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1.

Clinicalevaluationofalkalineionizedwaterforabdominalcomplaints:Placebocontrolled
doubleblindtests

HirokazuTashiro,TetsujiHokudo,HiromiOno,YoshihideFujiyama,TadaoBaba(NationalOhkuraHospital,
Dept.ofGastroenterology;InstituteofClinicalResearch,ShigaUniversityofMedicalScience,SecondDept.of
InternalMedicine

"Effectofalkalineionizedwateronabdominalcomplaintswasevaluatedbyplacebocontrolleddoubleblind
tests.Overallscoresofimprovementusingalkalineionizedwatermarkedhigherthanthoseofplacebo
controlledgroup,anditseffectprovedtobesignificantlyhigherespeciallyinslightsymptomsofchronic
diarrheaandabdominalcomplaintsincasesofgeneralmalaise.Alkalineionizedwatergroupdidnotget
interruptedinthecourseofthetest,nordiditshowserioussideeffects,norabnormaltestdata.Itwas
confirmedthatalkalineionizedwaterissaferandmoreeffectivethanplacebos.

Summary
Effectofalkalineionizedwateronabdominalcomplaintswasclinicallyexaminedbydoubleblindtestsusing
cleanwaterasplacebo.Overallimprovementratewashigherforalkalineionizedwatergroupthanplacebo
groupandtheformerprovedtobesignificantlymoreeffectivethantheotherespeciallyincasesofslight
symptoms.Examiningimprovementrateforeachcaseofchronicdiarrhea,constipationandabdominal
complaints,alkalineionizedwatergroupturnedouttobemoreeffectivethanplacebogroupforchronic
diarrhea,andabdominalcomplaints.

Thetestwasstoppedinonecaseofchronicdiarrhea,amongplacebogroupduetoexacerbation,whereas
alkalineionizedwatergroupdidnotstoptestingwithoutserioussideeffectsorabnormaltestdatainallcases.

Itwasconfirmedthatalkalineionizedwaterismoreeffectivethancleanwateragainstchronicdiarrhea,
abdominalcomplaintsandoverallimprovementrate(reliefofabdominalcomplaints)andsaferthanclean
water.

Introduction
SincetheapprovalofalkalineionizedwaterelectrolyzersbyPharmaceuticalAffairsLawin1966foritsantacid
effectandefficacyagainstgastrointestinaldisordersincludinghyperchylia,indigestion,abnormal
gastrointestinalfermentationandchronicdiarrhea,theyhavebeenextensivelyusedamongpatients.

However,medicalandscientificevaluationoftheirvalidityisnotestablished.Inourstudy,weexamined
clinicaleffectofalkalineionizedwaterongastrointestinaldisordersacrossmanysymptomsinvarious
facilities.Particularly,westudiedsafetyandusefulnessofalkalineionizedwaterbydoubleblindtestsusing
cleanwaterasacontrolgroup.

Testsubjectsandmethods
163patients(34men,129women,age21to72,average38.6yearsold)ofindigestion,abnormal
gastrointestinalfermentation(withabnormalgasemissionandrugitus)andabdominalcomplaintscausedby
irregulardejection(chronicdiarrhea,orconstipation)weretestedassubjectswithgoodinformedconsent.

Placebocontrolleddoubleblindtestswereconductedusingalkalineionizedwaterandcleanwateratmultiple
facilities.Analkalineionizedwaterelectrolyzersoldcommerciallywasinstalledwithapumpdrivencalcium
1

dispenserineachofthesubjecthomes.TestedalkalineionizedwaterhadpHat9.5andcalcium
concentrationat30ppm.

Eachsubjectinplacebogroupusedawaterpurifierthathasthesameappearanceastheelectrolyzerand
producescleanwater.

Thetestedequipmentwasrandomlyassignedbyacontrollerwhoscaledoffthekeycodewhichwasstored
safelyuntilthetestswerecompletedandthesealwasopenedagain.

Watersamplesweregiventoeachpatientintheamountof200mlinthemorningwiththetotalof50Omlor
moreperdayforamonth.Beforeandafterthetests,blood,urineandstoolweretestedandalogwaskept
onthesubjectivesymptoms,bowelmovementsandaccessorysymptoms.Afterthetests,theresultswere
analyzedbasedonthelogandthetestdata.

Conclusion
Asaresultofdoubleblindclinicaltestsofalkalineionizedwaterandcleanwater,alkalineionizedwaterwas
provedtobemoreeffectivethancleanwateragainstchronicdiarrhea,abdominalcomplaints(dyspepsia)and
overallimprovementrate(relieffromabdominalcomplaints).Also,safetyofalkalineionizedwaterwas
confirmedwhichclinicallyverifiesitsusefulness.
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2.EffectofElectrolyticWater(IonizedWater)IntakeonLifespanofAutoimmuneDisease
ProneMice

ResearchfromTexasUniversity
Recentstudiesonelectrolyzedwaterindicatethatanodeoracidicwaterismosteffectiveasdisinfectants;
whereas,reducedoralkalinewaterprocessedthroughcathodeisusedassafedrinkingwater.Thepresent
drinkingwaterstudywasundertakenintwostrainsofautoimmunediseasepronemicetoestablishthe
spontaneousdiseaseprocessandlongevity.WeanlingMRL/lprandNZBxNZW[B/W]F1femalemicewere
provideddailywith(1)tapwater[pH~7.5,oxygenreductionpotential(ORP)~600+](2)electrolyzedwaterwith
pHof~9.0andORP~400and(3)hyperreducedwaterwithpH~10.0andORP~600.MicewereprovidedH2O
andchowdietadlibitumandweeklybodyweightsandspontaneousdeathswererecorded.Themean
survivaldatarecordedasdaysforMRL/lprmice[25mice/group]isasfollows:(1)tapwater23525,(2)
reducedwater28740and(3)hyperreducedwater34645days[<0.05].InthecaseofB/Wmice[25
mice/group],(1)tapwater26916,(2)reducedwater29819and(3)hyperreduced30218days.A
significantlydecreased(<0.05)serumlipidperoxideswereobservedinmicefedhyperreducedH2O.Also,the
sourceofwaterdidnotalterlymphocytesubsetsortheirresponsetomitogens.Insummary,hyperreduced
waterwithpH~10.0appearstoinhibitautoimmunediseaseofMRL/lprmicewhereasonlyamodestincreased
lifespanwasnotedforB/Wmice.TheincreasedlifespanbyelectrolyzedH2Oappearstoberelatedtothe
changesinfreeradicalsandantioxidantenzymelevels.[SupportedinpartbyZanixCo.andMr.Waterman
Co.,Tokyo,Japan].

Summary:
1.Lifelongintakeofbothreduced(pH9.0)andhyperreduced(pH10.0)watercausednoharmtomice
comparedtotapwater.
2.Survivalisincreasedsignificantlybyhyperreducedwaterinonestrain(MRL/lpr).
2

3.Slightincreasedlifespanintheotherstrain(NZBxNZWF1).
3.ReducedandhyperreducedwaterappearstoincreaseTcellnumbers,anddecreaseBcells.
4.BothreducedandhyperreducedwaterappearstoincreaseantioxidantmRNAlevels.
5.Newclinicalandanimalstudiesareneededtoconfirmaboveresults.
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3.Physiologicaleffectsofalkalineionizedwater:Effectsonmetabolitesproducedby
intestinalfermentation

byTakashiHayakawa,ChickoTushiya,HisanoriOnoda,HisayoOhkouchi,Harul~toTsuge(GifuUniversity,
FacultyofEngineering,Dept.ofFoodScience)

Wehavefoundthatlongtermingestionofalkalineionizedwater(AIW)reducescecalfermentationinrats
thatweregivenhighlyfermentablecommercialdiet(MF:OrientalYeastCo.,Ltd.).Inthisexperiment,rats
werefedMFandtestwater(tapwater,AIWwithpHat9and10)forabout3months.Feceswerecollectedon
the57thday,andtheratsweredissectedonthe88thday.Theamountofammoniuminfreshfecesandcecal
contentsaswellascecalfreeglucosetendedtodropdownfortheAIWgroup.Inmostcases,theamountof
freeaminoacidsincecalcontentsdidnotdiffersignificantlyexceptforcysteine(decreasedinAIWwithpHat
10)andisoleucine(increasedinAIWwithpHat10).

Purposeoftests
Alkalineionizedwaterelectrolyzershavebeenapprovedformanufacturingin1965bytheMinistryofHealth
andWelfareasmedicalequipmenttoproducemedicalsubstances.Alkalineionizedwater(AIW)producedby
thisequipmentisknowntobeeffectiveagainstgastrointestinalfermentation,chronicdiarrhea,indigestion
andhyperchyliaaswellasforcontrollinggastricacid.*1Thisismainlybasedonefficacyoftheofficialcalcium
hydroxide.*2BygivingAIWtoratsforacomparativelylongtimeundertheconditionofextremelyhighlevel
ofintestinalfermentation,wehavedemonstratedthatAIWintakeiseffectiveforinhibitionofintestinal
fermentationwhenitslevelishighbasedonsometestresultswhereAIWworkedagainstcecalhypertrophy
andforreductionintheamountofshortchainfattyacidthatisthemainproductoffermentation.*3Wehave
reportedthatthisiscausedbythesynergybetweencalciumlevelgenerallycontainedinAIW(about50ppm)
andthevalueofpH,andthatfrequencyofdetectingsomeanaerobicbacteriatendstobehigherinalkaline
ionizedwatergroupsthantheother,althoughthebacteriacountintheintestinedoesnothavesignificant
difference.Basedontheseresults,wemadeajudgmentthateffectoftakingAIWsupportspartofinhibition
mechanismagainstabnormalintestinalfermentation,whichisoneoftheclaimsofefficacythathavebeen
attributedtoalkalineionizedwaterelectrolyzers.*4Ontheotherhand,underthedietaryconditionoflow
intestinalfermentation,AIWuptakedoesnotseemtoinhibitfermentationthatleadsustobelievethateffect
ofAIWuptakeischaracteristicofhyperfermentationstate.Metabolitesproducedbyintestinalfermentation
includeindoleandskatoleinadditiontoorganicacidssuchasshortchainfattyacidandlacticacidaswellas
toxicmetabolitessuchasammonium,phenolandpcresol.WedonotknowhowAIWuptakewouldaffectthe
productionofthesematerials.Inthisexperiment,wehavetestedonammoniumproductionasexplainedin
thefollowingsections.

Testingmethods
FourweekoldmaleWistar/STCleanratswerepurchasedfromJapanSLCCo.,Ltd.andweredividedinto3
groupsof8eachafterpreliminarybreeding.AIWofpH9and10wasproducedbyanelectrolyzerMineone
ROYALNDX31OHbyOmcoCo.,Ltd.ThismodelproducesAIWbyelectrolyzingwaterwithcalciumlactate

added.Onthelastdayoftesting,theratsweredissectedunderNembutalanesthesiatotakebloodfromthe
heartbyaheparintreatedsyringe.Astotheirorgans,thesmallintestines,cecumandcolonplusrectumwere
takenoutfromeachofthem.Thececurnwasweighedandcleanedwithphysiologicalsalineafteritscontents
wereremoved,andthetissueweightwasmeasuredafterwipingoutmoisture.Partofcecalcontentswas
measureditspH,andtherestwasusedtoassayammoniumconcentration.Theamountofammonium
containedinfreshfecesandcecalcontentswasmeasuredbytheNesslermethodaftercollectingitinthe
extractedsamplesusingConway'smicrodiffusioncontainer.Fecalfreeglucosewasassayedbytheoxygen
methodafterextractionbyhotwater.Analysisoffreeaminoacidscontainedincecalcontentswasconducted
bytheWatersPicoTagaminoacidanalysissystem.

Testresultsandanalyses
Nodifferencewasfoundintherats'weightgain,waterandfeedintakeandfeedingefficiency,norwasany
particulardistinctioninappearanceidentified.Thelengthofthesmallintestinesandcolonplusrectum
tendedtodeclineinAIWgroups.PHvalueofcecalcontentswashigherandtheamountoffecalfreeglucose
tendedtobelowerinAIWgroupsthanthecontrolgroup.Sincetherewasnodifferenceinfecaldischarge
itself,theamountoffreeglucosedischargedperdaywasatalowlevel.Theamountofdischargedfree
glucoseinfecesisgreaterwhenintestinalfermentationismoreintensive,whichindicatesthatintestinal
fermentationismoreinhibitedinAIWgroupsthanthecontrolgroup.Ammoniumconcentrationincecal
contentstendstodropdowninAIWgroups(Fig.1).Thistrendwasmostdistinctiveincaseoffreshfecesof
oneofAIWgroupswithpH10(Fig.2)AIWuptakewasfoundtobeinhibitoryagainstammoniumproduction.
Inordertostudydynamicsofaminoacidsinlargeintestines,weexaminedfreeaminoacidsinthececal
contentstofindoutthatcysteinelevelislowinAIWgroupswhereasisoleucinelevelishighinoneofAIW
groupswithpH10,althoughnosignificantdifferencewasidentifiedforotheraminoacids.

Bibliography
1."VerificationofAlkalineIonizedWater"byLifeWaterInstitute,MetamorPublishingCo.,1994,p.46
*2."OfficialPharmaceuticalGuidelinesofJapan,Vol.IT'byJapanPublicDocumentsAssociation,Hirokawa
PublIshinCo.,1996
*3."ScienceandTechnologyofFunctionalWater"(part)byTakashiHayakawa,HaruffitoTsuge,editedby
WaterScienllccInstitute,1999,pp.109116
*4.'TasicsandEffectiveUseofAlkalineIonizedWater"byTakashiHayakawa,HaruhitoTsuge,editedbyTetsuji
Hckudou,25thGeneralAssemblyofJapanMedicalCongress'TunctionalWaterinMedicalTreatment",
Administratio~Offices,1999,pp.1011
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4.ReducedWaterforPreventionofDiseases

PartpaperdeliveredbyDr.ShirahatatotheFunctionalWaterSymposiuminTokyobyDr.SanetakaShirahata,
GraduateschoolofGeneticResourcesTechnology,KyushuUniversity,6101Hakozaki,Higashiku,Fukuoka
8128581,Japan.
Ithaslongbeenestablishedthatreactiveoxygenspecies(ROS)causemanytypesofdamagetobiomolecules
andcellularstructuresthat,inturnresultinthedevelopmentofavarietyofpathologicstatessuchas
diabetes,cancerandaging.Reducedwaterisdefinedasantioxidativewaterproducedbyreductionofwater.

Electrolyzedreducedwater(ERW)hasbeendemonstratedtobehydrogenrichwaterandcanscavengeROSin
vitro(Shirahataetal.,1997).Thereductionofprotoninwatertoactivehydrogen(atomichydrogen,hydrogen

radical)thatcanscavengeROSisveryeasilycausedbyaweakcurrent,comparedtooxidationofhydroxylion
tooxygenmolecule.Activationofwaterbymagneticfield,collision,mineralsetc.willalsoproducereduced
watercontainingactivehydrogenand/orhydrogenmolecule.

SeveralnaturalwaterssuchasHitaTenryosuiwaterdrawnfromdeepundergroundinHitacityinJapan,
NordenauwaterinGermanyandTlacotewaterinMexicoareknowntoalleviatevariousdiseases.Wehave
developedasensitivemethodbywhichwecandetectactivehydrogenexistinginreducedwater,andhave
demonstratedthatnotonlyERWbutalsonaturalreducedwatersdescribedabovecontainactivehydrogen
andscavengeROSinculturedcells.ROSisknowntocausereductionofglucoseuptakebyinhibitingthe
insulinsignalingpathwayinculturedcells.ReducedwaterscavengedintracellularROSandstimulatedglucose
uptakeinthepresenceorabsenceofinsulininbothratL6skeletalmusclecellsandmouse3T3/L1adipocytes.
ThisinsulinlikeactivityofreducedwaterwasinhibitedbywortmanninthatisspecificinhibitorofPI3kinase,
akeymoleculeininsulinsignalingpathways.

Reducedwaterprotectedinsulinresponsivecellsfromsugartoxicityandimprovedthedamagedsugar
toleranceoftype2diabetesmodelmice,suggestingthatreducedwatermayimproveinsulinindependent
diabetesmellitus.

Cancercellsaregenerallyexposedtohighoxidativestress.Reducedwatercauseimpairedtumorphenotypes
ofhumancancercells,suchasreducedgrowthrate,morphologicalchanges,reducedcolonyformationability
insoftagar,passagenumberdependenttelomereshortening,reducedbindingabilitiesoftelomerebinding
proteinsandsuppressedmetastasis.

Reducedwatersuppressedthegrowthofcancercellstransplantedintomice,demonstratingtheiranticancer
effectsinvivo.Reducedwaterwillbeapplicabletonotonlymedicinebutalsofoodindustries,agriculture,
andmanufacturingindustries.

[AlsoseeaboveforDr.SanetakaShirahatapaper"Electrolyzedreducedwaterscavengersactiveoxygen
speciesandprotectsDNAfromoxidativedamage"]
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5.ClinicalImprovementsObtainedFromTheIntakeOfReducedWater

ExtractsfromthePresentationAtTheEighthAnnualInternationalSymposiumOnManAndHisEnvironment
inHealthAndDiseaseonFebruary24th1990,atTheGrandKempinskiHotel,Dallas,Texas,USAbyDr.H.
Hayashi,M.D.andDr.MKawamura,M.D.,on:THECONCEPTOFPREHEPATICMEDICINES

Sincetheintroductionofalkalineionicwaterinourclinicin1985,wehavehadthefollowinginteresting
clinicalexperiencesintheuseofthistypeofwater.Bytheuseofalkalineionicwaterfordrinkingandthe
preparationofmealsforourinpatients,wehavenoticed:

Declinesinbloodsugarlevelsindiabeticpatients.
Improvementsinperipheralcirculationindiabeticgangrene.
Declinesinuricacidlevelsinpatientswithgout.
Improvementsinliverfunctionexamsinhepaticdisorders.
Improvementsingastroduodenalulcerandpreventionoftheirrecurrences.
5

Improvementsinhypertensionandhypotension.
Improvementsinallergicdisorderssuchasasthma,urticaria,rhinitisandatopicdermatitis.
Improvementsinpersistentdiarrheawhichoccurredaftergastrectomy.
Quickerimprovementsinpostoperativebowelparalysis.
Improvementsinserumbilirubinlevelsinnewbornbabies.

Confirmingclinicalimprovements,wehavealwaysobservedchangesofstoolsofthepatients,withthecolour
oftheirfeceschangingfromblackbrowncolourtoabrighteryellowbrownone,andtheodouroftheirfeces
becomingalmostnegligible.

Thenumberofpatientscomplainingofconstipationalsodecreasedmarkedly.Thechangeofstoolfindings
stronglysuggeststhatalkalineionicwaterintakecandecreasetheproductionofputrefiedorpathogenic
metabolites.

DevicestoproducereducedwaterwereintroducedintoourclinicinMay1985.Basedontheclinical
experiencesobtainedinthepast15years,itcanbesaidthatintroductionofelectrolyzedreducedwaterfor
drinkingandcookingpurposeforinpatientsshouldbetheveryprerequisiteinourdailymedicalpractices.
Anydietaryrecipecannotbeascientificoneifpropertyofwatertakenbythepatientsisnottakeninto
consideration.

TheMinistryofHealthandWelfareinJapanannouncedin1965thattheintakeofreducedwateriseffective
forrestorationofintestinalflorametabolism.
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6.Effectsofalkalineionizedwateronformation&maintenanceofosseoustissues

byReiTakahashiZhenhuaZhangYoshinoriItokawa
(KyotoUniversityGraduateSchoolofMedicine,Dept.ofPathologyandTumorBiology,FukuiPrefectural
University)

Effectsofcalciumalkalineionizedwateronformationandmaintenanceofosseoustissuesinratswere
examined.Intheabsenceofcalciuminthediet,noapparentcalcificationwasobservedwithonlyosteoid
formationbeingprominent.Strikingdifferenceswerefoundamonggroupsthatweregivendietswith30%
and60%calcium.Ratsraisedbycalciumionizedwatershowedtheleastosteogeneticdisturbance.Tibiaeand
humeriaremoresusceptibletocalciumdeficiencythanfemora.Theseresultsmayindicatethatcalciumin
drinkingwatereffectivelysupplementsosteogenesisincaseofdietarycalciumdeficiency.Themechanism
involvedinosteoidformationsuchasabsorptionrateofcalciumfromtheintestineandeffectsofcalcium
alkalineionizeddrinkingwateronmaintainingbonestructureintheprocessofagingorundertheconditionof
calciumdeficiencyisinvestigated.

Osteoporosisthathaslatelydrawnpublicattentionisdefinedas"conditionsofbonebrittlenesscausedby
reductionintheamountofboneframesanddeteriorationofosseousmicrostructure."Abnormalcalcium
metabolismhasbeenconsideredtobeoneofthefactorstocontributetothisproblem,whichinturnis
causedbyinsufficientcalciumtakein,reductioninenteralabsorptionrateofcalciumandincreaseinthe
amountofcalciuminurinaldischarge.Undernormalconditions,bonesabsorboldbonesbyregular
metabolismthroughosteoidformationtomaintaintheirstrengthandfunctionassupportingstructure.Itis
gettingclearthatremodelingofbonesatthetissuelevelgoesthroughtheprocessofactivation,reabsorption,
6

reversal,matrixsynthesisandmineralization.Anotherimportantfunctionofbonesisstoringminerals
especiallybycoordinatingwithintestinesandkidneystocontrolcalciumconcentrationintheblood.When
somethinghappenstothisosteometabolism,itresultsinabnormalmorphologicalchanges.Ouranalyses
havebeenfocusingmostlyonthechangesintheamountofbonestoexamineeffectsofcalciumalkaline
ionizedwateronthereactionsystemofosteometabolismanditsefficiency.Thistime,however,westudiedit
furtherfromthestandpointofhistology.Inotherwords,weconductedcomparativestudiesonmorphological
andkineticchangesofosteogenesisbytestingalkalineionizedwater,tapwaterandsolutionoflactateonrats.
ThreeweekoldmaleWistarratsweredividedinto12groupsbyconditionsoffeedanddrinkingwater.Feeds
werepreparedwith0%,30%,60%and100%ofnormalamountofcalciumandweregivenfreely.Threetypes
ofdrinkingwater,tapwater(citywater,about6ppmofCa),calciumlactatesolution(Ca=40ppm)andalkaline
ionizedwater(Ca=40ppm,pH=9,producedbyanelectrolyzerNDX4LMCbyOmcoOMCCo.,Ltd.)werealso
givenfreely.Rats'weight,amountofdrinkingwaterandfeedaswellasthecontentofCaindrinkingwater
wereassayedeveryday.Onthe19thand25thdaysoftesting,tetracyclinehydrochloridewasaddedtothe
feedfor48hourssoastobringitsconcentrationto30mg/kg.Onthe30thday,bloodsamplesweretaken
underNembutalanesthesia,andtibiae,humeriandfemoraweretakenouttomakenondecalcifiedsamples.
TheirconditionsofosteoidformationandrotationwereobservedusingVillanuevabonestainandVillanueva
goldnerstain.

ThreegroupsthatweregivendifferenttypesofdrinkingwaterandthesameamountofCainthefeedwere
comparedtofindoutnosignificantdifferenceintherateofweightgainandintakesoffeedanddrinking
water.Alkalineionizedwatergrouphadsignificantlygreateramountoftibiaeandhumeriwithhigher
concentrationofcalciuminthebones.

Thegroupof0%calciuminthefeedsawdrasticincreaseintheamountofosteoid.Therewasnotmuch
differencebytypesofdrinkingwater.Almostnotetracyclinewastakenintotibiaeandhumeri,althougha
smallamountwasidentifiedinferora.Asaresult,osteogenesiswentasfarasosteoidformation,butitwas
likelythatdecalcificationhasnothappenedyet,ormostofnewlyformedboneswereabsorbed.

Astothegroupsof30%and60%calciuminthefeed,increaseintheareaoftetracyclinetakeinwasmore
identifiablewithhigherclarityindescendingorderofalkalineionizedwater,calciumlactatesolutionandtap
watergroups.Especiallyincaseoftapwatergroup,irregularityamongtheareasoftetracyclinetakeinwas
distinctive.Thegroupof100%calciuminthefeedsawsomeimprovementsinosteogenesisindescending
orderofalkalineionizedwater,calciumlactatesolutionandtapwater.Inanycase,boneformationseemedto
beingoodconditionatnearnormallevel.

Alkalineionizedwaterwasregardedtobeeffectiveforimprovementsofosteogenesisundertheconditionsof
insufficientcalciuminthefeed.Also,theextentofdysosteogenesisdifferedbytheregion.Thatis,tibiaeand
humeritendtohavemoresignificantdysosteogenesisthanfemora.

Inaddition,thereisapossibilitythatosteometabolismvariesdependingonenteralabsorptionrateof
calcium,adjustmentofdischargefromkidneysandfunctionaladjustmentofaccessorythyroidinthepresence
ofalkalineionizedwater.Wearenowstudyingitsimpactoncalciumconcentrationintheblood.Wearealso
examiningwhetheritispossibletodeterbonedeteriorationbytestingonfastagingmousemodels.

7.Selectivestimulationofthegrowthofanaerobicmicroflorainthehumanintestinaltract
byelectrolyzedreducingwater.


MedHypotheses.2005;64(3):5436.VorobjevaNV.

DepartmentofPhysiologyofMicroorganisms,BiologyFaculty,LomonosovMoscowStateUniversity,119992
Moscow,Russia.nvvorobjeva@mail.ru9699%ofthe"friendly"orresidentialmicrofloraofintestinaltractof
humansconsistsofstrictanaerobesandonly14%ofaerobes.Manydiseasesoftheintestineareduetoa
disturbanceinthebalanceofthemicroorganismsinhabitingthegut.Thetreatmentofsuchdiseasesinvolves
therestorationofthequantityand/orbalanceofresidentialmicrofloraintheintestinaltract.Itisknownthat
aerobesandanaerobesgrowatdifferentoxidationreductionpotentials(ORP).Theformerrequirepositive
E(h)valuesupto+400mV.AnaerobesdonotgrowunlesstheE(h)valueisnegativebetween300and400
mV.Inthiswork,itissuggestedthatprerequisitefortherecoveryandmaintenanceofobligatoryanaerobic
microfloraintheintestinaltractisanegativeORPvalueoftheintestinalmilieu.Electrolyzedreducingwater
withE(h)valuesbetween0and300mVproducedinelectrolysisdevicespossessesthisproperty.Drinking
suchwaterfavoursthegrowthofresidentialmicroflorainthegut.Asufficientarrayofdataconfirmsthis
idea.However,mostresearchersexplainthemechanismofitsactionbyanantioxidantpropertiesdestinedto
detoxtheoxidantsinthegutandotherhosttissues.Evidenceispresentedinfavourofthehypothesisthat
theprimarytargetforelectrolyzedreducingwateristheresidentialmicroflorainthegut.

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8.ElectrolyzedreducedwaterscavengesactiveoxygenspeciesandprotectsDNAfrom
oxidativedamage.

BiochemBiophysResCommun.1997May8;234(1):26974.
ShirahataS,KabayamaS,NakanoM,MiuraT,KusumotoK,GotohM,HayashiH,OtsuboK,MorisawaS,
KatakuraY.

InstituteofCellularRegulationTechnology,GraduateSchoolofGeneticResourcesTechnology,Kyushu
University,Fukuoka,Japan.sirahata@grt.kyushuu.ac.jp

Activeoxygenspeciesorfreeradicalsareconsideredtocauseextensiveoxidativedamagetobiological
macromolecules,whichbringsaboutavarietyofdiseasesaswellasaging.Theidealscavengerforactive
oxygenshouldbe'activehydrogen'.'Activehydrogen'canbeproducedinreducedwaternearthecathode
duringelectrolysisofwater.ReducedwaterexhibitshighpH,lowdissolvedoxygen(DO),extremelyhigh
dissolvedmolecularhydrogen(DH),andextremelynegativeredoxpotential(RP)values.Stronglyelectrolyzed
reducedwater,aswellasascorbicacid,(+)catechinandtannicacid,completelyscavengedO.2producedby
thehypoxanthinexanthineoxidase(HXXOD)systeminsodiumphosphatebuffer(pH7.0).Thesuperoxide
dismutase(SOD)likeactivityofreducedwaterisstableat4degreesCforoveramonthandwasnotlosteven
afterneutralization,repeatedfreezingandmelting,deflationwithsonication,vigorousmixing,boiling,
repeatedfiltration,orclosedautoclaving,butwaslostbyopenedautoclavingorbyclosedautoclavinginthe
presenceoftungstentrioxidewhichefficientlyadsorbsactiveatomichydrogen.Waterbubbledwithhydrogen
gasexhibitedlowDO,extremelyhighDHandextremelylowRPvalues,asdoesreducedwater,butithasno
SODlikeactivity.TheseresultssuggestthattheSODlikeactivityofreducedwaterisnotduetothedissolved
molecularhydrogenbutduetothedissolvedatomichydrogen(activehydrogen).AlthoughSODaccumulated
H2O2whenaddedtotheHXXODsystem,reducedwaterdecreasedtheamountofH2O2producedbyXOD.
Reducedwater,aswellascatalaseandascorbicacid,coulddirectlyscavengeH2O2.Reducewatersuppresses
singlestrandbreakageofDNAbactiveoxygenspeciesproducedbytheCu(II)catalyzedoxidationofascorbic

acidinadosedependentmanner,suggestingthatreducedwatercanscavengenotonlyO2.andH2O2,but
also1O2and.OH.
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9.Themechanismoftheenhancedantioxidanteffectsagainstsuperoxideanionradicalsof
reducedwaterproducedbyelectrolysis.

BiophysChem.2004Jan1;107(1):7182.
HanaokaK,SunD,LawrenceR,KamitaniY,FernandesG.
BioREDOXLaboratoryInc.11874,OazaUeda,Uedashi,Naganoken3860001,Japan.
hanak@rapid.ocn.ne.jp

Wereportedthatreducedwaterproducedbyelectrolysisenhancedtheantioxidanteffectsofprotondonors
suchasascorbicacid(AsA)inapreviouspaper.Wealsodemonstratedthatreducedwaterproducedby
electrolysisof2mMNaClsolutionsdidnotshowantioxidanteffectsbyitself.Wereasonedthatthe
enhancementofantioxidanteffectsmaybeduetotheincreaseoftheionicproductofwaterassolvent.The
ionicproductofwater(pKw)wasestimatedbymeasurementsofpHandbyaneutralizationtitrationmethod.
Asanindicatorofoxidativedamage,ReactiveOxygenSpecies(ROS)mediatedDNAstrandbreakswere
measuredbytheconversionofsupercoiledphiX174RFIdoublestrandDNAtoopenandlinearforms.
ReducedwaterhadatendencytosuppresssinglestrandbreakageofDNAinducedbyreactiveoxygenspecies
producedbyH2O2/Cu(II)andHQ/Cu(II)systems.Theenhancementofsuperoxideanionradicaldismutation
activitycanbeexplainedbychangesintheionicproductofwaterinthereducedwater.

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10.Protectivemechanismofreducedwateragainstalloxaninducedpancreaticbetacell
damage:Scavengingeffectagainstreactiveoxygenspecies

Authors:LiY.1;NishimuraT.1;TeruyaK.1;MakiT.1;KomatsuT.1;HamasakiT.1;KashiwagiT.1;KabayamaS.2;
ShimSY.1;KatakuraY.1;OsadaK.1;KawaharaT.1;OtsuboK.2;MorisawaS.2;IshiiY.3;GadekZ.4;Shirahata
S.5

Source:Cytotechnology,Volume40,Numbers13,2002,pp.139149(11)

Publisher:Springer

Abstract:Reactiveoxygenspecies(ROS)causeirreversibledamagetobiologicalmacromolecules,resultingin
manydiseases.Reducedwater(RW)suchashydrogenrichelectrolyzedreducedwaterandnaturalreduced
waterslikeHitaTenryosuiwaterinJapanandNordenauwaterinGermanythatareknowntoimprovevarious
diseases,couldprotectahamsterpancreaticbetacellline,HITT15fromalloxaninducedcelldamage.
Alloxan,adiabetogeniccompound,isusedtoinducetype1diabetesmellitusinanimals.Itsdiabetogenic
effectisexertedviatheproductionofROS.AlloxantreatedHITT15cellsexhibitedloweredviability,
increasedintracellularROSlevels,elevatedcytosolicfreeCa2+concentration,DNAfragmentation,decreased
intracellularATPlevelsandloweringofglucosestimulatedreleaseofinsulin.RWcompletelypreventedthe
generationofalloxaninducedROS,increaseofcytosolicCa2+concentration,decreaseofintracellularATP
level,andloweringofglucosestimulatedinsulinrelease,andstronglyblockedDNAfragmentation,partially

suppressingtheloweringofviabilityofalloxantreatedcells.IntracellularATPlevelsandglucosestimulated
insulinsecretionwereincreasedbyRWto23.5timesand24times,respectively,suggestingthatRW
enhancestheglucosesensitivityandglucoseresponseofbetacells.TheprotectiveactivityofRWwasstable
at4Cforoveramonth,butwaslostbyautoclaving.TheseresultssuggestthatRWprotectspancreaticbeta
cellsfromalloxaninducedcelldamagebypreventingalloxanderivedROSgeneration.RWmaybeusefulin
preventingalloxaninducedtype1diabetesmellitus.
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11.Electrolyzedhydrogensaturatedwaterfordrinkinguseelicitsanantioxidativeeffect:a
feedingtestwithrats.

BiosciBiotechnolBiochem.2005Oct;69(10):19857
YanagiharaT,AraiK,MiyamaeK,SatoB,ShudoT,YamadaM,AoyamaM.

MiZCo.,Ltd.,Fujisawashi,Kanagawa,Japan.

Anewtypeofelectrolyzedhydrogensaturated(EHS)waterwasproducedusingawaterelectrolyzingdevice
equippedwithaspecialcationexchanger.UseoftheEHSwaterfordrinkinginafeedingtestwithratselicited
anantioxidativeeffect.Afterintraperitonealinjectionof2,2azobisamidinopropanedihydrochloride,
urinarysecretionof8hydroxydeoxyguanosineandhepaticformationofperoxidizedlipidweresignificantly
lessenedinratswhichhadreceivedtheEHSwaterforoneweek.Theseresultssuggestthepossibilitythatthis
drinkingwatershowsaneffectinreductionofoxidativestressinthebody.

10