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Reprint September 2010, 5000 Copies

Karnataka State Council for Bangalore Water Supply and


Science and Technology (KSCST) Sewerage Board
KSCST was established as a Service Area- 800.29 sq. Kms.
registered society in 1975 with the objective of Water Supply Connections- 6.23 lakhs
developing need-based science and Population- 75 lakhs
technology inputs for development. Headed Quantity of water supplied- 900mld
by the Chief Minister of Karnataka, the Per capita supply approx- 119 to 122 Ltrs
Council comprises eminent scientists and Number of service stations-106
administrators of the State, who can act as Total number of staff working- 2402
bridge between technology generators and Number of pumping stations-62
users. The Council achieves its objectives Number of Ground Level Reservoirs-52
through projects and programmes in Length of distribution network- 5975 km
collaboration with academic research and Length of UGD network-4000 km
technical institutions of the State. Number of chlorinators- 57
No of KIOSKS (Payment centers)-92

About the author

A.R. Shivakumar is the Principal Investigator (RWH) and


Scientist at the State Council. He has been associated with
Environment and Renewable Energy related project and
programmes since 1982. He has five innovations to his credit. The
Government of India recognized one of his innovations and has
conferred a National Award on him during 2002.
A.R. Shivakumar

Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology
Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012 Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012
Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840 Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840
Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html
Reprint September 2010, 5000 Copies

Karnataka State Council for Bangalore Water Supply and


Science and Technology (KSCST) Sewerage Board
KSCST was established as a Service Area- 800.29 sq. Kms.
registered society in 1975 with the objective of Water Supply Connections- 6.23 lakhs
developing need-based science and Population- 75 lakhs
technology inputs for development. Headed Quantity of water supplied- 900mld
by the Chief Minister of Karnataka, the Per capita supply approx- 119 to 122 Ltrs
Council comprises eminent scientists and Number of service stations-106
administrators of the State, who can act as Total number of staff working- 2402
bridge between technology generators and Number of pumping stations-62
users. The Council achieves its objectives Number of Ground Level Reservoirs-52
through projects and programmes in Length of distribution network- 5975 km
collaboration with academic research and Length of UGD network-4000 km
technical institutions of the State. Number of chlorinators- 57
No of KIOSKS (Payment centers)-92

About the author

A.R. Shivakumar is the Principal Investigator (RWH) and


Scientist at the State Council. He has been associated with
Environment and Renewable Energy related project and
programmes since 1982. He has five innovations to his credit. The
Government of India recognized one of his innovations and has
conferred a National Award on him during 2002.
A.R. Shivakumar

Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology
Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012 Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012
Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840 Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840
Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html
B.S Yediyurappa
Chief Minister
Govt. of Karnataka

Message
Water is precious. It is essential to all living beings on earth. Misuse or overuse of
water leads to drought condition and such condition is increasing by the day even in cities
like Bangalore.

BWSSB has been distributing water to residential and industrial areas and for
commercial activities. To meet the increasing demand, conservation of water is very
crucial. Hence, it's important that the people of Bangalore should be made aware of the
need for conservation of water.

Action to save water and increase the level of ground water is the need of the hour.
The government has been creating awareness among the people to promote and save rain
water. The objective of this project is to inspire people to participate in the programme and
create awareness about the need for conservation of water.

Every household can contribute to this project by adopting rainwater harvesting


systems. Houses with terrace, high rise building and commercial complexes can collect
and use rain water which flows on the terrace during the rainy season, by purifying and
storing it in the underground sump.

Rainwater Harvesting method can also be adopted to increase the level of water in
wells and bore wells.

Public support and encouragement is essential to meet the water demands of


Bangalore.

(B.S. Yediyurappa)
Katta Subramanya Naidu
Minister for Excise, BWSSB
IT and Information
Govt. of Karnataka

Message
Infrastructure is the main impetus for growth. In Bangalore, supply of water is a
challenging task. River Kaveri, Located at a distance of 100 kms away from Bangalore. Is
the only perennial and main source if water to Bangalore. We have been making all efforts
to meet the growing demand of water in Bangalore and are unable to fulfill the
requirement for the whole of Bangalore.

The 4th phase and 2nd stage of Kavery Supply Scheme has been implemented and
this will help in the supply of 500 MLD additionally. The supply will start in the next few
months.

We have the responsibility of conserving water for the future generation. Proper
planning to save rainwater is the need of hour. To enhance the beauty of garden city and to
maintain the Iustre of the rapidly growing city, it is important to conserve and maintain
water resources.

Rejuvenating ground water level has to be achieved by the citizens of Bangalore.


It is important to collect and store rain water, which is being wasted, during the rainy
season.

(Katta Subramanya Naidu)


Prof. M.S. Mohan Kumar
Secretary

Forword
Water has been one of the most influential factors of the civilization, not only in
the present modern world but also from the time immemorial.

In the recent times, due to increase in urban population and unscientific


exploitation of fresh water resources, availability of potable water for human
consumption is depleting and this will be one of the biggest challenges our society is going
to face in future.

conservation of fresh water and Harvesting are immediate measures for


sustainable development. Though we can not undo the damage, certainly these measures
can reverse the trend.

Efforts of KSCST in creating awareness on the relevance of Rainwater Harvesting


(RWH) in Karnataka are commendable. RWH is cost effective and affordable technology
if implemented on scientific basis. Hence RWH is truly a sustainable technology. The
scientific rationale with research and development for cost effective process to harvest
rainwater and recharge groundwater will guide the society for a better future.

The Effort of Mr. A.R.Shivakumar is writing this book - " A Guide for Rainwater
Harvesting" - will certainly contribute to the wealth of knowledge that our modern society
can get benefit from. His innovative ideas and practical illustrations in this book will
surely be of help great help to policy makers and also to those who are contemplating to
adopt environment friendly practices.

I wish, with this contribution from KSCST, Rainwater Harvesting would become
people's movement in the widespread use and a practice to implement at various levels of
our modern living.

Prof. M.S. Mohan Kumar


Secretary
Karnataka Sate Council
for Science & Technology
P.B. Ramamurthy, IAS
Chairman
BWSSB

Message
Bangalore is growing at rapid pace. Due to urbanization Bangalore's geographical limits
has been extending, meanwhile its population is increasing day by day. BWSSB is playing
a leading role in Greater Bangalore administration. BWSSB is supplying drinking water
to Bangalore and it has taken responsibility to waste water processing.

BWSSB which was established in 1964, introduced variety of projects to supply drinking
water for public utility. Due to non availability of water sources in Bangalore, BWSSB has
implemented Kaveri River water Supply Scheme in 1974. Again in 1982, 1993 and 2002
another 3 phases of water were successfully launched.

Presently, out of Kaveri Water Supply Schemes 4 phases serving 900 million litres
drinking water every day to Bangalore.

Kaveri 4th phase, 2nd stage water supply scheme approximately costing 3,384 crore Rs. is
promoted with the help of International community like Japan.

Through this innovative scheme by 2011, the BWSSB aims to supply further 500 million
of drinking water to the city.

The Bangalore city limit has expanded geographically from 250 sq. k.m to 725sq. k.m, has
the population densely grown to 75 lakhs.

By the year 2036, the scarcity for the water would be increased to 250 million litres
everyday. Thereby, creating a deficiency of 1050 million litres of water.

In persuade of this great scarcity of water, BWSSB has taken effective measure to
implement the system of rainwater harvesting. And has idea to make it mandatory to adopt
rain harvesting method to every house. And government has agreed to amend the rules of
BWSSB.

(P.B. Ramamurthy)
Rainwater
Rainwater

Filter

Sump
Sump

Rainwater

Filter

Drinking

Cooking

Bath

Wash
Sump

Gardening

Rainwater
Rainwater

Filter
Filter

Borewell
Openwell
Average annual rainfall in Karantaka State 5

Recharge

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Method

an

14. Annexure .................................................................................................. 41

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Shopping
Apartments etc.
Open areas

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ltr

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two

iI

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5. Average Annual Rainfall in Karnataka State
(Talukwise 12 years average rainfall)
Sl District & Average Rain Collection on Sl District & Average Rain Collection on
No Taluk (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site No Taluk (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site
(ltr) (ltr)
Bangalore District (U) Davangere District
Anekal Channagiri
Bangalore North Davangere
Bangalore South Harappanahalli
Bangalore District (R) Harihara
Channapatna Honnali
Devanahalli Jagalur
Doddaballapur
Chamarajanagar District
Hoskote
Chamarajanagar
Kanakapura
Gundlupet
Magadi
Kollegal
Nelamangala
Yelandhur
Ramanagar
Kolar District Mysore District
Bagepalli Heggadadevanakote
Bangarapete Hunsur
Chikkaballapur Krishnarajanagar
Chintamani Mysore
Gowribidanur Nanjanagudu
Gudibande Piriyapatna
Kolar T.Narasipura
Malur Mandya District
Mulabagilu Krishnarajapete
Shidlagatta Maddur
Srinivasapura Malavalli
Tumkur District Mandya
Chikkanayakanahalli Nagamangala
Gubbi Pandavapura
Koratagere Shrirangapatna
Kunigal
Bellari District
Madhugiri
Bellari
Pavagada
Hadagali
Sira
Hosapete
Tiptur
Hagaribommanahalli
Tumkur
Kodligi
Turuvekere
Sondur
Chitradurga District
Siruguppa
Challakere
Chitradurga Koppala District
Hiriyur Gangavathi
Holalkere Koppala
Hosadurga Kustagi
Molakalmuru Yalburgi

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Average Annual Rainfall in Karnataka State
(Talukwise 12 years Average Rainfall)
Sl District & Average Rain Collection on Sl District & Average Rain Collection on
No Taluk (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site No Taluk (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site
(ltr) (ltr)
Raichuru District Bijapura District
Devadurga Bagevadi
Lingasuguru Bijapura
Manavi Indi
Raichuru Muddebihala
Sindhanuru Sindhagi
Gulbarga District Gadag District
Afjalpura Gadag
Aland Mundiragi
Chincholi Naragunda
Chitthapura Rona
Gulbarga Sirahatti
Jevargi Haveri District
Sedam Byadagi
Shahapura Hanagal
Shorapura Haveri
Yadagiri Hirekerura
Ranibennuru
Bidar District
Savanuru
Orad
Shiggavi
Bidar
Dharavada District
Bhalki
Daravada
Basavakalyana
Hubballi
Humnabad
Kallagatagi
Kundagola
Belagam District
Navalgunda
Athani
Bylahongala Shivamogga
Belagavi Bhadravathi
Chikkodi Hosanagar
Gokak Sagara
Hukkeri Shikaripura
Khanapura Shivamogga
Ramadurga Sorabha
Rayabaga Thirthahalli
Savadatthi Hasana District
Aluru
Bagalakote
Arakalagudu
Badami
Arasikere
Bagalakote
Beluru
Bilgi
Channarayapattana
Hunagund
Hasana
Jamakhandi
Holenarasipura
Mudhola
Sakaleshpura

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Average Annual Rainfall in Karnataka State
(Talukwise 12 years Average Rainfall)

Sl District & Average Rain Collection on Sl District & Average Rain Collection on
No Taluk (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site No Taluk (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site
(ltr) (ltr)

Chikkamagaluru District Udupi District


Chikkamagaluru Karkala
Kaduru Kundapura
Koppa Udupi
Mudigere Utthara Kannada
Narasimharajapura Ankola
Shrungeri
Bhatkala
Tharikere
Haliyala
Kodagu District
Honnavara
Madikeri
Karavara
Somavarapete
Virajpete Kumata
Dhakshina Kannada Mundagoda
Belthangadi Siddapura
Bantavala Sirasi
Mangaluru Joyda
Putthuru Yallapura
Sulya

Bangalore Cities 100 Years Average Rainfall Data


Collection on
Month No. of Rainy Days* Rainfall (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site (ltr)
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

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Major Cities of India 100 Years Average Rainfall Data
Indian Capital No. of Yearly Collection on
Cities Rainfall Data (mm) 40 ft x 60 ft site (ltr)
Rainy Days
Hyderabad

Chennai

Mumbai

Delhi

Kolkata

First two uses require cleaner water (primary use). For bathing, washing, gardening
and flushing of toilets, relatively less clean water can be used (secondary use).
Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) can meet all these needs with suitable RWH techniques.

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Indian Standards
Institution, BIS 10500:1991

5 25 5 10

5 50 5 25

Unobjectionable - - Unobjectionable
pH 7.0-8.5 6.5-9.2 6.5-8.5 No relaxation

500 1500 500 2000

100 500 300 600

75 200 75 200
< 30 if SO4 is
250 mg/1, upto
150 mg/1 if SO4 150 30 100
is less than
250 mg/1
0.05 1.5 0.3 1.0

0.1 1.0 0.1 0.3

0.05 1.5 0.05 1.5


5.0 15.0 5.0 15.0
200 600 250 1000
200 400 200 400

0.001 0.002 0.001 0.002

0.6-0.9 0.8-1.78 1.0 1.5


- 45 45 100

- 0.05 0.05 No relaxation


- 0.001 0.001 No relaxation
- 0.01 0.01 No relaxation
- - 0.05 No relaxation

- 0.05 0.05 No relaxation


- 0.1 0.05 No relaxation
- 0.01 0.01 No relaxation

- 3 - 0.01

- 30 - 1.0

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Roofs are of broadly two categories flat roofs and sloping roofs. Flat roofs, made with
reinforced cement concrete, normally have waterproofing course as surface finish. The
waterproof course is done with a small slope towards the downtake pipes. Usual
practice is to use lime surkhi. In recent times a rich cement mortar is used ('muddy' in
local parlance). Weatherproof tiles are also laid on cement mortar. These types of roofs
are ideal for rooftop Rainwater Harvesting.

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roof

First Flush Lock and Sand bed Filter

a. Sand bed filter:


Sand bed filter is the traditional method where
coarse riverbed sand, pebbles and aggregates are
filled as layers, one above the other, in a confined
masonry structure. Rainwater is allowed at the top
from one end and filtered water is drawn from the
other end.
* Discussed In Annexure (page 41)

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Filter Element Rainwater Outlet

Flush Valve
Rainwater Inlet

Apart from these, There are many concepts and products available in the market for filtering
Rainwater. KSCST and BWSSB are not promoting any particular filter or any company.

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These PopUp filters are simple in design and
are very flexible to install in varying field
conditions.

An important feature in filtering is the


separation of first flush of rainwater from
relatively cleaner and purer subsequent
rainwater.

C. First Flush Lock and Sand Bed Filter

Working of First Flush Lock and Sand Bed Filter

The function details of automatic first flush separator and sand bed filter:

Rainwater collected from the roof top will enter the first flush lock, which will allow
only the initial rainwater with all the dirt and contaminants of the roof to flow in to the
flush tank and automatically divert the subsequent flow in to the sand bed filter
aminants chamber. The filtered water from the sand bed filter will flow in to the sump for future
w cleaner use. The stagnant water in the first flush tank and sand bed filter chamber is allowed
ter bed. to in filter in to the ground (the bottom of these tanks are not cemented to facilitate
ground water recharge). This arrangement automatically keeps the first flush and
sand bed filter chambers dry during the non rain days.

Clean the first flush chamber once in a month during the rainy season by
scraping the bottom and removing all the silt and other material collected in the
chamber.

Physically remove any floating


elements trapped on the filter bed
periodically. First Flush Lock & Sand Bed Filter

9"

Filter bed of aggregates or sand


need to be taken out of the filter chamber Rainwater Inlet Filtered water outlet

once in three months and washed in fresh 2'.6'' 2'.6''

water, dry in sun and refill them back in the Filtered water outlet
filter chamber. Flush Valve

20 mm and 40 mm Agrigate
Important: Rainwater inlet

Fix FFL vertically only. 3''


Filtered water outlet

Do not tamper the gas filled Flush Valve

pressurized float of the FFL 6''

Keep the FFL and filter bed First Flush Lock Sand bed filter

chamber covers closed after


cleaning
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Recharge gallery
The groundwater recharge gallery is created by
using used
plastic oil / chemical barrels (blue coloured drums
sold on the road side for construction activities etc.).
These barrels are of around 200 lt capacity and are
quite strong in their construction. One side of the
barrel (top or bottom), which is circular is shape, is
cut open. Depending on the total roof area connected
to this infiltration gallery, more number of barrels are
used for grounwater recharge. The barrels are buried
underground with their sides cut open facing
downwards. These empty barrels are buried without
filling anything into them. Top of the barrel are buried
without fillig anything into them. The top of the
barrel, which is intact, should be two feet below the
ground level. These barrels are palced one beside
other and they are connected to each other at the top
by a pipe. By doing so, these barrels are placed
upside down under the ground at a depth of two feet
from the surface. Outflow of the PopUp filter is
connected to the first barrel in the row by a pipeline.
Rainwater from the filter flows into first barrel, which
is under the ground with its bottom cut open. Since
the groundbelow the barrel is porous, water flowing
in to it infiltrates into the ground. During heavy
rainfall, more water stores temporarily is the first
barrel and over flows in to the next and subsequent
barrels. As the height of the water increases in the
barrels, percolation level also increases because of
the water head inside the barrels. In a system of
barrels, first barrel in the row receives water and
subsequnt barrels are interconnected at the top to
receive excess rainwater. Last barrel carries the overflow (if it happens) through a pipe
into storm water drain outside the plot. To facilitate the air trapped in the barrel to
escape out, an air vent is provided at the last barrel by fixing a vent pipe (overflow pipe
can also act as an air vent). In normal situation where the house is not located is alow-
lying area (water stagnation during rainy season), one barrel is required to percolate
water from a roof area of around 400 sq.ft. However, the percolation from each barel
depends on many other parameters like water table, soil structure, rainfall in the site etc.

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/

road

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Rainwater Harvesting in Apartments
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vehicle parking etc. can be taken up. Rainwater flowing from the PopUp filter into these
barrel system of infiltration gallery and recharges groundwater.

It is advised not to allow the filtered rainwater from the PopUp filters in to the borewell
(live or faliled). Fine silt or dust from the roof may pass through the filter and block the
micro - pores or aquifers in the bore well causing permanent damage to the borewell.

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Ground water Recharge through openwell

Rainwater from the filters may be allowed to stabilize in a storage facility or in an


infiltration gallery, specially designed to inject rainwater in to the borewell. Infiltration
gallery may be built next to the borewell, as explained in the section "Infiltration gallery
for large buildings". The size of infiltration gallery can vary from 300 cft. to 800 cft.,
depending on the roof area. A perforated pipe needs to be fitted in the second layer
from the bottom, from one end to the other. Farther end of the perforated pipe (in
second layer needs to be blocked with an end cap. The other end of the pipe is inserted
into the borewell by drilling a hole (size equivalent to outside diameter of the perforated
pipe) in the casing pipe of the borewell. Make sure the perforated pipe is not projecting
too much in to the borewell which will cause hindrance to install the pump in to the
borewell. At the same time if the pipe is not properly and firmly fixed to the casing pipe,
chances of silt / sand or other material may enter the borewell. Size of this pipe can be of
40 mm or 1.5" diameter having 6 mm diameter holes (at an interval of 150 mm or 6") all
along the bottom side of the pipe. It is important to have holes only at the bottom side of
the pipe as shown in the figure to avoid fine silt entering the borewell.

Steps involved in creating a openwell


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water

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drought
neighbours
ground water Recharge?
Washing machine water
for toilet flushing

Ground Level Ground Level

Bore Well
Rainwater is used for all household purposes (except toilet flush). Water from washing
machine is stored in a separate tank (sump - 3) and the same is used for flushing toilets.
This facility reduces the total consumption of water to 400liter per day.

meet
14. Annexure
1. Maintenance of Sand bed filter
"Keeping the Roof Clean provides Clean Rainwater "

Sand bed filter is the traditional method where


coarse riverbed sand, pebbles and aggregates are
filled as layers separated by plastic mesh, one
above the other, in a confined masonry structure.
Rainwater is allowed at the top from one end and
filtered water is drawn from the bottom at the other
end. The filtration tank can be built using brick and
cement. The dimension of the tank can be
1'6"x1'6"x1'0". A sieve of diameter 1'6" made of
aluminum/steel can also be used instead of a
masonry tank.

Simple method of constructing Sand bed filter:

1. The filtration tank can be built using brick and cement. The dimension of the tank
can be 1'6"x1'6"x1'0". A sieve of diameter 1'6" made of aluminum / steel can also be
used instead of a masonry tank.
2. A plastic mesh has to be spread at the bottom of the filter bed above which coarse
riverbed sand is filled up to three fourth of the tank.
3. Aggregates need to be filled for a height of 2" above the sand.
4. Rainwater filtered through Sand bed filter can be used for drinking*, cooking* and
other purposes.

Maintenance of Sand bed filter

1. Aggregates, sand and plastic mesh need to be taken out of the filter chamber
periodically and washed in fresh water, dry in sun and refill them back in the filter chamber.

Note:

1. Sand bed filter must be cleaned for the sediments periodically depending upon
the amount of dirt accumulated on the rooftop.
2. In case the bacterial contamination is found in the rainwater collected from the
roof; it has to be treated with chemicals such as chlorine (Chlorination), boiling etc

2. PopUp Filter Maintenance:


Important
PopUp filter must be installed vertically.
PopUp filter of 90mm and 110mm can handle rainwater from a maximum 500
sq.ft. and 1000 sq.ft. of roof area respectively (1000mm annual rainfall)
Keep the PopUp filter dry during non rainy days by opening the flush valve to
release stagnant water.

41
Vent Hole
Filter Element

Rainwater Outlet
Stabilizer Pipe

Flush Valve

Rainwater Inlet

How PopUp filter works?

The PopUp Filter has three components (rainwater receptor, flush valve and
filter element). Rainwater receptor is where the rainwater is allowed to flow from down
pipes in to the filter and a flush valve is provided to flush the first flow of the rainwater
along with leaves, dust etc. Water received in the receptor flows upwards against
gravity through a filter element to filter most of the floating elements and allow water to
stabilize in this filtration zone. Rainwater passing through this filter element is relatively
cleaner and flows out through an outlet, which can be led to storage device.
Filter element is mounted on a vertical stabilizer barrel with a friction fit. Filter
element need to be cleaned periodically during the rainy season to remove the
impurities trapped and there by keep the filtration system clean. In the event filter is not
cleaned and the filter element is getting clogged, PopUp Filter has a safety feature
built into it. The water pressure pushes out the clogged filter element from the
stabilizer barrel and allows the water to flow out freely. This safety feature will avoid
flooding of the rooftop because of clogged filter. The first indication of the filter getting
clogged is rainwater flowing out of a vent hole provided on the top of the filter element.

Maintenance of PopUp Filter

Flush the first rainwater by opening the flush valve on the filter for few minutes, close
the flush valve after all the dirt on the roof is flushed. When the rain stops, flush the
filter and remove the filter cartridge gently from its place and wash it thoroughly under a
running tap by gently tapping the filter element with a stick on all sides. The dirt
sticking in the filter element gets released and washes off. Replace the clean filter
element back to its place by gently inserting it in the barrel. Take care not to press it
too hard at the end. If pressed too hard, filter element gets locked inside the barrel and
may require greater force to retrieve it back when required for cleaning and also may
not PopUp when the filter is clogged or chocked. Allow the filtered water to get stored
in tank for future use.

42
Reprint September 2010, 5000 Copies

Karnataka State Council for Bangalore Water Supply and


Science and Technology (KSCST) Sewerage Board
KSCST was established as a Service Area- 800.29 sq. Kms.
registered society in 1975 with the objective of Water Supply Connections- 6.23 lakhs
developing need-based science and Population- 75 lakhs
technology inputs for development. Headed Quantity of water supplied- 900mld
by the Chief Minister of Karnataka, the Per capita supply approx- 119 to 122 Ltrs
Council comprises eminent scientists and Number of service stations-106
administrators of the State, who can act as Total number of staff working- 2402
bridge between technology generators and Number of pumping stations-62
users. The Council achieves its objectives Number of Ground Level Reservoirs-52
through projects and programmes in Length of distribution network- 5975 km
collaboration with academic research and Length of UGD network-4000 km
technical institutions of the State. Number of chlorinators- 57
No of KIOSKS (Payment centers)-92

About the author

A.R. Shivakumar is the Principal Investigator (RWH) and


Scientist at the State Council. He has been associated with
Environment and Renewable Energy related project and
programmes since 1982. He has five innovations to his credit. The
Government of India recognized one of his innovations and has
conferred a National Award on him during 2002.
A.R. Shivakumar

Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology
Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012 Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012
Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840 Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840
Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html
Reprint September 2010, 5000 Copies

Karnataka State Council for Bangalore Water Supply and


Science and Technology (KSCST) Sewerage Board
KSCST was established as a Service Area- 800.29 sq. Kms.
registered society in 1975 with the objective of Water Supply Connections- 6.23 lakhs
developing need-based science and Population- 75 lakhs
technology inputs for development. Headed Quantity of water supplied- 900mld
by the Chief Minister of Karnataka, the Per capita supply approx- 119 to 122 Ltrs
Council comprises eminent scientists and Number of service stations-106
administrators of the State, who can act as Total number of staff working- 2402
bridge between technology generators and Number of pumping stations-62
users. The Council achieves its objectives Number of Ground Level Reservoirs-52
through projects and programmes in Length of distribution network- 5975 km
collaboration with academic research and Length of UGD network-4000 km
technical institutions of the State. Number of chlorinators- 57
No of KIOSKS (Payment centers)-92

About the author

A.R. Shivakumar is the Principal Investigator (RWH) and


Scientist at the State Council. He has been associated with
Environment and Renewable Energy related project and
programmes since 1982. He has five innovations to his credit. The
Government of India recognized one of his innovations and has
conferred a National Award on him during 2002.
A.R. Shivakumar

Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Karnataka State Council for Science and Technology
Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012 Cauvery Bhavan, K.G. Road, Bangalore - 560 009 Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012
Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840 Tel : 080-2294 5100, 2294 5114 Tel : 080 2334 1652 / 2334 8848 Fax : 080 2334 8840
Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html Email : chairman@bwssb.org, website : www.bwssb.org Email : rwhkscst@vsnl.net, website : www.kscst.iisc.ernet.in/rwh.html