would become vir- used. All switches, however, turn the system off and
tually impossible. on in much the same manner. The ignition switch
A common type of ignition harness is a manifold is different in at least one respect from all other
formed to fit around the crankcase of the engine with types of switches in that when the ignition switch is
flexible extensions terminating at each spark plug. in the "off" position, a circuit is completed through
A typical high-tension ignition harness is shown in the switch to ground. In other electrical switches,
figure 4-10. the "off" position normally breaks or opens the
Another type is known as the sealed or filled circuit.
type. A harness of this type has the ignition The ignition switch has one terminal connected to
wires placed in a ring manifold so that the spark the primary electrical circuit between the coil and
plug end of each wire terminates at the manifold the breaker contact points. The other terminal of
outlets. This assembly is then filled with an insulat- the switch is connected to the aircraft ground (struc-
ing gelatin which eliminates chafing and moisture ture). As shown in figure 4-12, two ways to com-
condensation. Separate spark plug leads are at. plete the primary circuit are: (1) Through the closed
tached to the manifold outlets. In this manner, it is breaker points to ground, or (2) through the closed
possible to renew the spark plug end of a lead with- ignition switch to ground.
out replacing the entire length of cable between the In figure 4-12, it can be seen that the primary
spark plug and the distributor. current will not be interrupted when the breaker
In installations where the magnetos are mounted contacts open, since there is still a path to ground
on the accessory section of the engine, two large through the closed (off) ignition switch. Since
flexible conduits, each containing one-half of the primary current is not stopped when the contact
ignition wires, lead aft from the harness to the point

FIGURE
4-11. Accessory-mounted, nine-cylinder
FIGURE
4-10. A high-tension ignition harness. engine ignition harness.
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FIGURE
4-12. Typical ignition switch in
"off position. FIGURE
4-13. Typical ignition switch in the
"
on" position.
points open (figure 4-12), there can be no sudden
collapse of the primary coil flux field and no high magneto operates; in the "right" position, only the
voltage induced in the secondary coil to fire the right magneto operates. In the "both" position,
spark plug. both magnetos operate. The "right" and "left"
As the magnet rotates past the E-gap position, a positions are used to check dual-ignition systems,
gradual breakdown of the primary flux field occurs. allowing one system to be turned off at a time. Fig-
But that breakdown occurs so slowly that the induced ure 4-14 also refers to the ignition system battery
voltage is too low to fire the spark plug. Thus, when circuit which is discussed with auxiliary ignition
the ignition switch is in the "off position (switch units in a following section.
closed), the contact points are as completely short- Most twin-engine switches provide the operator
circuited as if they were removed from the circuit, with independent control of each magneto in an
and the magneto is inoperative. engine by rotary switches on each side of the igni-
When the ignition switch is placed in the "on" tion switch.
position (switch open), as shown in figure 4-13, the In addition, a toggle master switch is usually
interruption of primary current and the rapid col- incorporated in the switch to ground all the mag-
lapse of the primary coil flux field is once again con- neto primaries. Thus, in an emergency, all ignition
trolled or triggered by the opening of the breaker for both engines (four magneto primaries) can be
contact points. When the ignition switch is in the cut off by one movement of this switch. (See fig-
"on" position, the switch has absolutely no effect on ure 4-15.)
the primary circuit.
Many single-engine aircraft ignition systems em- Single and Dual High-Tension System Magnetos
ploy a dual-magneto system, in which the right mag- High-tension system magnetos used on radial en-
neto supplies the electric spark for the front plugs gines are either single- or dual-type magnetos. The
in each cylinder, and the left magneto fires the rear single magneto design incorporates the distributor
plugs. One ignition switch is normally used to in the housing with the magneto breaker assembly,
control both magnetos. An example of this type of rotating magnet, and coil. The dual magneto in-
switch is shown in figure 4-14. corporates two magnetos in one housing. One rotat-
This switch has four positions: off, left, right, and ing magnet and a cam are common to two sets of
both. In the ''off" position, both magnetos are breaker points and coils. Two separate distributor
grounded and thus are inoperative. When the units are mounted on the engine apart from the
switch is placed in the "left" position, only the left magneto.
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off - both mabetos Left - left \-*


mapeto on.
punded batten ri$ht m a ~ e t ooff,
eircult o p n bdtten circuit open

Both - h t h ma,Onetos on.


left m n ~ e t ooff. batten. circuit closed
batten clrcuit open
FIGURE
4-14. Switch positions for one ignition switch that controls two magnetos.

Magneto Mounting Systems and flows to the primary winding of a transtorrner


Singledype magnetos may be designed for either coil located near tbr spark plug. There the toltagr
base-mounting or flange-mounting. Dual-type mag- is increased to a high voltage by transformer action
netos are all flange mounted. and conducted to the spark plug by very short
high-tension leads. Figure 4-16 is a simplifird
Base.mounted magnetos are secured to a mount- schematic of a typical low-tension system.
ing bracket on the engine. Flange-mounted magnetos
are attached to the engine by a flange around the The low-tension system virtually eliminates flash-
driven end of the rotating shaft of the magneto. over in both the distributor and the harness because
Elongated slots in the mounting flange permit ad- the air gaps within the distributor have been elimi-
justment through a limited range to aid in timing nated by the use of a brush-type distributor, and high
the magneto to the engine. voltage is present only in short leads between the
transformer and spark plug.
Low-Tension Magneto System Although a certain amount of electrical leakage
High tension ignition systems have been in use is characteristic of all ignition systems, it is more
for more than half a century. Many refinements pronounced on radio-shielded installations because
in the design have been made, but certain under- the metal conduit is at ground potential and close
lying problems havr remained and othrrs have to the ignition wires throughout their entire length.
intensified: such as: I n low-tension systems, however, this leakage is re-
(1) The increase in the number of cylinders duced considerably because the current throughout
per engine. most of the system is transmitted at a low voltage
(2) The requirement that all radio.equipped potential. Although the leads between the trans-
aircraft have their ignition wirrs enclosed former coils and the spark plugs of a low-tension
in metal conduits. ignition system are short, they are high-tension
(3) The trend toward all-weather flying. (high voltage) conductors, and are subject to the
same failures that occur in high-tension systems.
(4) The increased operation at high altitudes.
To meet these problems, low tension ignition sys- Operation of Low-Tension Ignition System
tems were developed. The magnetic circuit of a typical low-tension mag-
Electronically, the low-tension slstem is different neto system consists of a rotating permanent magnet,
from the high-tension system. In the low-tension the pole shoes, and the coil core (see figure 4-17).
system, low-voltage is genertaed in the magneto The cylindrical magnet is constructed with seven
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When center toggle crankshaft. Voltage production in the magneto coil


When center toggle lever is at lever is at "on"
"off" position, all magnetos nos. of a low-tension magneto occurs in the same manner
position battery
1 and 2 engines are inoperative circuit is on and as in the primary magnetic circuit of a high-tension
(grounded) and battery circuit ignition is magneto.
Low-Tension System Distributor
Each current pulse produced by the low-tension
magneto is directed to the various transformer coils
in proper firing order by the brush-type distributor
(see figure 4-18).
The distributor assembly consists of a rotating
part, called a distributor brush, and a stationary
part, called a distributor block. The rotor (A of
figure 4-18) has two separate sets of distributor
brushes which ride on the three concentric tracks of
the distributor block (B of figure 4-18). These

11, lg
tracks are divided into seven segments, each of which
is electrically insulated from the other. The outer
switch levers. track consists of a series of alternate long and short
electrode sections. The seven long electrode sections
Engine no. 2 of the outer track are electrically dead and serve
only to provide a nearly continuous path for distrib-
grounded and inoperative.
and booster
utor brushes to ride. The low-voltage current from
the magneto enters the distributor through a wire
Left magneto operative. connected to one of the short electrode sections of
L Right magneto and booster the outside track.
grounded and inoperative. Since all the short electrode sections, though
separated by electrically dead sections, are con.
Right magneto operative.
Left magneto and booster nected.together internally, each one has magneto
grounded and inoperative. coil voltage impressed upon it.
The distributor rotor has two pickup brushes ( A
RightJeft and booster of figure 4-18), one at each end of the rotor. The
Magnetos operative. lower pickup brush is electrically connected to the
Normal mnning position. D or C row brush that rides the middle tracks of the
distributor block. (Refer to A, B, and C of figure
FIGURE
4-15. Magneto switch for a twin-engine 4-18.)
aircraft.
As the breaker points open, magneto coil current
is available to the short electrode sections of the
pole pieces of one polarity, staggered between seven
outside track. (See figure 4-19.) At that instant
pole pieces of the opposite polarity.
only one of the distributor rotor pickup brushes is
When the magnet is inserted in the magnetic cir- on a short electrode section. 'The other pickup brush
cuit of figure 4-17 with three of the magnet's north is on an electrically insulated (dead) section of the
poles perfectly alined with the pole shoes, a maxi- same track. The pickup brush on a short electrode
mum static flux flow is produced from right to left section picks up the magneto coil current and directs
in the coil core. When the magnet is rotated clock. it to an electrode section of the middle track. If
wise until the adjacent poles align with the pole the magneto is a No. 1 magneto (R-1 or L.l), the
shoes, flux flow in the coil core will have decreased middle track will serve the seven cylinders in the
from a maximum to zero in one direction, and then " D row; if it is a No. 2 magneto (R-2 or L-2),
increased to a maximum in the opposite direction. this track will serve the seven cylinders of the "C"
This constitutes one flux reversal. Fourteen such row (figure 4-18). Similarly, the inside track
flux reversals occur during each revolution of the serves the seven cylinders of the "B" row if it is a
magnet, or seven for each revolution of the engine No. 1 magneto, or the seven cylinders of the "A"
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r - - - - - - - -I -1
I
f Induction coil I I I

I ~c,n<lenst.r 1 Transformer coil Spark


I I Cylinder mounted plug
----------
I J
Distributor

FIGURE
4-16. Simplified low-tension ignition system schematic.

1-1-poIv mt;tti~igr n ; g ~ w l

FIGURE
4-17. Low-tension system using a 14-pole rotating magnet.

188
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Pickup brush
Elecirically dead

Short electrode
section

"DMor "C' row brush

Pickup brush

FIGURE
4-18. Brush-type distributor for a low-tension magneto system.

row if it is a No. 2 magneto. Since each electrode


section of the middle and inside tracks is connected
-
to a seoarate transformer coil, the rotatine distribu-
tor brush detemiines which transformer coil receives
the self-induced current surge.
In operation, any one magneto will serve first a
cylinder in one row and then a cylinder in the other
row. For example, in figure 4-19, the transformer
of the fifth cylinder in the magneto sparking order
is receiving the self-induced current surge. The next
transformer to receive a surge of current in the mag-
neto's sparking order will be the sixth cylinder,
which is served by an electrode section on the inside To first cylinder in firing order
tracks. To third cylinder in firing order
The sixth transformer coil in the magneto's spark- To fifth cylinder in firing order
ing order is energized as the pickup brush for the L T sixth
~ cylinder in firing order
inside track moves clockwise off an electrically in-
sulated section and onto the next short electrode FIGURE
4-19. Brush-type distributor operation.
section. Current is then picked off the outside track
and directed to the electrode section of the inside magneto system there are 60 cables within the cir-
track that serves the transformer for the sixth cyl- cular ignition manifold. Four cables (one for each
inder in sparking order. While the transformer of the four magnetos) run from the ignition switch
coil for the sixth cylinder is receiving its current to the terminal in the cannon plug connected to the
surge, the pickup brush for the middle track is on ignition switch wire. The remaining 56 cables con-
an insulated section of the outside track and does nect the distributor electrode sections of the inside
not interfere with the flow of the self-induced current and middle tracks of four magnetos to the primary
surge. As the distributor brush continues in a coils of the spark plug transformers. The current
clockwise direction, the pickup brush for the inside from the secondary coil of the transformer is con.
track moves onto an electrically insulated section. ducted to the spark plug by a short, high-tension
At the same time, the pickup brush for the middle shielded cable.
track mo& onto a short electrode section to deliver Low-tension magnetos are turned off and on in
the current surge to the transformer serving the the same manner that high-tension systems are con-
seventh cylinder in the magneto sparking order. trolled, i.e., by a switch connected to the ground
The relatively low self-induced current leaves the wire of the magneto coil circuit. When the switch
distributor through the wires leading to the trans- is closed (off position), a direct low-resistance path
formers. The wires are connected to the circular to g o u n d is made available to the magneto coil
ignition manifold by a plug connector. For this whether the breaker points are open or closed.
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Since the closed ignition switch provides a low- an electrode in the distributor by an ignition cable.
resistance path to ground, magneto coil current is Since the regular distributor terminal is grounded
not directed to the primary coil of the transformer. through the primary or secondary coil of a higb-
Instead, current is short-circuited by way of the tension magneto, the high voltage furnished by the
closed ignition switch. booster coil must be distributed by a separate
AUXILIARY IGNITION UNITS circuit in the distributor rotor. This is accom-
plished by using two electrodes in one distributor
During engine starting, the output of either a
rotor. The main electrode or "finger" carries the
high- or low-tension magneto is low because the
magneto output voltage, and the auxiliary electrode
cranking speed of the engine is low. This is under-
distributes only the output of the booster cqil. The
standable when the factors that determine the
auxiliary electrode is always located so that it trails
amount of voltage induced in a circuit are con-
the main electrode, thus retarding the spark during
sidered.
the starting period.
To increase the value of an induced voltage, the
strength of the magnetic field must be increased by Figure 4-21 illustrates, in schematic form, the
using a stronger magnet, by increasing the number booster coil components shown in figure 4-20. In
of turns in the coil, or by increasing the rate of rela- operation, batfery voltage is applied to the positive
(+)terminal of the booster coil through the start
tive motion between the magnet and the conductor.
switch. This causes current to flow through the
Since the strength of the rotating magnet and the
closed contact points (figure 4-21) to the primary
number of turns in the coil are constant factors in
coil and ground. Current flow through the primary
both high- and low-tension magneto ignition sys-
coil sets up a magnetic field about the coil which
tems, the voltage produced depends upon the speed
magnetizes the coil core. As the core is magnetized,
at which the rotating magnet is turned. When the
it attracts the movable contact point, which is
engine is being cranked for starting, the magnet is
normally held against the stationary contact point
rotated at about 80 r.p.m. Since the value of the
by a spring.
induced voltage is so low, a spark may not jump the
As the movable contact point is pulled toward the
spark plug gap. Thus, to facilitate engine starting,
iron core, the primary circuit is broken, collapsing
an auxiliary device is connected to the magneto to
provide a high ignition voltage. the magnetic field that extended about the coil core.
Since the coil core acts as an electromagnet only
Ordinarily, such auxiliary ignition units are
when current flows in the primary coil, it loses its
energized by the battery and connected to the right
magnetism as soon as the primary coil circuit is
magneto or distributor. Reciprocating engine start-
broken. This permits the action of the spring to
ing systems normally include one of the following
close the contact points and again complete the
types of auxiliary starting systems: booster coil,
primary coil circuit. This, in turn, re-magnetizes
induction vibrator (sometimes called starting vibra-
the coil core, and again attracts the movable contact
tor), impulse coupling, or other specialized retard
point, which again opens the primary coil circuit.
breaker and vibrator starting systems.
This action causes the movable contact point to
Booster Coil vibrate rapidly, as long as the start switch is held
The booster coil assembly (figure 4-20) consists in the closed (.on) position. The result of this
of two coils wound on a soft iron core, a set of action is a continuously expanding and collapsing
contact points, and a condenser. The primary magnetic field that links the secondary coil of the
winding has one end grounded at the internal booster coil. With several times as many turns in
grounding strip and its other end connected to the the secondary as in the primary, the induced voltage
moving contact point. The stationary contact is that results from lines of force linking the secondary
fitted with a terminal to which battery voltage is is high enough to furnish ignition for thP engine.
applied when the magneto switch is placed in the The condenser (figure 4-21), which is connected
"
start" position, or automatically applied when the across the contact points, has an important function
starter is engaged. The secondary winding, which in this circuit. As current flow in the primary coil
contains several times as many turns as the primary is interrupted by the opening of the contact points,
coil, has one end grounded at the internal grounding the high self-induced voltage that accompanies each
strip and the other terminated at a high-tension collapse of the primary magnetic field surges into
terminal. The high.tension terminal is connected to the condenser. Without a condenser, an arc would
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-To starter side of start switch

Contact sprina To battery negative

To booster terminal of magneto

/ \
/ Wire core
Internal cronndine rtrlo

FIGURE4-20. Booster coil.

jump across the points with each collapse of the The starting vibrator, unlike the booster coil, does
magnetic field. This would burn and pit the contact not produce the high ignition voltage within itself.
points and greatly reduce the voltage output of the The function of this starting vibrator is to change
booster coil. the direct current of the battery into a pulsating
Induction Vibrator direct current and deliver it to the primary coil of
The induction vibrator (or starting vibrator) the magneto. It also serves as a relay for disconnect-
shown in figure 4-22 consists essentially of an in&the auxiliary circuit when it is not in use.
electrically operated vibrator, a oondenser, and a As shown in figure 4-22, the positive terminal of
relay. These units are mounted on a base plate and the starting vibrator is connected into the starter
enclosed in a metal case. meshing solenoid circuit. Closing this switch
energizes the meshing solenoid and causes current
to flow through the relay coil to ground. At the
same time, current also flows through the vibrator
coil and its contact points. Since current flow
Stationary
cnntact pnint through the relay coil establishes a magnetic field
that attracts and closes the relay points, the vibrator
)-Moving contact circuit is now complete to the magneto. The elec-
point trical path that battery current takes in the magneto
is determined by the position of the primary breaker
contact points; if the points are closed, current flows
Condenser through them to ground; if the points are open,
current flows through the primary coil to ground.
Primary winding
contact spring Current flow in the vibrator coil sets up a
magnetic field that attracts and opens the vibrator
points. When the vibrator points open, current
Coil core flow in the coil stops, and the magnetic field that
attracted the movable vibrator contact point disap-
pears. This allows the vibrator points to close and
winding again permits battery current to flow in the
vibrator coil. This completes a cycle of operation.
Internal grounding strip = The cycle, however, occurs many times per second,
so rapidly, in fact, that. the vibrator points produce
FIGURE
4-21. Booster coil schematic. an audible buzz.
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Ignition switch
-
To the distributor

FIGURE4-22, Induction vibrator.

Each time the vibrator points close, current flows systems that use an induction vi