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Causal-Comparative Design

Salkind, N. J. (2010). Causal-Comparative Design. Retrieved April 15, 2017, from

Population Frame

simple random sample. Retrieved June 12, 2017, from website:

A randomly selected sample from a larger sample or population, giving all the
individuals in the sample an equal chance to be chosen. In a simple random sample,
individuals are chosen at random and not more than once to prevent a bias that would
negatively affect the validity of the result of the experiment.


Percentage is defined as a number represented as a fraction of 100. Percentages are

used to express numbers between zero and one. It is used to compare things and use it
in ratios. It is denoted by the symbol %.

TutorVista. (2017). Percentage Formula. Retrieved May 25, 2017, from


Paguio, D. P., Gadia, E. D., Domantay, G. F., Bardiaga, M. R., Fastidio, L. A., Soriano,
D. D., & Talvo, R. J. (2014). Statistics with Computer Based Discussions. Malabon City:
Jimczyville Publications.

One-way ANOVA. Compares the means between the groups you are interested in and
determines whether any of those means are significantly different from each other.

a. Sum of the squares

( )2
= 2
1 ( )2
= ( )2

( 1 )2 ( 2 )2 ( )2 ( )2
= + + +
1 2


= sum of each column

= sum of the values of all items

= tortal sum of squares

= sum of quares within column

r or n1 = number of items per column

b. Degrees of Freedom

= 1

= 1


= total degrees of freedom

= degrees of freedom between column

= degrees of freedom within column

= number of columns

= total number of entries

c. Mean sum of squares



= mean sum squares between column

= mean sum of squares within column

d. Locating the tabular value and calculating the computed value and comparing

1. Locate the tabular value of by the following format.

1 = locate to Appendix C

2. Calculate


3. Compare the Computed against the tabular value

a. Reject Ho if the computed value is greater than or equal to the tabular value

( )

b. Do not reject Ho if the computed value is less than the tabular value ( < )

T-test for Independent Samples.This is used to compare tha values of the means
from two samples and test whether it is likely that the samples are from populations
having different mean values and it is assumed that the variance of the two populations
are equal.
1 2
(1 1)(1 ) + (2 1)(2 ) 1 + 1
1 + 2 2 1 2

1 = mean of the first group of sample

2 = mean of the second group of sample

1 = total number of the first group of sample

2 = total number of the second group of sample

1 = standard deviation of the first group of sample

2 = standard deviation of the second group of sample

Weighted Mean. The weighted arithmetic mean of gie=ven groups data is the average
of the means of all the groups. Consider the proper weights assigned to the observed
values according to their relative importance.




= weight of each item

= value of each item

= total number of weights