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Ultra-selective lowpass linear-phase FIR

filter function x (n)


+ +
S. Lj. Peric, D.S. Antic, V.D. Pavlovic, S.S. Nikolic and z 2N2
+
z 2N+2
+
z 2N z 2
+
M.T. Milojkovic +
y (n)

A new ultra-selective lowpass nite impulse response (FIR) lter func-


tion is proposed. First, a new difference equation with all coefcients
Fig. 1 General structure of selective lowpass FIR lter dened by (2), for free
equals one, and the general structure of the corresponding linear-phase
parameter N, in recursive realisation
lowpass digital lter is given. Then, the high economical realisation
with only four adders and without multipliers, for any lter order is
presented. The concrete example of the proposed lter, compared to
the already existing lters, demonstrates a higher selectivity, lower In this Letter we consider the lter function in the form of a cascade-
passband and circuit of lower complexity. connected section determined by three successive lter functions (3) as
H(N 1, z)H(N, z)H(N + 1, z), which fully suppresses the Gibbs
Introduction: The extremal property of the Christoffel-Darboux phenomenon [6]. In general, the proposed lter function can be
formula for the continual orthogonal classical polynomial is described written as H(N, K, z) = [H(N 1, z)H(N, z)H(N + 1, z)]K, where K is
in [1]. In [24], the Christoffel-Darboux formula is applied in theory the number of cascaded lter functions [4].
of continual lter functions given in an explicit form. The synthesis of As an illustration, the experimental results of the proposed FIR lter
linear-phase 1D FIR lters, with two free integer parameters, using function, for N = 9 and K = 3, are given. Group delay of the considered
the analytical method and direct mapping from the analogue into dis- lter is constant, () = 243 s. The magnitude characteristic of the pro-
crete domain, without error and remainders, is reported in [4]. The posed linear-phase FIR lter given in absolute units is presented in
popular linear-phase cascaded integrator comb (CIC) lters are pre- Fig. 2. As can be seen, the paratic Gibbs phenomenon is successfully
sented in [5]. reduced and the selective spike is provided. The corresponding magni-
In this Letter, we propose a new ultra-selective lowpass linear-phase tude characteristic a() = 20log|H(e j)| given in dB is shown in Fig. 3. It
FIR lter which can be realised with only four adders and without mul- is veried that the proposed lter has high attenuation in the stop-band
tipliers for any lter order. In that way, the nite precision effect of mul- of the lter.
tipliers coefcients of the proposed digital lter is fully reduced, i.e. the
proposed solution does not have the effect of quantisation of the lter
coefcients. In addition, the example of the proposed digital lter is
illustrated and it is compared to the lter described in [4]. The results
1.0 H(e jw)
are presented and the cutoff frequencies of the passband and the stop-
band of the considered lters are given. It is shown that the proposed
lter demonstrates better results in regard to high selectivity, narrow 0.5
passband and a simple realisation structure.
(rad/s)

Linear phase 1D FIR lter function: In our previous work, a causal 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

lowpass FIR lter function represented in the z domain is dened as [4]:


0.5

1 + z2(N +1)
H(N , z) = (1 z2N ) (1)
1 z2 1.0

where N is a free real integer parameter. Herein, further generalisation of


this research which leads to better lter features, is presented.
Fig. 2 Magnitude characteristic of proposed linear-phase lter given in
absolute units, for N = 9 and K = 3
Proposed linear-phase FIR lter function: In this Letter, we propose a
new difference equation of the lter function with all coefcients equal
one in the following form:

y[n] = y[n 2] + x[n] + x[n 2N 2] a(w ) (dB)


(2)
x[n 4N ] x[n 6N 2] 400

This equation can be represented in the z domain by a causal recursive


lowpass FIR lter function: 300

1 + z2(N +1) 200


H(N , z) = (1 z4N ) (3)
1 z2
The frequency response, magnitude characteristic of the proposed lter 100
function, and the phase characteristic, for z = e j, are given by: (rad/s)

j(N +1)v j(N +1)v 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


(e +e )/2
H(e jv ) = 2ej3N v
(e jv ejv )/(2j) (4)
j2N v j2N v
(e e )/(2j) Fig. 3 Magnitude characteristic of proposed linear-phase lter given in dB,
for N = 9 and K = 3
cos ((N + 1)v)
|H(N , e jv )| = 2 sin (2N v) (5)
sin v

arg (H(N , e jv )) = p 3N v + k p, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . (6) Comparison: To verify the effectiveness of the proposed lter function,
we have performed one more experiment for the lter function reported
respectively. The phase of the proposed lter is linear, which is mani- in [4], for the same values of free integer parameters, N = 9 and K = 3.
fested by the constant group delay (), expressed as () = + 3N. The comparison is performed in the lower part of the frequency
In Fig. 1 the general structure of the proposed lter, for parameter N is range, and the obtained results are presented in Fig. 4. In addition, the
shown. The circuit is very simple because it requires only four adders cutoff frequencies of the passband and the stop-band of the considered
and no multipliers for any lter order, which represents a signicant lters for numerical values of attenuation a(cp) = 0.28 dB and a(cs) =
saving in operational energy and execution time. 120 dB are shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively.

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 25th April 2013 Vol. 49 No. 9


H(e jw) it is shown that any order lter can be realised using only four adders
1.0 and no multipliers, which is suitable for real-time implementation. In
that way, the effect of nite precision of the multipliers coefcients is
0.8 filter given by (1) completely suppressed. Finally, the comparative analysis between the
0.6
proposed lter and the existing one is illustrated and it is shown that
the proposed lter has better system performances in terms of lower
0.4 proposed filter passband range and higher selectivity in the transitional zone of the
given by (3) lter, which provides the successful replacement of CIC lters in
0.2 many applications. Moreover, the proposed digital lter can be very
(rad/s) useful in decimation and interpolation applications.
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10
Acknowledgment: This Letter was realised as a part of the projects TR
Fig. 4 Comparison between magnitude characteristics of proposed lter 32023 and TR 35005, nanced by the Ministry of Education, Science
function given by (3) and lter function given by (1), in lower part of fre- and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.
quency range
The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2013
Table 1: Values of cutoff frequency of passband of considered 24 December 2012
lters for a(cp) = 0.28 dB doi: 10.1049/el.2012.4475
Filter type cp, rad/s
S. Lj. Peric, D.S. Antic, V.D. Pavlovic, S.S. Nikolic and M.T.
(1) 0.007494890343097293121818739776575015 Milojkovic (Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University of Ni,
(3) 0.005853008043709856665392485188261524 Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, Ni, Republic of Serbia)
E-mail: stanisa.peric@elfak.ni.ac.rs

Table 2: Values of cutoff frequency of stop-band of considered References


lters for a(cs) = 120 dB 1 Szeg, G.: Orthogonal polynomials (American Mathematical Society,
Colloquium Publications, New York, 1967, Vol. XXIII, 3rd edn)
Filter type cs, rad/s
2 Ilic, A., and Pavlovic, V.D.: New class of lter functions generated most
(1) 0.127553721977292657939078651854447982 directly by Christoffel-Darboux formula for Gegenbauer orthogonal
(3) 0.108457086068918023541655615579599032 polynomials, Int. J. Electron., 2011, 98, (1), pp. 6179
3 Pavlovic, V.D., and Ilic, A.: New class of lter functions generated most
directly by the Christoffel-Darboux formula for classical orthonormal
It can be noticed that the proposed lter function has the extremely Jacobi polynomials, Int. J. Electron., 2011, 98, (12), pp. 16031624
lower passband and signicantly higher selectivity in the transitional 4 Pavlovic, V.D., Ciric, D.G., and Doncov, N.S.: Christoffel-Darboux
zone of the lter in comparison to the lter proposed in [4]. formula most directly applied in generating economical linear-phase
lowpass digital FIR lter functions, Elektron. Elektrotech., 2012, 18,
Conclusions: An original approach to the new class of difference (8), pp. 109112
equation with all coefcients equals one is presented in this Letter. In 5 Dolecek, J.G., and Mitra, S.K.: A simple method for the compensation
addition, a new class of selective linear-phase FIR lter function in of CIC decimation lter, Electron. Lett., 2008, 44, (19), pp. 11621163
compact explicit form with two free integer parameters is proposed. 6 Roy, S.D.: Impulse response of sincN FIR lters, IEEE Trans. Circuits
The physical realisation of the proposed digital lter is described, and Syst. II, 2006, 53, (3), pp. 217219

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 25th April 2013 Vol. 49 No. 9