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Contents

1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1 Development of downhole drilling motors . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 PowerPak* design and tooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.0 PowerPak Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.1 Top sub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2 Power section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3 Transmission section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.4 Bearing section and drive shaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.5 Housings and threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.0 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.1 General specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2 Dogleg severity limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.3 Job preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.4 Running PowerPak motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.5 Fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
4.0 Geosteering* Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
5.0 Performance Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.0 Drillers Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

1
Introduction 1.1

1.1 Development of downhole drilling motors

Since the first turbodrill patent was awarded in 1873,


designs and ideas for downhole motors have prolif-
erated. Today, positive displacement motors dominate
oilfield operations and offer distinct operational and
economic advantages over conventional rotary drilling
in many conditions.
Downhole motors offer the option of drilling in either
a traditional rotary mode or a sliding mode in which the
hole follows the direction of the bent housing on the
motor. In directional drilling applications, downhole
motors permit control of the wellbore direction and,
thus, more effective deviation control than conventional
rotary methods.
The Anadrill PowerPak* steerable motors (Fig. 1-1)
have been designed specifically to meet the demanding
criteria of directional drilling. This handbook is intended
to give general advice and guidelines and sufficient tech-
nical information to enable you to use PowerPak motors
to their fullest advantage.

3
1.1 Introduction

Figure 1-1. PowerPak motor assembly.

Dump valve

Power section

SAB
Surface-Adjustable
Bent housing

Bearing section and


rig floor-replaceable
sleeve-type stabilizer

4
Introduction 1.2

1.2 PowerPak design and testing

PowerPak motors were designed according to directional


drillers requirements, with particular emphasis on
ruggedness, simplicity and proven technology that trans-
lates to superior, dependable performance at the wellsite.
Customer and operational requirements were established
through liaison with drilling operators. Anadrill engi-
neers then applied knowledge and expertise gained from
more than three decades of involvement in directional
drilling to set design criteria with a focus on reliability.
Anadrill followed a downhole systems approach to
minimize noise interference with measurements-while-
drilling (MWD) telemetry and to ensure that PowerPak
motors would not unnecessarily limit flow rates and
other drilling procedures. An 18-month program of sys-
tems analysis and component testing began in 1990.
This comprehensive program included full-scale dyna-
mometer and drilling rig performance testing at the
Anadrill advanced testing facility in Sugar Land, Texas.
An engineered maintenance program was designed to
include scheduling and component tracking.
Since their introduction in early 1992, PowerPak
motors have continually achieved or exceeded design
goals for reliability, performance and maintenance costs
and have established new standards for improved effi-
ciency and reduced drilling costs.
PowerPak features
PowerPak steerable motors are modular in design
(Fig. 1-2), which enables them to operate in a wide
range of directional drilling conditions with minimal
interference to MWD systems. Motor components can
be selected to optimize performance for each set of
drilling conditions.
PowerPak motors feature mud-lubricated bearings for
rough drilling environments.

5
1.2 Introduction

Figure 1-2. Motor assembly cross section.

Dump valve

Power section

SAB
Surface-Adjustable
Bent housing

Transmission
assembly

Bearing section

Drive shaft

6
Introduction 1.2

The variety of rotor/stator configurations allows


PowerPak motors to be used for both low-speed/high-
torque and high-speed/low-torque applications.
Extended power sections are available in most sizes
and configurations.
The SAB* Surface-Adjustable Bent housing improves
efficiency and increases drilling control at the wellsite.
A forged-steel drive shaft enhances the motors
strength.
Sealed transmission couplings extend motor life
by preventing mud contamination.
The bearing section is compact, which places the bend
closer to the bit and further enhances directional
performance.
The bearing section incorporates tungsten-carbide-
coated radial bearings and multiple ball races as axial
bearings.
To optimize rotary drilling performance and minimize
bit wear, PowerPak bearing sections can be fitted with
rig floorreplaceable, sleeve-type stabilizers or with
integral blade stabilizers.

7
1.3 Introduction

1.3 Applications

The versatility of the PowerPak motors makes them the


ideal motors for both performance (straight hole) and
directional drilling. They are also useful in coring,
under-reaming, milling, template drilling and other
operations that are not covered in this handbook. For
information on these applications, call your Anadrill
service representative.
Performance drilling
In straight-hole applications, PowerPak motors function
as a performance drilling tool to increase the rate of pen-
etration (ROP) and reduce casing wear by minimizing
string rotation.
Directional drilling
Compact design and high-torque capabilities make
PowerPak motors ideal for both conventional directional
drillingthat is, situations in which a well path is
steered to follow a planned geometric courseand
geosteering, in which the well or drainhole is steered to
optimize its local position within a reservoir with regard
to geological, fluid and structural boundaries.
For conventional directional drilling, an adjustable
bent housing in the transmission section and a stabilizer
on the bearing section allow the PowerPak motor to drill
in either an oriented (sliding) or a rotary mode. In rotary
mode, both the bit and the drillstring rotate. The rotation
of the drillstring negates the effect of the bent housing,
and the bit drills a straight path parallel to the axis of the
drillstring above the bent housing.
In sliding mode, only the bit rotates. The motor
changes the well course in the direction of the bent
housing, and the drillstring slides down the hole after the
bit. In this mode, the motor is oriented in the same way
as for conventional directional drilling, making it applic-
able for kickoff or course corrections.

8
Introduction 1.3

The PowerPak steerable motor makes it possible


to drill complete hole sections with one bottomhole
assembly (BHA) and to attain various combinations
of hole size and buildup rate.
In each of the applications described above, the
PowerPak adjustable bent housing can be quickly set
on the rig floor. Housings are available for 0 to 2 and
0 to 3 bend angle ranges.
The PowerPak steerable motor consists of three major
subassemblies:
power section, composed of a rotor and a stator, which
converts hydraulic energy into mechanical rotary
power
transmission section, which transmits rotary drive
from the power section to the bearing section and also
incorporates the adjustable bent housing
bearing section, which supports axial and radial loads
during drilling and transmits the rotary drive to the bit
through a drive shaft.

9
2.0 PowerPak Description

2.1 Top sub

The top sub of a PowerPak motor can be a simple


crossover sub, dump valve, float sub or flex sub.
Historically, PowerPak motors used a dump valve as a
top sub. However, in most cases, the use of a dump valve
is not necessary. Although PowerPak dump valves are
reliable, running a dump valve, if not required, is not
recommended. A simple crossover sub should be used.
Crossover sub
The crossover sub for a PowerPak motor is a simple sub
that has a conventional box thread and a nonstandard pin
thread for the PowerPak stators. A simple crossover sub
is used as the top sub of the motor for most operations.
A dump valve, float sub or flex sub is used only when
necessary.
Dump valve
A dump valve can be added to the top of the power sec-
tion. The dump valve prevents wet trips by allowing the
drillpipe to fill with drilling fluid when tripping into the
hole and to drain when pulling out. The PowerPak dump
valve also acts as a crossover sub, connecting the stators
connection to a standard API-type thread.
When circulation rates are low or when there is no
circulation, a spring holds the bypass piston in the upper
position, keeping the ports open and allowing drilling
fluid to flow into or out of the drillstring (Fig. 2-1). At
a threshold that is considerably less than the minimum
circulation rate for the motor, the piston moves down,
closing the bypass ports. Drilling fluid is then directed
through the motor section. When circulation stops, the
bypass piston is released and the bypass ports reopen.

10
PowerPak Description 2.1

Figure 2-1. Dump valve assembly.

Pump off Pump on

Body

Piston

Spring

Port

Sleeve

Open Closed

11
2.1 PowerPak Description

Float sub
Float subs for PowerPak motors incorporate commer-
cially available float valves. They also act as crossovers
between conventional API-type threads and Anadrill
threads.
Flex sub
For tough drilling conditions, a flex sub can be run as
the top sub of a PowerPak motor. The flex sub acts as a
crossover sub, and it may include a float valve. The con-
ditions for which a flex sub should be used are
frequent motor stalling
rocking the BHA to help sliding
backreaming
high dogleg severity (more than 12 per 100 ft).

12
PowerPak Description 2.2

2.2 Power section

The power section converts hydraulic energy from the


drilling fluid into mechanical power to turn the bit. This
is accomplished by reverse application of the Moineau
pump principle. Drilling fluid is pumped into the motors
power section at a pressure that causes the rotor to rotate
within the stator. This rotational force is then transmitted
through a transmission shaft and drive shaft to the bit.
The PowerPak rotor is manufactured of corrosion-
resistant stainless steel. It usually has 0.10 in. of chrome
plating applied to reduce friction and abrasion.
Tungsten-carbide-coated rotors are also available for
reduced abrasion wear and corrosion damage. All
PowerPak rotors are bored to accept bypass nozzles
for high-flow applications.
The stator consists of a steel tube with an elastomer
(rubber) lining molded into the bore. The elastomer in
the lining is formulated specifically to resist abrasion
and hydrocarbon-induced deterioration.
The rotor and stator have similar helical profiles, but
the rotor has one less spiral, or lobe, than the stator
(Fig. 2-2). In an assembled power section, the rotor and
stator form a continuous seal at their contact points
along a straight line, which produces a number of inde-
pendent cavities. As fluid (water, mud or air) is forced
through these progressive cavities, it causes the rotor to
ratchet back and forth inside the stator. This movement
of the rotor inside the stator is called nutation. For each
nutation cycle made back and forth by the rotor inside
the stator, the rotor turns/ratchets the distance of one
lobe width. The rotor must nutate back and forth for
each lobe in the stator to complete one revolution of the
bit box. A motor with a 7:8 rotor/stator lobe configura-
tion and a speed of 100 revolutions per minute (rpm)
at the bit box will have a nutation speed of 700 cycles
per minute.

13
2.2 PowerPak Description

Figure 2-2. Power section assembly.

Ratio 5:6

Ratio 1:2

Housing
Rotor
Stator

14
PowerPak Description 2.2

The power section of a downhole motor is designated


by its rotor/stator lobe configuration. For example, a
4:5 power section has four lobes in the rotor and five in
the stator. Generally, the higher the number of lobes, the
higher the torque output of the motor and the slower the
speed. PowerPak motors are available in 1:2, 3:4, 4:5,
5:6 and 7:8 lobe configurations. Torque also depends on
the number of stages (a stage is one complete spiral of
the stator helix). PowerPak motors typically have a stan-
dard length power section and a longer extended power
(XP) power section. The XP power sections have more
stages to provide greater torque without a decrease in
rotational speed.
Rotor/stator lobe ratio
The lobes on a rotor and stator act like a gear box.
As their numbers increase for a given motor size, the
motors torque output generally increases and its output
shaft speed generally decreases. Figure 2-3 shows an
example of the general relationship between power
section speed and torque and the power section lobe
configuration. Because power is defined as speed times
torque, a greater number of lobes in a motor does not
necessarily produce more horsepower. Motors with more
lobes are actually less efficient because the seal area
between the rotor and stator increases with the number
of lobes.

15
2.2 PowerPak Description

Figure 2-3. Output shaft speed versus


rotor/stator lobe ratio.

700 6000
Speed
600 Torque
Output shaft speed (rpm)

5000
500
4000

Torque (ft/lbf)
400
3000
300

200 2000

100 1000

0 0
1:2 3:4 5:6 7:8
Rotor/stator ratio

Motor mechanical horsepower is calculated as


follows:
T rpm
HP = ,
5252 (2-1)
where
HP = motor mechanical power (horsepower)
rpm = output shaft rotary speed (rpm)
T = output torque (ft-lbf).
Rotor/stator interference fit
The difference between the size of the rotor mean diam-
eter (valley to lobe peak measurement) and the stator
minor diameter (lobe peak to lobe peak) is defined as
the rotor/stator interference fit (Fig. 2-4).
Motors are usually assembled with the rotor sized
larger than the stator. This produces a strong positive
interference seal called a positive fit. Motors run with a
rotor mean diameter more than 0.022 in. greater than the
stator minor diameter at downhole conditions are very

16
PowerPak Description 2.2

strong (capable of producing large pressure drops), but


they usually have a reduced life because premature
chunking develops (see Failure modes and prevention,
page 20).
If increased downhole temperatures are anticipated,
the amount of positive fit is reduced during motor
assembly to allow for the swelling of the elastomer
lining in the stator. An oversize stator is usually required
to obtain the correct amount of interference between the
rotor and the stator for temperatures above 200F. If the
anticipated circulating temperature of a well is above
approximately 225F, the interference fit must be a flush
or negative fit, in which the rotor mean diameter is the
same size as or smaller than the stator minor diameter
when the motor is assembled in the shop.

Figure 2-4. Rotor/stator interference fit.

Compression
of stator

Positive interference Negative interference

Major
diameter

Minor
diameter Minor
diameter

Mean diameter
(valley to peak diameter)

Rotor (four lobes) Stator (five lobes)

17
2.2 PowerPak Description

Spiral stage length


The stator stage length is defined as the axial length
required for one lobe in the stator to rotate 360 along
its helical path around the body of the stator. The stage
length of a rotor, however, is not equivalent to the stage
length of its corresponding stator. A rotor has a shorter
stage length than its corresponding stator. The equation
that describes the general relation of the rotor stages to
the stator stages is

n +1
rotor _ stages = stator _ stages,
n (2-2)
where
n = number of rotor stages
rotor_stages = number of stages (360 turns) on the
rotor
stator_stages = number of stages (360 turns) in the
stator/power section.
For example, for a PowerPak model A675 model motor
with a 4:5 lobe, 4.8-stage power section, the power
section and the individual stator each have 4.8 stages.
However, the rotor has more than 4.8 stages. The number
of stages on the rotor is
4 +1
rotor _ stages = ( 4.8) = 6.0.
4

Hence, the rotor for a 4:5 lobe, 4.8-stage power section


actually has 6 full rotations of a lobe. Figure 2-5 shows
the stage length of a rotor. The number of stages a power
section has can also be determined by simply counting
the number of rotor stages and reversing the calculation.
Stage length is dependent on the lobe pitch angle of
the spiral. As the pitch angle increases, resulting in a
tighter spiral and shorter stage length, the force vector
perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rotor
(torque) and the volume of the cavity within the stage

18
PowerPak Description 2.2

Figure 2-5. Spiral stage length.

Stage
length

Rotor

decrease. This results in a reduction of torque output and


an increase in the motors speed. Conversely, a decrease
in pitch angle produces a longer stage length, resulting
in an increase in torque and a decrease in speed.
Long-stage motors usually produce higher torque and
fewer revolutions per minute than short-stage motors.
As previously mentioned, the drawback for long-stage
motors is that as the seal length along the rotor/stator
increases with stage length, the efficiency of the seal and
the pressure drop per stage both decrease. The primary
application for long-stage designs is air drilling.
Number of stages
Using a power section with more stages is the only way
to effectively increase the power of a motor. The addi-
tional stages of XP power sections can be used to pro-
duce more torque or to spread the load on the motor and
run each stage at a lower pressure drop. Running at a
lower pressure drop usually extends the life of the stator.
XP power sections are also used in extremely high
temperature wells. The loose fit initially required to
allow for stator swell in hot wells often means that a
regular-length power section is too weak to drill when
first tripped in the well until the stator has had time to
swell. An XP power section can be assembled with an
extremely loose fit between the rotor and stator and still
produce enough power to drill. However, the overall
length of the motor and the cost of parts increase when
using XP power sections.
19
2.2 PowerPak Description

Pressure drop per stage


The maximum designed pressure drop per stage is a
function of the lobe profile and the hardness of the elas-
tomer lining. Changes in the hardness of the elastomer
affect not only the pressure drop but also the resiliency
and life of the elastomer.
Failure modes and prevention
The elastomer lining in the stator tube is usually the ele-
ment that fails first in the power section. The causes of
rubber failure in a stator are chunking, debond and junk
damage.
Chunking (or chunked out) describes a stator in which
the rubber across the top of the lobes has apparently
ripped away. Chunking occurs when the strength of
the friction force between the rotor lobe and the stator
lobe exceeds the strength of the rubber in the stator.
The magnitude of the friction force between the
rotor and the stator is affected by the lubricity of the
mud, interference fit between the rotor and stator,
nutation speed and pressure drop.
Most stator failures result from chunking for various
reasons.
Two bonding agents are used in stators. One agent
bonds to the steel tube, the other agent bonds to the
stator elastomer and both agents bond to one another.
Debond is defined as the failure of any one, two or all
three bonds in the stator:
steel tube to bonding agent
bonding agent to bonding agent
bonding agent to elastomer.
Stators failing from debond typically have large sheets
of loose elastomer. These sheets of rubber usually
have a smooth back surface where the stator was
molded against the steel tube.
PowerPak stator failures resulting from debond are
extremely rare.
20
PowerPak Description 2.2

Junk damage is caused by pumping junk through


the motor. The stator will have sharp cuts along a
spiral path, and the rotor may also have damage along
the same path.
It is difficult to prevent debond failures, which fortun-
ately are rare. Measures can be taken to prevent chunking
failures and junk damage. The most obvious prevention
technique is to prevent junk damage by ensuring that no
junk can get into the mud system or drillstring. If the
mud is kept free of junk pieces or particles, then it
stands to reason that there would be no damage to the
motor. Chunking prevention is a combination of tech-
niques involving the rotor/stator fit, bottomhole temper-
ature, drilling mud selection, proper operation (perfor-
mance curves), lost circulation material, nozzled rotors,
dogleg severity and stator age tracking.

Rotor/stator fit
The interference fit of the rotor and stator is critical to
the performance and overall life of the elastomer in the
stator tube. A motor with too much interference (the
rotor is much bigger than the stator) runs with a high
differential pressure but will develop premature chunking
after only a few circulating hours (i.e., 68 hr). The
chunking may be uniform or follow a spiral path through
the motor.
A rotor/stator interference that is too loose produces a
weak motor that stalls at low differential pressure. Motor
stalling is the condition in which the torque required to
turn the bit is greater than the motor is capable of
producing.
When a motor stalls, the rotor is pushed to one side
of the stator and mud is pumped across the seal face on
the opposite side of the rotor. The lobe profile of the
stator must deform for the fluid to pass across the seal
face. This causes very high fluid velocity across the
deformed top of the stator lobes and leads to chunking.
Chunking caused by motor stalling when sliding (no

21
2.2 PowerPak Description

surface rotation) has a straight path along one wall of the


stator tube. Chunking caused by motor stalling with sur-
face rotation can be uniform or follow a spiral path.
To prevent chunking, care must be taken to select the
appropriate rotor/stator interference (or clearance) rela-
tive to downhole mud temperature.

Mud temperature
The circulating temperature dictates the amount of inter-
ference in assembling the rotor/stator. The higher the
anticipated downhole temperature, the less compression
is required between a rotor and stator. The reduction in
interference during motor assembly compensates for the
swell downhole of the elastomer because of temperature
and mud properties. If there is too much interference
between the rotor and the stator at operating conditions,
then the stator will experience high shearing stresses,
resulting in fatigue damage. This fatigue leads to pre-
mature chunking failure.
Failure to compensate for stator swell resulting from
the anticipated downhole temperature is a leading cause
of motor failure.

Drilling fluids
PowerPak motors are designed to operate effectively
with all types of oil- and water-base drilling fluids, as
well as with oil-emulsion, high-viscosity and high-
density drilling fluids, air, mist and foam. Drilling fluids
can have many different additives, some of which have
a detrimental effect on the stator elastomer and stainless-
steel/chrome-plated rotor.
It is well known that oil-base muds (OBM) generally
cause stators to swell. If oil-base drilling fluids are used,
it is important to consider the effects of bottomhole
circulating temperature and the aniline point on the
PowerPak stator, which is made of nitrile rubber. Aro-
matics such as aniline can swell and deteriorate nitrile
rubber. The aniline point is the lowest temperature at

22
PowerPak Description 2.2

which equal volumes of freshly distilled aniline and oil


are capable of mixing completely. The lower the aniline
point of an OBM compared with the circulating temper-
ature of the mud, the more severely it may damage rub-
ber parts. Therefore, when OBM is used, low-aromatic,
low-toxicity mud (i.e., aniline point above 200F) is rec-
ommended, and the bottomhole temperatures and aniline
point should be recorded.
The naphtha base of many pipe corrosion inhibitors
can cause excessive swelling of the elastomer, partic-
ularly when added to the system in slugs. Slugging
causes high concentrations of the product to come into
contact with the elastomer.
Chlorides in mud can severely corrode the chrome
plating on standard rotors. In addition to the damage
caused to the rotors as a result of corrosion, the rough
edges left on the rotor lobes damage the stator by cutting
the top off the elastomer in the stator lobe profile. These
cuts reduce the effectiveness of the rotor/stator seal and
cause the motor to stall (chunking the stator) at low dif-
ferential pressure.
For OBM with supersaturated water phases and for
salt muds, tungsten rotors are recommended.

Differential pressure:
understanding motor performance curves
The difference between on-bottom and off-bottom
drilling pressure is defined as the differential pressure.
This pressure difference is generated by the rotor/stator
section of the motor. The larger the pressure difference,
the higher the torque output of the motor and the lower
the output shaft speed.
Motors that are run with too much differential pres-
sure experience premature chunking (within as few as
6 pumping hr) in a manner similar to stators that have
too much interference (compression) between the rotor
and stator. The chunking will follow a spiral path or be
uniform throughout the stator body. Running a motor at

23
2.2 PowerPak Description

or close to its rated maximum differential pressure


severely reduces the life of the stator.
The PowerPak motor performance curves in Chapter 5,
Performance Data, provide a useful guide for deter-
mining the optimum amount of differential pump pres-
sure and flow rate for an Anadrill motor. However, there
is no best point on any of the curves where the motor
should be run. The intersection of the straight torque line
with the curved motor speed line does not indicate the
optimum running point for a PowerPak motor.
To extend the life of the motor, it is recommended to
run it at no more than 90% of its maximum-rated horse-
power output for any given flow rate. The flow rate
should be kept below 80% of the maximum rate.
Running at the maximum-rated level for any parameter
(pump rate, weight on bit [WOB], differential motor
pressure or rotary table speed) reduces the overall life of
the motor, particularly the stator. The use of XP power
sections and nozzled rotors should be investigated if
these operating limits produce motor performance levels
below what is acceptable.

Lost circulation material


LCM can cause two problems when pumped through
a motor. The material can plug off inside the motor,
usually at the dump valve if one is used or at the top of
the output shaft or the radial bearing, and it can cause
stator wear. However, LCM can be used with PowerPak
motors if certain precautions are followed:
add the LCM evenlyavoid pumping a large slug
of material
minimize the use of hard, sharp-edged materials such
as nut plug, coarse mica and calcium carbonate chips
because these can cause stator wear by abrasion.

24
PowerPak Description 2.2

Although these guidelines help minimize the plugging


problems associated with LCM, they cannot completely
eliminate the possibility of plugging the motor or bearing
section.

Nozzled rotors
The PowerPak rotor is bored and can be fitted with a
nozzle that bypasses part of the flow to extend the
motors capacity and enhance flexibility in matching
motor performance to other hydraulic or downhole
conditions (Fig. 2-6). The amount of fluid bypassed is
determined by the nozzle, the pressure drop through the
power section and the fluid density.

Figure 2-6. Nozzled rotor.

25
2.2 PowerPak Description

For performance drilling in larger diameter hole sec-


tions, adding a rotor nozzle allows increasing the total
flow to clean the hole and remove cuttings. In special
applications such as spudding, under-reaming or hole
opening in large-size holes, adding a rotor nozzle
reduces the bit speed at high flow rates.
A simple hydraulics calculation is used to determine
the size of the rotor nozzle:

Q 2 MWppg
TFA = ,
P 10, 858 (2-3)
where
TFA = total flow area (nozzle size, in.2)
Q = amount of flow to bypass (gpm)
MWppg = mud weight (lbm/gal)
P = expected differential drilling pressure +
friction pressure (psi). Friction pressure is
125 psi for A475 and larger motors or 150 psi
for A350 and smaller motors.
Table 2-1 lists the total flow area of common nozzle
sizes, and Table 2-2 shows the amount of fluid bypassed
for common mud weights at two nozzle sizes.

Table 2-1. PowerPak motor nozzle size and total flow area
Nozzle Size Total Flow Area Nozzle Size Total Flow Area
(in.) (in.2) (in.) (in.2)

6/32 0.0276 18/32 0.249


7/32 0.0376 20/32 0.307
8/32 0.0491 22/32 0.371
9/32 0.0621 24/32 0.442
10/32 0.0767 26/32 0.518
12/32 0.110 28/32 0.601
14/32 0.150 30/32 0.690
16/32 0.196 32/32 0.785

26
Table 2-2. Rotor nozzle bypass flow at different pressure drops
Nozzle Mud Pressure Drop Across Power Section (psi [bar])
(in.) Weight 100 [7] 200 [14] 300 [21] 400 [28] 500 [35] 600 [42] 700 [49] 800 [56]
(ppg [kg/liter]) Bypass Flow Rate (gpm [liter/min])
7/32 8.34 [1.00] 14 [52] 19 [73] 23 [90] 27 [103] 30 [116] 33 [127] 36 [137] 38 [146]
10.00 [1.20] 12 [47] 18 [67] 21 [82] 25 [94] 28 [106] 30 [116] 33 [125] 35 [134]
12.00 [1.44] 11 [43] 16 [61] 20 [75] 23 [86] 25 [96] 28 [106] 30 [114] 32 [122]
14.00 [1.68] 10 [40] 15 [56] 18 [69] 21 [80] 23 [89] 26 [98] 28 [106] 30 [113]
9/32 8.34 [1.00] 22 [85] 32 [121] 39 [148] 45 [171] 50 [191] 55 [209] 59 [226] 63 [242]
10.00 [1.20] 20 [78] 29 [110] 35 [135] 41 [156] 46 [174] 50 [191] 54 [206] 58 [221]
12.00 [1.44] 19 [71] 26 [101] 32 [123] 37 [142] 42 [159] 46 [174] 49 [188] 53 [201]

PowerPak Description
14.00 [1.68] 17 [66] 24 [93] 30 [114] 35 [132] 39 [147] 42 [162] 46 [174] 49 [187]
12/32 8.34 [1.00] 40 [152] 56 [215] 69 [263] 80 [304] 89 [340] 98 [372] 105 [402] 113 [430]
10.00 [1.20] 36 [139] 51 [196] 63 [240] 73 [277] 81 [310] 89 [340] 96 [367] 103 [392]
12.00 [1.44] 33 [127] 47 [179] 58 [219] 66 [253] 74 [283] 81 [310] 88 [335] 94 [358]
14.00 [1.68] 31 [117] 43 [166] 53 [203] 62 [234] 69 [262] 75 [287] 81 [310] 87 [332]
14/32 8.34 [1.00] 54 [207] 77 [292] 94 [358] 108 [414] 121 [462] 133 [507] 144 [547] 153 [585]
10.00 [1.20] 50 [189] 70 [267] 86 [327] 99 [378] 111 [422] 121 [462] 131 [500] 140 [534]
12.00 [1.44] 45 [172] 64 [244] 78 [299] 90 [345] 101 [385] 111 [422] 120 [456] 128 [487]
14.00 [1.68] 42 [160] 59 [226] 73 [276] 84 [319] 94 [357] 103 [391] 111 [422] 118 [451]
16/32 8.34 [1.00] 71 [270] 100 [382] 123 [468] 142 [540] 158 [604] 174 [662] 187 [715] 200 [764]
10.00 [1.20] 65 [247] 91 [349] 112 [427] 129 [493] 145 [551] 158 [604] 171 [652] 183 [697]
12.00 [1.44] 59 [225] 84 [318] 102 [390] 118 [450] 132 [503] 145 [551] 156 [596] 167 [637]
14.00 [1.68] 55 [208] 77 [295] 95 [361] 109 [417] 122 [466] 134 [511] 145 [551] 155 [589]
18/32 8.34 [1.00] 90 [342] 127 [484] 155 [592] 179 [684] 200 [764] 220 [837] 237 [905] 254 [967]
10.00 [1.20] 82 [312] 116 [441] 142 [541] 164 [624] 183 [698] 201 [764] 217 [826] 232 [883]
12.00 [1.44] 75 [285] 106 [403] 129 [493] 150 [570] 167 [637] 183 [698] 198 [754] 211 [806]
27

2.2
14.00 [1.68] 69 [264] 98 [373] 120 [457] 138 [528] 155 [590] 170 [646] 183 [698] 196 [746]
2.2 PowerPak Description

Motors with nozzled rotors are often overpumped


when off-bottom. The amount of fluid bypassed depends
greatly on the pressure drop generated by the power
section. This pressure drop is only 100150 psi when
off-bottom, whereas nozzles are sized assuming a power
section pressure drop of 300500 psi.
Nozzled rotor motors should not be operated at flow
rates higher than normal (non-nozzled rotor) pump limits
when circulating off-bottom.

Dogleg
Rotating a motor in a high-dogleg interval in a well can
damage the stator. The geometry of the wellbore causes
the motor to bend and flex, especially if the motor has a
bent housing. Because the stator housing is the weakest
portion of the motor, it bends the most. As the stator
housing bends, the elastomer pushes on the rotor and
bends it, which causes excessive compression on the
stator lobes and leads to chunking.

28
PowerPak Description 2.3

2.3 Transmission section

The transmission assembly, which is attached to the


lower end of the rotor, transmits the rotational speed and
torque generated by the power section to the bearing and
drive shaft. It also compensates for the eccentric move-
ment of the rotors nutation and absorbs its downthrust.
Rotation is transmitted through the transmission shaft,
which is fitted with a universal joint at each end to
absorb the eccentric motion of the rotor (Fig. 2-7). Both
universal joints are packed with grease and sealed to
extend their life.

Figure 2-7. Transmission assembly.

Thrust ball

Transmission shaft

Adjustable
bent housing

Drive balls

29
2.3 PowerPak Description

The PowerPak transmission section accommodates


the Anadrill SAB Surface-Adjustable Bent housing
(Fig. 2-8). The transmission in most motors will allow
for 0 to 3 of bend in the adjustable bent housing.
However, the maximum bend for XP motors is 1.83
because the larger diameter shaft required for the high
torque leaves less clearance in the transmission. Bend
settings greater than 1.83 would cause the transmission
in an XP motor to rub against the inner diameter (ID) of
the adjustable bent housing.

Figure 2-8. SAB assembly.

Stator adaptor

Stator adaptor

Adjusting ring

Offset housing

30
PowerPak Description 2.4

2.4 Bearing section and drive shaft

The bearing section transmits drilling thrust and rota-


tional power from the transmission shaft to the drill bit.
This section consists of a forged-steel drive shaft sup-
ported by both axial and radial bearings (Fig. 2-9).
Because the bearing section of a downhole motor is
the component most exposed to harsh conditions,
Anadrill designed PowerPak motors to ensure maximum
operational efficiency by taking into account such factors
as drilling fluid properties, WOB and side loading, rota-
tional speed and pressure drop across the bit.

Figure 2-9. Axial bearing assembly.

Housing
Drive shaft

Race
Bearing balls

Sleeve thread
protector

31
2.4 PowerPak Description

Depending on directional requirements, the bearing


housing can be fitted with either a rig floorreplaceable
sleeve or an integral blade-type stabilizer (Table 2-3).
The variety of stabilizer diameters available meets every
application. The blade shape and hard facing can be
adapted on request.

Table 2-3. Stabilization options


Gauge Stabilizer Sleeve Body
Motor Diameter (in.) Integral Blade Sleeve OD (in.)

A475 578 Yes Yes 538


6 No Yes 538
6 4
1
No Yes 538
6 83
No Yes 538
6 21
No Yes 538

A675 814 Yes Yes 712


838 Yes Yes 712
912 No Yes 712
9 4
3
No Yes 712

A800 934 Yes No N/A


1218 No Yes 938
1458 No Yes 978
1678 No Yes 958

A962 and 12 8
1
Yes Yes 1058
A1125 13 8
3
No Yes 1112
14 8
5
No Yes 1178
1534 No Yes 1178
1578 No Yes 1178
1714 No Yes 1178
1738 No Yes 1178
21 8
7
No Yes 14
2534 No Yes 14
2734 No Yes 14

NA = not applicable

32
PowerPak Description 2.4

The axial bearings consist of multiple, mud-lubricated


ball races that support the WOB load when drilling and
the hydraulic downthrust when circulating off-bottom,
drilling with less than the balanced WOB and back-
reaming (Fig. 2-10).

Figure 2-10. Axial bearing loading.

Bearing
housing Drive shaft

Off-bottomred balls loaded


On-bottomgreen balls loaded

33
2.4 PowerPak Description

The bearing races and spacer sleeves do not wear


evenly throughout the stack. Replacing only one race
or spacer can cause the entire stack to fail prematurely.
The entire set of races and spacers in the axial bearing
must be replaced when any component is damaged.
The tungsten carbide radial journal bearings mounted
above and below the axial bearings serve a dual purpose:
to counteract the side force on the bit when drilling
to restrict the flow of mud through the bearing section
so that only a small percentage of the total mud flow
is used to lubricate the bearings (both radial and
axial).
The amount of fluid that goes through the bearing is
based on the bit pressure drop developed by the bit noz-
zles and the clearance of the radial bearing. For proper
cooling of the bearings, the bit pressure drop must be in
the range of 2501000 psi. If rig hydraulics require a bit
pressure drop of less than 250 psi, the motor can be
assembled with a special low-bit-pressure-drop radial
journal bearing.
Bearing failure modes and prevention

Weight on bit
The aggressive nature of PDC bits generally precludes
high bit weights. Tricone bits, however, are often run
with high bit weights that accelerate the wear of the balls
and races of the axial bearings.
The races in the mud-lubricated axial bearings are
case hardened. Their wear rate is not linear, because the
amount of wear increases once they have worn past the
hardened area. Just because a motor has only minor
wear after a long run does not mean that the bearings
are capable of repeating the same run time.
The WOB limits listed in Chapter 5, Performance
Data, are the rated maximum for the motors. Motors
with XP power sections do not have higher bit weight
limits than regular motors. The additional torque output

34
PowerPak Description 2.4

of an XP section motor does not allow running more


WOB. Because running a PowerPak motor at or near
the rated maximum WOB decreases the life of the axial
bearing, a limit of 80% of the rated maximum WOB is
recommended for long runs.

Bit pressure drop


Bit pressure drop is the amount of force acting to push
mud through the radial and axial bearings. The fluid flow
passing through the bearings must be at a high enough
rate to cool and lubricate them, but too much flow will
wash out the bearings.
Because they are designed to restrict flow, the radial
bearings allow a high bit pressure drop (1000 psi). The
minimum bit pressure drop is 250 psi for standard bear-
ings and 100 psi for low-bit-pressure-drop bearings.
Problems can occur with too little pressure drop, par-
ticularly when motors are surface tested without a bit,
because virtually no fluid passes through the bearing
section and the radial bearings can overheat rapidly.
Motors should not be surface tested for more than
1 min without the minimum 100- or 250-psi pressure
drop. Anadrill has a substitute bit that provides the
required bit pressure drop when surface testing a
PowerPak motor.

Mud solids
The bearing section is compatible with most mud sys-
tems. Highly abrasive mud systems can cause excessive
wear on the entire bearing pack (radial and axial).
Examples of highly abrasive muds include muds with
more than 2% sand and systems that use hematite or
similar substances for weighting material.

35
2.5 PowerPak Description

2.5 Housings and threads

PowerPak motors have a number of different threaded


connections. The top and bottom connections are usually
standard oilfield API threads. The makeup, breakout,
rework (face and chase) and recut of the API connec-
tions are fairly straightforward. Most oilfield machine
shops have the necessary thread gauges for this work.
The Anadrill in-house threads on the stator connections
and some other parts of the motor require special care
to avoid causing motor failure.
Rotary speed
Rotating motors at rotary speeds above 80 rpm can dam-
age the elastomer in the stator. High rotary speed
increases the amount of centrifugal force generated by
the rotor and transmission, which results in increased
wear of the stator, transmission, radial bearings and
internal connections. The larger the bend setting, the
more susceptible motors are to damage. In addition, the
horsepower (torque and speed) supplied to the bit from
surface rotation of the drill string must be transferred
through the stator to the rotor inside the motors power
section. Table 2-4 provides a guide for the maximum
speed at available angle settings. To extend motor life,
it is recommended to run the motor at no more than 80%
of the maximum rated speed.

36
PowerPak Description 2.5

Table 2-4. PowerPak maximum speed as a function


of bent housing angle
03 Housing Maximum 02 Housing Maximum
Bend Setting Recommended rpm Bend Setting Recommended rpm

0.00 200 0.00 200


0.39 160 0.26 170
0.78 120 0.52 140
1.15 60 0.77 120
1.50 40 1.00 90
1.83 NR 1.22 60
2.12 NR 1.41 40
2.38 NR 1.59 40
2.60 NR 1.73 NR
2.77 NR 1.85 NR
2.90 NR 1.93 NR
2.97 NR 1.98 NR
3.00 NR 2.00 NR

NR = not recommended

Corrosion
For the majority of applications, corrosion of the motor
housing and internal componentsexcept for the
rotoris not a problem. There are a few exceptions
where corrosion can cause problems, particularly in
the thread roots of the stator box threads. The stator box
connection is vulnerable because of its thin-wall design
and placement in the motor. Neither of these factors can
easily be changed.
Severe corrosion problems have occurred in salt-
saturated muds, apparently as a result of galvanic action
between the dissimilar metals of the PowerPak drill col-
lars and the conductive drilling mud. Sacrificial anodes
have been found to work well in the motors when this
type of corrosion is a problem. Using flex pup joints
above the motors also helps reduce the level of stress
on the connections when drilling where corrosion is
a problem.

37
2.5 PowerPak Description

Thread-locking compound
The use of Torq-Lok thread-locking compound is
recommended on
XP section motors
A475 and smaller motors
any PowerPak motor if tough drilling conditions
are expected:
backreaming
rotary speeds higher than 150 rpm
anything other than a standard bit below the output
shaft (cross-over, stabilizer, core barrel, etc.)
high vibration or shock.
Because thread-locking compounds have a higher
coefficient of friction than pipe dope, the makeup torque
on thread-locked connections should be 1.25 times the
normal torque to achieve the same shoulder compression.

38
Operations 3.0

The following information provides general operating


guidelines. Consult your Anadrill representative if local
conditions warrant a deviation from standard procedures.

3.1 General specifications

Tables 3-1 and 3-2 provide the general performance


characteristics of PowerPak motors. These tables are
based on the following assumptions:
Flow rate
The flow-rate columns list the minimum and maxi-
mum flow rates through the stator. The overall flow
through a PowerPak motor can be increased by fitting
a nozzle in the rotor and bypassing some of the flow
through the center of the motor. When a bypass nozzle
is used the total flow rate must not exceed the limit in
the bypass column.
Rotating speed
The listed minimum and maximum rotation speeds
are for an unloaded motor (i.e., free-running rotary
speeds for the power section over its flow-rate range).
Hole diameter
These standard minimum and maximum bit/hole sizes
for the motors are the most commonly used. Other
size bits may be used.
Tool weight
The listed weights are estimated values for assembled
tools. Tool weight increases with the longer length XP
power sections.
Tool length
The length of a PowerPak motor also varies with
the power section. These tool lengths for assembled
motors include the top sub/dump valve.

39
3.1 Operations

Maximum WOB
The maximum weight on bit for a PowerPak motor is
determined by its bearing section and is independent
of the selected power section. These values are the
maximum loads that can be placed on a bit during
motor operation.
Working overpull
The working overpull is the maximum load that can
be placed on a stuck motor (pushing or pulling) with-
out crushing the axial bearing parts. The load must be
kept less than this amount to allow rerunning the
motor after it is unstuck.
Absolute overpull
Absolute overpull is the maximum load that can be
placed on a stuck motor (pushing or pulling) before
doing major damage to the motor and possibly leaving
a fish in the hole.
Bit pressure
To maintain a flow of cooling/lubricating fluid through
the bearing section, the bit used with a motor must
have a minimum amount of pressure drop. The bit
nozzle must be selected on the basis of bit hydraulics
calculations to provide the minimum pressure drop to
the bit. The maximum bit pressure drop should not be
exceeded for a relatively long time because the axial
and radial bearings of the motor could be washed out.

40
Table 3-1. PowerPak motor specifications (U.S. units)
Motor Lobes Stages Flow Flow Rate Rotating Hole Tool Tool Max. Working Absolute Bit
Rate with Bypass Speed Diameter Weight Length WOB Overpull Overpull Pressure
(gpm) (gpm) (rpm) (in.) (lbm) (ft) (lbf) (lbf) (lbf) (psi)
Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max
A213 XP 5:6 6.0 20 50 180 640 2.38 3.50 80 10.5 3,200 15,000 19,000 250 1500

A238 M 5:6 2.5 20 50 100 380 2.88 3.50 80 8.45 5,000 22,000 28,000 250 1500
XP 5:6 5.2 20 50 100 400 120 12.52

A287 M 5:6 3.3 20 80 130 120 480 140 10.02


XP 5:6 7.0 20 80 130 115 460 3.38 4.75 195 14.62 6,500 24,000 39,500 250 1500
M 7:8 3.2 30 90 130 75 300 140 10.02

A350 M 4:5 5.0 30 110 160 98 360 4.50 6.00 300 15.12 8,000 30,000 69,500 250 1500
M 7:8 3.0 30 110 160 48 176 310 15.12

A475 M 1:2 3.0 100 200 225 450 630 18.87

Operations
M 4:5 3.5 100 250 350 105 262 620 16.62
XP 4:5 6.0 100 250 350 105 262 5.88 7.00 920 22.54 25,000 50,000 137,000 250 1500
M 7:8 2.2 100 250 350 56 140 640 16.62
XP 7:8 3.8 100 250 350 56 140 900 22.54
AD 7:8 2.0 300 700 100 230 800 20.12
41

3.1
3.1
42

Table 3-1. PowerPak motor specifications (U.S. units)


Motor Lobes Stages Flow Flow Rate Rotating Hole Tool Tool Max. Working Absolute Bit
Rate with Bypass Speed Diameter Weight Length WOB Overpull Overpull Pressure
(gpm) (gpm) (rpm) (in.) (lbm) (ft) (lbf) (lbf) (lbf) (psi)

Operations
Min Max Min Max Min Max Min Max

A675 M 1:2 4.0 200 500 180 465 1780 23.60


M 4:5 4.8 300 600 700 150 300 1750 21.39
XP 4:5 7.0 300 600 700 150 300 8.38 9.88 2170 26.51 50,000 75,000 255,000 250 1500
M 7:8 3.0 300 600 700 86 165 1750 19.44
XP 7:8 5.0 300 600 700 86 170 2260 25.19
AD 7:8 2.0 400 800 60 118 1930 21.85

A800 M 1:2 4.0 300 600 210 420 3655 25.85


M 4:5 3.6 300 900 1100 75 225 3650 23.60
XP 4:5 5.3 300 900 1100 75 225 9.88 14.75 4700 29.27 65,000 125,000 375,000 250 1500
M 7:8 3.0 300 900 1100 48 145 3500 23.60
XP 7:8 4.0 300 900 1100 48 145 4020 27.60

A962 M 1:2 5.0 400 800 190 380 5180 29.21


M 3:4 4.5 600 1200 1500 133 266 5100 26.29
XP 3:4 6.0 600 1200 1500 133 266 12.25 26.00 5750 30.48 75,000 225,000 650,000 250 1500
M 5:6 3.0 600 1200 1500 67 134 5400 26.29
XP 5:6 4.0 600 1200 1500 67 134 6130 30.48

A1125 M 3:4 3.6 1000 1500 1700 115 170 17.50 26.00 6400 29.02 75,000 225,000 650,000 250 1500
Table 3-2. PowerPak motor specifications (SI units)
Motor Lobes Stages Flow Flow Rate Rotating Hole Tool Tool Max. Working Absolute Bit
Rate with Speed Diameter Weight Length WOB Overpull Overpull Pressure
(liter/min) Bypass (rpm) (mm) (kg) (m) (N) (N) (N) (bar)
Min Max (liter/min) Min Max Min Max Min Max

A213 XP 5:6 6.0 76 189 180 640 60.5 88.9 36.3 3.20 14,200 66,700 84,500 17.2 103.4

A238 M 5:6 2.5 76 189 100 380 73.2 88.9 36.3 2.58 22,200 97,900 124,600 17.2 103.4
XP 5:6 5.2 76 189 100 400 54.4 3.82

A287 M 5:6 3.3 76 303 492 120 480 63.5 3.05


XP 5:6 7.0 76 303 492 115 460 85.9 120.7 88.5 4.46 28,900 106,800 175,700 17.2 103.4
M 7:8 3.2 114 341 492 75 300 63.5 3.05

A350 M 4:5 5.0 114 416 606 98 360 114.3 152.4 136.1 4.61 35,600 133,400 309,200 17.2 103.4
M 7:8 3.0 114 416 606 48 176 140.6 4.61

A475 M 1:2 3.0 379 757 225 450 285.8 5.75

Operations
M 4:5 3.5 379 946 1325 105 262 281.2 5.07
XP 4:5 6.0 379 946 1325 105 262 149.4 177.8 417.3 6.87 111,200 222,400 609,400 17.2 103.4
M 7:8 2.2 379 946 1325 56 140 290.3 5.07
XP 7:8 3.8 379 946 1325 56 140 408.2 6.87
AD 7:8 2.0 1136 2650 100 230 362.9 6.13
43

3.1
3.1
44

Table 3-2. PowerPak motor specifications (SI units)


Motor Lobes Stages Flow Flow Rate Rotating Hole Tool Tool Max. Working Absolute Bit
Rate with Speed Diameter Weight Length WOB Overpull Overpull Pressure
(liter/min) Bypass (rpm) (mm) (kg) (m) (N) (N) (N) (bar)

Operations
Min Max (liter/min) Min Max Min Max Min Max

A675 M 1:2 4.0 757 1893 180 465 807.4 7.19


M 4:5 4.8 1136 2271 2650 150 300 793.8 6.52
XP 4:5 7.0 1136 2271 2650 150 300 212.9 251.0 984.3 8.08 222,400 333,600 1,134,300 17.2 103.4
M 7:8 3.0 1136 2271 2650 86 165 793.8 5.93
XP 7:8 5.0 1136 2271 2650 86 170 1025.1 7.68
AD 7:8 2.0 1514 3028 60 118 875.4 6.66

A800 M 1:2 4.0 1136 2271 210 420 1657.9 7.88


M 4:5 3.6 1136 3407 4164 75 225 1655.6 7.19
XP 4:5 5.3 1136 3407 4164 75 225 251.0 374.7 2131.9 8.92 289,100 556,000 1,668,100 17.2 103.4
M 7:8 3.0 1136 3407 4164 48 145 1587.6 7.19
XP 7:8 4.0 1136 3407 4164 48 145 1823.4 8.41

A962 M 1:2 5.0 1514 3028 190 380 2349.6 8.90


M 3:4 4.5 2271 4542 5678 133 266 2313.3 8.01
XP 3:4 6.0 2271 4542 5678 133 266 311.2 660.4 2608.2 9.29 333,600 1,000,800 2,891,300 17.2 103.4
M 5:6 3.0 2271 4542 5678 67 134 2449.4 8.01
XP 5:6 4.0 2271 4542 5678 67 134 2780.5 9.29

A1125 M 3:4 3.6 3785 5678 6435 115 170 444.5 660.4 2903.0 8.85 333,600 1,000,800 2,891,300 17.2 103.4
Operations 3.2

3.2 Dogleg severity limitation

Dogleg severity (DLS) is a measurement of the curva-


ture of the wellbore. Table 3-3 summarizes the maxi-
mum DLS in which PowerPak motors can be safely
run in the sliding mode and the maximum bent angle
above which the motors cannot be rotated, except for
orientation purposes.

Table 3-3. Dogleg severity limitations


Motor Max Max Max Max Absolute
DLS Bit Bit Bend Max Bend
with 3 Offset with Offset with for for XP
Bend 1.5 Bend 3 Bend Rotation Power
(/100 ft) (in.) (in.) () Sections

A213M 50 0.76 1.51 1.5 1.83


A238M 62 0.97 1.93 1.5 1.83
A287M 51 1.02 2.03 1.5 1.83
A350M 36 1.15 2.30 1.5 1.83
A457M 20 1.52 3.03 1.5 1.83
A675M 19 2.21 4.42 1.5 1.83
A800M 17 2.53 5.07 1.5 1.83
A962M 15 2.92 5.83 1.5 1.83
A1125M 13 3.08 6.15 1.5 1.83

45
3.2 Operations

Table 3-4, which summarizes model results for two


typical BHA configurations, serves as a field guide only:
BHA stabilized configuration predictions are calcu-
lated for a PowerPak motor with a single surface-
adjustable bent housing. The bearing housing is stabi-
lized with a stabilizer on top of the motor. Both stabi-
lizers have the same gauge: 18-in. undergauge for hole
sizes up to 1214 in. and 14-in. undergauge for 1712-in.
holes. The stabilizer can be 18- or 14-in. undergauge for
holes larger than 1214 in.
BHA slick configuration predictions are calculated for
an unstabilized PowerPak motor with a single surface-
adjustable bent housing. A slick assembly is above the
motor; there is no stabilizer.
The behavior of a BHA is highly dependent on local
conditions, particularly hole enlargement and formation
hardness. For this reason there are two buildup rate
tables for each BHA configuration. The first set of pre-
dictions corresponds to ideal conditions, in which there
is no hole enlargement and zero side force at the bit.
The second set of predictions takes into consideration
more typical, less-than-ideal conditions such as hole
enlargement and bit side force. It is important to note
that the predictions are for equilibrium rates, which
require some drilled distance to establish.
The predicted values are for 100% sliding with gravity
tool face at zero (no turn). Depending on the type of
BHA, DLS may be greatly affected by the tool face
position. The directional behavior of the BHA in rotary
mode often depends on the position and gauge of the
second stabilizer. Consult your Anadrill representative
for DLS predictions adapted to your drilling conditions
and program.

46
Table 3-4. Buildup rate predictions
Motor Hole Fully Stabilized Bend Setting Bearing-Housing Stabilizer Only No Bearing-Housing Stabilizer (Slick)
Size (in.) 0.39 1.15 1.5 2.12 3.0 0.39 1.15 1.5 2.12 3.0 0.39 1.15 1.5 2.12 3.0
A475M 6 NA NA NA NA NA 2.26 7.11 9.37 13.36 18.99
A475M 634 2.07 9.07 12.33 18.08 26.20 2.76 7.61 9.87 13.85 19.48
A675M 812 1.81 6.96 9.35 13.58 20.46 1.59 4.71 6.17 8.73 12.36
A675M 978 1.81 6.96 9.35 13.57 19.55 1.96 5.09 6.54 9.1 12.73
A675M 1058 0.77 4.38 6.77 11 16.97 2.17 5.29 6.74 9.30 12.93
A800M 1058 0.71 3.85 5.97 10.70 17.49 1.68 4.59 5.59 8.34 11.72
A800M 1214 1.59 6.15 8.27 12.01 17.30 1.58 5.17 5.17 7.18 10.03
A962M 1214 1.57 5.64 7.53 10.86 15.58 1.62 4.32 5.58 7.80 10.83
A962M 15 1.57 5.64 7.53 10.86 15.57 2.21 4.91 6.17 8.38 11.52
A962M 1712 1.04 5.11 7 10.33 15.04 1.78 4.08 5.15 7.04 9.71
A1125M 15 1.44 5.15 6.88 9.93 14.23 1.38 3.93 5.11 7.19 10.14
A1125M 1712 0.96 4.67 6.40 9.44 13.75 1.42 3.61 4.62 6.41 8.95
A213XP 258 1.1 15 22.3 34.1 50.9

Operations
A238M 278 2.64 19.91 27.94 42.12 62.15
A238M 312 0 8.85 16.88 31.06 51.09
A287M 338 7.79 23.61 30.97 43.95 62.30
A287M 334 2.01 17.83 25.19 38.17 56.52
A350M 414 0.39 6.46 11.11 24.34 36.28
A350M 434 0 6.68 11.47 19.91 31.85
NA = not applicable
Typical field values are 25%40% less than these predicted optimum values.
47

3.2

A fully stabilized motor has a 18-in. undergauge bearing-housing stabilizer and a 18-in. undergauge string stabilizer above the motor.

For hole sized 1712 in. and larger, the stabilizers are 14-in. undergauge.
3.3 Operations

3.3 Job preparation

Motor selection
Hole diameter and flow rate usually dictate the tool
diameter. After the diameter has been chosen, the other
specifications can be selected.
Dump valve
The probability of plugging the dump valve can be
reduced by running a float valve above the motor. If a
float valve is run and plugging is still a potential prob-
lem, a crossover sub can be run instead of a dump valve.
Rotor/stator configuration
The rotor/stator configuration affects the bit speed (rpm)
at a given flow rate. The default standard is 4:5 (or 5:6
for PowerPak model A962M). Other configurations are
also available.
When OBM is used, the 4:5 ratio is preferred to 7:8
to minimize possible elastomer damage.
Rotor nozzle
A rotor nozzle should be specified if high flow rates
are anticipated.
Bent housing setting
The degree of bend depends on the anticipated maxi-
mum DLS in the hole section to be drilled. In deter-
mining this setting, use Table 3-4 with caution because
the calculations are based on idealized hole conditions
for a limited number of BHA configurations. Local
experience should be taken into consideration, even if
it has been obtained using different steerable motors,
because those actual figures provide a guideline for the
predictions obtained from the planning software.
The bend selection also depends on the diameter of
any stabilizers. The bend should be set at a reasonable
minimum to decrease possible stabilizer hanging.
Rotating the string to hold angle rather than continuing

48
Operations 3.3

to build angle or to ease WOB transfer may lead to pre-


mature failure of the motor bearing or housing. It is
good practice to anticipate lower buildup rates at low
inclination or in soft sections where enlargement occurs.
Stabilizer gauge
If a slick assembly is run, the sleeve threaded-type bear-
ing housing must be used with the protector made up.
When stabilization is used, 18- or 14-in. undergauge size
is recommended. The buildup rate is controlled by the
position and gauge of the second stabilizer.
Connection
The top connection must be checked for compatibility
with the BHA.
Bit selection
When selecting the bit to run with a PowerPak motor,
the following factors should be taken into account:
directional control
expected run duration
drilling program
type of cutting structure required
fluid passage design
expected rate of penetration
estimated rotating time.
A widely accepted guideline for directional applica-
tions is to select a bit that has a tooth structure at least
one grade harder than what would be selected for rotary
drilling in the same formation. It is advisable to specify
gauge protection for the bit because directional drilling
subjects the gauge row of teeth to lateral as well as axial
loads. Fluid flow passages must have a total flow area
that will not cause excessive backpressure to the
PowerPak flow restrictor bearings.

49
3.3 Operations

Hydraulics calculations
Every PowerPak motor is designed to perform efficiently
within a range of fluid flow rates. The flow ranges are
listed in the general specifications on Tables 3-1 and 3-2
and the individual motor tables in Chapter 5, Perfor-
mance Data.
Variation above or below recommended volumes
and the related pressure drop across the bit may lead
to decreased motor efficiency and life. Anadrill uses a
specialized hydraulic program to verify that the pressure
drop at the bit remains within the specified range. The
250-psi minimum limit ensures proper cooling of the
bearing section. The 1000-psi maximum limit prevents
excessive erosion.
Drilling system pressure drop should be calculated
considering the stalling pressure of the motor (i.e.,
approximately 1.75 times the operating pressure). MWD
pressure drop should be accounted for in the calculation.
The total pressure drop should be compared with the
rig capacity, using the motor stalling pressure and the
highest mud weight planned for the run.
Mud weight and plastic viscosity affect the total sys-
tem pressure requirements. If the pressure required to
deliver the recommended volume of fluid to the
PowerPak motor is greater than what the pumps can
deliver, it may be necessary to reduce either the volume
or pressure drop through both the tool and the bit.
Pressure drop can be reduced by decreasing the number
of drill collars and/or other elements that affect WOB,
as well as by changing bit nozzle size or drilling fluid
characteristics.
Anadrill offers software programs for computing
the optimum hydraulics for a specific situation.
Surveying considerations
Anadrill uses a standard model to calculate the length
of nonmagnetic material required above the motor.

50
Operations 3.4

3.4 Running PowerPak motors

Lifting and makeup procedure


A lifting sub should always be used for lifting the tool
into position for makeup, both on and off the rig floor.
A directional driller must be present any time a
PowerPak motor is lifted.
All PowerPak bearings, U-joints, stators and bypass
valve housing joints are made up to the required torque
during motor assembly at Anadrill service centers. No
additional makeup of these joints is necessary.
For applications calling for rig floorreplaceable,
sleeve-type stabilizers, the stabilizer sleeve can be
screwed onto the motor body while the motor is hanging
in the elevators. After installation, the sleeve should be
made up to the torque shown in Table 3-5 according to
the outer diameter (OD) of the motor.
If no stabilizer is run, a thread protection sleeve
should be installed.

Table 3-5. Stabilizer sleeve makeup torque


Motor Torque

A475 4,000 ft-lbf [5,400 Nm]


A675 10,000 ft-lbf [13,600 Nm]
A800 23,000 ft-lbf [31,200 Nm]
A962 37,000 ft-lbf [50,200 Nm]
A1125 37,000 ft-lbf [50,200 Nm]

51
3.4 Operations

Surface check prior to running


All PowerPak motors should be systematically surface-
checked prior to running in the hole. The surface check
consists of visual checks, a surface functional test and
bent housing adjustment. The procedures are as follows.

Visual checks
1. Check the PowerPak motor for any transportation
damage. Record the motors serial number.
2. Perform a surface functional test before anything is
added to the tool. A dog collar safety clamp should
be placed just below the top sub. If the surface func-
tional test includes an MWD system and the motor
has mud-lubricated bearings, install an Anadrill sub-
stitute bit on the bottom of the motor to provide the
bit pressure drop required to prevent the bearings
from running dry.
3. Before the bit is installed, check the bearing clearance
or axial play of the motor by measuring the distance
between the lower part of the bearing section and the
top of the bit sub. Measure the distance twice, first
with the motor hanging free in the elevators, then
repeated with the full weight of the motor sitting on
the rotary table (Fig. 3-1). The difference between the
two distances is the amount of axial bearing clear-
ance. Record the two measurements and compare
them with the figures shown in the documentation
supplied with the motor. Repeat this check after the
motor has been run to determine the amount of bear-
ing wear that occurred during the run. The maximum
allowable clearance for both the preinstallation check
and after running is shown in Table 3-6.

52
Operations 3.4

Figure 3-1. Rotor/stator interference fit.

! !

0
A

Clearance = A B

Table 3-6. Axial bearing clearance


Motor Clearance

A213 0.12 in. [3.0 mm]


A238 0.12 in. [3.0 mm]
A287 0.16 in. [4.1 mm]
A350 0.16 in. [4.1 mm]
A475 0.20 in. [5.1 mm]
A675 0.24 in. [6.1 mm]
A800 0.24 in. [6.1 mm]
A962 0.32 in. [8.1 mm]
A1125 0.32 in. [8.1 mm]

53
3.4 Operations

Functional test
1. Lift the PowerPak motor with the appropriate lifting
sub, set it in the rotary slips and secure it by placing
a dog collar safety clamp just below the top sub.
2. Install a crossover sub if it is necessary between the
PowerPak motor and the kelly/top drive. Next, make
up the kelly to the PowerPak motor, remove the
safety clamp and lift the motor from the slips.
3. Open the blowout preventer (BOP) rams and lower
the PowerPak motor below the rotary table. If a dump
valve is used, ensure that the valve ports are below
the bell nipple, yet still visible. Use the rig tongs to
secure the motor and the kelly.
4. The pumps can now be turned on and the stroke
speed slowly increased. If mud is used, it should
squirt out of the ports on the dump valve until the
volume is sufficient to force the piston down and
close off the ports. When the ports close, pull up
the motor with the pumps on until the drive shaft is
visible. Record the flow rate when the dump valve
closes if a bit is in place.
5. Check the area at the bottom of the bearing housing
and the drive shaft to confirm mud flow from the
radial bearing. This discharge is designed to lubricate
and cool the bearing pack, and it should be about 4%
to 10% of the total mud flow rate. Depending on the
mud properties and whether the test is performed
before making up the bit to the motor, mud flow may
be insignificant or nonexistent as a result of insuffi-
cient backpressure across the motor. In this case, the
duration of the test should be as short as possible to
avoid damaging the bearing. If no bit or a dummy bit
is used to provide bit pressure drop, the test should
not exceed 1 min in duration.
6. Lower the motor back through the rotary table with
the pumps still running. (If the pumps are turned off
while the motor is above the table, the dump valve
can open and squirt mud on the rig floor.)
54
Operations 3.4

7. With the dump valve below the rotary table, turn the
pumps off. If the valve does not open, bleed off the
mud from the standpipe.
8. If the functional test is performed before installing
the stabilizer sleeve or drill bit, these should now be
made up at the correct torque, according to Table 3-5.
The bit can be screwed onto the drive shaft bit box
and torqued to specifications with a rig makeup tong.

Bent housing adjustment


Anadrill recommends hanging the motor in the elevator
to make an adjustment in the bend. If slips are used, they
are set on the offset housing, and the driller should slack
off until the adjusting ring turns easily.
Observe the following procedure for adjusting the bent
housing angle (Fig. 3-2).
1. Place a breakout tong on the stator adapter and a
makeup tong on the offset housing and break the
connection.
2. Unscrew the connection with two full turns. The gap
that appears above the adjusting ring allows lifting up
the sleeve and turning it to the required setting.
3. Lift up the adjustment ring to disengage the align-
ment teeth.
4. Place a backup tong on the offset housing. While
holding the adjusting ring in the upper position, turn
it until just before the upper and lower machine slots
are aligned (i.e., the required degree marks are oppo-
site one another). Then, lower the adjusting ring so it
gently rests on the top of the alignment teeth, and
slowly resume turning until the adjusting ring falls in
the required position. The adjusting ring should nor-
mally be rotated with chain tongs, although rig tongs
may be necessary for large-diameter motors. Properly
aligning the setting marks achieves the required bend.
The tool face or scribe line for alignment with MWD
equipment is through the middle of the two slots that
have just been aligned.
55
3.4 Operations

5. The tongs can now be reversed and the joint tightened


to the correct torque. Once the joint is torqued, check
the setting against the requirements in Table 3-7 to
make sure it did not jump a slot while being tightened.

Figure 3-2. Determining axial bearing clearance.

! !

Stator adaptor
Adjustment ring
0 3 0 3

3 0 Offset 3 0

housing

0 3
Alignment
1 3 0 teeth 2

3
3
0 3

3 0 3 0

4 5

56
Operations 3.4

Table 3-7. Bent housing adjustment makeup torque


Motor Makeup Torque

A213 650 ft-lbf [875 Nm]


A238 890 ft-lbf [1,200 Nm]
A287 1,650 ft-lbf [2,250 Nm]
A350 3,500 ft-lbf [4,750 Nm]
A475 10,000 ft-lbf [13,600 Nm]
A675 25,000 ft-lbf [33,900 Nm]
A800 35,000 ft-lbf [47,500 Nm]
A962 60,000 ft-lbf [81,300 Nm]
A1125 85,000 ft-lbf [115,000 Nm]

Running in hole
Caution is urged when tripping assemblies with large
bent sub angles. Special care should be exercised when
running through the BOP and wellhead equipment,
marine risers, stage cementing collars, casing packers,
liner hangers, etc.
When running a PowerPak motor in a deep or high-
temperature well or in mud systems that may be contam-
inated with cement or steel cuttings (i.e., after milling a
casing window), the trip should include stops to fill the
drillpipe and circulate for a few minutes.
Drilling
When bottom is reached, the motor should be held
a few feet off-bottom to circulate briefly until the
planned flow rate is reached. Motor speeds and circu-
lation rates above or below the specified general
ranges in Tables 3-1 and 3-2 should be avoided,
as they may result in increased wear on motor
components.
The off-bottom standpipe pressure and pump strokes
should be recorded. While lowering the assembly,
drilling is indicated by an increase in standpipe

57
3.4 Operations

pressure corresponding directly to the differential


pressure created across the rotor/stator as bit torque
increases.
Weight must be applied slowly at first, with any pump
pressure changes noted. The driller should proceed
carefully while acquiring a feel for the formation and
gently break in the bit until a pattern has been cut.
Drilling with the PowerPak motor is controlled by the
amount of WOB required and the differential pressure
(i.e., the difference between drilling and off-bottom
circulating pressure) developed by the motor section.
The value of this differential pressure is a direct indi-
cation of bit torque. It increases as WOB is added and
decreases as drill-off occurs.
When the optimum drilling rate is reached, constant
standpipe pressure should be maintained to give
steady torque at the bit.
Many drillers make small incremental adjustments
to WOB to optimize the rate of penetration. However,
the application of WOB must be carefully controlled
so that the differential pressure does not exceed the
values for recommended operating WOB. If the differ-
ential pressure exceeds the recommended values,
motor stalling may occur.
When motor stalling occurs, the driller must immedi-
ately cut back or shut off the pumps to avoid dam-
aging the stator and other tool components. The torque
trapped in the drillstring must then be released slowly
by using the rotary table brake or clutch to allow the
kelly/rotary to turn to the left. Releasing the trapped
torque slowly reduces downhole backoff. Drilling can
then be resumed as described above. If a motor stalls
frequently under normal drilling conditions, its oper-
ating pressure may have to be modified.

58
Operations 3.4

Paying careful attention to mud pressure variations


provides early warning of many common downhole
problems. See Table 3-8 in Troubleshooting for
information to help identify and correct problems
before they lead to costly trips.
The rugged design of PowerPak motors makes it pos-
sible to exert high overpull in the event of a stuck bit.

Pulling out of hole and surface check after drilling


There are no special procedures required when pulling
out of hole (POOH).
If the rig is equipped with a top-drive system, the
driller will probably backream out of any tight spots
while carefully maintaining circulation and avoiding
sidetracking if the drillstring is rerun through the
backreamed section.
PowerPak transmission rotational free play can be
checked at the surface by holding the bit and checking
the free play between the drive shaft and rotor.
The axial bearing clearance should be measured and
checked against the last measurement to determine
bearing wear.
Before the PowerPak motor is laid down, it should be
flushed with water. When a hose is used, the body is
held with a breakout tong, and the bit is rotated in the
bit breaker. When clean water drips out of the lower
radial bearing, the bit can be broken off. If the motor
will not be disassembled for maintenance within
1 week, it should be flushed with mineral oil to
prevent damage to the parts.
If the SAB housing was set to a high angle,
the housing joint should be broken.

59
3.4 Operations

Environmental constraints
There is no Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) risk
for the PowerPak system; no specific environmental
protection procedures need be applied when operating
the motors. However, any mud remaining in motors
returning from jobs must be safely collected for later
recycling or disposal. Anadrill bases are equipped with
zero-discharge systems to handle the disposal of all
drilling fluids.
Troubleshooting
By paying careful attention to variations in mud-flow
pressure, it is possible to detect many common down-
hole problems that may occur while drilling and take
corrective action before a costly trip becomes necessary.
Information to identify and correct problems is listed in
Table 3-8.

60
Table 3-8. Troubleshooting
Observation Secondary Observation Possible Explanation Remedial Action
ROP drops Unchanged flow rate Motor stalling Stop rotation immediately
Pressure surges Torque increases Pull off-bottom; shut down pumps
if pressure drop is not observed
Resume drilling carefully
Apply WOB gradually
ROP drops FLow rate drops Motor stalling Same as above; pump stroke forced
Constant pressure down by motor stalling
ROP decreases Normal WOB Bit balling Pull off-bottom; reciprocate string;
Pressure increases Torque decreases eventually increase flow rate
Normal WOB Stabilizers hanging or reaming Proceed with care
Torque increases When stabilizer hanging occurs while
sliding, drill a few feet in rotation
Eventually POOH to reduce bend
in SAB housing
ROP decreases Normal WOB Junk in hole Proceed carefully to wash junk away
Irregular pressure Irregular rotary torque Cone locking and/or POOH

Operations
ROP decreases Normal WOB Washout or dump valve failure Pull off-bottom
Pressure decreases Normal torque Look for trends on charts; POOH
Normal WOB Formation change Adapt parameters
ROP normal Normal WOB, torque String ID obstructed Recycle pumps with various flow
Pressure surges Flow rate unchanged rates; reciprocate string
ROP normal Normal WOB, torque Washout Look for trends on charts; POOH
Pressure decreases Flow rate unchanged
61

3.4
Abnormal mud return and pit levels Mud losses Follow lost circulation procedure
ROP increases Formation change Adapt parameters
3.5 Operations

3.5 Fishing

In the event that it becomes necessary to fish a


PowerPak motor, an Anadrill representative should be
consulted on the types and sizes of overshot or extension
tools that should be used. Fishing for a PowerPak motor
does not present any particular problem for a straight
pickup job. If circulation is necessary, it is important
to remember that reactive torque and vibration tend
to unscrew the fish from the overshot.
Tables 3-9 and 3-10 summarize the diagrammed
fishing dimensions for the various PowerPak motors.

62
Table 3-9. Fishing dimensions (U.S. units)
Reference Description (in.) A213 A238 A287 A350 A475 A675 A800 A962 A1125
A Dump valve/top sub OD 2.13 2.38 3.06 3.75 4.75 6.75 8.00 9.63 11.25
B Stator/stator adaptor OD 2.13 2.38 1.88 3.50 4.75 6.75 8.25 9.63 11.25
C Adjusting ring OD (kick pad) 2.25 2.47 2.99 3.59 5.03 7.00 8.38 9.82 11.63
D Offset housing OD 2.13 2.38 2.90 3.50 4.75 6.75 8.25 9.63 11.25
E Stabilizer body maximum OD NA NA NA NA 5.38 7.50 9.25 11.00 13.38
F Bearing housing/nut OD 2.13 2.38 2.87 3.50 5.38 6.75 8.25 8.25 11.00
G Bit box OD 2.25 2.38 3.06 3.75 4.75 6.70 8.18 14.62 9.63
I Drive shaft OD 1.18 1.58 1.88 2.28 3.00 4.00 5.25 9.75 6.25
M Dump valve/top sub length 0.38 7.56 12.00 11.28 27.52 15.96 15.48 110.04 15.72
O Stator adaptor length 0.62 9.96 14.88 12.48 14.28 16.80 19.68 22.56 27.48
P Adjusting ring length 0.20 2.28 3.00 3.72 5.40 6.12 6.36 6.36 8.52
Q Offset housing length 0.99 12.60 16.56 19.56 22.08 30.48 32.6 38.40 43.80
R Bearing housing fishing neck 0.57 7.44 9.48 10.56 3.60 8.76 13.56 10.56 14.28
S Bearing housing bottom neck NA NA NA NA 11.04 11.40 11.04 14.52 14.52
T Drive shaft visible length 0.33 3.96 4.92 6.00 5.64 8.28 10.08 10.44 10.44
U Bend to bit box length 2.08 27.48 34.92 40.08 48.96 72.36 84.72 93.36 99.48

Introduction
V Stabilizer upset length NA NA NA NA 0.48 1.56 2.76 3.12 NA

Operations
X Sleeve length NA NA NA NA 5.50 7.00 8.00 12.00 12.00
A Dump valve/top sub ID 0.75 0.75 1.38 1.75 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.50
B Stator/stator adaptor ID 1.50 1.62 1.93 2.25 3.38 5.00 5.88 7.00 8.50
C Adjusting ring ID 1.56 1.87 2.20 2.70 3.70 5.14 6.18 7.31 8.53
D Offset housing ID 1.09 1.31 1.88 2.13 2.88 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.75
E Bearing housing/nut ID 1.33 1.50 1.79 2.15 3.06 4.44 5.13 6.19 6.19
F Drive shaft ID 0.50 0.50 0.75 0.82 1.13 1.50 2.00 2.38 2.38
63

3.5
NA = not applicable
Pipe connections A M

B N
W
H

B O

C P

D Q
V
R
E
U
X
S
F
I
G T
3.5
Table 3-10. Fishing dimensions (SI units)
64

Reference Description (cm) A213 A238 A287 A350 A475 A675 A800 A962 A1125
A Dump valve/top sub OD 5.41 6.05 7.77 9.53 12.07 17.15 20.32 24.46 28.58

Introduction
Operations
B Stator/stator adaptor OD 5.41 6.05 4.78 8.89 12..07 17.15 20.96 24.46 28.58
C Adjusting ring OD (kick pad) 5.72 6.27 7.59 9.12 12.78 17.78 21.29 24.94 29.54
D Offset housing OD 5.41 6.05 7.37 8.89 12.07 17.15 20.96 24.46 28.58
E Stabilizer body maximum OD NA NA NA NA 13.67 19.07 23.50 27.94 33.99
F Bearing housing/nut OD 5.41 6.05 7.29 8.89 13.67 17.15 20.96 20.96 27.94
G Bit box OD 5.72 6.05 7.77 9.53 12.07 17.02 20.78 37.13 24.46
I Drive shaft OD 3.00 4.01 4.78 5.79 7.62 10.16 13.34 24.77 15.88
M Dump valve/top sub length 0.97 19.20 30.48 28.65 44.50 40.54 39.32 279.50 39.93
O Stator adaptor length 1.57 25.30 37.80 31.70 36.27 42.67 49.99 57.30 69.80
P Adjusting ring length 0.51 5.79 7.62 9.45 13.72 15.54 16.15 16.15 21.64
Q Offset housing length 2.51 32.00 42.06 49.68 56.08 77.42 82.91 97.54 111.25
R Bearing housing fishing neck 1.45 18.90 24.08 26.82 9.14 22.25 34.44 26.82 36.27
S Bearing housing bottom neck NA NA NA NA 28.04 28.96 28.96 36.88 36.88
T Drive shaft visible length 0.84 10.06 12.50 15.24 14.33 21.03 25.60 26.52 26.52
U Bend to bit box length 5.28 69.80 88.70 101.80 124.36 183.79 215.19 237.13 252.68
V Stabilizer upset length NA NA NA NA 1.22 3.96 7.01 7.92 NA
X Sleeve length NA NA NA NA 13.97 17.78 20.32 30.48 30.48
A Dump valve/top sub ID 1.91 1.91 3.51 4.45 5.08 7.62 7.62 7.62 11.43
B Stator/stator adaptor ID 3.81 4.11 4.90 5.72 8.59 12.70 14.94 17.78 21.59
C Adjusting ring ID 3.96 4.75 5.59 6.86 9.40 13.06 15.70 18.57 21.67
D Offset housing ID 2.77 3.33 4.78 5.41 7.32 10.16 12.70 15.24 19.69
E Bearing housing/nut ID 3.38 3.81 4.55 5.46 7.77 11.28 13.03 15.72 15.72
F Drive shaft ID 1.27 1.27 1.91 2.08 2.87 3.81 5.08 6.05 6.05

NA = not applicable
GeoSteering Tool 4.0

4.0 GeoSteering* Tool

PowerPak motors allow horizontal wells to be geosteered


by guiding the drainhole through a productive target
zone based on logging-while-drilling (LWD) data (Fig.
4-1). Geosteering maximizes pay zone footage, improves
decision-making, lowers costs and reduces the hazards
of drilling.

Figure 4-1. LWD geosteering data.

LWD data

Bulk density

Rps resistivity

Rad resistivity
x200
x100

x300
x000

x500
x800

x400
x900

x65

x70 Gas-oil contact

x75
Oil-water contact
x80
Gamma ray in well path
x85
Drainhole sketch
True vertical depth

65
4.0 GeoSteering Tool

The GeoSteering tool is one of the new-generation


MWD electrode resistivity tools with the ability to mea-
sure resistivity at the bit. The bit measurement, teamed
with other near-bit sensors such as azimuthal gamma
ray, azimuthal resistivity and inclination, allows precise
drilling of complex geological targets by providing an
early warning of bit location and what it is drilling. All
sensors are located within 8 ft of the bit box.
The GeoSteering measurement sub is integrated in
the mud-lubricated PowerPak steerable downhole motor
between the bearing section and the surface-adjustable
bent housing (Fig. 4-2). The driller uses the tool like a
regular motor because drilling is unaffected by the pres-
ence of the tool in the BHA. This is a major improve-
ment, as typical MWD and LWD tools usually constrain
the BHA design.
The near-bit sub is an oil-filled unit that carries the
driveshaft in its center for transmission of mechanical
energy from the power section above to the bearing
section and bit below. The self-contained tool is battery
powered, with wireless telemetry to the MWD section
higher in the drillstring. There is no wiring through the
motor or drillstring components.
Because the GeoSteering tool is powered solely by
batteries, the operation cycle of the tool makes a mea-
surement, transmits the measured values and then turns
off portions of the tool for a predetermined period to
conserve power. Measured data are not stored in down-
hole memory.
Drilling geologically rather than according to a rigid
geometric well plan requires a team approach at the
wellsite. The MWD engineer, wellsite geologist, reser-
voir engineer and directional driller can modify the well
plan using LWD measurements to optimize drilling and
improve recovery.

66
GeoSteering Tool 4.0

Figure 4-2. GeoSteering tool.

Dump valve

Power
section

Wireless SAB
telemetry Surface-Adjustable
Bent housing

Gamma ray

Azimuthal
Fixed bent housing
resistivity,
inclination
and rpm
Stabilizer
and bearings

Resistivity
at the bit

67
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 69

Performance Data 5.0

PowerPak A213
218-in. OD

213
Adjustable bent housing
settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00

Bit size 238312 in.

Bit connection 114 API or AW Rod

Top connection 114 API or AW Rod

Max overpull with flow


(no motor damage) 3200 lbf [14 kN]

A Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 15,000 lbf [67 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 3200 lbf [14 kN]

Max WOB without flow


(no motor damage) 15,000 lbf [67 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
(motor damage will occur) 19,000 lbf [85 kN]

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.

69
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 70

5.0 Performance Data

PowerPak A213XP, 218-in. OD, 5:6 lobes, 6.0 stages


Tool Data
213

Weight 80 lbm [36 kg]


Nominal length (A) 10.5 ft [3.20 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 2.08 ft [0.63 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 2050 gal/min [80190 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate NA
Bit speed (free running) 260640 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 12.9/gal [3.41/liter]
Max power 18 hp [13 kW]

NA = not applicable

Performance
250
700 rpm at 50 gal/min Recommended max
operating pressure Torque
600 200
rpm at 40 gal/min
Torque (ft/lbf)
500
Speed (rpm)

150
400 rpm at 30 gal/min

300 100
200
50
100
0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Off-bottom pressure drop
135 psi at 30 gal/min
173 psi at 40 gal/min
222 psi at 50 gal/min

20
50 gal/min

15 40 gal/min
Power (hp)

30 gal/min
10
Recommended max
operating pressure
5

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

70
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Performance Data 5.1

PowerPak A238
238-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39

238
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00

Bit size 278312 in.

Bit connection 114 API

Top connection 114 API

Max overpull with flow


(no motor damage) 5000 lbf [22 kN]

A Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 22,000 lbf [98 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 5,000 lbf [22 kN]

Max WOB without flow


(no motor damage) 22,000 lbf [98 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
(motor damage will occur) 28,000 lbf [125 kN]

Note: Above limits apply only when bit is stuck.

71
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5.1 Performance Data

PowerPak A238M, 238-in. OD, 5:6 lobes, 2.5 stages


Tool Data

Weight 100 lbm [45 kg]


Nominal length (A) 8.45 ft [2.58 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 2.29 ft [0.70 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
238

Standard flow rate 2050 gal/min [80190 liter/min]


Nozzle flow rate NA
Bit speed (free running) 100380 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 7.7/gal [2.03/liter]
Max power 6.5 hp [4.8 kW]

NA = not applicable

Performance
525 175
450 150
rpm at 50 gal/min Torque
375 125
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

300 rpm at 35 gal/min 100


225 75
rpm at 20 gal/min
150 50
75 Recommended max 25
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
51 psi at 20 gal/min
83 psi at 35 gal/min
133 psi at 50 gal/min

7
50 gal/min
6
5 35 gal/min
Power (hp)

4
3
20 gal/min
2
Recommended max
1 operating pressure

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

72
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Performance Data 5.1

PowerPak A238XP, 238-in. OD, 5:6 lobes, 5.2 stages


Tool Data

Weight 140 lbm [64 kg]


Nominal length (A) 12.52 ft [3.82 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 2.29 ft [0.70 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data

238
Standard flow rate 2050 gal/min [80190 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate NA
Bit speed (free running) 100380 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 7.8/gal [2.06/liter]
Max power 15.6 hp [11.6 kW]
NA = not applicable

Performance
700 350
Torque
600 300
500 250
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 50 gal/min
400 200
300 rpm at 35 gal/min 150
200 rpm at 20 gal/min
100
100 Recommended max 50
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Off-bottom pressure drop
91 psi at 20 gal/min
123 psi at 35 gal/min
173 psi at 50 gal/min

16
14 50 gal/min

12
Power (hp)

10
8 35 gal/min

6
4 20 gal/min
Recommended max
2 operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

73
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Performance Data 5.2

PowerPak A287
278-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97

287
3.00

Bit size 338438 in.

Bit connection 238 API

Top connection 238 API

Max overpull with flow


(no motor damage) 6500 lbf [29 kN]

A Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 24,000 lbf [107 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 24,000 lbf [107 kN]

Max WOB without flow


(no motor damage) 39,500 lbf [176 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
(motor damage will occur) 39,500 lbf [176 kN]

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.

75
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5.2 Performance Data

PowerPak A287M, 278-in. OD, 5:6 lobes, 3.3 stages


Tool Data

Weight 140 lbm [64 kg]


Nominal length (A) 10.02 ft [3.05 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 2.91 ft [0.89 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 2080 gal/min [80300 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 20130 gal/min [80490 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 120480 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 6.0/gal [1.59/liter]
287

Max power 14.9 hp [11.2 kW]

NA = not applicable

Performance
600 300
Torque
500 rpm at 80 gal/min 250 Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

400 200

300 rpm at 50 gal/min 150

200 100
rpm at 20 gal/min
100 50
Recommended max
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
53 psi at 20 gal/min
84 psi at 50 gal/min
140 psi at 80 gal/min

16
80 gal/min
14
12
Power (hp)

10
50 gal/min
8
6
4
2 Recommended max 20 gal/min
0 operating pressure

0 100 200 300 400 500 600


On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

76
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Performance Data 5.2

PowerPak A287XP, 278-in. OD, 5:6 lobes, 7.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 200 lbm [91 kg]


Nominal length (A) 14.62 ft [4.46 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 2.91 ft [0.89 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 2080 gal/min [80300 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 20130 gal/min [80490 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 115460 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 5.8/gal [1.53/liter]

287
Max power 34.9 hp [26 kW]
NA = not applicable

Performance
600 600
Torque
500 rpm at 80 gal/min 500
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

400 400
300 rpm at 50 gal/min 300
200 200
rpm at 20 gal/min
100 100
Recommended max
operating pressure
0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Off-bottom pressure drop
107 psi at 20 gal/min
137 psi at 50 gal/min
194 psi at 80 gal/min

35
80 gal/min
30
25
Power (hp)

20 50 gal/min

15
10
5 20 gal/min
Recommended max
0 operating pressure

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400


On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

77
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5.2 Performance Data

PowerPak A287M, 278-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 3.2 stages


Tool Data

Weight 140 lbm [64 kg]


Nominal length (A) 10.02 ft [3.05 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 2.91 ft [0.89 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 3090 gal/min [110340 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 30130 gal/min [110490 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 125375 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 4.2/gal [1.11/liter]
287

Max power 15 hp [11.2 kW]


NA = not applicable

Performance
400 400
Torque
350 rpm at 90 gal/min 350
300 300
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 60 gal/min
250 250
200 200
150 rpm at 30 gal/min
150
100 100
50 Recommended max 50
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Off-bottom pressure drop
62 psi at 30 gal/min
110 psi at 60 gal/min
191 psi at 90 gal/min

16
14 90 gal/min
12
Power (hp)

10
8 60 gal/min

6
4
30 gal/min
2 Recommended max
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

78
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Performance Data 5.3

PowerPak A350
312-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00

Bit size 412 6 in.

Bit connection 278 API

Top connection 278 API

350
Max overpull with flow
(no motor damage) 8000 lbf [36 kN]

A Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 30,000 lbf [133 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 8000 lbf [36 kN]

Max WOB without flow


(no motor damage) 30,000 lbf [133 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
(motor damage will occur) 69,500 lbf [309 kN]

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.

79
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5.3 Performance Data

PowerPak A350M, 312-in. OD, 4:5 lobes, 5.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 300 lbm [136 kg]


Nominal length (A) 15.12 ft [4.61 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 3.37 ft [1.03 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 30110 gal/min [110420 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 30160 gal/min [110610 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 98350 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 3.3/gal [0.87/liter]
Max power 33.4 hp [24.9 kW]

NA = not applicable
350

Performance
400 800
rpm at 110 gal/min Torque
350 700
300 600
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

250 rpm at 70 gal/min


500
200 400
150 300
100 rpm at 30 gal/min 200
50 Recommended max 100
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
Off-bottom pressure drop
77 psi at 30 gal/min
99 psi at 70 gal/min
138 psi at 100 gal/min

35
30 110 gal/min

25
Power (hp)

20
70 gal/min
15
10
5 30 gal/min
Recommended max
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

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Performance Data 5.3

PowerPak A350M, 312-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 3.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 310 lbm [141 kg]


Nominal length (A) 15.12 ft [4.61 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 3.37 ft [1.03 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 30110 gal/min [110420 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 30160 gal/min [110610 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 48176 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 1.6/gal [0.42/liter]
Max power 17.3 hp [12.9 kW]
NA = not applicable

350
Performance
250 1000
Torque
200 800
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 110 gal/min


150 600
rpm at 70 gal/min
100 400
rpm at 30 gal/min
50 200
Recommended max
0 operating pressure 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
53 psi at 30 gal/min
94 psi at 70 gal/min
168 psi at 110 gal/min

20
110 gal/min
15
Power (hp)

70 gal/min
10

5
Recommended max 30 gal/min
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

81
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Performance Data 5.4

PowerPak A475
434-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (02) 0.00 0.26
0.52 0.77
1.00 1.22
1.41 1.59
1.73 1.85
1.93 1.98
2.00

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00
A
Bit size 5787 in.

Bit connection 312 API 475


Top connection 312 API IF or 312 API REG

Max overpull with flow


(no motor damage) 25,000 lbf [111 kN]

Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 50,000 lbf [222 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 25,000 lbf [111 kN]
B Max WOB without flow
(no motor damage) 50,000 lbf [222 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
C
(motor damage will occur) 137,000 lbf [609 kN]

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.

83
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5.4 Performance Data Performance D

PowerPak A475M, 434-in. OD, 1:2 lobes, 3.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 630 lbm [286 kg]


Nominal length (A) 18.87 ft [5.75 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 3.37 ft [1.03 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) NA
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 100200 gal/min [380760 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 100200 gal/min [380760 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 225450 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 2.2/gal [0.58/liter]
Max power 34 hp [25.4 kW]

NA = not applicable

Performance
600 600
Torque
500 500
rpm at 200 gal/min
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

400 400
475

rpm at 150 gal/min


300 300
rpm at 100 gal/min
200 200
Recommended max
100 operating pressure 100

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Off-bottom pressure drop
50 psi at 100 gal/min
58 psi at 150 gal/min
69 psi at 200 gal/min

35
30 200 gal/min

25
Power (hp)

20 150 gal/min

15
10 Recommended max
operating pressure 100 gal/min
5
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

84
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Performance Data 5.4

PowerPak A475M, 434-in. OD, 4:5 lobes, 3.5 stages


Tool Data

Weight 620 lbm [281 kg]


Nominal length (A) 16.62 ft [5.07 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 4.08 ft [1.24 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.13 ft [0.34 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 100250 gal/min [380950 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 100350 gal/min [3801320 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 105262 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 1.1/gal [0.29/liter]
Max power 50.1 hp [37.4 kW]
NA = not applicable

Performance
400 1600
350 1400
Torque
300 1200
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 250 gal/min


250 1000
200 rpm at 175 gal/min 800 475
150 600
rpm at 100 gal/min
100 400
50 Recommended max 200
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
61 psi at 100 gal/min
82 psi at 175 gal/min
115 psi at 250 gal/min

60
250 gal/min
50
Power (hp)

40
175 gal/min
30
20
100 gal/min
10 Recommended max
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

85
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5.4 Performance Data Performance D

PowerPak A475XP, 434-in. OD, 4:5 lobes, 6.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 920 lbm [417 kg]


Nominal length (A) 22.54 ft [6.87 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 4.08 ft [1.24 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.13 ft [0.34 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 100250 gal/min [380950 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 100350 gal/min [3801320 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 105262 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 1.1/gal [0.29/liter]
Max power 92.5 hp [69 kW]

Performance
300 3000
rpm at 250 gal/min Torque
250 2500 Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

200 rpm at 170 gal/min


2000
475

150 1500
rpm at 100 gal/min
100 1000
Recommended max
50 operating pressure 500

0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
Off-bottom pressure drop
97 psi at 100 gal/min
118 psi at 175 gal/min
151 psi at 250 gal/min

100
250 gal/min
80
Power (hp)

60 175 gal/min

40
100 gal/min
20 Recommended max
operating pressure
0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

86
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Performance Data 5.4

PowerPak A475M, 434-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 2.2 stages


Tool Data

Weight 640 lbm [290 kg]


Nominal length (A) 16.62 ft [5.07 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 4.08 ft [1.24 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.13 ft [0.34 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 100250 gal/min [380950 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 100350 gal/min [3801320 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 56140 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.6/gal [0.15/liter]
Max power 25.9 hp [19.3 kW]

Performance
200 2000
Torque

150 1500
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 250 gal/min

100 rpm at 175 gal/min 1000 475


rpm at 100 gal/min
50 500
Recommended max
operating pressure
0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Off-bottom pressure drop
54 psi at 100 gal/min
100 psi at 175 gal/min
170 psi at 250 gal/min

30
250 gal/min
25
175 gal/min
Power (hp)

20
15
10 100 gal/min
Recommended max
5 operating pressure

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

87
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5.4 Performance Data

PowerPak A475AD, 434-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 2.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 800 lbm [363 kg]


Nominal length (A) 20.12 ft [6.13 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 4.08 ft [1.24 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.13 ft [0.34 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300700 gal/min [11402650 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 300700 gal/min [11402650 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 100230 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.3/gal [0.09/liter]
Max power 105 hp [78.3 kW]

Performance
350 3500
300 Torque 3000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

250 700 gal/min [2041 CFM] 2500


475

200 2000
500 gal/min [2041 CFM]
150 1500
300 gal/min [2041 CFM]
100 1000
50 Recommended max 500
operating pressure

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Off-bottom pressure drop
62 psi at 30 gal/min
110 psi at 60 gal/min
191 psi at 90 gal/min

120
700 gal/min
100 [2041 cfm]
Power (hp)

80 500 gal/min
[1458 cfm]
60
40 300 gal/min
[875 cfm]
Recommended max
20 operating pressure

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Pressure drop (psi)

Performance based on 160F air mist at 320 psi.


Flow rate (gal/min) = 109.75 ft3/min/pump pressure (psi)

88
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Performance Data 5.5

PowerPak A675
634-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (02) 0.00 0.26
0.52 0.77
1.00 1.22
1.41 1.59
1.73 1.85
1.93 1.98
2.00

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00
A
Bit size 838978 in.

Bit connection 412 API REG

Top connection 412 API REG or 412 API IF

Max overpull with flow


675

(no motor damage) 50,000 lbf [222 kN]

Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 75,000 lbf [334 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 25,000 lbf [111 kN]
B Max WOB without flow
(no motor damage) 50,000 lbf [222 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
C
(motor damage will occur) 255,000 lbf [1130 kN]

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.

89
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5.5 Performance Data

PowerPak A675M, 634-in. OD, 1:2 lobes, 4.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 1780 lbm [807 kg]


Nominal length (A) 23.60 ft [7.19 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 6.03 ft [1.84 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.75 ft [0.53 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 200500 gal/min [7601890 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 200500 gal/min [7601890 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 200500 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 1.0/gal [0.26/liter]
Max power 115 hp [85.8 kW]

Performance
500 2000
Torque
rpm at 500 gal/min
400 1600
Speed (rpm)

Torque (ft/lbf)
rpm at 350 gal/min
300 1200

200 rpm at 200 gal/min 800


Recommended max
100 operating pressure 400

0 0
675

0 100 200 300 400 500 600


Off-bottom pressure drop
62 psi at 200 gal/min
71 psi at 350 gal/min
84 psi at 500 gal/min

120
500 gal/min
100
80
Power (hp)

350 gal/min

60
40
200 gal/min
20 Recommended max
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

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Performance Data 5.5

PowerPak A675M, 634-in. OD, 4:5 lobes, 4.8 stages


Tool Data

Weight 1750 lbm [794 kg]


Nominal length (A) 21.39 ft [6.52 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 6.03 ft [1.84 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.75 ft [0.53 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300600 gal/min [11402270 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 300700 gal/min [11402650 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 150300 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.5/gal [0.13/liter]
Max power 170 hp [127 kW]

Performance
450 4500
Torque
400 4000
350 3500
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 600 gal/min 3000


300
250 rpm at 450 gal/min
2500
200 2000
rpm at 300 gal/min 1500
150
100 Recommended max 1000
operating pressure 500
50
0 0
675

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900


Off-bottom pressure drop
90 psi at 300 gal/min
116 psi at 450 gal/min
152 psi at 600 gal/min

180
160 600 gal/min
140
Power (hp)

120
100 450 gal/min

80
60
Recommended max
40 operating pressure
300 gal/min
20
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

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5.5 Performance Data

PowerPak A675XP, 634-in. OD, 4:5 lobes, 7.0 stages


Tool data

Weight 2170 lbm [984 kg]


Nominal length (A) 26.51 ft [8.08 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 6.03 ft [1.84 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.75 ft [0.53 m]
Performance data
Standard flow rate 300600 gal/min [11402270 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 300700 gal/min [11402650 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 150300 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.5/gal [0.13/liter]
Max power 255 hp [190 kW]

Performance
350 7000
Torque
300 rpm at 600 gal/min 6000
250 5000
Speed (rpm)

Torque (ft/lbf)
rpm at 450 gal/min
200 4000
150 rpm at 300 gal/min 3000
100 Recommended max 2000
operating pressure
50 1000
0 0
675

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200


Off-bottom pressure drop
122 psi at 300 gal/min
147 psi at 450 gal/min
184 psi at 600 gal/min

300
600 gal/min
250
Power (hp)

200 450 gal/min

150
300 gal/min
100
Recommended max
50 operating pressure

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

92
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Performance Data 5.5

PowerPak A675M, 634-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 3.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 1750 lbm [794 kg]


Nominal length (A) 19.44 ft [5.93 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 6.03 ft [1.84 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.75 ft [0.53 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300600 gal/min [11402270 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 300700 gal/min [11402650 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 86165 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.3/gal [0.08/liter]
Max power 95 hp [71 kW]

Performance
300 6000
Torque
250 5000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

200 4000
rpm at 600 gal/min
150 3000
rpm at 450 gal/min
100 rpm at 300 gal/min 2000

50 Recommended max 1000


operating pressure
0 0
675

0 100 200 300 400 500 600


Off-bottom pressure drop
78 psi at 300 gal/min
121 psi at 450 gal/min
181 psi at 600 gal/min

100
600 gal/min
80
450 gal/min
Power (hp)

60
300 gal/min
40 Recommended max
operating pressure
20

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

93
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 94

5.5 Performance Data

PowerPak A675XP, 634-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 5.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 2260 lbm [1025 kg]


Nominal length (A) 25.19 ft [7.68 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 6.03 ft [1.84 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.75 ft [0.53 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300600 gal/min [11402270 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 300700 gal/min [11402650 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 86170 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.3/gal [0.08/liter]
Max power 175 hp [131 kW]

Performance
225 9000
Torque
200 8000
175 rpm at 600 gal/min 7000 Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

150 6000
rpm at 450 gal/min
125 5000
100 rpm at 300 gal/min
4000
75 3000
50 Recommended max 2000
operating pressure
25 1000
0 0
675

0 200 400 600 800 1000


Off-bottom pressure drop
106 psi at 300 gal/min
150 psi at 450 gal/min
210 psi at 600 gal/min

200

600 gal/min
150
Power (hp)

450 gal/min
100

50 Recommended max
300 gal/min
operating pressure

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

94
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 95

Performance Data 5.5

PowerPak A675AD, 634-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 2.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 1930 lbm [875 kg]


Nominal length (A) 21.85 ft [6.66 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 6.03 ft [1.84 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.75 ft [0.53 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 400800 gal/min [15103030 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 400800 gal/min [15103030 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 60118 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.3/gal [0.08/liter]
Max power 122 hp [91 kW]

Performance
160 8000
Torque
140 7000
120 rpm at 800 gal/min [2333 CFM] 6000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

100 5000
rpm at 60 gal/min [1749 CFM]
80 4000
60 rpm at 400 gal/min [1166 CFM] 3000
40 Recommended max 2000
operating pressure
20 1000
675

0 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Off-bottom pressure drop
62# psi at 30 gal/min
110# psi at 60 gal/min
191# psi at 90 gal/min

140
800 gal/min [2333 CFM]
120
100
600 gal/min [1749 CFM]
Power (hp)

80
60 400 gal/min [1166 CFM]
40 Recommended max
operating pressure
20
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

Performance based on 160F air mist at 320 psi.


Flow rate (gal/min) = 109.75 ft3/min/pump pressure (psi)

95
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 97

Performance Data 5.6

PowerPak A800
8-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (02) 0.00 0.26
0.52 0.77
1.00 1.22
1.41 1.59
1.73 1.85
1.93 1.98
2.00

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00
A
Bit size 9781434 in.

Bit connection 658 API

Top connection 658 API REG or


512 API REG

Max overpull with flow


(no motor damage) 65,000 lbf [289 kN]

Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 125,000 lbf [556 kN]

Max WOB with flow


800

B (no motor damage) 65,000 lbf [289 kN]

Max WOB without flow


(no motor damage) 125,000 lbf [556 kN]
C
Ultimate WOB/overpull
(motor damage will occur) 375,000 lbf [1670 kN]

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.

97
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 98

5.6 Performance Data

PowerPak A800M, 8-in. OD, 1:2 lobes, 4.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 3650 lbm [1660 kg]


Nominal length (A) 2585 ft [7.88 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.06 ft [2.15 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.01 ft [0.61 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 3005600 gal/min [11402270 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 300600 gal/min [11402270 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 210420 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.7/gal [0.19/liter]
Max power 138 hp [103 kW]

Performance
500 2500
rpm at 600 gal/min
Torque
400 2000 Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 450 gal/min


300 1500
rpm at 300 gal/min
200 1000
Recommended max
operating pressure
100 500

0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
64 psi at 300 gal/min
72 psi at 450 gal/min
83 psi at 600 gal/min
800

140
600 gal/min
120
100
Power (hp)

80 450 gal/min

60
40 Recommended max
operating pressure 300 gal/min
20
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

98
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 99

Performance Data 5.6

PowerPak A800M, 8-in. OD, 4:5 lobes, 3.6 stages


Tool Data

Weight 3650 lbm [1660 kg]


Nominal length (A) 23.60 ft [7.19 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 2.01 ft [0.61 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 1.75 ft [0.53 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300900 gal/min [11403410 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 3001100 gal/min [11404160 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 75225 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.3/gal [0.07/liter]
Max power 175 hp [131 kW]

Performance
350 7000
Torque
300 6000
250 5000
Speed (rpm)

Torque (ft/lbf)

rpm at 900 gal/min


200 4000
150 rpm at 600 gal/min 3000
100 rpm at 300 2000
gal/min
50 Recommended max
1000
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Off-bottom pressure drop
63 psi at 300 gal/min
96 psi at 600 gal/min
151 psi at 900 gal/min
800

200
900 gal/min

150
Power (hp)

600 gal/min
100

50
Recommended max 300 gal/min
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

99
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 100

5.6 Performance Data

PowerPak A800XP, 8-in. OD, 4:5 lobes, 5.3 stages


Tool Data

Weight 4700 lbm [2130 kg]


Nominal length (A) 29.27 ft [8.92 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.06 ft [2.15 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.01 ft [0.61 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300900 gal/min [11403410 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 3001100 gal/min [11404160 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 75225 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.3/gal [0.07/liter]
Max power 275 hp [205 kW]

Performance
250 1000
rpm at 900 gal/min
Torque
200 8000 Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 600 gal/min


150 6000

100 4000
rpm at 300 gal/min

50 Recommended max 2000


operating pressure

0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Off-bottom pressure drop
87 psi at 300 gal/min
120 psi at 600 gal/min
175 psi at 900 gal/min
800

300
250 900 gal/min

200
Power (hp)

600 gal/min
150
100
300 gal/min
50 Recommended max
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

100
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 101

Performanace Data 5.6

PowerPak A800M, 8-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 3.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 3500 lbm [1590 kg]


Nominal length (A) 23.60 ft [7.19 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.06 ft [2.15 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.01 ft [0.61 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300900 gal/min [11403410 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 3001100 gal/min [11404160 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 48145 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.2/gal [0.04/liter]
Max power 130 hp [97 kW]

Performance
250 10000
225 9000
Torque
200 8000
175 7000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

150 rpm at 900 gal/min 6000


125 5000
100 rpm at 600 gal/min 4000
75 rpm at 300 3000
50 gal/min 2000
25 Recommended max 1000
0 operating pressure 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
63 psi at 300 gal/min
121 psi at 600 gal/min
218 psi at 900 gal/min
800

140
900 gal/min
120
100
Power (hp)

600 gal/min
80
60
40
Recommended max 300 gal/min
20 operating pressure

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

101
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 102

5.6 Performance Data

PowerPak A800XP, 8-in. OD, 7:8 lobes, 4.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 4020 lbm [1820 kg]


Nominal length (A) 27.60 ft [8.41 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.06 ft [2.15 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.01 ft [0.61 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 300900 gal/min [11403410 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 3001100 gal/min [11404160 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 48145 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.2/gal [0.04/liter]
Max power 190 hp [142 kW]

Performance
175 14000
150 rpm at 900 gal/min 12000
Torque
125 10000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

100 rpm at 600 gal/min 8000


75 6000
50 rpm at 300 gal/min 4000
25 Recommended max
2000
operating pressure
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Off-bottom pressure drop
77 psi at 300 gal/min
135 psi at 600 gal/min
233 psi at 900 gal/min
800

200
900 gal/min

150
Power (hp)

600 gal/min

100

50 300 gal/min
Recommended max
operating pressure
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

102
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 103

Performance Data 5.7

PowerPak A962
958-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (02) 0.00 0.26
0.52 0.77
1.00 1.22
1.41 1.59
1.73 1.85
1.93 1.98
2.00

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00
A
Bit size 121426 in.

Bit connection 658 or 758 API

Top connection 658 or 758 API

Max overpull with flow


(no motor damage) 75,000 lbf [334 kN]

Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 225,000 lbf [1000 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 75,000 lbf [334 kN]
B Max WOB without flow
(no motor damage) 225,000 lbf [1000 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
C
(motor damage will occur) 650,000 lbf [2890 kN]
962

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.

103
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5.7 Performance Data

PowerPak A962M, 958-in. OD, 1:2 lobes, 5.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 5375 lbm [2440 kg]


Nominal length (A) 29.21 ft [8.90 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.78 ft [2.37 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.53 ft [0.77 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 400800 gal/min [15103030 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 400800 gal/min [15103030 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 190380 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.5/gal [0.13/liter]
Max power 235 hp [175 kW]

Performance
500 5000
450 4500
Torque
400 rpm at 800 gal/min 4000
350 3500
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

300 rpm at 600 gal/min 3000


250 2500
200 rpm at 400 gal/min 2000
150 1500
Recommended max
100 operating pressure 1000
50 500
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Off-bottom pressure drop
76 psi at 400 gal/min
81 psi at 600 gal/min
88 psi at 800 gal/min

250
800 gal/min
200
600 gal/min
Power (hp)

150
962

100 400 gal/min


Recommended max
50 operating pressure

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

104
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 105

Performance Data 5.7

PowerPak A962M, 958-in. OD, 3:4 lobes, 4.5 stages


Tool Data

Weight 5100 lbm [2310 kg]


Nominal length (A) 26.29 ft [8.01 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.78 ft [2.37 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.53 ft [0.77 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 6001200 gal/min [22704540 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 6001500 gal/min [22705680 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 133266 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.2/gal [0.06/liter]
Max power 320 hp [239 kW]

Performance
500 10000
Torque
450 9000
400 8000
350 7000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

300 6000
rpm at 1200 gal/min
250 5000
rpm at 900 gal/min
200 4000
150 rpm at 600 gal/min 3000
100 2000
Recommended max
50 operating pressure 1000
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
Off-bottom pressure drop
80 psi at 600 gal/min
98 psi at 900 gal/min
124 psi at 1200 gal/min

350
300 1200 gal/min
250
Power (hp)

200
962

900 gal/min
150
100 Recommended max
operating pressure 600 gal/min
50
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

105
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 106

5.7 Performance Data

PowerPak A962XP, 958-in. OD, 3:4 lobes, 6.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 5750 lbm [2610 kg]


Nominal length (A) 30.48 ft [9.29 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.78 ft [2.37 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.53 ft [0.77 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 6001200 gal/min [22704540 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 6001500 gal/min [22705680 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 133266 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.2/gal [0.06/liter]
Max power 420 hp [313 kW]

Performance
350 14000
300 12000
rpm at 1200 gal/min Torque
250 10000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

rpm at 900 gal/min


200 8000
150 rpm at 600 gal/min 6000
100 Recommended max 4000
operating pressure
50 2000
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Off-bottom pressure drop

500
1200 gal/min
400
Power (hp)

900 gal/min
300
962

200 600 gal/min


Recommended max
100 operating pressure

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

106
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 107

Performance Data 5.7

PowerPak A962M, 958-in. OD, 5:6 lobes, 3.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 5400 lbm [2450 kg]


Nominal length (A) 26.29 ft [8.01 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.78 ft [2.37 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.35 ft [0.72 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 6001200 gal/min [22704540 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 6001500 gal/min [22705680 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 67134 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.1/gal [0.03/liter]
Max power 200 hp [149 kW]

Performance
175 14000
Torque
150 12000
rpm at 1200 gal/min
125 10000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

100 rpm at 900 gal/min 8000


75 rpm at 600 gal/min 6000
50 4000
Recommended max
25 operating pressure 2000
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
66 psi at 600 gal/min
95 psi at 900 gal/min
134 psi at 1200 gal/min

200
1200 gal/min

150
Power (hp)

900 gal/min
962

100
600 gal/min
50 Recommended max
operating pressure

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

107
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 108

5.7 Performance Data

PowerPak A962XP, 958-in. OD, 5:6 lobes, 4.0 stages


Tool Data

Weight 6130 lbm [2780 kg]


Nominal length (A) 30.48 ft [9.29 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 7.78 ft [2.37 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.35 ft [0.72 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 6001200 gal/min [22704540 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 6001500 gal/min [22705680 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 67134 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.1/gal [0.03/liter]
Max horsepower 280 hp [209 kW]

Performance
225 18000
200 16000
Torque
175 14000 Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

150 12000
rpm at 1200 gal/min
125 10000
100 rpm at 900 gal/min 8000
70 rpm at 600 gal/min 6000
50 4000
Recommended max
25 operating pressure 2000
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Off-bottom pressure drop
80 psi at 600 gal/min
109 psi at 900 gal/min
149 psi at 1200 gal/min

300
1200 gal/min
250
200
Power (hp)
962

600 gal/min
150
100
Recommended max
900 gal/min
operating pressure
50
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

108
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 109

Performance Data 5.8

PowerPak A1125M
1114-in. OD

Adjustable bent housing


settings (02) 0.00 0.26
0.52 0.77
1.00 1.22
1.41 1.59
1.73 1.85
1.93 1.98
2.00

Adjustable bent housing


settings (03) 0.00 0.39
0.78 1.15
1.50 1.83
2.12 2.38
2.60 2.77
2.90 2.97
3.00
A
Bit size 171226 in.

Bit connection 758 API

Top connection 658 or 758 API

Max overpull with flow


(no motor damage) 75,000 lbf [334 kN]

Max overpull without flow


(no motor damage) 225,000 lbf [1000 kN]

Max WOB with flow


(no motor damage) 75,000 lbf [334 kN]
B Max WOB without flow
(no motor damage) 225,000 lbf [1000 kN]

Ultimate WOB/overpull
C
(motor damage will occur) 650,000 lbf [2890 kN]

Note: These limits apply only when bit is stuck.


1125

109
PPK5 (whole) 12/6/96 9:00 AM Page 110

5.8 Performance Data

PowerPak A1125M, 1114-in. OD, 3:4 lobes, 3.6 stages


Tool Data

Weight 6400 lbm [2900 kg]


Nominal length (A) 29.02 ft [8.85 m]
Bit box to bend (B) 8.29 ft [2.53 m]
Bit box to center of stabilizer (C) 2.35 ft [0.72 m]
Performance Data
Standard flow rate 10001500 gal/min [37905680 liter/min]
Nozzle flow rate 10001700 gal/min [37906440 liter/min]
Bit speed (free running) 125170 rpm
Revolutions per unit volume 0.1/gal [0.03/liter]
Max power 316 hp [236 kW]

Performance
200 16000
Torque
175 rpm at 1500 gal/min 14000
150 rpm at 1250 gal/min 12000
Torque (ft/lbf)
Speed (rpm)

125 rpm at 1000 gal/min


10000
100 8000
75 Recommended max 6000
operating pressure
50 4000
25 2000
0 0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
Off-bottom pressure drop
74 psi at 1000 gal/min
86 psi at 1250 gal/min
101 psi at 1500 gal/min

350
1500 gal/min
300
1250 gal/min
250
Power (hp)

200 1000 gal/min

150 Recommended max


operating pressure
100
50
1125

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600
On-bottom pressure off-bottom pressure (psi)

110
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 111

Drillers Data 6.0

Table 6-1. Total flow area (TFA)comparison of values (in.2)


Size Number of Jets
(in. 32) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

7 0.038 0.076 0.114 0.152 0.190 0.228 0.226 0.305 0.342


8 0.049 0.098 0.147 0.196 0.245 0.295 0.344 0.393 0.442
9 0.062 0.124 0.186 0.249 0.311 0.373 0.435 0.497 0.559
10 0.077 0.153 0.230 0.307 0.383 0.460 0.537 0.614 0.690
11 0.093 0.186 0.278 0.371 0.464 0.557 0.650 0.742 0.835
12 0.110 0.221 0.331 0.442 0.552 0.663 0.773 0.884 0.994
13 0.130 0.259 0.389 0.518 0.648 0.778 0.907 1.037 1.167
14 0.150 0.300 0.450 0.600 0.750 0.900 1.050 1.200 1.350
15 0.172 0.344 0.516 0.688 0.860 1.032 1.204 1.376 1.548
16 0.196 0.392 0.588 0.784 0.980 1.176 1.372 1.568 1.764
18 0.249 0.498 0.747 0.996 1.245 1.494 1.743 1.992 2.241
20 0.306 0.612 0.918 1.224 1.530 1.836 2.142 2.448 2.754
22 0.371 0.742 1.113 1.484 1.855 2.226 2.597 2.468 3.339

111
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 112

6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-2. Buoyancy and drilling fluid density


Drilling Fluid Density Buoyancy Factor
(ppg)

8.5 0.871
9.0 0.863
9.5 0.855
10.0 0.847
10.5 0.840
11.0 0.832
11.5 0.825
12.0 0.817
12.5 0.810
13.0 0.802
13.5 0.794
14.0 0.786
14.5 0.779
15.0 0.771
15.5 0.764
16.0 0.756
16.5 0.749
17.0 0.741
17.5 0.733
18.0 0.725

Figures for steel only.


112
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 113

Drillers Data 6.0

Table 6-3. DrillingTable


fluid6-3.
density
Drilling fluid density
Specific Gradient Specific Gradient
Gravity Depth Gravity Depth
(ppg) (lbm/ft ) (kg/liter) (psi/ft) (ppg) (lbm/ft ) (kg/liter) (psi/ft)
3 3

8.3 62.38 1.00 0.433 12.7 95.00 1.52 0.659


8.4 62.83 1.01 0.436 12.8 95.74 1.54 0.664
8.5 63.58 1.02 0.441 12.9 96.49 1.55 0.670
8.6 64.33 1.03 0.447
8.7 65.08 1.04 0.452 13.0 97.24 1.56 0.675
8.8 65.92 1.06 0.457 13.1 97.99 1.57 0.680
8.9 66.57 1.07 0.462 13.2 98.74 1.58 0.685
13.3 99.48 1.60 0.690
9.0 67.32 1.08 0.467 13.4 100.23 1.61 0.696
9.1 68.07 1.09 0.472 13.5 100.98 1.62 0.701
9.2 68.82 1.10 0.478 13.6 101.73 1.63 0.706
9.3 69.56 1.12 0.483 13.7 102.48 1.64 0.711
9.4 70.31 1.13 0.488 13.8 103.22 1.66 0.717
9.5 71.06 1.14 0.493 13.9 103.97 1.67 0.722
9.6 71.81 1.15 0.498
9.7 72.56 1.16 0.504 14.0 104.72 1.68 0.727
9.8 73.30 1.18 0.509 14.1 105.47 1.69 0.732
9.9 74.05 1.19 0.514 14.2 106.22 1.70 0.737
14.3 106.96 1.72 0.742
10.0 74.80 1.20 0.519 14.4 107.71 1.73 0.748
10.1 75.55 1.21 0.524 14.5 108.46 1.74 0.753
10.2 76.30 1.22 0.530 14.6 109.21 1.75 0.758
10.3 77.04 1.24 0.535 14.7 109.96 1.76 0.763
10.4 77.79 1.25 0.540 14.8 110.70 1.78 0.768
10.5 78.54 1.26 0.545 14.9 111.45 1.79 0.774
10.6 79.29 1.27 0.550
10.7 80.04 1.28 0.556 15.0 112.20 1.80 0.779
10.8 80.78 1.30 0.561 15.1 112.95 1.81 0.784
10.9 81.53 1.31 0.566 15.2 113.70 1.82 0.789
15.3 114.44 1.84 0.794
11.0 82.28 1.32 0.571 15.4 115.19 1.85 0.800
11.1 83.03 1.33 0.576 15.5 115.94 1.86 0.805
11.2 83.78 1.34 0.581 15.6 116.69 1.87 0.810
11.3 84.52 1.36 0.587 15.7 117.44 1.88 0.815
11.4 85.27 1.37 0.592 15.8 118.18 1.90 0.821
11.5 86.02 1.38 0.597 15.9 118.93 1.91 0.825
11.6 86.77 1.39 0.602
11.7 87.52 1.40 0.607 16.0 119.68 1.92 0.831
11.8 88.26 1.42 0.613 16.1 120.43 1.93 0.836
11.9 89.01 1.43 0.618 16.2 121.18 1.94 0.841
16.3 121.92 1.96 0.846
12.0 89.76 1.44 0.623 16.4 122.67 1.97 0.851
12.1 90.51 1.45 0.628 16.5 123.42 1.98 0.857
12.2 91.26 1.46 0.633 16.6 124.17 1.99 0.862
12.3 92.00 1.48 0.639 16.7 124.92 2.00 0.867
12.4 92.75 1.49 0.644 16.8 125.66 2.02 0.872
12.5 93.50 1.50 0.649 16.9 126.41 2.03 0.877
12.6 94.25 1.51 0.654 17.0 127.16 2.04 0.883

113
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6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-4. Drill collar weight (lbm/ft)


Bore of Collar (in.)
Drill Collar
OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334 4

2 8
7
19 18 16
3 21 20 18
318 22 22 20
314 26 24 22
312 30 29 27
334 35 33 32
4 40 39 37 35 32 29
418 43 41 39 37 35 32
414 46 44 42 40 38 35
412 51 50 48 46 43 41
434 54 52 50 47 44
5 61 59 56 53 50
514 68 65 63 60 57
512 75 73 70 67 64 60
534 82 80 78 75 72 67 64 60
6 90 88 85 83 79 75 72 68
614 98 96 94 91 88 83 80 76 72
612 107 105 102 99 96 91 89 85 80
634 116 114 111 108 105 100 98 93 89
7 120 117 114 110 107 103 98 93 84
714 130 127 124 119 116 112 108 103 93
712 139 137 133 129 126 122 117 113 102
734 150 147 144 139 136 132 128 123 112
8 160 157 154 150 147 143 138 133 122
814 171 168 165 160 158 154 149 144 133
812 182 179 176 172 169 165 160 155 150
9 203 200 195 192 188 184 179 174
912 227 224 220 216 212 209 206 198
934 240 237 232 229 225 221 216 211
10 254 251 246 243 239 235 230 225
11 310 307 302 299 295 291 286 281
12 371 368 364 361 357 352 347 342
Source: API RP76

114
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Drillers Data 6.0

Table 6-5. Heavy-wall drillpipe properties


Nominal Pipe Nominal Tool Joint
Size ID Weight Connection
(in.) (in.) (lbm/ft)
Standard
312 2.063 25.3 312 IF NC 38
4 2.563 29.7 4 FH NC 40
412 2.750 39.9 4 IF NC 46
5 3.000 48.5 412 IF NC 50
Spiral-Wate
312 2.125 28.3 312 IF NC 38
4 2.563 33.8 4 FH NC 40
412 2.750 44.0 4 IF NC 46
5 3.000 55.3 412 IF NC 50
512 3.250 63.0 5 FH
658 5.000 57.0 658 FH

115
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6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-6. Drillpipe properties


Nominal
Weight Section
Threads and Plain End Wall Area Body
OD Couplings Weight Thickness ID of Pipe
(in.) (lbm/ft) (lbm/ft) (in.) (in.) (in.2)
D d A

2 8
3
4.85
4.43 0.190 1.995 1.3042
6.65 6.26 0.280 1.815 1.8429

278 6.85 6.16 0.217 2.441 1.8120


10.40 9.72 0.362 2.151 2.8579

9.50 8.81 0.254 2.992 2.5902


312 13.30 12.31 0.368 2.764 3.6209
15.50 14.63 0.449 2.602 4.3037

11.85 10.46 0.262 3.476 3.0767


4 14.00 12.93 0.330 3.340 3.8048
15.70 14.69 0.380 3.240 4.3216

13.75 12.24 0.271 3.958 3.6004


412 16.60 14.98 0.337 3.826 4.4074
20.00 18.69 0.430 3.640 5.4981

16.25 14.87 0.296 4.408 4.3743


5 19.50 17.93 0.362 4.276 5.2746
25.60 24.03 0.500 4.000 7.0686

512 19.20 16.87 0.304 4.892 4.9624


21.90 19.81 0.361 4.778 5.8282
24.70 22.54 0.415 4.670 6.6296

658 25.20 22.19 0.330 5.965 6.5262



lbm/ft = 3.3996 A

A = 0.7854 (D2 d2)

These sizes and weights are non-API and are not included in API Spec. 5A or 5AX.

116
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Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

API NC 23 3 2,500
2,500
2,500

318 3,300 3,300 2,600


314 4,000 3,400 2,600

278-in. P.A.C. 3 3,800 3,800 2,900


318 4,900 4,200 2,900
314 5,200 4,200 2,900

238-in. API IF, API NC 26 or 312 4,600 4,600 3,700


278-in. slimhole 334 5,500 4,700 3,700

278-in. extra hole, 334 4,100 4,100 4,100


312-in. double streamline or 378 5,300 5,300 5,300
278-in. mod open 418 8,000 8,000 7,400

Drillers Data
278-in. API IF, 378 4,600 4,600 4,600 4,600
API NC 31 or 418 7,300 7,300 7,300 6,800
312-in. slimhole 414 8,800 8,800 8,100 6,800
412 10,000 9,300 8,100 6,800

API NC 35 412 8,900 8,900 8,900 7,400


434 12,100 10,800 9,200 7,400
5 12,100 10,800 9,200 7,400
117

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118

6.0
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)

Drillers Data
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

3 2-in. extra hole,


1
4 4
1
5,100 5,100 5,100

5,100

4-in. slimhole or 412 8,400 8,400 8,400 8,200


312-in. mod open 434 11,900 11,700 10,000 8,200
5 13,200 11,700 10,000 8,200
514 13,200 11,700 10,000 8,200

312-in. API IF, 434 9,900 9,900 9,900 9,900 8,300


API NC 38 or 5 13,800 13,800 12,800 10,900 8,300
412-in. slimhole 514 16,000 14,600 12,800 10,900 8,300
512 16,000 14,600 12,800 10,900 8,300

312-in. H-90 434 8,700 8,700 8,700 8,700 8,700


5 12,700 12,700 12,700 12,700 10,400
514 16,900 16,700 15,000 13,100 10,400
512 18,500 16,700 15,000 13,100 10,400

4-in. full hole, 5 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800 10,800


API NC 40, or 4-in. mod open or 514 15,100 15,100 15,100 14,800 12,100
412-in. double streamline 512 19,700 18,600 16,900 14,800 12,100
534 20,400 18,600 16,900 14,800 12,100
6 20,400 18,600 16,900 14,800 12,100
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 119
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

4-in. H-90
5 4
1
12,500
12,500
12,500
12,500

512 17,300 17,300 17,300 16,500


534 22,300 21,500 19,400 16,500
6 23,500 21,500 19,400 16,500
614 23,500 21,500 19,400 16,500

412-in. API Regular 512 15,400 15,400 15,400 15,400


534 20,300 20,300 19,400 16,200
6 23,400 21,600 19,400 16,200
614 23,400 21,600 19,400 16,200

API NC 44 534 20,600 20,600 20,600 18,000


6 25,000 23,300 21,200 18,000
614 25,000 23,300 21,200 18,000

Drillers Data
612 25,000 23,300 21,200 18,000

412-in. API full hole 512 12,900 12,900 12,900 12,900 12,900
534 17,900 17,900 17,900 17,900 17,700
6 23,300 23,300 22,800 19,800 17,700
614 27,000 25,000 22,800 19,800 17,700
612 27,000 25,000 22,800 19,800 17,700
119

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120

6.0
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)

Drillers Data
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

4 2-in. extra hole,


1
5 4
3
17,600
17,600
17,600
17,600

API NC 46, 6 23,200 23,200 22,200 20,200


4-in. API IF, 614 28,000 25,500 22,200 20,200
5-in. double streamline or 612 28,000 25,500 22,200 20,200
412-in. mod open 634 28,000 25,500 22,200 20,200

412-in. H-90 534 17,600 17,600 17,600 17,600


6 23,400 23,400 23,000 21,000
614 28,500 26,000 23,000 21,000
612 28,500 26,000 23,000 21,000
634 28,500 26,000 23,000 21,000

5-in. H-90 614 25,000 25,000 25,000 25,000


612 31,500 31,500 29,500 27,000
634 35,000 33,000 29,500 27,000
7 35,000 33,000 29,500 27,000

512-in. H-90 634 34,000 34,000 34,000 34,000


7 41,500 40,000 36,500 34,000
714 42,500 40,000 36,500 34,000
712 42,500 40,000 36,500 34,000
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 121
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 1 4


1
1 2
1
1 4
3
2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

512-in. API Regular 634 31,500 31,500 31,500 31,500


7 39,000 39,000 36,000 33,500
714 42,000 39,500 36,000 33,500
712 42,000 39,500 36,000 33,500

412-in. API IF, 614 22,800 22,800 22,800 22,800 22,800


API NC 50, 612 29,500 29,500 29,500 29,500 26,500
5-in. extra hole, 634 36,000 35,500 32,000 30,000 26,500
5-in. mod open or 7 38,000 35,500 32,000 30,000 26,500
512-in. double streamline 714 38,000 35,500 32,000 30,000 26,500

512-in. API full hole 7 32,500 32,500 32,500 32,500


714 40,500 40,500 40,500 40,500
712 49,000 47,000 45,000 41,500

Drillers Data
734 51,000 47,000 45,000 41,500

API NC 56 714 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000


712 48,500 48,000 45,000 42,000
734 51,000 48,000 45,000 42,000
8 51,000 48,000 45,000 42,000

658-in. API Regular 712 46,000 46,000 46,000 46,000


734 55,000 53,000 50,000 47,000
121

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6.0
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)

Drillers Data
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

6 8-in. API Regular (cont.)


5
8 57,000 53,000 50,000 47,000
814 57,000 53,000 50,000 47,000

658-in. H-90 712 46,000 46,000 46,000 46,000


734 55,000 55,000 53,000 49,500
8 59,500 56,000 53,000 49,500
814 59,500 56,000 53,000 49,500

API NC 61 8 54,000 54,000 54,000 54,000


814 64,000 64,000 64,000 61,000
812 72,000 68,000 65,000 61,000
834 72,000 68,000 65,000 61,000
9 72,000 68,000 65,000 61,000

512-in. API IF 8 56,000 56,000 56,000 56,000 56,000


814 66,000 66,000 66,000 63,000 59,000
812 74,000 70,000 67,000 63,000 59,000
834 74,000 70,000 67,000 63,000 59,000
9 74,000 70,000 67,000 63,000 59,000
914 74,000 70,000 67,000 63,000 59,000

658-in. API full hole 812 67,000 67,000 67,000 67,000 66,500
834 78,000 78,000 76,000 72,000 66,500
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 123
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 1 4


1
1 2
1
1 4
3
2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

658-in. API full hole (cont.) 9 83,000 80,000 76,000 72,000 66,500
914 83,000 80,000 76,000 72,000 66,500
912 83,000 80,000 76,000 72,000 66,500

API NC 70 9 75,000 75,000 75,000 75,000 75,000


914 88,000 88,000 88,000 88,000 88,000
912 101,000 101,000 100,000 95,000 90,000
934 107,000 105,000 100,000 95,000 90,000
10 107,000 105,000 100,000 95,000 90,000
1014 107,000 105,000 100,000 95,000 90,000

API NC 77 10 107,000 107,000 107,000 107,000


1014 122,000 122,000 122,000 122,000
1012 138,000 138,000 133,000 128,000

Drillers Data
1034 143,000 138,000 133,000 128,000
11 143,000 138,000 133,000 128,000
Connections with Full Face

7-in. H-90
8 53,000 53,000 53,000 53,000
814 63,000 63,000 63,000 60,500
812 71,500 68,500 65,000 60,500

758-in. API Regular 812 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000


123

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6.0
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)

Drillers Data
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

Connections with Full Face

7 8-in. API Regular (cont.)


5
8 4
3
71,000 71,000 71,000 71,000
9 83,000 83,000 79,000 74,000
914 88,000 83,000 79,000 74,000
912 88,000 83,000 79,000 74,000

758-in. H-90 9 72,000 72,000 72,000 72,000


914 85,500 85,500 85,500 85,500
912 98,000 98,000 98,000 95,500

858-in. API Regular 10 108,000 108,000 108,000 108,000


1014 123,000 123,000 123,000 123,000
1012 139,000 134,000 129,000 123,000

858-in. H-90 1014 112,500 112,500 112,500 112,500


1012 128,500 128,500 128,500 128,500

Connections with Low-Torque Face

7-in. H-90
8 4
3
67,500 67,500 66,500 62,000
9 74,000 71,000 66,500 62,000

758-in. API Regular 914 72,000 72,000 72,000 72,000


912 85,000 85,000 82,000 77,000
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 125
Table 6-7. Recommended minimum makeup torque (ft-lbf)
Bore of Drill Collar (in.)

Size and Type of Connection OD (in.) 1 114 112 134 2 214 212 21316 3 314 312 334

Connections with Low-Torque Face

7 8-in. API Regular (cont.)


5
9 4
3
91,000 87,000 82,000 77,000
10 91,000 87,000 82,000 77,000

758-in. H-90 934 91,000 91,000 91,000 91,000


10 105,000 105,000 103,500 98,000
1014 112,500 108,000 103,500 98,000
1012 112,500 108,000 103,500 98,000

858-in. API Regular 1034 110,000 110,000 110,000 110,000


11 128,000 128,000 128,000 128,000

858-in. H-90 1034 92,500 92,500 92,500 92,500


11 110,000 110,000 110,000 110,000

Drillers Data
1114 128,000 128,000 128,000 128,000

Notes: (a) Basis of calculations for recommended makeup torque assumed the use of a thread compound containing 40% to 60% by weight of finely powdered metallic zinc or 60% by weight of finely pow-
dered metallic lead, applied thoroughly to all threads and shoulders. (b) The modified screw jack formula was used as shown in the IADC Tool Pushers Manual and API Spec. RP7G (seventh edition, April
1976) and for a unit stress of 62,500 psi in the box or pin, whichever is weaker. (c) Normal torque range is the tabulated minimum value to 10% greater. Largest diameter shown for each connection is the maxi-
mum recommended for that connection. If the connections are used on drill collars larger than the maximum shown, increase the torque values shown by 10% for a minimum value. In addition to the increased
minimum torque value, it is also recommended that a fishing neck be machined to the maximum diameter shown. (d) Largest diameter shown is the maximum recommended for those full-face connections. If
larger diameters are used, machine connections with low-torque faces and use the torque values shown under low-torque face tables. If low-torque faces are not used, see (c) for increased torque values.

The weaker member for the corresponding outside diameter and bore is the box. For all other torque values the weaker member is the pin.

278-in. P.A.C. makeup torque based on 87,500-psi stress and other factors as stated.

H-90 connection makeup torque based on 56,250-psi stress and other factors as stated.
125

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6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-8. Recommended minimum OD and makeup


torque of weld-ontype tool joints based on
torsional strength of box and drillpipe
Drillpipe Data New Tool Joint Data
Type
Upset New
Nom. Nom. and New New Makeup
Size Weight Grade Connection OD ID Torque
(in.) (lbm/ft) (in.) (in.) (ft-lbf)

238 4.85 E.U. 75 NC 26 IF 338 134 3,500


6.65 E.U. 75 NC 26 IF 338 134 3,500
6.65 E.U. 95 NC 26 IF 338 134 3,500
6.65 E.U. 105 NC 26 IF 338 134 3,500

278 6.85 E.U. 75 NC 31 278 IF 418 218 5,900


10.40 E.U. 75 NC 31 278 IF 418 218 5,900
10.40 I.U. 75 XH 414 178 6,700
10.40 I.U. 75 NC 26 278 SH 338 134 3,400
10.40 E.U. 95 NC 31 278 IF 418 2 6,600
10.40 E.U. 105 NC 31 278 IF 418 2 6,600
10.40 E.U. 135 NC 31 278 IF 438 158 8,500

312 9.50 E.U. 75 NC 38 WO 434 3 6,400


9.50 E.U. 75 NC 38 IF 434 21116 9,100
13.30 E.U. 75 NC 38 IF 434 21116 9,100
13.30 E.U. 75 NC 31 SH 418 218 6,000
13.30 E.U. 95 NC 38 IF 5 2916 10,200
13.30 E.U. 105 NC 38 IF 5 2716 11,100
13.30 E.U. 135 NC 40 4 FH 538 2716 15,000
13.30 E.U. 135 NC 38 312 IF 5 218 13,300
15.50 E.U. 75 NC 38 IF 5 2916 10,200
15.50 E.U. 95 NC 38 IF 5 2716 11,100
15.50 E.U. 105 NC 38 IF 5 218 13,300
15.50 E.U. 105 NC 40 4 FH 514 2916 13,900
15.50 E.U. 135 NC 40 4 FH 512 214 16,500

4 11.85 E.U. 75 NC 46 IF 534 314 16,700


11.85 E.U. 75 NC 46 WO 534 3716 14,400
14.00 I.U. 75 NC 40 4 FH 514 21316 11,800
14.00 E.U. 75 NC 46 4 IF 6 314 16,900
14.00 I.U. 95 NC 40 4 FH 514 21116 12,700
14.00 E.U. 95 NC 46 4 IF 6 314 16,900
14.00 I.U. 105 NC 40 4 FH 512 2716 15,100
14.00 E.U. 105 NC 46 4 IF 6 314 16,900
14.00 E.U. 135 NC 46 4 IF 6 3 19,600
15.70 I.U. 75 NC 40 4 FH 514 21116 12,800
15.70 E.U. 75 NC 46 4 IF 534 314 16,700
15.70 I.U. 95 NC 40 4 FH 538 2716 15,000
15.70 E.U. 95 NC 46 4 IF 534 3 17,100
15.70 E.U. 105 NC 46 4 IF 578 3 19,600
15.70 I.U. 135 NC 46 4 IF 618 258 23,600
15.70 E.U. 135 NC 46 4 IF 618 234 22,400

126
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Drillers Data 6.0

Table 6-8. Recommended minimum OD and makeup


torque of weld-ontype tool joints based on
torsional strength of box and drillpipe
Drillpipe Data New Tool Joint Data
Type
Upset New
Nom. Nom. and New New Makeup
Size Weight Grade Connection OD ID Torque
(in.) (lbm/ft) (in.) (in.) (ft-lbf)

412 16.60 I.E.U. 75 FH 6 3 17,400


16.60 I.E.U. 75 NC 46 XH 614 314 17,000
16.60 E.U. 75 NC 50 IF 638 334 18,900
16.60 I.E.U. 95 FH 6 234 19,900
16.60 I.E.U. 95 NC 46 XH 614 3 19,800
16.60 E.U. 95 NC 50 IF 638 334 18,900
16.60 I.E.U. 105 FH 6 234 19,900
16.60 I.E.U. 105 NC 46 XH 614 3 19,800
16.60 E.U. 105 NC 50 IF 638 334 18,900
16.60 I.E.U. 135 NC 46 XH 614 234 22,500
16.60 E.U. 135 NC 50 IF 638 312 22,400
20.00 I.E.U. 75 FH 6 3 17,400
20.00 I.E.U. 75 NC 46 XH 614 3 19,800
20.00 E.U. 75 NC 50 IF 638 358 20,600
20.00 I.E.U. 95 FH 6 212 22,200
20.00 I.E.U. 95 NC 46 XH 614 234 22,500
20.00 E.U. 95 NC 50 IF 638 312 22,400
20.00 I.E.U. 105 NC 46 XH 614 212 24,800
20.00 E.U. 105 NC 50 IF 638 312 22,400
20.00 E.U. 135 NC 50 IF 658 278 30,400

5 19.50 I.E.U. 75 NC 50 XH 638 334 18,900


19.50 I.E.U. 95 NC 50 XH 638 312 22,400
19.50 I.E.U. 105 NC 50 XH 612 314 25,800
19.50 I.E.U. 135 NC 50 XH 658 234 31,800
19.50 I.E.U. 135 512 FH 714 312 36,300
25.60 I.E.U. 75 NC 50 XH 638 312 22,400
25.60 I.E.U. 75 512 FH 7 312 31,500
25.60 I.E.U. 95 NC 50 XH 612 3 28,600
25.60 I.E.U. 95 512 FH 7 312 31,500
25.60 I.E.U. 105 NC 50 XH 658 234 31,800
25.60 I.E.U. 105 512 FH 714 312 36,300
25.60 I.E.U. 135 512 FH 714 314 38,900

512 21.90 I.E.U. 75 FH 7 4 28,000


21.90 I.E.U. 95 FH 7 334 31,500
21.90 I.E.U. 105 FH 714 312 36,300
21.90 I.E.U. 135 FH 712 3 43,700
24.70 I.E.U. 75 FH 7 4 28,000
24.70 I.E.U. 95 FH 714 312 36,300
24.70 I.E.U. 105 FH 714 312 36,300
24.70 I.E.U. 135 FH 712 3 43,700

127
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6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-9. Rotary-shouldered connection interchange list


Common Name (Style) Size Same As or Interchanges With

Internal flush (IF) 238 in. 278-in. slimhole NC 26


278 in. 312-in. slimhole NC 31
312 in. 412-in. slimhole NC 38
4 in. 412-in. extra hole NC 46
412 in. 5-in. extra hole NC 50
412 in. 512-in. double streamline

Full hole (FH) 4 in. 412-in. double streamline NC 40

Extra hole (XH) (EH) 278 in. 312-in. double streamline


312 in. 4-in. slimhole
312 in. 412-in. external flush
412 in. 4-in. internal flush NC 46
5 in. 412-in. internal flush NC 50
5 in. 512-in. double streamline

Slimhole (SH) 278 in 238-in. internal flush NC 26


312 in. 278-in. internal flush NC 31
4 in. 312-in. extra hole
4 in. 412-in. external flush
412 in. 312-in. internal flush NC 3

Double streamline (DSL) 312 in. 278-in. extra hole


412 in. 4-in. full hole NC 40
512 in. 412-in. internal flush
512 in. 5-in. extra hole NC 50

Numbered connections (NC) 26 238-in. internal flush


26 278-in. slimhole
31 278-in. internal flush
31 312-in. slimhole
38 312-in. internal flush
38 412-in. slimhole
40 4-in. full hole
40 412-in. double streamline
46 4-in. internal flush
46 412-in. extra hole
50 412-in. internal flush
50 5-in. extra hole
50 512-in. double streamline

External flush (EF) 412 in. 4-in. slimhole


412 in. 312-in. extra hole

Source: API RP7G

128
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Drillers Data 6.0

Table 6-10. Casing dimensions and bit clearance


Bit Size and
Dimensions Diametrical Clearance
Nominal Coupling
Clearance
Nominal Nominal from Drill
OD Weight Wall ID OD Drift Bit Size Diameter
(in.) (lbm/ft) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (dec.) (in.)

412 9.5 0.205 4.090 5.000 3.965 378 3.875 0.090


11.6 0.250 4.000 5.000 3.875 378 3.875 0.000
13.5 0.290 3.920 5.000 3.795 334 3.750 0.045
15.1 0.337 3.826 5.000 3.701 358 3.625 0.076

5 11.5 0.220 4.560 5.563 4.435 414 4.250 0.185


13.0 0.253 4.494 5.563 4.369 414 4.250 0.119
15.0 0.296 4.408 5.563 4.283 414 4.250 0.003
18.0 0.362 4.276 5.563 4.151 418 4.125 0.026

512 13.0 0.228 5.044 6.050 4.919 434 4.750 0.169


14.0 0.244 5.012 6.050 4.887 434 4.750 0.137
15.5 0.275 4.950 6.050 4.825 434 4.750 0.075
17.0 0.304 4.892 6.050 4.767 434 4.750 0.017
20.0 0.361 4.778 6.050 4.653 458 4.625 0.028
23.0 0.415 4.670 6.050 4.545 412 4.500 0.045

6 15.0 0.238 5.524 6.625 5.399 538 5.375 0.024


18.0 0.288 5.425 6.625 5.299 518 5.125 0.174
20.0 0.324 5.352 6.625 5.227 518 5.125 0.102
23.0 0.380 5.240 6.625 5.115 478 4.875 0.240
26.0 0.434 5.132 6.625 5.007 478 4.875 0.132

658 17.0 0.245 6.135 7.390 6.010 6 6.000 0.010


20.0 0.288 6.049 7.390 5.924 578 5.875 0.049
24.0 0.352 5.921 7.390 5.796 534 5.750 0.046
28.0 0.417 5.791 7.390 5.666 558 5.625 0.041
32.0 0.475 5.675 7.390 5.550 538 5.375 0.175

7 17.0 0.231 6.538 7.656 6.413 638 6.375 0.038


20.0 0.272 6.456 7.656 6.331 614 6.250 0.081
23.0 0.317 6.366 7.656 6.241 618 6.125 0.116
26.0 0.362 6.276 7.656 6.151 618 6.125 0.026
29.0 0.408 6.184 7.656 6.059 6 6.000 0.059
32.0 0.543 6.094 7.656 5.969 578 5.875 0.094
35.0 0.498 6.004 7.656 5.879 578 5.875 0.004
38.0 0.540 5.920 7.656 5.795 534 5.750 0.045

758 20.0 0.250 7.125 8.500 7.000 634 6.750 0.250


24.0 0.300 7.025 8.500 6.900 634 6.750 0.150
26.4 0.328 6.969 8.500 6.844 634 6.750 0.094
29.7 0.375 6.875 8.500 6.750 634 6.750 0.000
33.7 0.430 6.765 8.500 6.640 634 6.750 0.015
39.0 0.500 6.625 8.500 6.500 638 6.375 0.125

129
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6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-10. Casing dimensions and bit clearance


Bit Size and
Dimensions Diametrical Clearance
Nominal Coupling
Clearance
Nominal Nominal from Drill
OD Weight Wall ID OD Drift Bit Size Diameter
(in.) (lbm/ft) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (in.) (dec.) (in.)

858 24.0 0.264 8.097 9.625 7.972 778 7.875 0.097


28.0 0.304 8.017 9.625 7.892 778 7.875 0.017
32.0 0.352 7.921 9.625 7.796 778 7.875 0.046
36.0 0.400 7.825 9.625 7.700 758 7.625 0.075
40.0 0.450 7.725 9.625 7.600 738 7.375 0.225
44.0 0.500 7.625 9.625 7.500 738 7.375 0.125
49.0 0.557 7.511 9.625 7.386 738 7.375 0.011

958 29.3 0.281 9.063 10.625 8.907 834 8.750 0.157


32.3 0.312 9.001 10.625 8.845 834 8.750 0.095
36.0 0.352 8.921 10.625 8.765 834 8.750 0.015
40.0 0.395 8.835 10.625 8.697 858 8.625 0.054
43.5 0.435 8.755 10.625 8.599 812 8.500 0.099
47.0 0.472 8.681 10.625 8.525 812 8.500 0.025
53.5 0.545 8.535 10.625 8.379 838 8.375 0.004

1034 32.75 0.279 10.192 11.750 10.036 978 9.875 0.161


40.50 0.350 10.050 11.750 9.894 978 9.875 0.019
45.50 0.400 9.950 11.750 9.794 934 9.750 0.044
51.00 0.450 9.850 11.750 9.694 958 9.625 0.069
55.50 0.495 9.760 11.750 9.604 9 9.000 0.604
60.70 0.545 9.660 11.750 9.504 9 9.000 0.504
65.70 0.595 9.560 11.750 9.404 9 9.000 0.404

1134 38.00 0.300 11.150 12.750 10.994 1058 10.625 0.369


42.00 0.333 11.084 12.750 9.628 1058 10.625 0.369
47.00 0.375 11.000 12.750 10.844 1058 10.625 0.219
54.00 0.435 10.880 12.750 10.724 1058 10.625 0.099
60.00 0.489 10.772 12.750 10.616 1078 10.875 0.741

1338 48.00 0.330 12.715 14.375 12.559 1214 12.250 0.309


54.50 0.380 12.615 14.275 12.459 1214 12.250 0.209
61.00 0.430 12.515 14.375 12.359 1214 12.250 0.109
68.00 0.480 12.415 14.375 12.259 1214 12.250 0.009
72.00 0.514 12.374 14.375 12.191 10 10.000 0.191

16 55.00 0.312 15.375 17.000 15.188 15 15.000 0.188


65.00 0.375 15.250 17.000 15.062 15 15.000 0.062
75.00 0.438 15.125 17.000 14.938 1434 14.750 0.188
84.00 0.495 15.010 17.000 14.823 1434 14.750 0.073

20 94.00 0.438 19.124 21.000 18.936 1712 17.500 1.436

130
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Drillers Data 6.0

Table 6-11. Capacities of various diameter holes


OD (in.) ft3/ft ft/ft3 bbl/ft ft/bbl gal/ft ft/gal

1 0.0055 183.3465 0.0010 102.9414 0.0408 24.5099


118 0.0069 144.8664 0.0012 813.3644 0.0516 19.3658
114 0.0085 117.3418 0.0015 658.8251 0.0637 15.6863
138 0.0103 96.9797 0.0018 544.4836 0.0771 12.9639
112 0.0123 81.4873 0.0022 457.5174 0.0918 10.8933
158 0.0144 69.4330 0.0026 389.8373 0.1077 9.2818
134 0.0167 59.8682 0.0030 336.1353 0.1249 8.0032
178 0.0192 52.1519 0.0034 292.8112 0.1434 6.9717

2 0.0218 45.8366 0.0039 257.3536 0.1632 6.1275


218 0.0246 40.6027 0.0044 227.9672 0.1842 5.4278
214 0.0276 36.2166 0.0049 203.3411 0.2065 4.8415
238 0.0308 32.5046 0.0055 182.5000 0.2301 4.3452
212 0.0341 29.3354 0.0061 164.7063 0.2550 3.9216
258 0.0376 26.6081 0.0067 149.3935 0.2811 3.5570
234 0.0412 24.2442 0.0073 136.1209 0.3085 3.2410
278 0.0451 22.1818 0.0080 124.5416 0.3372 2.9653

3 0.0491 20.3718 0.0087 114.3794 0.3672 2.7233


318 0.0533 18.7747 0.0095 105.4120 0.3984 2.5098
314 0.0576 17.3582 0.0103 97.4593 0.4309 2.3205
338 0.0621 16.0963 0.0111 90.3738 0.4647 2.1518
312 0.0668 14.9617 0.0119 84.0338 0.4998 2.0008
358 0.0717 13.9526 0.0128 78.3383 0.5361 1.8652
334 0.0767 13.0380 0.0137 73.2028 0.5735 1.7429
378 0.0819 12.2104 0.0146 68.5562 0.6126 1.6323

4 0.0873 11.4592 0.0155 64.3384 0.6528 1.5319


418 0.0928 10.7752 0.0165 60.4982 0.6942 1.4404
414 0.0985 10.1507 0.0175 56.9918 0.7369 1.3569
438 0.1044 9.5789 0.0186 53.7816 0.7809 1.2805
412 0.1104 9.0541 0.0197 50.8353 0.8262 1.2104
458 0.1167 8.5713 0.0208 48.1246 0.8727 1.1458
434 0.1231 8.1262 0.0219 45.6250 0.9205 1.0863
478 0.1296 7.7148 0.0231 43.3153 0.9696 1.0313

5 0.1364 7.3339 0.0243 41.1766 1.0200 0.9804


518 0.1433 6.9805 0.0255 39.1925 1.0716 0.9332
514 0.1503 6.6520 0.0268 37.3484 1.1245 0.8892
538 0.1576 6.3462 0.0281 35.6314 1.1787 0.8484
512 0.1650 6.0610 0.0294 34.0302 1.2342 0.8102
558 0.1726 5.7947 0.0307 32.5346 1.2909 0.7746
534 0.1803 5.5455 0.0321 31.1354 1.3489 0.7413
578 0.1883 5.3120 0.0335 29.8246 1.4082 0.7101

6 0.1963 5.0930 0.0350 28.5948 1.4688 0.6808


618 0.2046 4.8872 0.0364 27.4396 1.5306 0.6533
614 0.2131 4.6937 0.0379 26.3530 1.5937 0.6275
638 0.2217 4.5114 0.0395 25.3297 1.6581 0.6031
612 0.2304 4.3396 0.0410 24.3648 1.7238 0.5801
658 0.2394 4.1774 0.0426 23.4541 1.7907 0.5584
634 0.2485 4.0241 0.0443 22.5935 1.8589 0.5379
678 0.2578 3.8791 0.0459 21.7793 1.9284 0.5186

131
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6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-11. Capacities of various diameter holes


OD (in.) ft3/ft ft/ft3 bbl/ft ft/bbl gal/ft ft/gal

7 0.2673 3.7418 0.0476 21.0085 1.9992 0.5002


718 0.2769 3.6116 0.0493 20.2778 2.0712 0.4828
714 0.2867 3.4882 0.0511 19.5846 2.1445 0.4663
738 0.2967 3.3709 0.0528 18.9263 2.2191 0.4506
712 0.3068 3.2595 0.0546 18.3007 2.2950 0.4357
758 0.3171 3.1535 0.0565 17.7056 2.3721 0.4216
734 0.3276 3.0526 0.0583 17.1391 2.4505 0.4081
778 0.3382 2.9565 0.0602 16.5993 2.5302 0.3952

8 0.3491 2.8648 0.0622 16.0846 2.6112 0.3830


818 0.3601 2.7773 0.0641 15.5935 2.6934 0.3713
814 0.3712 2.6938 0.0661 15.1245 2.7769 0.3601
838 0.3826 2.6140 0.0681 14.6764 2.8617 0.3494
812 0.3941 2.5377 0.0702 14.2480 2.9478 0.3392
858 0.4057 2.4646 0.0723 13.8380 3.0351 0.3295
834 0.4176 2.3947 0.0744 13.4454 3.1237 0.3201
878 0.4296 2.3277 0.0765 13.0693 3.2136 0.3112

9 0.4418 2.2635 0.0787 12.7088 3.3048 0.3026


918 0.4541 2.2019 0.0809 12.3630 3.3972 0.2944
914 0.4667 2.1428 0.0831 12.0311 3.4909 0.2865
938 0.4794 2.0861 0.0854 11.7124 3.5859 0.2789
912 0.4922 2.0315 0.0877 11.4063 3.6822 0.2716
958 0.5053 1.9791 0.0900 11.1119 3.7797 0.2646
934 0.5185 1.9287 0.0923 10.8288 3.8785 0.2578
978 0.5319 1.8802 0.0947 10.5564 3.9786 0.2513

10 0.5454 1.8335 0.0971 10.2941 4.0800 0.2451


1018 0.5591 1.7885 0.0996 10.0415 4.1826 0.2391
1014 0.5730 1.7451 0.1021 9.7981 4.2865 0.2333
1038 0.5871 1.7033 0.1046 9.5634 4.3917 0.2277
1012 0.6013 1.6630 0.1071 9.3371 4.4982 0.2223
1058 0.6157 1.6241 0.1097 9.1187 4.6059 0.2171
1034 0.6303 1.5866 0.1123 8.9079 4.7149 0.2121
1078 0.6450 1.5503 0.1149 8.7043 4.8252 0.2072

11 0.6600 1.5153 0.1175 8.5076 4.9368 0.2026


1118 0.6750 1.4814 0.1202 8.3174 5.0496 0.1980
1114 0.6903 1.4487 0.1229 8.1336 5.1637 0.1937
1138 0.7057 1.4170 0.1257 7.9559 5.2791 0.1894
1112 0.7213 1.3864 0.1285 7.7839 5.3958 0.1853
1158 0.7371 1.3567 0.1313 7.6174 5.5137 0.1814
1134 0.7530 1.3280 0.1341 7.4561 5.6329 0.1775
1178 0.7691 1.3002 0.1370 7.3000 5.7534 0.1738

12 0.7854 1.2732 0.1399 7.1487 5.8752 0.1702


1218 0.8018 1.2471 0.1428 7.0021 5.9982 0.1667
1214 0.8185 1.2218 0.1458 6.8599 6.1225 0.1633
1238 0.8353 1.1972 0.1488 6.7220 6.2481 0.1600
1212 0.8522 1.1734 0.1518 6.5883 6.3750 0.1569
1258 0.8693 1.1503 0.1548 5.4584 6.5031 0.1538
1234 0.8866 1.1279 0.1579 6.3324 6.6325 0.1508
1278 0.9041 1.1061 0.1610 6.2101 6.7632 0.1479

132 gal/ft = ft3/ft 7.48



PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 133

Drillers Data 6.0

Table 6-12. Annular velocity constants


Drillpipe Hole Annular
OD Size Volume
(in.) (in.) (gal/ft)

5 1214 5.10
978 2.96
834 2.10
812 1.93

412 1214 5.30


978 3.15
812 2.12
778 1.70

312 634 1.36


612 1.22
618 1.04

Pump output (gpm)/annular volume (gal/ft) = annular velocity (ft/min)

133
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 134

6.0 Drillers Data

Table 6-13. Density or mass per unit volume


Multiply Grams Kilograms Pounds Pounds Pounds
per Cubic per Cubic per Cubic per Cubic per
to Obtain by Centimeter Meter Foot Inch Gallon
Grams
per Cubic
Centimeter 1 0.001 1.602 102 27.68 0.1198
Kilograms
per Cubic
Meter 1000 1 16.02 2.768 104 119.8
Pounds
per Cubic
Foot 62.43 6.243 102 1 1728 7.479
Pounds
per Cubic
Inch 3.613 102 3.613 105 5.787 104 1 4.329 104
Pounds
per Gallon 8.347 8.33 103 13.37 102 231.0 1

Table 6-14. Temperature


F C R K
5
1.8C + 32 9(F 32) F + 459.69 C + 273.16

134
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 135
Table 6-15. Length
Multiply
Nautical
to Obtain by Centimeters Feet Inches Kilometers Miles Meters Mils Miles Millimeters Yards

Centimeters 1 30.48 2.540 10 5


1.853 10 5
100 2.540 10 3
1.609 10 5
0.1 91.44

Feet 3.281 10 2
1 8.333 10 2
3281 6080.27 3.281 8.333 10 5
5280 3.281 10 3
3

Inches 0.3937 12 1 3.937 104 7.296 104 39.37 0.001 6.336 104 3.937 102 36

Kilometers 105 3.048 104 2.540 105 1 1.853 0.001 2.540 108 1.609 106 9.144 104

Nautical
Miles 1.645 104 0.5396 1 5.396 104 0.8684 4.934 104

Meters 0.01 0.3048 2.540 102 1000 1853 1 1609 0.001 0.9144

Mils 393.7 1.2 10 4


1000 3.937 10 7
3.937 10 4
1 39.37

Miles 6.214 10 6
1.894 10 4
1.578 10 5
0.6214 1.1516 6.214 10 4
1 6.214 107 5.682 104

Drillers Data
Millimeters 10 304.8 25.40 105 1000 2.540 102 1 914.4

Yards 1.094 10 2
0.3333 2.778 10 2
1094 2027 1.094 2.778 10 5
1760 1.094 10 3
1
135

6.0
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 136
136

6.0
Table 6-16. Area
Multiply
Circular Square Square Square Square Square Square Square Square
to Obtain by Acres Mils Centimeters Feet Inches Kilometers Meters Miles Millimeters Yards

Drillers Data
Acres 1 2.296 105 247.1 2.471 104 640 2.066 104

Circular
Mils 1 1.973 105 1.833 108 1.273 106 1.973 109 1973

Square
Centimeters 5.067 106 1 929.0 6.452 1010 104 2.590 1010 0.01 8361

Square
Feet 4.356 104 1.076 103 1 6.944 103 1.076 107 10.76 2.788 107 1.076 105 9

Square
Inches 6,272,640 7.854 107 0.1550 144 1 1.550 109 1550 4.015 109 1.550 103 1296

Square
Kilometers 4.047 103 1010 9.290 108 6.452 1010 1 106 2.590 1012 8.361 107

Square
Meters 4047 0.0001 9.290 102 6.452 104 106 1 2.590 106 106 0.8361

Square
Miles 1.562 103 3.861 1011 3.587 108 0.3861 3.861 107 1 3.861 1013 3.228 107

Square
Millimeters 5.067 104 100 9.290 104 645.2 1012 106 1 8.361 105

Square
Yards 4840 1.196 104 0.1111 7.716 104 1.196 106 1.196 3.098 106 1.196 106 1
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 137
Table 6-17. Volume
Multiply
Barrels Cubic Cubic Cubic Cubic Cubic Gallons Pints Quarts
to Obtain by (US) Centimeters Feet Inches Meters Yards (Liquid) Liters (Liquid) (Liquid)

Barrels (US) 1 6.289 106 0.1781 1.0316 104 6.289 4.808 2.381 102 6.289 103 2.976 103 5.952 103

Cubic
Centimeters 158,984 1 2.832 104 16.39 106 7.646 105 3785 1000 473.2 946.4

Cubic Feet 5.614 3.531 105 1 5.787 104 35.31 27 0.1337 3.531 102 1.671 102 3.342 102

Cubic
Inches 9701 6.102 102 1728 1 6.102 104 46,656 231 61.02 28.87 57.75

Cubic
Meters 0.1589 106 2.832 102 1.639 105 1 0.7646 3.785 103 0.001 4.732 104 9.464 104

Cubic
Yards 0.208 1.308 106 3.704 102 2.143 105 1.308 1 4.951 103 1.308 103 6.189 104 1.238 103

Drillers Data
Gallons
(Liquid) 42 2.642 104 7.481 4.329 103 264.2 202.0 1 0.2642 0.125 0.25

Liters 1.58.984 0.001 28.32 1.639 102 1000 764.6 3.785 1 0.4732 0.9464

Pints
(Liquid) 336 2.113 103 59.84 3.463 102 2113 1616 8 2.113 1 2

Quarts
(Liquid) 168 1.057 103 29.92 1.732 102 1057 807.9 4 1.057 0.5 1
137

6.0
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138

6.0
Table 6-18. Mass and weight

Drillers Data
Multiply
Tons Tons Tons
to Obtain by Grains Grams Kilograms Milligrams Ounces Pounds (Long) (Metric) (Short)

Grains 1 15.43 1.543 104 1.543 102 437.5 7000

Grams 6.481 10 2
1 1000 0.001 28.35 453.6 1.016 106 106 9.072 105

Kilograms 6.481 105 0.001 1 106 2.835 102 0.4536 1016 1000 907.2

Milligrams 64.81 1000 10 6


1 2.835 10 4
4.536 10 5
1.016 10 9
10 9
9.072 108

Ounces 2.286 103 3.527 102 35.27 3.527 105 1 16 3.584 104 3.527 104 3.2 104

Pounds 1.429 104 2.205 103 2.205 2.205 106 6.250 102 1 2240 2205 2000

Tons (Long) 9.842 10 7


9.842 10 4
9.842 10 10
2.790 10 5
4.464 10 4
1 0.9842 0.8929

Tons (Metric) 106 0.001 109 2.835 105 4.536 104 1.016 1 0.9072

Tons (Short) 1.102 106 1.102 103 1.102 109 3.125 105 0.0005 1.120 1.102 1

Avoirdupois pounds and ounces



PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 139

Drillers Data 6.0

Engineering Formulas

Mechanical horsepower

torque [lbm/ft ] rpm [1/min]


hp(US ) =
5252

2 torque [ N m ] rpm [1/min]


W( SI ) =
60

Hydraulic horsepower

gpm psi
hp(US ) =
1714

100 mud flow [liter/min] bar


W( SI ) =
60

Motor efficiency

32.64 torque rpm


%(US ) =
gpm psi

17.64 mechanical energy


%( SI ) =
hydraulic energy

139
PPKBO110.QXP (DRILLER'S TAB) 12/6/96 9:11 AM Page 140

6.0 Drillers Data

Fluid velocity

0.3208 gpm
v [ft/sec] =
flow area

mud flow [liter/min]


v [m/sec] =
[
60 flow area mm 2 ]
Hydrostatic pressure

psi = 0.052 depth [ft ] mud weight [ ppg]

bar = 0.1 depth [m ] specific gravity [ kg/liter ]

Bit pressure drop

gpm 2 mud weight


psi =
10, 858 (total flow area)
2

bar =
(mud flow)2 [liter/min] mud weight [ kg/liter]
3.6 (total flow area) [mm]
2

140
Return to Master Index

Table of Contents

9 Troubleshooting Page
9.1 GENERAL...............................................................................................................9-1

List of Figures Page


No Figures in this section.

List of Tables Page


Table 9-1 Troubleshooting PowerPak Motor Operations ............................................9-1

12/21/00 Confidential PowerPak 9-i


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12/21/00 Confidential PowerPak 9-ii


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Troubleshooting

9 Troubleshooting
9.1 General
Table 9-1 Troubleshooting PowerPak Motor Operations
Observation Secondary Possible Remedial Action
observation explanation
ROP drops Unchanged flow rate Motor stalling Stop rotation immediately.
Pressure surges Torque increases Shut down pumps and pull
off bottom.
Release torque from string
and re-establish circulation.
Resume drilling carefully.
Apply WOB gradually.
ROP drops Flow rate drops Motor stalling Same as above.
Constant SPM forced down by motor
pressure stalling.
ROP decreases Normal WOB. Bit balling Pull off-bottom, reciprocate
Pressure Torque decreases. string, eventually increase
fluctuates flow rate
Normal WOB. Stabilizer hanging Proceed with care.
Torque increases. or reaming. When stabilizer hanging
occurs while sliding, drill a
few feet in rotation.
Eventually POH to reduce
bend setting.
ROP decreases Normal WOB Junk in hole Proceed carefully to wash
Irregular pressure Irregular rotary Cone locking junk away and/or POOH.
torque
ROP decreases Normal WOB Washout or dump Pull off-bottom
Pressure Normal Torque valve failure Look for trends on charts
decreases POOH
Normal WOB Formation change Adapt parameters
ROP normal Normal WOB, torque String ID obstructed Re-cycle pumps with various
Pressure surges Flow rate unchanged flow rates.
Reciprocate string.
ROP normal Normal WOB, torque Washout Look for trends on charts
Pressure Flow rate unchanged POOH
decreases
Abnormal mud Mud losses Follow lost circulation
return and pit levels procedure
ROP increases Formation change Adapt parameters

12/21/00 Confidential PowerPak 9-1