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ASlightlyLongerLookatPrying

ByCarloLini,PE

ThepryingcheckprocedurepresentedinPart9ofthe14thEditionoftheAISCSteelConstructionManual
canbeintimidatingforfirsttimeorinfrequentusers.Therearemanyvariablesandequations,andthe
controllinglimitstatemaynotalwaysbeobvious.Forthosewhohavestruggledwiththisprocedure,this
paperpresentsadifferentwaytothinkaboutpryingandwillhopefullyprovideabetterunderstanding
ofthepryingchecksinPart9.

SettingtheGroundRules

First,theassumptionsmustbedefined.Thispaperadopts Fatigue
themodeldescribedinPart9oftheManual.Thismeans Tensilefatigueinboltsisbestavoidedby
thatthepaperconsidersonlytheultimatestrengthofthe configuringjointssuchthattheboltsresist
connectionandassumesfatigueisnotaconsideration.The onlyshear.
modelrepresentsalowerboundsolution,whichby ThoughAppendix3oftheSpecification
definitionpredictsastrengththatislessthanoratmost addressessnugtightconditions,
equaltotheactualstrengthoftheconnectionatultimate pretensioningisencouragedandgreatly
loads.Itisbasedonasetofforcesthatsatisfies enhancesfatiguebehavior.
equilibrium.Allapplicablelimitstatesaresatisfiedforthe Beamendshearconnectionsshouldbe
flexibletoallowrotationandprevent
forcesassumedinthemodel,andweknowbasedontests
prying(Wilson,1940).
thatitcansafelybeassumedthattheconnectionhas
TheAISCandRCSCSpecificationsaddress
sufficientductilitytoaccommodatemodel.
tensilefatigueinboltssomewhat
Themodeldoesnotconsiderthebehaviorofthe differently,butbothrequireaccounting
forprying.
connectionasitreachestheforcedistributionassumedto
AASTOprovidesasimplifiedand
existatultimateloads;itisnotanelasticmodel.Pryingcan
conservativecalculationtoestimate
increasethestressrangethatmustbeconsideredunder
prying.
fatigueloading,aconsiderationthatisbeyondthescopeof Thecalculationofthepryingforce,q,in
thispaper. theManualisnotappropriatefor
evaluatingfatigue.
Theboltforceisshownasbeingappliedattheedgeofthe
bolthole(Figure1).Thisadjustmentbringsthetheoreticalandexperimentalresultsclosertogether
(Kulaketal.,1987).

PryingforStrength

Pryingmaymistakenlybeviewedasaflawinaconnectionalimitstatethatweakenstheconnection
buttheoppositeisactuallytrue.Asstatedonpage911ofthe14thEditionManual:Alternatively,itis
usuallypossibletodeterminealesserrequiredthicknessbydesigningtheconnectingelementand
boltedjointfortheactualeffectsofpryingactionwithqgreaterthanzero.Onecanviewpryingasa
waytoincreasethestrengthofaconnectioni.e.,athinnerpartwithpryingcanhavethesame
strengthasathickerpartwithoutprying.
TheStren
ngthofthePlatewithoutP
Prying

Beforege
ettingintohow
wpryingincreeasesthestre
engthofthecconnection,leetsexaminethecondition
n
withoutp
pryingandhowwitishandle
edintheMannual.

Manualcalculaatestheminimumthickneessrequiredttoeliminatep
Equation920intheM pryingaction:

(ManualEq.920)

eLRFDformulation,andth
Thisisthe hecheckassuresthatthefflexuralstrengthoftheangleleg(Figurre1)
isnotexceeded.Wecaanalsothinkofthiscondittionasacant ileveredbeam
mwithalenggthbasideallized
2.
inFigure2

TheMomeentArm

Figure1sshowsamomeentarmmeasu uredfromtheccenter
oflegtottheedgeoftheebolthole.Thisisconsistenttwith
themodeelassumedforanglesintheM Manual.
Forteesaandwideflanggeshapes,themomentarmiis
generally
ymeasuredfromthefaceofttheweb.
TheFebruuary2015SteeelInterchange(availableat
www.mo dernsteel.com m)providesfurttherdiscussion n.

Angleloadedintensionwithoutpryingg.
Figure1:A

TheEffecctiveWidth

Figure2:W
Withoutpryin
ng,viewedassacantileverbeam. Theeffeectivewidth,p
p,canbe
conservvativelytakenaas3.5bbutcannnot
exceedthespacingbeetweenthebo olts.
Largereeffectivewidth
hscanbejustiffied
throughhrationalanalyysis.TheManu ual
provideesfurtherguidaance.

Theavailableflexuralstrengthoftheanglelegneartheheeloftheangleisequalto


(Eq.1)

wherepisequaltothetributarywidthandtisequaltheanglethickness.

Themomentatthislocationisequalto

(Eq.2)

SettingMuequaltoMwoandsolvingforTworesultsin

(Eq.3)

Tworeferstotheamountofloadthatcanbeappliedtotheanglebeforecreatingaplastichingenearthe
heeloftheangle.NotethatonecansubstituteEq.2intoEq.1andsolvefortherequiredthickness,t,
whichwouldresultinthesameexpressionasManualEq.920presentedearlier.Thiscanbeviewedas
theminimumthicknessrequiredtoprovidesufficientstrengthwithouthavingtoaccountforpryingand
theadditionalstrengththatresultfromprying.Forcaseswheretheappliedload,T,islessthanTwo,the
calculatedinManualEq.929islessthan0.Thisisequivalenttotbeinglessthantmin.

AdditionalStrengthofthePlatewithPrying

Itmightbepossibletosqueezemorestrengthfromtheconnectionifamorecomplexmodelischosen.
Pryingactioncanbeaccountedfor.Asmentionedpreviously,thecasewithoutpryingcanbeenvisioned
asacantileverbeam.Toaccountfortheadditionalstrengthfromprying,amodel,asshowninFigure3,
canbeused.Theadditionofahingeattheboltlineincreasestheflexuralstrengthoftheflange(which
mightbeintuitivelysurmised).Recognizingadditionalrestraintthatwaspreviouslyignoredcannot
weakenthesystem.Thisisinfactacorollarytothelowerboundtheorem.
CantileverModeel

Nootethatthestrrengthgainshoownfromconssideringpryingg
isssuperimposed ontothestren ngthwithoutp
pryingcase(seee
Eq.11).Thatisw
whynomomen ntisshownatthecantilever
endinFigure3a nd4.Sinceth
hecasewithouttprying
deevelopstheflexxuralstrengthneartheangleeheel,no
additionalmomeentcanbetakeenatthislocattion.

Figure3:Pryingcontrributionview
wedasacantilleverresultin gfromthefo
orcesattheb
boltandangleetoe
lo
ocations,form
mingamomeentcouple.

Thisaddittionalcantilevversupportwwouldpreventtthefailurem
modedepicteedinFigure1and2i.e.,w we
aregoingfromamode elthatallowsonlyoneplasstichingetooonethatallow
wstwoplastichingestofo orm.
Anadditioonalflexurecchecknearthe eboltlinecan
nbemadetoodeterminethestrengthin ncreaseduettothe
presenceofthesecond dplastichinge(Figure4a)..Thisnewmoodelrequiresanadditionaalforce,q,to
maintainequilibrium.TTheTpryingtermcansimplyybevieweda stheaddition nalstrengthggainedfromttaking
pryingintoaccount.Th hatis,thetotalstrengthofftheconnecttion,T,woulddbeT=Two+TTprying.

a.) Tprying_flexure
p limiitedbyflexurralyieldinglim
mitstateatbooltholelocation.b.)Tpryinng_boltlimitedb
by
bolttensionru upturelimitsttate.

Figuure4:Pryingcontribution limitstates.

Theflexurelimitstatelooksatbendingalongtheboltline.Thischeckcanbeexpressedasfollows:


(Eq.4)

Where 1
16

Equation4issimilartoEquation1excepttheplatewidththatischeckedisadjustedtoaccountforthe
materialremovedtoaccountforthebolthole.SimilartoEquation3,wecansaythatthemaximum
additionalpryingforcebasedontheflexurelimitstate,Tprying_flexure,isequalto

_ (Eq.5)

BoltTensionRuptureLimitState

Whetherornotpryingisaccountedfor,theforceontheboltcannotexceedtheavailabletensilerupture
strengthofthebolt.Fortheconditionwithoutprying,theforceontheboltissimplytheappliedtension
perbolt.Fortheconditionwithprying,theforceontheboltistheappliedtensionperboltplusthe
pryingforce,q.

FromFigure4b,basedonsumoftheforcesequalingzerointheydirection,wecansaytheadditional
forceontheboltduetopryingisequaltoTprying_bolt+qb.Bysolvingforthesumofthemomentsaboutthe
holelocation,wecandeterminethevalueforqb:

_
(Eq.6)

Fromthecasewithoutprying,wealreadyhavealoadontheboltequaltoTwo(Figure1).Asshownin
Figure4,themaximumadditionalloadthatcanbeplacedontheboltwouldhavetobelessthanthe
boltcapacity,B,minustheexistingloadontheboltwithoutprying,Two.

_ (Eq.7)

CombiningEquations6and7resultsinthefollowingexpression:

_
_ (Eq.8)

SimplifyingEquation8yields


_ 1 (Eq.9)

SolvingforTprying_bolt,themaximumadditionalforcethatcanbeaddedtotheanglebasedonthebolt
limitstateisequalto


_ (Eq.10)
OverallCo
onnectionStrengthwithP Prying

Remembe erthataccountingforpryingincreasesthestrength oftheflangeeandmayincreasethestreength


ofthecon
nnection.Assstatedearlier,thestrength
hoftheflang ewhenpryin
ngisconsidereedcanbe
expresseddas

(Eq.11)

Themaxim mumaddition nalloadthatcanbeaddeddtoaconnecttionwhenpryingisconsid deredwillbe


limitedbyyeitherboltttensionruptureorflexuralyieldingofthheanglelegaattheboltho
ole.Thereforee,
Tpryingiseq
qualto

_
(Eq
q.12)
_

SimilartoEquation(928)intheMa
anual,ifonew
wantstosolvvefortheactu
ualpryingforrceintheboltt,q,
thefollow
wingequationncanbeused:

(Eq.13
3)

Exampless

Thefollow
wingexample
escompareth heresultsfrom
mtheproceddureinPart9tothoseobtainedusingthe
approachdiscussedinthisarticle.

Example11
Given:
p=3in
B=27.5kips

Usethee equationsinPPart9ofthe14thEditionM
Manualto
solveforthefollowinggvariables:

b=17/116in
a=23/88in
d=13/116in

ArticleApproach ManualProcedure

WithoutPryingCheck

CheckBoltTensileStrengthwithoutPrying CheckBoltTensileStrengthwithoutPrying

Tu=5kips<B=27.5kips Tu=5kips<B=27.5kips

CalculateTwo Calculatetmintoeliminateprying


Eq.1: 0.9 58 ManualEq.920a: =0.43in>3/8in

5.51 ConsiderPrying

.
Eq.3: 3.83kips<5kips

ConsiderPrying



ArticleAp pproach MannualProcedurre

ConsiderPryying

FlexureLimitStateatB BoltHole MannualEq.930aa:tc=1.0


Eq.4: 0.9 58 MannualEq.924:=0.73

4.01 MannualEq.926:=0.61

.
Eq.5: _ 2.79kips MannualEq.935:=5.28

CheckBolltTensileStre
engthforPrying >1.UseEquation934

. .
Eq.10: _
14.7 MannualEq.934:Q=0.24

2.79
Eq.12: MannualEq.931:Tavail=6.62
2kips
14.7

Eq.11: 3.83 2.79 6.62 6.62 kips>5kips.Connectionisadequate.

>5kips.Conn
6.62kips> nectionisadeequate.

Note:When>1,the eManualstattesthatthefiittinghasinsuufficientstren
ngthtodevelopthefullboolt.
Thismakeessensesinceethepryingccontributionisslimitedbyt heflexurelim
mitstateatth
heboltholes.

Example22
Given:
p=3in
B=27.5kips

Usethee equationsinPPart9ofthe14thEditionM
Manualto
solveforthefollowinggvariables:

b=11/44in
a=23/88in
d=13/116in


ArticleApproach ManualProcedure

WithoutPryingCheck

CheckBoltTensileStrengthwithoutPrying CheckBoltTensileStrengthwithoutPrying

Tu=20kips<B=27.5kips Tu=20kips<B=27.5kips

CalculateTwo Calculatetmintoeliminateprying


Eq.1: 0.9 58 ManualEq.920a: =0.80in>3/4in

22.0 ConsiderPrying

.
Eq.3: 17.6kips<20kips

ConsiderPrying

ConsiderPrying

FlexureLimitStateatBoltHole ManualEq.930a:tc=0.94


Eq.4: 0.9 58 ManualEq.924:=0.73

16.1 ManualEq.926:=0.53

.
Eq.5: _ 12.9kips ManualEq.935:=0.5

CheckBoltTensileStrengthforPrying 0<1.UseEquation933

. .
Eq.10: _
6.49 ManualEq.933:Q=0.876

12.9
Eq.12: ManualEq.931:Tavail=24.1kips
6.49

Eq.11: 17.6 6.49 24.1 24.1kips>20kips.Connectionisadequate.

24.1kips>20kips.Connectionisadequate.

Note:When01,themanualstatesthatthefittinghassufficientstrengthtodevelopthefullbolt,
butinsufficientstiffnesstopreventpryingaction.Thismakessensesincethepryingcontributionis
limitedbythebolttensionrupturelimit
Example1Revisited

ThisexamplelooksatExample1inthemoretraditionallimitstatechecksformat.

BoltTensileStrengthwithoutPrying

Tu=5kips<B=27.5kipsBoltCheckOK

CheckFlexuralYieldingatAngleLegNearHeel

Eq.2: 5 1 7 16 =7.19kipin

Eq.1: 5.51 7.19

Pryingneedstobeconsidered.

Eq.3: 3.83

Anglecanonlytransfer3.83kipswithoutprying.Checktoseeifangleisadequatetotransferthe
remainingloadperthetwopryinglimitstates.Theremainingloadisequalto5kips3.83kips=1.17
kips.

CheckFlexuralYieldingatBoltHole

1.17 1 7 16 1.68

Eq.4: 4.01 1.68 FlexuralCheckOK

CheckBoltTensileStrengthwithPrying

.
Eq.13: 0.71kips

Forceonbolt=5kips+0.71kips=5.71kips<27.5kipsBoltCheckOK

Connectionisadequate.

ReferencedandUsefulDocuments

AISC(2010a),SpecificationforStructuralSteelBuildings,ANSI/AISC36010,AmericanInstituteof
SteelConstruction,Chicago,IL.
AISC(2010b),SteelConstructionManual,14thEd.,AmericanInstituteofSteelConstruction,
Chicago,IL.
AISC(2014),SteelInterchange,ModernSteelConstruction,February,AmericanInstituteof
SteelConstruction,Chicago,IL.
Fisher,J.W.,Kulak,G.L.andSmith,I.F.C.(1998),AFatiguePrimerforStructuralEngineers,
NSBA/AISC,Chicago,IL.
Kulak,G.L.,Fisher,J.W.andStruik,J.H.A.(1987),GuidetoDesignCriteriaforBoltedandRiveted
Joints,2ndEd.,JohnWiley&Sons,Inc.,NewYork,NY.
RCSC(2009),SpecificationforStructuralJointsUsingHighStrengthBolts,ResearchCouncilon
StructuralConnections,AmericanInstituteofSteelConstruction,Chicago,IL.
Thornton,W.A.(1985),PryingActionaGeneralTreatment,EngineeringJournal,Second
Quarter,AmericanInstituteofSteelConstruction,Chicago,IL.
Wilson,W.M.(1940),DesignofConnectionAnglesforStringersofRailwayBridges.Proc.,
AREA,41,889903.

AnabbreviatedversionofthispaperappearsastheJuly2016SteelWisearticleAQuickLookatPrying,
availableatwww.modernsteel.com.

CarloLini(lini@aisc.org)isanadvisorinAISCsSteelSolutionsCenter.