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Maintenance of Bituminous Maintenance of Bituminous

Maintenance of Bituminous
Pavements - Types Pavements - Types
Preventive Maintenance
Preventive Maintenance Performed to
By improve or extend the functional life of * Fog seals
Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal pavement while still in fair to good * Surface dressing
Associate Director Emeritus condition * Slurry seal
National Center for Asphalt Technology * Microsurfacing
Corrective Maintenance Performed to
Auburn University, Alabama USA
repair pavement which has already * Crack sealing
developed some distress Corrective Maintenance
* Pothole patching
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Fog Seal Fog Seal

Preventive Maintenance Fog Seals
Stabilizes the surface of oxidized asphalt on verge
of raveling and seals it
Apply diluted slow setting (SS) emulsion with a
bitumen distributor
Application rate depends on the surface texture of
existing asphalt surface barely fill the interstices
between exposed aggregate particles
Too much application pavement slippery
Generally safe for parking lots and streets with
slow-speed traffic
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Preventive Maintenance - Preventive Maintenance -

Surface Dressing Surface Dressing
IRC:110-2005 Spray thick layer of paving bitumen such as VG-
10 or Rapid Setting (RS) emulsion
Common and cost effective surface
treatment to serve as a renewal coat for both Apply cover aggregate of appropriate size with a
mechanical chip spreader
preventive and periodic maintenance
Roll immediately
Far better than Premix Carpet (PMC) which Double surface dressing second aggregate is of
traps water and has poor durability smaller size
Widely used in the world; should replace Precoated aggregate can be used (1% bitumen) to
PMC in India impart black color and minimize aggregate loss
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Surface Dressing or Chip Seal

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Preventive Maintenance -
Surface Dressing
Excellent sealing of road surface with thick
bitumen film
Minimizes oxidation of bitumen
High resistance to skidding
Economical (cost per lane km for surface
dressing is 2.62 lakhs compared to PMC
which is 7.88 lakhs rupees)
Used worldwide
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Preventive Maintenance - Slurry Seal

Slurry Seal
Slurry Seal
Type I (small
Mixture of fine aggregate, SS emulsion, water and aggregate)
additive (if required) Seal surface
Good for asphalt pavements with hairline cracks or cracks
oxidized surface or polished surface Type II (medium
Apply with a self-propelled slurry seal machine aggregate)
Correct raveling/
Three types based on thickness and aggregate size oxidation
Type 1 (3 mm); Type 2 (4-6 mm); Type 3 (6-8 mm) Type III (larger aggregate)
Good for low to medium traffic roads and city streets Fill minor surface irregularities and restore surface
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Preventive Maintenance -
What is Micro-surfacing?
IRC:SP:81 2008 It is a mixture of
Similar to slurry seal; polymer modified bitumen Polymer modified emulsion
emulsion used Crushed aggregate
Two Types: Type 2 (2-3 mm) and Type 3 (6-8 Mineral filler
mm) No Type 1 in IRC Code
Can also be used for rut filling
On heavy traffic roads, wears prematurely in
wheel tracks
Good for city streets maintains curb height
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Paving Machine How is Micro-surfacing used?
Micro-Surfacing Application
Mineral filler
Crushed Cement Polymer
Crushed aggregate additive Modified On asphalt and concrete pavements it can
water Emulsion
Polymer-modified Emulsion,
fill ruts
Conveyor Water, and Chemical Additive restore skid resistance
Water Flows
Mixer box address oxidized, raveled, and flushed surfaces
Mixture Brown & Mixture Black
Mixing time Homogeneous reprofile (leveling)
Direction 15 to 45 seconds
Breaking Time provides wear course
60 to 120 seconds
. be used as an interlayer
Micro-surfacing Traffic in Approximately One Hour

Water Spraybar Spreader box

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Preventive Maintenance - Preventive Maintenance -
Crack Sealing Crack Sealing Materials
Prevents ingress of water which may be detrimental to
pavement Emulsion and VG bitumen not appropriate
All types of cracks fatigue, thermal, reflection, edge, crack sealing materials (will shrink or flow
and longitudinal need sealing out and track)
Hairline cracks (< 3 mm) too narrow to fill; consider
slurry seal or surface dressing Modified bitumen or rubberized bitumen
Cracks (6-20 mm) Need to be routed, cleaned and are most suitable (ASTM Standards)
filled Melted in small tanker and applied under
Cracks (20-25 mm) Need to be cleaned and sealed pressure with a wand
Cracks (> 25 mm) Use sand asphalt mix
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No fishing allowed here !!!

Corrective Maintenance
Pothole Patching

Patching with hot mix asphalt (HMA)

Patching with readymade cold mix

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Patching with Hot Mix Asphalt - Steps
Pothole Patching with Hot Mix
Preferred method by most highway agencies
Need ideal weather hot and dry. Cannot use
during monsoon or extreme winter. Potholes
become larger and deeper during monsoon
Not suitable for isolated potholes
Labour intensive: Square the pothole, clean debris
and apply tack coat
Material intensive: Need emulsion for tack coat
Equipment intensive: Need roller to compact hot
mix such as BC
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Rolling Hot Mix Asphalt Patch

Pothole Patching with Readymade
Remove failed
Cold Mix US Experience
Mix made by HMA plants prior to
shutdown before winter and stockpiled
Used during winter, even on rainy days
States usually have their own mix formula
Considered temporary patch to be replaced
with hot patch after winter
Private patented mixes very expensive
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Pothole Patching with Readymade New Concepts

Challenges of Mix Design
Cold Mix US Experience Use finer and predominantly one-size aggregate (it
gives both workability and stone-on-stone contact for
Need to develop a durable cold mix Properties required for mix workability and
stockpiling are contradictory to those required strength in the mix)
Research led by Prof. Kandhal, Chief once the mix is placed in the pothole
Asphalt Road Engineer, Pennsylvania Use clean aggregate, that is, dust less than 2% (it gives
Aggregate gradation: open for good workability tackiness to asphalt binder; so tack coat is not needed)
Department of Transportation (late 1970s) but dense when placed in pothole
Objectives: Mix should be able to be Aggregate shape: round for good workability but Use angular aggregate (due to one size it is still
produced by contractors using local angular when placed in pothole workable; gives good interlocking to the mix)
materials at low cost; shelf life of at least 6 Binder viscosity: low for good workability but Adequate amount of asphalt binder for workability and
months; idiot proof in application; and high when placed in pothole
performance equivalent to hot mix durability
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Best Mix Gradation Based on Research
Sieve size, mm Percent passing
9.5 100
4.75 40-100
2.36 10-40
1.18 0-10
0.075 0-2

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Requirements for the Readymade Mix Production of Readymade Patching Mix

Medium curing cutback used: MC-250 used in US
cold climate; MC-800 suitable for hot climate like Mix can be made in a small portable mixer or in a
in India. MCs contain kerosene. batch plant according to quantity required
During production there should not be any open
Although cutbacks are being replaced with
flame when MC-800 Cutback containing kerosene
emulsions, exceptions are made in US for is mixed with aggregate to avoid safety hazard.
readymade mix due to their effectiveness This may require pre-drying of aggregate in dryer
Binder content (residual): 4.5 % minimum and then mixing it with MC-800 after it has cooled
Use of anti-stripping agent a must down in a separate operation
Temperature of dry aggregate: 25-65 C
Tests on mix (stripping and workability tests)
Temperature of MC-800: 75-95 C
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Shed Used for Storing Mix Placing cold mix in pothole

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Use of New Readymade Cold Mix
Research published in US Transportation
Research Board Record 821, 1981
Successfully used in Pennsylvania and other
states since 1980
US Strategic Highway Research Program
(SHRP) ranked it first in performance after a
nationwide field study of various patching
mixes (After 4 years field study, 78% of patches
had survived)

Numbering potholes
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Rolling with truck tire
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Field Experiments in India

2008 2011

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Storage of Readymade Patching Mix

Placement of Mix in Potholes
No preparation of pothole is needed except
In cold climate such as US, the mix can be stored in a
stockpile which may form thin crust due to loss of
to sweep off loose debris or rain water
kerosene at the surface. However, crust can be broken Mix can be compacted with a hand rammer.
easily with a front-end loader. The thin crust does not For deep potholes, compaction should be
allow further loss of kerosene from within. done in 75 mm layers. Start compaction
In hot climate like in India it is preferable to store the from outside to center of pothole
patching mix in plastic lined sturdy 50 kg bags. The Compacted mix to be about 10 mm above
shelf life of the mix in bags is at least 6 months. the road surface
Sprinkle sand to prevent pick up by traffic

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NH 11 JaipurKandhal
Agra Road 64 Kandhal 65 Kandhal 66

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Patch after rains and traffic

Patch after traffic & heavy rains

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Jaipur Development Authority
(JDA) Field Trial in 2010
Produced 5 tons of Kandhal mix using local
Mix placed in 50-kg plastic lined bags
Repaired potholes on main roads and
residential streets
Patches subjected to traffic and rains
performed in an excellent manner

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rains and traffic 74 Kandhal 75

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Jaipur Development Authority (JDA)

Named this mix as Kandhal Mix to

differentiate it from Shelmac, etc.
It is a standard mix in JDA
Over Rs. One crore worth mix used every
year with success since 2011
Contractors have been trained

August 2011
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does it all

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