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ETHEM ALPAYDIN

The MIT Press, 2010

alpaydin@boun.edu.tr

http://www.cmpe.boun.edu.tr/~ethem/i2ml2e

Tree Uses Nodes, and Leaves

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 3

Divide and Conquer

Internal decision nodes

Univariate: Uses a single attribute, xi

Numeric xi : Binary split : xi > wm

Discrete xi : n-way split for n possible values

Multivariate: Uses all attributes, x

Leaves

Classification: Class labels, or proportions

Regression: Numeric; r average, or local fit

Learning is greedy; find the best split recursively (Breiman

et al, 1984; Quinlan, 1986, 1993)

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 4

Classification Trees

(ID3, CART, C4.5)

For node m, Nm instances reach m, Nim belong to Ci

i

N

PC i | x, m pmi m

Nm

Measure of impurity is entropy

K

I m pmi log2 pmi

i 1

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 5

Best Split

If node m is pure, generate a leaf and stop, otherwise split and

continue recursively

Impurity after split: Nmj of Nm take branch j. Nimj belong to Ci

i

N

PC i | x, m, j pmj

i

mj

Nmj

n N K

I' m mj

p i

mj log p i

2 mj

j 1 Nm i 1

Find the variable and split that min impurity (among all

variables -- and split positions for numeric variables)

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 6

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 7

Regression Trees

Error at node m:

1 i f x X m : x reachesnodem

bm x

0 otherwi s e

t m t

t

1 b x r

2

Em t

t

gm

b x

t

r g m bm x t

Nm t m

After splitting:

1 if x X mj : x reachesnode m and branch j

bmj x

0 otherwis e

b x r t t

E 'm

1

j t

t

2

t

t mj

b x

r g mj bmj x gmj t

Nm t mj

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 8

Model Selection in Trees

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 9

Pruning Trees

Remove subtrees for better generalization (decrease

variance)

Prepruning: Early stopping

Postpruning: Grow the whole tree then prune subtrees

which overfit on the pruning set

Prepruning is faster, postpruning is more accurate

(requires a separate pruning set)

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 10

Rule Extraction from Trees

C4.5Rules

(Quinlan, 1993)

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 11

Learning Rules

Rule induction is similar to tree induction but

tree induction is breadth-first,

rule induction is depth-first; one rule at a time

Rule set contains rules; rules are conjunctions of terms

Rule covers an example if all terms of the rule evaluate to

true for the example

Sequential covering: Generate rules one at a time until all

positive examples are covered

IREP (Frnkrantz and Widmer, 1994), Ripper (Cohen,

1995)

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 12

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 13

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 14

Multivariate Trees

Lecture Notes for E Alpaydn 2010 Introduction to Machine Learning 2e The MIT Press (V1.0) 15

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