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TUBA- TUBA (Jatropha Curcas) LEAVES AS MOSQUITO LARVAE KILLER

MAAGAD, DONNA JOY ARAO


GOMERA, HERMIE SACULINGGAN
LOBENDINA, ELGIE CLEARK HAMBRE
MOLEO, MARTIE MAY DELLIVA
PERALES, RONALD DANO
RATERTA, JAICA MOLO
SACABIN, CEE JAY BAHIAN

A Research Proposal
Submitted to the Faculty of
Mindanao State University at Naawan
Integrated Developmental School
9023 Naawan, Misamis Oriental
In partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for
the Subject

Research 1

March 2013
APPROVAL SHEET

The Research Proposal entitled Tuba- tuba (Jatropha curcas) Leaves Extract As
Mosquito Larvae Killer submitted by Maagad, Donna Joy A., Gomera Hemie S., Lobendina
Elgie Cleark H., Moleo Martie May D., Perales Ronal D., Sacabin Cee Jay B. in Partial
Fulfillments in Research 1 was successfully defended and approved on

Shuni R. Sameon Maria Felmie R. Isolana


Member Member

Dante Joma P. Zabala


Member

The Department of Science and Research endorses the acceptance of this Research
Proposal in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements in Research 1.

Ludemarie C. Alia
Chairman, Department of Science
And Research/ Math Information Technology

The Research proposal is hereby officially acceptedin Partial Fulfillment of the


requirements in Research 1.

Andrea G. Dadole
Principal
MSU N-IDS

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The researchers would like to extend their deepest thanks to Almighty God. They hank
Him for the love and care He showed to them, for the guidance throughout the whole year.

The researchers would like to thank and express their heartfelt and deepest appreciation
to the following persons who extended their help, moral support and stayed with them patiently
for the progress and development of this study.

The researchers parents Mr. and Mrs. Medwin G. Maagad, Mr. and Mrs. Ponciano
Gomera, Mr. and Mrs. Gamaliel Lobendina, Mr. and Mrs. Marte Moleo, Mr. and Mrs.
Ronaldo Perales, Mr. and Mrs. Eduardo Raterta, and and Mrs. Alex Sacabin for their untiring
moral and financial support. They would also like to thank them for believing in them.

Special thanks to Mr. and Mrs. Alex Sacabin for the computer and house
accommodation every time the researchers will conduit their over night sessions.

To Mrs Shuni R. Sameon and Mrs. Maria Felmie R. Isolana, the panel members for
impartng their knowledge to improve the research papers and for their support and good
suggestions.

To Mr. Dante Joma P. Zabala, the subject teacher, for never giving up on us. For
showing us his dedication to really teach us well.

MAAGAD, DONNA JOY ARAO


GOMERA, HERMIE SACULINGGAN
LOBENDINA, ELGIE CLEARK HAMBRE
MOLEO, MARTIE MAY DELLIVA
PERALES, RONALD DANO
RATERTA, JAICA MOLO
SACABIN, SEE JAY BAHIAN

RESEARCHERS

iii
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

NAME : MAAGAD, DONNA JOY ARAO


ADDRESS : Matangad, Gitagum Misamis Oriental
DATE OF BIRTH : October 21, 2013
BIRTHPLACE : Libertad, Gitagum Misamis Oriental
PARENTS:

FATHER : Medwin Galaroza Maagad


MOTHER : Arlene Alic Arao

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

PRE SCHOOL : Naawan Dat Care Center


: Xavier Learning Center
ELEMENTARY : Initao Central School
HIGH SCHOOL : Mindanao State University at Naawan- Integrated Developmental School
Naawan Misamis Oriental

HONORS AND AWARDS RECEIVED

ELEMENTARY : Grade 1-2 - With Honor


Grade 3-5 9th Honors
Grade 6 - 8th Honors

HIGH SCHOOL : 1st to 3rd year- Consistent Honor Student


SYMPOSIUM ATTENDED

: Drug Symposium last 2012 at MSUN IDS Gymnasium


: Technology and Livelihood Education Seminar

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BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

NAME : LOBENDINA, ELGIE CLEARK HAMBRE


ADDRESS : Mapulog, Naawan, Misamis Oriental
DATE OF BIRTH : November 5, 1998
BIRTHPLACE : Mapulog, Naawan, Misamis Oriental

PARENTS:

FATHER : Gamaliel Cagas Lobendina


MOTHER : Angelie Dala Hambre

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : Naawan Central School


Naawan Misamkis Oriental
HIGH SCHOOL : Mindanao State University at Naawan- Integrated Developmental School
Naawan Misamis Oriental

HONORS AND AWARDS RECEIVED

ELEMENTARY : Consistent Honor Student

HIGH SCHOOL : 1st to 3rd year- Consistent Honor Student


SYMPOSIUM ATTENDED

: Drug Symposium last 2012 at MSUN IDS Gymnasium

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BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

NAME : MOLEO, MARTIE MAY DELLIVA


ADDRESS : Poblacion, Naawan Misamis Oriental
DATE OF BIRTH : Febuary 19, 1998
BIRTHPLACE : Oroquita City

PARENTS :

FATHER : Marte Pabroa Moleo


MOTHER : May Medina Delliva

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : Naawan Central School


Naawan Misamis Oriental
HIGH SCHOOL : Mindanao State University at Naawan- Integrated Developmental School
Naawan Misamis Oriental

HONORS AND AWARDS RECEIVED

ELEMENTARY : Grade 1-2 (Special Awards)


Grade 3-4 (Academic of Exellence)
Grade 6 (Special Awards)
HIGH SCHOOL : Honor Student

SYMPOSIUM ATTENDED

: Drug Symposium last 2012 at MSUN IDS Gymnasium

vi
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

NAME : RATERTA, JAICA MOLO


ADDRESS : Biga, Lugait, Misamis Oriental
DATE OF BIRTH : April 29,1998
BIRTHPLACE : Lugait, Misamis Oriental

PARENTS :

FATHER : Eduard Hataas Raterta


MOTHER : Victoria Senados Molo

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : Lugait Central School


Lugait Misamis Oriental
HIGH SCHOOL : Mindanao State University at Naawan- Integrated Developmental School
Naawan Misamis Oriental

HONORS AND AWARDS RECEIVED

ELEMENTARY : Grade 1-2 (Special Awards)


Grade 3-4 (Academic of Exellence)
Grade 5-6 (Special Awards)
HIGH SCHOOL : Consistent Honor Student

SYMPOSIUM ATTENDED

: Drug Symposium last 2012 at MSUN IDS Gymnasium

vii
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

NAME : SACABIN, CEE JAY BAHIAN


ADDRESS : Poblacion, Naawan,Misamis Oriental
DATE OF BIRTH : February 10,1998
BIRTHPLACE : Naga City

PARENTS:

FATHER : Alex Gaa Sacabin


MOTHER : Judith Gonzales Bahian

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : Naawan Central School


Naawan Misamis Oriental
HIGH SCHOOL : Mindanao State University at Naawan- Integrated Developmental School
Naawan Misamis Oriental

HONORS AND AWARDS RECEIVED

ELEMENTARY : Grade 1-2 (Academic of Exellence)


Grade 3-4 (Academic of Exellence)
Grade 5-6 (Special Awards)
HIGH SCHOOL : Consistent Honor Student

SYMPOSIUM ATTENDED

: Drug Symposium last 2012 at MSUN IDS Gymnasium

viii
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA

NAME : PERALES, RONALD DANO


ADDRESS : Don Pedro, Naawan Misamis Orienatal
DATE OF BIRTH : December 20, 1997
BIRTHPLACE : Don, Pedro Naawan Misamis Oriental

PARENTS:

FATHER : Rolando Barroga Perales


MOTHER : Prospera Abigan Dano

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : Naawan Central School


Naawan Misamis Oriental
HIGH SCHOOL : Mindanao State University at Naawan- Integrated Developmental School
Naawan Misamis Oriental

HONORS AND AWARDS RECEIVED

HIGH SCHOOL : 2nd year- Department Chairmans List


SYMPOSIUM ATTENDED

: Drug Symposium last 2012 at MSUN IDS Gymnasium

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BIOGRAPHICAL DATA
NAME : GOMERA, HERMIE S.
ADDRESS : Poblacion, Naawan Misamis Orienatal
DATE OF BIRTH : February 25, 1998
BIRTHPLACE : Poblacion Naawan Misamis Oriental

PARENTS:

FATHER : Ponciano Moreo Gomera


MOTHER : Edna Salem Saculingan

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

ELEMENTARY : Naawan Central School


Naawan Misamis Oriental
HIGH SCHOOL : Mindanao State University at Naawan- Integrated Developmental School
Naawan Misamis Oriental

SYMPOSIUM ATTENDED

: Drug Symposium last 2012 at MSUN IDS Gymnasium


: Food and Beverages Simenar last 2012at MSU N- IDS Gymnasium

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

TITLE PAGE...............................i
APPROVAL SHEET...ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTiii
BIOGRAPHICAL DATA .iv-x
TABLE OF CONTENTS...1

ABSTRACT:
LIST OF TABLES... 2

I. INTRODUCTION

1.1 RATIONALE.......3
1.2 OBJECTIVES.....4
1.2.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES .4
1.2.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES..4
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY...............................................................4
1.4 CONCEPTUL FRAMEWORK .....5
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 5
1.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS ...5

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE.6-8


III.MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Research Design ..9


3.2 Schematic Diagram.9
3.3 Preparation for the Sample...9
3.3 Preparation for the Sample...9
3.4 Breeding of Mosquito Larvae ..9
3.5 Testing of Treatment ..9
3,6 Statistical Analysis ..10

IV. LITERATURE CITED11


V. Budgetary Expenses12
VI Schedule of Activities.13
VII. APPENDICES..14

1
LIST OF TABLES

TABLES DESCRIPTIONS PAGE

I Schedule of Activities 12

II Data Sheets 13

2
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Rationale

Study shows that dengue cases increases from 20%- 25% a year. It is the most important
arboviral disease and kills humans, affecting 50- 100 million annually and kills 24,00 worldwide a
year. The Department of Health has raised the warning in light of its report that dengue cases in
the country have already reached 40, 648 from January to July 2011.
(www.doh.gov.ph/content/dengue-surge-luzon)

Dengue is a human disease by a virus transmitted by mosquitoes known as aedis


aegypti. Dengue is a mosquito born viral infection causing a severe flu like illness, and sometimes
causing potentially lethal complication called severe dengue.

Dengue viruses are continuing to expand their range. For instance, there was dengue
epidemic in Hawaii in 2011, and dengue outbreaks appear with increasing frequency along the
Texas- Mexican border. While in the Philippines, the Department of Health (DOH) is advising the
public to get rid of the stagnant water. On the other hand, in Misamis Oriental, there were so
many cases of dengue.
http.//www.ncbi.nih.gov/pubmed/10748886)

The researchers aims to investigate on the use of tuba- tuba (Jatropha curcas) leaves
extract as mosquito larvae killer. Instead of buying any commercial insecticide for killing mosquito
larvae, they can just use tuba- tuba extract for insecticide of mosquito larvae.

Therefore, this study is to help preventing and to develop product using this plant; and
also to avoid the increasing rate of the people who died because of the said disease.

1.2 Objectives
1.2.1 General Objectives
This study aims to produce an insecticide for mosquito larvae using tuba- tuba leaves
extract.

1.2.2 Specific Objectives

Specifically, this study aims to answer the following objectives:


1. To test the insecticidal property of pure extract (100%) of tuba- tuba leaves against
mosquito larvae.
2. To determine the insecticidal property of diluted extract (50%) of tuba tuba leaves against
mosquito larvae.
3. To determine the efficacy of tuba- tuba leaves extract as insecticidal test of mosquito
larvae
4. To determine the significant difference between pure and diluted (50%) tuba tuba leaves
extract.

1.3 Null Hypothesis

At = 0.05 level of significance, the null hypothesis below is tested.


H01: There is no significant difference between the mortality rates of the different concentrations.

1.4 Significance of the Study


Many people are now having problems with mosquitoes carrying diseases like dengue,
malaria and filariasis, and also the expensive insecticides to kill those worms like mosquito
larvae.

The result of this study can help most of us citizens because this product is cheaper yet
effective than commercial insecticides. Those who dont have the budget to buy insecticides, the
result of this study is the best of the problem.

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1.5 Conceptual Framework
Insecticidal
Test

100% pure

Fresh Extract
Leaves
50 %

Insecticidal
Test

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study is to test the efficacy of the tuba- tuba plant extract on killing the mosquito
larvae. The material to be used is the tuba tuba plant. This experiment will use 30 mosquito
larvae. This study will be conducted at MSU N-IDS. Specifically , the researchers will culture the
mosquito larvae and will get the tuba tuba plant at Linangkayan, Naawan Misamis Oriental.

1.7 Operational Defination of Terms


Concentration is the ratio between the volumes of pure extract to the solvent in the solution.
Efficacy refers to the capacity of producing mortality
Extract is the main material for making the insecticide for this study. This will taken from tuba
tuba leaves
Insecticide is the main material to be made by this study
Mosquito Larvae is the insect for which the insecticide will be test on.
Tuba tuba in this study is used because of its leaves. Tuba tuba leaves are the main material in
this study.

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2. Review on Related Literature

2.1 Mosquito

There are more than 3,000 species of mosquitoes, but the members of three bear
primary responsibility for the spread of human diseases. Anopheles mosquitoes are the only
species known to carry malaria. They also transmit filariasis (also called elephantiasis) and
encephalitis. Culex mosquitoes carry encephalitis, filariasis, and the West Nile virus. And Aedes
mosquitoes, of which the voracious Asian tiger is a member, carry yellow fever, dengue, and
encephalitis.

Mosquitoes use exhaled carbon dioxide, body odors and temperature, and movement to
home in on their victims. Only female mosquitoes have the mouth parts necessary for sucking
blood. When biting with their proboscis, they stab two tubes into the skin: one to inject an enzyme
that inhibits blood clotting; the other to suck blood into their bodies. They use the blood not for
their own nourishment but as a source of protein for their eggs. For food, both males and females
eat nectar and other plant sugars.

Mosquitoes transmit disease in a variety of ways. In the case of malaria, parasites attach
themselves to the gut of a female mosquito and enter a host as she feeds. In other cases, such
as yellow fever and dengue, a virus enters the mosquito as it feeds on an infected human and is
transmitted via the mosquitos saliva to a subsequent victim.

All mosquitoes need water to breed, so eradication and population-control efforts usually
involve removal or treatment of standing water sources. Insecticide spraying to kill adult
mosquitoes is also widespread. However, global efforts to stop the spread of mosquitoes are
having little effect, and many scientists think global warming will likely increase their number and
range.

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2.2 Mosquito Larvae
Mosquito larvae live in water until they pupate and develop into adult mosquitoes. The
larvae of most species use siphon tubes for respiration; however, some larvae cling to plants to
access air supplies. Mosquito larvae consume microorganisms and organic matter in water.

Mosquito larvae may be as large as about 5 mm and can be clearly visible in water.
Larger larvae are located closer to the waters surface. Mosquito larvae are extremely sensitive
and will submerge for protection if they sense disturbance.

Mosquito control involves the elimination of existing infestations and the prevention of
reinfestation through the eradication of larval populations. In order to control mosquito larvae,
regular inspections of possible breeding sites must be conducted.

Because mosquito larvae cannot survive away from water, areas affected by an
infestation should be combed for water sources. Water that has been stagnant for three days is a
prime habitat for mosquitoes. Some species require minimal amounts of water to thrive; even
water sources such as birdbaths are potential breeding sites. Chemical or bacterial larvicide
treatment may be necessary in areas where larvae are found.

2.3 Tuba- Tuba

Tuba-tuba is an erect, branched shrub usually less than one meter high. Petioles, leaf
margins and inflorescences are covered with numerous, capitate-glandular hairs. Leaves are
shining, smooth, palmately 3- or 5-lobed, 7 to 12 centimeters long, the lobes oblong-ovate and
the younger leaves being purplish. Flowers are purple, small, borne on cymes. Capsules are
usually 3-lobed, about 1 centimeter long.

Tuba-tuba plant, Jathropa curcas, is indigenous throughout the Philippines. This


seemingly unnoticed plant growing anywhere in the country has become the buzz recently due to
the discovery of its capability of producing oil which can be use as bio-diesel. The researcher has
been looking for the biological activity of the tuba-tuba plant as a drug substitute beside a source
as fuel.
The tuba-tuba, also known as tubang bakod is in the list of the herbal medicines being
recognized by the Philippines Department of Health.
A grown tuba-tuba or jatropha plant reaches up to 3 meters and can even grow up to 8
meters in height. It has large green or pale-green leaves that are lobed and are arranged in a

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spiral pattern. Its flowers are clustered in the axil of a leaf and are formed individually at the tip of
the stem. The tuba-tuba or jatropha is a low maintenance plant and can grow almost any kind of
soil, whether ordinary, rocky, sandy, or gravely soil and can easily adapt to any kind of weather.
2.4 Insecticide

An insecticide is any pesticide used to kill, deter, or control insects. For example, a farmer
may use insecticides on crops, while a retailer may use insecticides in a back storeroom.

Insecticides are pesticides, so it may seem unlikely that anyone in the organic industry
uses insecticides, but that's not true. The organic industry uses its fair share of pesticides, they're
simply not always the same ones used by conventional farmers or businesses. If an insecticide is
on the allowed portion of the The National List than it may be used within the organic industry.

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3. Materials and Methods

3.1 Research Design

This research study will be using experimental methods. There will be two set ups. Set up
A which compose of 100% pure tuba tuba leaves extract and set up B that compose of diluted
(50%) tuba tuba leaves extract, and will be tested on 30 mosquito larvae each.

3.2 Schematic Diagragm

Generating Gathering of Extraction of Testing


of mosquito fresh Tuba tuba
larvae materials leaves

Recording
of Data

3.2 Sample Collection

The tuba tuba leaves will be gathered at Linangkayan, Naawan Misamis Oriental and
mosquito larvae will be cultured by the researchers.

3.3 Preparation for the Sample

Collect tuba- tuba leaves and wash it in tap water. After washing make it dry for a couple
of minutes in the use of air drying. Extract the solution by using mortar and pestle. After extracting
there will be two concentrations, the pure (100%) tuba- tuba leaves extract and the diluted (50%)
tuba- tuba leaves extract.

3.4 Breeding of Mosquito Larvae

The researchers use common method. By putting a pail with a stock water within couple
of days leaving it in a certain area waiting the mosquito lay eggs on it. After 7-10 days of laying
eggs, the mosquito larvae will be cultured until it reach to adultery stage. In every two trials there
will be 30 adult mosquito larvae to test, and this process was done repeatedly in two seasons of
trials.

3.5 Testing of Treatment

A. Pure (100%) tuba-tuba leaves extract concentration


In a beaker container place 30 mosquito larvae adult and apply the pure sample to the
said mosquito larvae and observe after 5 minutes.

B. Dilute(50%) tuba-tuba leaves extract concentration

In a clean beaker container place 30 mosquito larvae adult and apply the dilute sample
to the said mosquito larvae and observe after 5 minutes.

3,6 Statistical Analysis

One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) will be used to interpret and analyze the data
study.

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4. Literature Cited

A. Book
B. Encyclopedia
(sources: 2000 encyclopedia American volume 19).

C. Intrnet Sources

Dengue cases Retrieved 202 from:


http.//www.ncbi.nih.gov/pubmed/10748886).

Dengue Retrieved2012 from:


www.doh.gov/ph/content/dengue-surge-luzon).

Mosquito Larvae Retrieved 2012 from:


http://en.wikipedia.org/mosquito/larvae.html

Mosquito Larvae Retrieved 2012 from:


http://www.wucmd.org/mosquito/larvae.html

Tuba-tuba leaves Retrieved from:


(http://www.mixph.com/2007/08/growing-jatroha-tuba-tuba.html)

http://wiki.answer.com/Q/Can tuba tuba plant repel


mosquitoes#ixzz26YyKUPT00

Tuba-yuba leaves as insecticide Retrievved 202 from:


http://alternative medicine.knoji.com/the-medicinal-and-other-benefits-of
tuba-tuba/ 2012

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5. Budgetary Expenses
Particulars Amount

Internet Surfing Php 250.00

Encoding Php 200.00

Printing Php 400.00

Fare Php 150.00

Folder Php 75.00

Total Amount Php 1, 075.00

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6. Schedule of Activities
Activities Date

Gathering of Materials July 20, 2013

Conducting trial 1 and


Gathering results (100%) July 21, 2013

Conducting trial 2 and


Gathering results (50%) August 3, 2013

Analysis and Interpretation


of Results August 14, 2013

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7. APPENDICES

7.1 Data Sheet

Table 1 mortality of mosquito larvae treated with varied concentrations of tuba- tuba
leaves extract

Concentration Trial 1

100%

50%

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