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15 Aufrufe60 SeitenPAPR REDUCTION TECHNIQUE

Jun 27, 2017

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PAPR REDUCTION TECHNIQUE

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15 Aufrufe

PAPR REDUCTION TECHNIQUE

© All Rights Reserved

Als DOCX, PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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digital data on multiple carrier frequencies. OFDM has developed into a popular

scheme for wideband digital communication, used in applications such as digital

television and audio broadcasting, DSL Internet access, wireless

networks, powerline networks, and 4G mobile communications. However, peak-

to-average ratio (PAPR) reduction and inter-carrier interference (ICI) cancellation

are two major challenges in implementing an OFDM system. High PAPR results

from large envelope fluctuations in OFDM signal which requires a highly linear

power amplifier (PA).

The PAPR of the OFDM signal can also be reduced by using clipper filltering

technique.

1|Page

INTRODUCTION

The modern day phenomenon of increased thirst for more information and the

explosive growth of new multimedia wireless applications have resulted in an

increased demand for technologies that support very high speed transmission

rates, mobility and efciently utilize the available spectrum and network

resources. OFDM is one of the best solutions to achieve this goal and it offers a

promising choice for future high speed data rate systems.OFDM has been

standardized as part of the IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g for high bit rate data

transmission over wireless LANs.

OFDM is an abbreviation for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing formed

by the first letter of each word (OFDM). OFDM was rst presented in the late

1950s and characterized in the mid 1960sOFDM is a modulation scheme in

which multiple data bits are modulated simultaneously by multiple carriers. This

procedure partitions the transmission frequency band into multiple narrower

subbands, where each data symbols spectrum occupies one of these subbands.

As compared to the conventional frequency division multiplexing (FDM), where

such subbands are non-overlapping, OFDM increases spectral efciency by

utilizing subbands that overlap. To avoid interference among subbands, the

subbands are made orthogonal to each other, which means that subbands are

mutually independent. By breaking the wide transmission band into narrower,

multiple subbands, OFDM schemes effectively combat the effect of frequency-

selective fading usually encountered in wireless channels. Frequency-selective

fading is a consequence of the phenomenon called multipath propagation, where

multiple copies of the transmitted signal traveling along different paths combine

at the receiver. To overcome the frequency-selective fading, each subband should

be narrow enough such that its bandwidth B satises

2|Page

where av is the average delay spread dened as the average value of the

exponentially distributed random variable used to model the incremental delays

of the multiple received rays of the transmitted signal.

subchannels, thereby allows the use of simple frequency-domain equalizers to

overcome the problem. However, OFDM introduces inter-symbol interference

(ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI). ISI is the effect adjacent OFDM symbols

exert on each other due to delay spread and ICI is the effect subcarriers exert on

each other. Both of these problems can be reduced signicantly by introducing a

guard interval between OFDM symbols. This interval is a cyclic extension of the

signal itself concatenated at the beginning of the OFDM symbol, called the cyclic

prex (CP). Detailed discussion of the problems of ISI and ICI and the mitigation

techniques used to overcome them are beyond the scope of this survey and will

not be discussed further.

3|Page

4|Page

Theory

phase, frequency or amplitude or combination.

data channels.

generally refers to independent signals, those produced by different sources.

So it is a question of how to share the spectrum with these users. In OFDM

the question of multiplexing is applied to independent signals but these

independent signals are a sub-set of the one main signal. In OFDM the

signal itself is first split into independent channels, modulated by data and

then re-multiplexed to create the OFDM carrier.

analogy, a FDM channel is like water flow out of a faucet, in contrast the

OFDM signal is like a shower. In a faucet all water comes in one big stream

and cannot be sub-divided. OFDM shower is made up of a lot of little

streams.

a b

Fig. 1 (a) A Regular-FDM single carrier A whole bunch of water

coming all in one stream. (b) Orthogonal-FDM Same amount of

water coming from a lot of small streams.

Think about what the advantage might be of one over the other? One

obvious one is that if I put my thumb over the faucet hole, I can stop the

5|Page

water flow but I cannot do the same for the shower. So although both do

the same thing, they respond differently to interference.

Fig. 2 All cargo on one truck vs. splitting the shipment into more than one.

Another way to see this intuitively is to use the analogy of making a

shipment via a truck. We have two options, one hire a big truck or a

bunch of smaller ones. Both methods carry the exact same amount of

data. But in case of an accident, only 1/4 of data on the OFDM trucking

will suffer.

These four smaller trucks when seen as signals are called the sub-carriers in

an OFDM system and they must be orthogonal for this idea to work. The

independent sub-channels can be multiplexed by frequency division

multiplexing (FDM), called multi- carrier transmission or it can be based on

a code division multiplex (CDM), in this case it is called multi-code

transmission.

OFDM is a special case of FDM (just as it says in its name, OFDM)

given bandwidth is subdivided among a set of carriers. There is no relationship

between the carrier frequencies in FDM. For example, consider that the given

bandwidth has to be divided among 5 carriers (say a,b,c,d,e). There is no

relationship between the subcarriers ; a,b,c,d and e can anything within the given

bandwidth.

fundamental component a ) then they become orthogonal. This is a special case

of FDM, which is called OFDM (as implied by the word orthogonal in OFDM).

6|Page

OFDM Spectrum

Since the carriers are all sine/cosine wave, we know that area under one

period of a sine or a cosine wave is zero. This is easily shown.

Fig. 4 - The area under a sine and a cosine wave over one period is always

zero.

7|Page

Let's take a sine wave of frequency m and multiply it by a sinusoid (sine or a

cosine) of a frequency n, where both m and n are integers. The integral or the area

under this product is given by

f ( t ) sin mwt sin nwt

harmonic is always zero.

By the simple trigonometric relationship, this is equal to a sum of two

sinusoids of frequencies (n-m) and (n+m)

1 1

2 cos(m n) 2 cos(m n)

These two components are each a sinusoid, so the integral is equal to zero

over one period.

0 0

of frequency m/n, the area under the product is zero. In general for all

integers n and m,sin mx,cos mx,sin nx,cos nx are all orthogonal to each

other. These frequencies are called harmonics.

This idea is key to understanding OFDM. The orthogonality allows simultaneous

transmission on a lot of sub-carriers in a tight frequency space without

interference from each other. In essence this is similar to CDMA, where codes are

8|Page

used to make data sequences independent (also orthogonal) which allows many

independent users to transmit in same space successfully.

Consider that we want to send the following data bits using OFDM : D =

{d0,d1,d2,). The first thing that should be considered in designing the OFDM

transmitter is the number of subcarriers required to send the given data. As a

generic case, lets assume that we have N subcarriers. Each subcarriers are

centered at frequencies that are orthogonal to each other (usually multiples of

frequencies).

The second design parameter could be the modulation format that we wish to

use. An OFDM signal can be constructed using anyone of the following digital

modulation techniques namely BPSK, QPSK, QAM etc..,

The data (D) has to be first converted from serial stream into parallel stream

depending on the number of sub-carriers (N). Since we assumed that there are N

subcarriers allowed for the OFDM transmission, we name the subcarriers from 0

to N-1. Now, the Serial to Parallel converter takes the serial stream of input bits

and outputs N parallel streams (indexed from 0 to N-1). These parallel streams are

individually converted into the required digital modulation format (BPSK, QPSK,

QAM etc..,). Lets call this output S0,S1,..SN. The conversion of parallel data (D) into

the digitally modulated data (S) is usually achieved by a constellation mapper,

which is essentially a look up table (LUT). Once the data bits are converted to

required modulation format, they need to be superimposed on the required

orthogonal subcarriers for transmission. This is achieved by a series of N parallel

sinusoidal oscillators tuned to N orthogonal frequencies (f0,f1,fN-1). Finally, the

resultant output from the N parallel arms are summed up together to produce

the OFDM signal.

Since the OFDM signal is in time domain, IFFT is the appropriate choice to use in

the transmitter, which can be thought of as converting frequency domain samples

to time domain samples. Well, you might ask : s(t) is not in frequency domain and

they are already in time domain; so whats the need to convert it into time domain

again ? The answer is IFFT/FFT equation comes handy in implementing the

conversion process and we can eliminate the individual sinusoidal multipliers

9|Page

required in the transmitter/receiver side. The following figure illustrates, how the

use of IFFT in the transmitter eliminates the need for separate sinusoidal

converters. Always remember that IFFT and FFT blocks in the transmitter are

interchangeable as long as their duals are used in receiver.

technique ( BPSK/QPSK/QAM), supported data rate, etc..,. The FFT/IFFT length N

defines the number of total subcarriers present in the OFDM system. For

example, an OFDM system with N=64 provides 64 subcarriers. In reality, not all

the subcarriers are utilized for data transmission. Some subcarriers are reserved

for pilot carriers (used for channel estimation/equalization and to combat

magnitude and phase errors in the receiver) and some are left unused to act as

guard band. OFDM system do not transmit any data on the subcarriers that are

near the two ends of the transmission band ( Not necessarily at the ends of the

bands, implementation may differ). These subcarriers are collectively called guard

band. The reservation of subcarriers to guard bands helps to reduce the out of

band radiation and thus eases the requirements on transmitter front-end filters.

The subcarriers in the guard band are also called Null subcarriers or virtual

subcarriers.

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Cyclic Prefix:

dispersion manifests itself as Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)on each subcarrier

channel due to pulse overlapping. It will also cause ICI (Inter Carrier Interference )

due to the non-orthogonality of the received signal. Adding cyclic prefix to each

OFDM symbol mitigates the problems of ISI and ICC by removing them altogether.

Lets say, without cyclic prefix we transmit the following N values (N=Nfft=length

of FFT/IFFT) for a single OFDM symbol.

X0,X1,X2,,XN1X0,X1,X2,,XN1

Lets consider a cyclic prefix of length Ncp, ( where Ncp<N ), is formed by copying

the last Ncp values from the above vector of X and adding those Ncp values to the

front part of the same X vector. With a cyclic prefix length Ncp, ( where Ncp<N ),

the following values constitute a single OFDM symbol :

11 | P a g e

The key ideas behind adding cyclic prefix :

process of detecting the received signal by using a simple single tap

equalizer

2)

2) Help combat ISI and ICC.

When a cyclic prefix of length Ncp is added to the OFDM symbol, the output of

the channel (r) is given by circular convolution of channel impulse response (h)

and the OFDM symbols with cyclic prefix (x).

r=hxr=hx

As we know, for the discrete signals, circular convolution in the time domain

translates to multiplication in the frequency domain.Thus, in frequency domain,

the above equation translates to

R=HXR=HX

At the receiver, R is the received signal (in Frequency domain) and our goal is to

estimate the transmitted signal (X) from the received signal R. From the above

equation, the problem of detecting the transmitted signal at the receiver side

translate to a simple equalization equation as follows

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X^=RHX^=RH

After the FFT performed at the receiver side (i.e. after the FFT block in the

receiver side), a single tap equalizer (which essentially implements the above

equation) is used to estimate the transmitted OFDM symbol. It also corrects the

phase and equalizes the amplitude.

A basic OFDM architecture with Cyclic Prefix is given below. (In the following

diagram, symbols represented by small case letters are assumed to be in time

domain, whereas the symbols represented by uppercase letters are assumed to

be in frequency domain).

ADVANTAGES OF OFDM

schemes, spread spectrum.

equalization.

propagation

Tuned sub-channel receiver filters are not required (unlike conventional FDM)

13 | P a g e

Resilient to narrow-band effects :- This advantage of OFDM deals with

Channel coding and interleaving

OFDM is used in conjunction with channel coding and almost always

uses frequency and/or time interleaving.

Frequency (subcarrier) interleaving increases resistance to frequency

selective channel conditions such as fading.

Time interleaving ensures that bits that are originally close together

in the bit-stream are transmitted far apart in time, thus mitigating

against severe fading.

A classical type of error correction coding used with OFDM-based

systems is convolutional coding.

Immunity to selective fading :- One of the main advantages of

OFDM is that is more resistant to frequency selective fading than

single carrier systems because it divides the overall channel into

multiple narrowband signals that are affected individually as flat

fading sub-channels.

DISADVANTAGES OF OFDM

The drawbacks of OFDM are very few in comparison to the advantages of OFDM.

The main drawback of OFDM is PAPR which is discussed in point (2).

The disadvantages of OFDM are as follows :-

1) Sensitive to carrier offset and drift :- A disadvantage of OFDM is that is

sensitive to carrier frequency offset and drift. Single carrier systems are less

sensitive.

14 | P a g e

2) High peak to average power ratio (PAPR) :- The most important disadvantage

of OFDM is high PAPR An OFDM signal has a noise like amplitude variation

and has a relatively large dynamic range, or peak to average power ratio. This

impacts the RF amplifier efficiency as the amplifiers need to be linear and

accommodate the large amplitude variations and these factors mean the

amplifier cannot operate with a high efficiency level.

PAPR is the most vital disadvantage of OFDM. Hence reducing PAPR is immensely

important for efficient utilisation & application of OFDM. Thus a broad &

elaborate discussion is required about the factors on which PAPR depends & how

to effectively reduce & control PAPR and the discussion is done in the following

pages.

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WHAT IS PAPR

PAPR:- A major disadvantage that arises in multicarrier systems like OFDM is the

resulting non-constant envelope with high peaks [27]. When the independently

modulated sub-carriers are added coherently, the instantaneous power will be

more than the average power. Consider the OFDM signal x(t) dened as

x(t)=exp(j2fct)a(t) , (fc is the lowest sub-carrier frequency), where N subcarriers

are added together. If N is large enough, then, based on central-limit theorem

(CLT), the resulting signal x(t) will be close to a complex Gaussian process [28].

This means that both of its real and imaginary parts are Gaussian distributed and

its envelope and power follows Rayleigh and exponential distributions

respectively. The PAPR for the continuous-time signal x(t) is the ratio of the

maximum instantaneous power to the average power. For the discrete-time

version x[n], PAPR is expressed as

where E[.] is the expectation operator. It is worth mentioning here that PAPR is

evaluated per OFDM symbol. Figure 3 illustrates how a high peak is obtained by

adding four sinusoidal signals with different frequencies and phase shifts

coherently. The resulting signals envelope exhibits high peaks when the

instantaneous amplitudes of the different signals have high peaks aligned at the

same time. Such high peaks will produce signal excursions into nonlinear region

of operation of the power amplier (PA) at the transmitter, thereby leading to

non linear distortions and spectral spreading. Since IFFT is used to generate the

FDM signal, the resulting discrete-time OFDM signal samples are obtained at the

Nyquist-rate. The peak value computed using these samples may not coincide

16 | P a g e

with the peak value of the continuous-time OFDM signal [30]. Hence,

oversampling by a factor greater than 1 is used to increase the accuracy. It is

found that the PAPR of the oversampled discrete-time signal offers an accurate

approximation of the PAPR of the continuous-time OFDM signal if the

oversampling factor is at least 4

17 | P a g e

FACTORS ON WHICH PAPR DEPENDS

The following factors are used to reduce & control the high Peak to Average

Power Ratio (PAPR)

quantied in terms of the required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve a

specic bit error rate (BER). Although the main focus of PAPR reduction

techniques is to reduce the CCDF, this is usually achieved at the expense of

increasing the BER. Clipping the high peaks of the OFDM signal by the PA

causes a substantial in-band distortion that leads to higher BER. Other

techniques may require that side information be transmitted as well. If the

side information is received incorrectly at the receiver, the whole OFDM

symbol is recovered in error and the BER performance degrades.

2) Transmitted Signal Power :- Some PAPR reduction techniques require that the

average power of the transmitted signal be increased. If the linear region of

the PA is not stretched to accommodate the new signal, the signal will

traverse the nonlinear region leading to higher distortions and degraded BER

performance. However, this solution increases the hardware cost

3) Spectral Spreading :- Due to the limit imposed on the maximum peak of the

OFDM signal by the PA, an increase is encountered in both the in-band and

out-of-band distortions. The second causes undesirable increase in the power

of the side lobes of the power spectral density (PSD) of the OFDM signal. This

effect is referred to as spectral spreading or spectral regrowth. As

demonstrated in Fig. 5, when the nonlinearity of the PA is higher, IBO is

smaller, and the spectral spreading is higher. Spectral spreading leads to

higher interference between the sub-bands of the OFDM signal, unless the

18 | P a g e

frequency separation between adjacent sub-carriers is also increased to

maintain orthogonality. However, this solution has the disadvantage of

lowering the spectral efciency.

have better PAPR reduction capability with less undesirable effects than

simple ones. However, complex techniques require additional hardware,

processing power and time. In practice, both hardware and processing

complexity should be as minimum as possible to support real-time system

operations and minimize cost.

5) Data Rate Loss :- Some PAPR reduction techniques cause some data rate loss

due to extra bandwidth required to send side information. Other techniques

may require some non-information symbols to be dedicated for controlling

PAPR. If the information data rate is required to be the same as that prior to

applying the technique, a bandwidth expansion will be a direct result.

6) Other Factors :- PAPR reduction techniques should take into consideration the

effect of nonlinear devices in the transmitter such as the DAC, mixer, transmit

lter and PA. The nonlinearity introduced by these devices and their cost are

two important factors in the system design process.

19 | P a g e

PAPR REDUCTION TECHNIQUES

A large PAPR would drive PAs at the transmitter into saturation, producing

interference among the subcarriers that degrades the BER performance and

corrupts the spectrum of the signal. To avoid driving the PA into saturation, the

average power of the signal may be reduced. However, this solution reduces the

signal-to-noise ratio and, consequently, the BER performance. Therefore, it is

preferable to solve the problem of high PAPR by reducing the peak power of the

signal.

Many PAPR reduction techniques have been proposed in the literature.

These techniques can be broadly classied into three main categories:-

1) Signal distortion techniques,

2) Multiple signaling and probabilistic techniques.

3) Coding techniques.

The PAPR reduction techniques can also be mainly classified into two basic types:-

1) Distortion based techniques:- This is the scheme that introduces

spectral re-growth belong to this category. Distortion based techniques

are the most straightforward PAPR reduction methods. Furthermore,

these techniques distort the spectrum, this spectrum distortion or

spectral re-growth can be corrected to a certain extent by using

filtering operation

2) Non-distortion based techniques :- These types of PAPR reduction

schemes do not distort the shape of the OFDM signal and therefore no

spectral re-growth take place

Distortion based techniques can be further sub-classified into the

following :-

a) CLIPPING AND FILTERING.

b) COMPANDING.

On the other hand Non-distortion based techniques can be further sub-

classified into the following :-

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a) CODING SCHEME.

b) PARTIAL TRANSMIT SEQUENCES(PTS).

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This represents the Taxonomy of PAPR reduction technique

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A detailed discussion about the PAPR reduction techniques are done below :-

1) Signal Distortion Technique :- Signal distortion techniques reduce the PAPR

by distorting the transmitted OFDM signal before it passes through the PA.

The most well-known signal distortion techniques are

a) Clipping and ltering,

b) Peak windowing,

c) Companding,

d) Peak cancellation.

These techniques reduce the PAPR signicantly but they introduce both

in-band and out-of-band distortion, leading to increase in BER. Although

the OFDM transmitted signal may have a high PAPR, the high magnitude

peaks occur rarely and most of the signal power will depend on low

amplitude samples. Therefore, it is possible to remove the high peaks

without signicantly distorting the signal. Hence, PAPR may be reduced

at the expense of some tolerable increase in BER.

Based Technique of PAPR reduction Clipping is one of the simplest techniques to

reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal. It reduces the peak of the OFDM signal by

clipping the signal to the desired level. This operation can be implemented on

discrete time samples prior to the DAC or by designing the power amplifiers with

saturation level lesser than the OFDM signal dynamic range. The amplitude

clipper limits the peak of the envelope of the input OFDM signal to a

predetermined threshold value ( ) or otherwise passes the input signal

unperturbed. The clipping operation can be mathematically defined as

where [ ] and [ ] are the clipped OFDM signal and the phase of ( ). It is a

nonlinear operation and therefore causes both in-band distortion and out-of-

band radiation. The in-band distortion is treated as noise and therefore results in

23 | P a g e

error performance degradation. If clipping level o is too small, then out-of-band

radiation becomes more significant. The outof-band radiation can be eliminated

by using filtering operation but filtering operation causes peak re-growth in OFDM

signal, and as a result the amplitude of time domain OFDM signal again exceeds

the clipping level ( o ). The BW efficiency of the OFDM system decreases due to

spectral re-growth. The computational complexity of the clipping scheme is found

to be the least in comparison to other distortion PAPR reduction schemes but at

the same time its BER performance is very poor.

Iterative Clipping and Filtering :- Jean Armstrong proposed the repeated clipping

and filtering scheme [25], in which clipping and frequency domain filtering

operations are repeated several times to reduce both the out of-band radiation

and PAPR to the desired level. The PAPR performance and amount of out- of-band

radiation mainly depends on the number of iterations to be performed, more the

number of iterations lesser is the value of out-of-band radiations and PAPR. But,

the computational complexity of iterative clipping and filtering scheme increases

with the number of iterations. We have studied the effect of iterative clipping

and filtering of OFDM signal through computer simulation. In this simulation, we

have considered an amplitude clipper with a threshold = 0.01 and four

iterations. The time domain and frequency domain OFDM signals are shown after

each iteration. It is observed from following graph that the original time domain

OFDM signal has large envelope fluctuation and has a PAPR of 3.425dB.

Therefore, in order to reduce the PAPR, the OFDM signal is passed through a

clipper with a threshold = 0.01 , as a result the PAPR of the OFDM signal

reduced to 1.396dB, but due this nonlinear operation, both in-band distortion and

out-of-band radiation take place as shown in Fig. 3.6. The frequency domain

filtering is used to eliminate the out-of-band radiation but the peaks of the time

domain OFDM signal re-grows after performing the filtering operation. Thus the

PAPR of OFDM signal again gets increased to 1.746dB. In order to further limit the

PAPR and out-of-band radiation the clipping and filtering operation are required

to be performed many times to achieve the desired value of PAPR and out-of-

band radiation.

24 | P a g e

For a large number of iterations the computational complexity of the system gets

increased, which makes the system slow. One of the main drawbacks of this

technique is in-band distortion, which canNOT be eliminated by frequency

domain filtering operation. Therefore, degradation in error performance of OFDM

system takes place.

PEAK WINDOWING :- Unlike peak clipping where the peaks that exceed a

predetermined threshold are hard-limited, peak windowing limits such high peaks

by multiplying them by a weighting function called a window function. Many

window functions can be used in this process as long as they have good spectral

properties. The most commonly used window functions include Hamming,

Hanning and Kaiser windows. To reduce PAPR, a window function is aligned with

the signal samples in such a way that its valley is multiplied by the signal peaks

while its higher amplitudes are multiplied by lower amplitude signal samples

around the peaks. This action attenuates signal peaks in a much smoother way

compared to hard clipping, resulting in reduced distortion.

COMPANDING :- Companding transforms are typically applied to speech signals

to optimize the required number of bits per sample. Since OFDM and speech

signals behave similarly in the sense that high peaks occur infrequently, same

companding transforms can also be used to reduce the OFDM signals PAPR.

Besides having relatively low computational complexity compared to other PAPR

reduction techniques, companding complexity is not affected by the number of

subcarriers. Also, companding does not require side information and hence does

not reduce bit rate. Their simplicity of implementation and the advantages they

offer make companding transforms an attractive PAPR reduction technique. The

PAPR reduction obtained by companding transforms comes though with the price

of increasing the BER.

Companding is another popular PAPR reduction scheme. Companding is a

composite word formed by combining compressing and expanding. In this

scheme, at the transmitter a signal with high dynamic range is applied to a

compander and at the receiver a decompanding function (the inverse of

companding function) is used to recover the original signal. Initially, it was used in

digital communication systems to increase the dynamic range of digital to analog

converters (DACs). The -law and A-law are the two most popular compressing

25 | P a g e

functions used worldwide. Wang et al. proposed a scheme a -law companding

scheme to reduce the PAPR of OFDM signal. According to this scheme, the time

domain OFDM signal

( x[n] ) is applied to a -law compressor to produce a companded OFDM signal

given by

where, A is the peak value of the OFDM signal before companding and is the

parameter controlling nonlinearity of the companding function, sgn(.) and ln(.) are

the standard signum and natural logarithmic function respectively. The discrete

time domain companded OFDM signal is converted to analog signal using D/A

converter and then amplified using HPA to achieve the desired power level. The

amplified signal is then transmitted over the communication channel. At the

receiving end, the received signal ( r[n] ) is applied to the expander to recover the

transmitted time domain signal. The time domain OFDM signal at expander

output is given by

Here, the received signal ( r[n] ) is nothing but the companded OFDM signal (

corrupted by quantization and channel noise. Before companding, the real and

the imaginary parts of the complex time domain OFDM signal have Gaussian

distribution. But, after applying the -law companding scheme, the PDF of real

and imaginary parts no longer remains Gaussian distributed. Figure below shows

26 | P a g e

the probability distribution function of real part before and after companding of

OFDM signal.

It can be easily observed from the above figure that due to -law companding

operation the probability of real part of the OFDM signal with small amplitude

gets decreased whereas the probability of OFDM signal with large amplitude gets

increasedsignal . A similar phenomenon can be observed for the imaginary part of

the OFDM signal. Therefore, the average power of the OFDM signal increases. In

-law companding scheme the peak value of the OFDM signal before and after

27 | P a g e

companding remain same, which keeps peak power of the OFDM signal

unchanged. Therefore, -law companding scheme decreases the PAPR of the

OFDM signal. By controlling the parameter , the average power of the OFDM

signal can be controlled and hence the desired value of PAPR can be obtained.

The overall PAPR reduction capability and BER performances of -law

companding scheme is found to be better than clipping and filtering scheme.

Due to increase in the average power level of the OFDM signal, the overall error

performance of the system degrades in comparison to OFDM signal without

companding; higher the value of the , better is the PAPR reduction, but at the

same time, error performance degradation is also higher.

The figure below shows the CCDF of PAPR for normal and -law companded

OFDM signal. In this simulation, we have considered a QPSK modulated OFDM

system with N=256 subcarriers. We have used =254 for companding the

OFDM signal. It can be observed from figure below that -law companding

28 | P a g e

scheme, achieves a PAPR reduction capability of 5.2dB for a CCDF of 10^(-4).

BER performance of the normal and -law companded OFDM signal is shown in

fig. below. The BER performance of OFDM system utilizing -law companding is

worse than the normal OFDM signal. Normal OFDM system requires 4dB less SNR

to achieve a BER of 10^(-5).

29 | P a g e

BER performance comparison of Normal OFDM and -law companding

All of the techniques discussed in this section do not require any side information

to recover the data signal at the receiver and hence the data rate of the system

remains same even after applying PAPR reduction scheme. The computational

complexity of these schemes is also very less. However, the price paid for using a

distortion technique is in-band distortion, out of-band radiation and ICI, which

adversely affects the bit error rate (BER) of the system.

PAPR Reduction using Quadrilateral Companding Transform:- A quadrilateral

companding transform is proposed to reduce the PAPR of the OFDM signal. The

mathematical expression of companding function is derived by transforming the

distribution of original OFDM signal to a quadrilateral distribution. The

mathematical expression of de-companding function is also derived which is used

at the receiver to retrieve the original OFDM signal. The proposed scheme is the

most generalized companding transform because the existing exponential

companding transform, trapezoidal companding and trapezium distribution based

30 | P a g e

companding methods are special cases of the suggested quadrilateral

companding transform. The PAPR and BER performance of the proposed scheme

is compared with other existing companding transforms.

appropriately generated, scaled, shifted and subtracted from the OFDM signal at

those segments that exhibit high peaks. The generated waveform is band limited

to certain peak cancellation tones that are not used to transmit data. Peak

cancellation can be carried out after the IFFT block of the OFDM transmitter as

shown in Figure 1 below by subtracting the peak cancellation waveform from the

OFDM signal whenever a potential peak higher than a certain threshold is

detected. Fig. 2(a) illustrates a segment of an OFDM signal with 256 subcarriers.

Figure 2(b) shows the detected potential peaks of the signal and Fig. 2(c) shows a

randomly chosen sinc function as the peak cancellation waveform. While

performing the peak cancellation process, care should be taken not to create new

peaks

31 | P a g e

Fig. 2) Peak Cancellation; (a) OFDM signal, (b) identied peaks, (c) scaled

& shifted peak.

one of two ways. One way is to generate multiple permutations of the OFDM

signal and transmit the one with minimum PAPR. The other way is to modify the

OFDM signal by introducing phase shifts, adding peak reduction carriers, or

changing constellation points. The modication parameters are optimized to

minimize PAPR.The most well-known Multiple Signaling and Probabilistic

Techniques are

b) Tone Injection (TI) & Tone Reservation (TR)

c) Selective Mapping(SLM)

d) Partial Transmit Sequence(PTS).

32 | P a g e

Now let us broadly discuss each of these techniques

ACTIVE CONSTELLATION EXTENSION (ACE) :- This is a non-distortion technique of

PAPR reduction technique. ACE scheme is first proposed by Krongold and Jones in

2003 to reduce the PAPR of the OFDM signal. Its operation is very similar to tone

injection scheme for PAPR reduction [38]. In this scheme, the outer constellation

points are extended towards outer side of signal constellation with an aim to

cancel the peak of the resultant time domain OFDM signal. Figures below show

the principles of ACE scheme for an OFDM signal with QPSK and 16-QAM

modulation in each subcarrier. It can be seen from Figure below that any of the

four points of QPSK constellation can be extended outwards in such a way that

the minimum Euclidean distance between two points does not reduce. In case of

QPSK constellation the extended points remains in the same quadrant as before.

As shown in Figure below the outer 12 points of 16-QAM constellation can be

extended towards outer side of the original constellation for reducing the peak of

the OFDM signal. Here, the most important part is to find the extended points for

minimizing the peak of the OFDM signal. One can utilize POCS or smart gradient

project (SGP) scheme for optimization of the same. The POCS algorithm has slow

convergence but provides the optimal solution to the problem, whereas SGP

provides a suboptimal solution with faster convergence.

33 | P a g e

ACE scheme is free from data rate loss and SI; but due to constellation size

extension, the average transmitted power of the OFDM signal may increase,

which restricts its use for large constellations.

TONE RESERVATION & TONE INJECTION :- This is a distortionless PAPR reduction

technique. Tone reservation was first described by Tellado and Cioffi in 1997. The

basic idea is to reserve certain numbers (R) of subcarriers or tones for reducing

the PAPR of the OFDM signal. The subcarriers or tones reserved for PAPR

reduction are known as PAPR reduction tones (PRT). Here, the main objective is

to choose the value of data signals to be transmitted on reserved tones to

minimize the PAPR of time domain OFDM signal. The PAPR reduction capability of

this scheme mainly depends on the number of PRTs and their location in the

frequency band. The PRT locations are known in advance to both transmitter and

receiver. The PRTs are not used for data transmission and therefore it results in

data rate loss. Let be the data

and PRT blocks, the PRT locations in Z and locations of subcarriers for data

transmission in X are chosen dis-jointly, such that their point wise multiplication

= 0 is Zero. Consider a tone reservation scheme with R PRTs located at

and the data symbols are transmitted only on the sub-carriers with index

and

After applying tone reservation scheme, the frequency domain OFDM signal

( ) is given by following expression

be found as

34 | P a g e

where x[n] and z[n] are the N point IFFTs of X and Z respectively. In order to

reduce the PAPR of the time domain OFDM signal, the peak is minimized by

finding the optimal value of PRTs i.e. . For this, one can utilize convex

optimization technique that can be cast as linear programming problem. To find

, projection on to convex set (POCS) or gradient search algorithm can be used .In

order to reduce data rate loss in TR scheme, tone injection (TI) scheme is

proposed. In this scheme, the PRTs and data symbols can be transmitted on the

same subcarriers. The basic idea of TI is to extend the constellation, such that one

constellation point may correspond to more than one point in the extended

constellation. In this scheme PRTs and data symbols are not mutually exclusive,

therefore at the receiver; some efficient scheme to separate the PRTs has to be

utilized. One of the solutions to this problem is to use PRTs of the type

where q is a positive integer and are chosen for reducing the PAPR

of OFDM signal. If we choose and then for q>1, each of the

M-PSK or M-QAM modulated symbol corresponds to 9 different symbols of

extended constellation, and therefore result in a constellation with M 9 points.

The expanded constellation symbol is given by

The average power of the signal gets increased. At the receiver, the effect of

can be eliminated by performing modulus q operation on received data symbols.

An example of expanded constellation obtained from TI scheme for QPSK-OFDM

system is shown in Figure below.

Tellado suggested to use a minimum value of where d is the

minimum distance between two constellation points. The extended constellation

points have spacing with 1 to avoid BER performance degradation.

35 | P a g e

Expanded 16-QAM constellation for Tone Injection (TI) technique

technique first described by Cimini et al. In this scheme, a set of U independent

data sequences is generated by multiplication of a block of N modulated data

symbols with a phase sequence set containing U phase vectors of

length N . The set of U independent signals can be mathematically expressed as

follows

elements, i.e.

phase factors, where W denotes the

number of

phase factors. The set of U independent discrete-time OFDM signals

36 | P a g e

Out of these U signals, one of them satisfying following criterion is selected for

transmission

that

generates an OFDM signal with least PAPR. Therefore, the information about

should be transmitted along with each OFDM symbol, which requires

bits, if straight binary coding is used to encode the SI. The SI bits are extremely

important for data recovery at the receiver; therefore sometimes we sacrifice the

data rate and allocate few redundant bits to ensure accurate recovery of

. But it further increases the loss in data rate of a SLM-OFDM system.

37 | P a g e

Block diagram of conventional SLM-OFDM transmitter

Figure given below shows comparison of the PAPR performance of

SLM-OFDM system for various values of U.

values of U

38 | P a g e

In this simulation, we have considered a QPSK modulated OFDM signal with N=64

subcarriers. It can be seen from the above figure that the PAPR reduction

capability of SLM-OFDM system increases by increasing the value of the number

of phase sequences (U) in phase sequence set. But, this gain in PAPR reduction

capability is obtained at the cost of increased computational complexity because

for a phase sequence set with U phase sequences requires U IFFT operations

tofind the OFDM signal with lowest possible PAPR

( ). Moreover, higher the value of U, more is the number of bits required to

encode the side information and therefore data rate loss is also more.

PARTIAL TRANSMIT SEQUENCE:- PTS is one of the most popular distortion-less

PAPR reduction scheme. In this scheme a block of N modulated data symbols

is partitioned into S disjoint sub-blocks, where S <N . After partitioning, S data

sub-blocks are represented by

here the length of each data sub-block is N and all of them are disjoint in a sense

that the value of is non-zero only for one particular value of

,

therefore we have

After this, IFFT of each of the data sub-block is taken to obtain S partial transmit

sequences

given by

39 | P a g e

The partial transmit sequences are multiplied by phase rotation factors b(s) and

all of them are combined to obtain a time domain OFDM signal ( x ) given by

following expression

where b(s) is the phase rotation factor for data sub-block. Here, the

objective of combining the partial transmit sequences after multiplication with

phase factor is to obtain a time domain OFDM signal ( x) with lowest possible

PAPR. Therefore, to find the optimal values of phase factors to achieve lowest

possible PAPR of OFDM signal x, following optimization criterion is used

respectively.

The partitioning schemes for PTS based PAPR reduction schemes are majorly classified into (i)

adjacent , (ii) interleaved , (iii) pseudorandom partitioning. It has been reported that PAPR

reduction capability of PTS-OFDM system using pseudorandom partitioning is better than that

of adjacent and interleaved partitioning schemes.

40 | P a g e

Block diagram of conventional PTS-OFDM system transmitter

The PAPR reduction capability of PTS-OFDM system increases by increasing

number of partitions (S). But, in this scheme for S data sub-blocks, S IFFT

operations are required to calculate X which results in high computational

complexity. Therefore, the number of partitions (S) is restricted to 4.

The information about the phase rotation factors

used at the transmitter for PAPR reduction is required to be sent along with each

OFDM symbol for data recovery at the receiver. The information used for this

purpose is called side information (SI), which reduces the effective data rate of

PTS-OFDM system. If straight

binary coding scheme is used then bits per OFDM symbol are

required to encode the SI . The loss in data rate will further increase if any error

control coding with low code rate is used for encoding the SI.

The figure below shows the PAPR performances of OFDM signal without PAPR

reduction , PTSOFDM system with 4 partitions and two phase factors (1,-1), and

PTS-OFDM system with 4 partitions and four phase factors (1, j,-1, -j). In this

41 | P a g e

simulation we have considered a QPSK modulated OFDM system with N=256 sub-

carriers.

The PAPR reduction capability of the PTS increases with the increase in the value

of W. PTS with W=2 and W=4, achieve a PAPR reduction capabilities of 2.5dB and

3.5 dB respectively, for a CCDF of , over OFDM signal without PAPR

reduction.

The PAPR reduction capability of PTS-OFDM system with W=4 is more than that

of PTS-OFDM system with W=2 because for M=W=4 there are 64 alternative

signals, whereas for M=4 and W=2 there are only 8 alternative signals. More is

the number of alternative signals more is the PAPR reduction.

42 | P a g e

3) Coding Schemes :- Coding scheme can be used to reduce the PAPR of the

OFDM signal. Consider a BPSK modulated OFDM system with N subcarriers and a

coding scheme with code rate 1/2. The code rate 1/2 encoder converts N input

bits to a block of 2N bits.

Therefore, there are possible combinations of 2N bit long code words, out

of which

code words with lowest PAPR are selected for transmission of N

information bits. This scheme can effectively reduce the PAPR of the OFDM signal,

but it requires an exhaustive

search to find low PAPR code words out of possible code

words. For large number of subcarriers, it requires large memory blocks to store

lookup table for encoding and decoding operations. It also results in data rate loss

because for every N information bits, we have to transmit 2N number of encoded

bits. Example: Consider a BPSK modulated OFDM system with four subcarriers

and code rate 3/4 encoder. In this case there are 16 possible combinations of data

blocks; and PAPR of each possible data block is calculated using the formula given

below,

below

1 1 1 1 6.0 -1 1 1 1 2.3

1 1 1 -1 2.3 -1 1 1 -1 3.7

1 1 -1 1 2.3 -1 1 -1 1 6.0

43 | P a g e

1 1 -1 -1 3.7 -1 1 -1 -1 2.3

1 -1 1 1 2.3 -1 -1 1 1 3.7

1 -1 1 -1 6.0 -1 -1 1 -1 2.3

1 -1 -1 1 3.7 -1 -1 -1 1 2.3

1 -1 -1 -1 2.3 -1 -1 -1 -1 6.0

There are three main types of distortion-less coding schemes PAPR reduction

techniques which are listed below

b) Turbo Code Scheme

c) Golay Code scheme

These types of PAPR reduction schemes do not distort the shape of the OFDM

signal and therefore no spectral re-growth take place and hence are called non

distortion PAPR reduction technique.

LINEAR BLOCK CODE SCHEME :- Instead of dedicating some bits of the code word

to enhance BER performance, these bits are now dedicated to reduce PAPR. The

goal is to choose the code words with low PAPR for transmission. A simple linear

block coding (LBC) scheme was proposed where 3 bits are mapped into 4 bits by

adding a parity bit. A simple rate 3/4 cyclic code is used for any number of

subcarriers that is a multiple of 4 to reduce PAPR by more than 3 dB. Similar

performance with less complexity was obtained in using the proposed sub-block

coding (SBC) scheme, where long information sequences are divided into sub-

blocks, and an odd parity bit is added to each sub-block. The position of the added

parity bit is optimized to further reduce PAPR. Moreover, instead of one coding

scheme, two coding schemes can be used to encode each sub-block, and the

combination of the coded sub-blocks can be optimized to lower PAPR. Both

methods require the transmission of side information to the receiver to indicate

the locations of the parity bits or the coding schemes used to encode each sub-

block. This means that the bandwidth efciency of the system will be reduced. A

44 | P a g e

combined (8,4) LBC is used to provide error control capability and reduce PAPR of

a multicarrier modulation by 4 dB. Another simple LBC is proposed based on the

observation that regardless of the number of subcarriers, code words with equal

odd and even bit values have high PAPR. Therefore, PAPR can be reduced easily

by eliminating these code words by adding a simple bit code. It was proposed that

a rate-1/2 linear coding scheme to achieve the minimum PAPR and provide error

correction capability for an OFDM system utilizing QPSK modulation and four

subcarriers. The idea is to use a generator matrix to encode 4 bits into code words

of 8 bits (rate 1/2), and then multiply the resulting 8 bits by a phase rotator vector

of length 8 to have the encoded code words. Both the generator matrix and the

phase rotator vector are chosen to reduce PAPR. Similar precoding schemes using

proper generator matrices to reduce the PAPR of OFDM signals has been

presented in the literature. However, precoding schemes increase the error

probability of OFDM systems. By assuming that the transmitter has the

knowledge of the channel information and the receiver lter, the author

proposed a systematic procedure to choose a precoding matrix for achieving the

required PAPR reduction performance at the minimum error probability over

AWGN channels.

TURBO CODE SCHEME :- One way to exploit turbo codes for PAPR reduction is to

implement the SLM approach with the candidates generated by a turbo encoder

with various interleavers. The selected one for transmission is the one with the

least PAPR. Since no side information is required, this method avoids the BER

performance degradation resulting from incorrect recovery of side information in

conventional SLM approaches. Beside PAPR reduction benet, it is possible to

make use of the error correction capabilities of Turbo coding.

Another approach was proposed based on the dual bose-ray-chaudhuri (BCH)

codes. Dual BCH code has some appealing PAPR properties. Specically, the IFFT

of the code words of this code exhibits low envelope uctuations and

45 | P a g e

therefore low PAPR. However, the potential of this code for PAPR

reduction is restricted due to the lack of a practical decoder and the

large performance gap to the Shannon limit. To solve these problems,

the proposed scheme constructed a new code with favourable PAPR

properties based on dual BCH codes, exploited this code in a turbo

structure to obtain an adequately low BER and reduce the gap between

the performance and Shannon limit, and developed the associated

decoder based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion. The

bounded PAPR of the coded OFDM symbol using this scheme is

guaranteed. Also, it was shown that among the dual BCH codes only

those with one bit error correction capability have a PAPR considerably

lower than that of the other error correcting codes.

GOLAY CODE SCHEME :- Golay Complementary Sequences in Golay Code Scheme

can be used as code words to modulate the subcarriers of the OFDM system,

yielding a signal of PAPR with an upper bound of 2. Golay Complementary

Sequences satisfy the property that their out of phase autocorrelation function is

zero.

Let be a bipolar sequence such that

.

Dene the aperiodic autocorrelation function of the sequence a as follows

Let b be another bipolar sequence similar to a. Then the pair (a,b) is called a Golay

Complementary Pair if it satises

46 | P a g e

Each member in this pair is called Golay complementary sequence (GCS). Large

set of binary length Golay pairs can be found from certain second-order

cosets of the rst order Reed Muller codes . Schemes that combine the block

coding approach and the use of GCSs provide a powerful way for incorporating

both the capabilities of error correction and control over PAPR. However, the

usefulness of such approach is limited to OFDM systems with small number of

subcarriers. For OFDM systems with large number of subcarriers, this approach

results in transmission rate loss and increased computational complexity due to

the exhaustive nature of the search required to nd good codes.

Several recent papers studied the use of Golay sequences and Golay

complementary pairs with different constellations to reduce PAPR. The

construction of Golay sequences based on STAR-16-QAM constellation is studied

and an upper bound for PAPR is derived and found to be 2. The construction of

STAR-16-QAM constellation is done using scaled set sum of two QPSK

constellations. Another constellation, called the Asterisk 16-QAM is proposed in

to reduce PAPR when the data is encoded using Golay sequences and Golay

complementary pairs. This constellation maintains the same PAPR upper bound

of the STAR-16-QAM while enhancing the mean symbol error rate. A generalized

paradigm for the Asterisk 16-QAM constellation is presented where a new

constellation family controlled by a single parameter is proposed. Golay

sequences are used as the building blocks to construct a new family of 64-QAM

sequences that are not necessarily Golay sequences and that could outperform

other existing OFDM sequences in terms of both PAPR and code rate.

47 | P a g e

MATLAB CODE FOR PAPR REDUCTION

In this project we have presented a MATLAB CODE for reducing the Peak to

Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of a OFDM signal using the CLIPPING & FILTERING

Technique. The MATLAB code has executed successfully & we have also provided

the Graphs & Figures that we have obtained by executing the code.

clear all

clc

close

% A: Setting Parameters

M = 4; % QPSK signal constellation

no_of_data_points = 128; % have 128 data points

block_size = 8; % size of each ofdm block

cp_len = ceil(0.1*block_size); % length of cyclic prefix

no_of_ifft_points = block_size; % 128 points for the FFT/IFFT

no_of_fft_points = block_size

data_source = randsrc(1, no_of_data_points, 0:M-1);

figure(1)

stem(data_source); grid on; xlabel('Data Points'); ylabel('transmitted data phase

representation')title('Transmitted Data "O"')

qpsk_modulated_data = pskmod(data_source, M);

stem(qpsk_modulated_data);

scatterplot(qpsk_modulated_data);

title('MODULATED TRANSMITTED DATA');

num_cols=length(qpsk_modulated_data)/block_size;

data_matrix = reshape(qpsk_modulated_data, block_size, num_cols);

cp_start = block_size-cp_len;

cp_end = block_size;

48 | P a g e

for i=1:num_cols,

ifft_data_matrix(:,i) = ifft((data_matrix(:,i)),no_of_ifft_points);

for j=1:cp_len,

actual_cp(j,i) = ifft_data_matrix(j+cp_start,i);

end

ifft_data(:,i) = vertcat(actual_cp(:,i),ifft_data_matrix(:,i));

end

[rows_ifft_data cols_ifft_data]=size(ifft_data);

len_ofdm_data = rows_ifft_data*cols_ifft_data;

ofdm_signal = reshape(ifft_data, 1, len_ofdm_data);

figure(3)

plot(real(ofdm_signal));

xlabel('Time');

ylabel('Amplitude');

title('OFDM Signal');

grid on;

avg=0.4;

clipped=ofdm_signal;

for i=1:length(clipped)

if clipped(i) > avg

clipped(i) = avg;

end

if clipped(i) < -avg

clipped(i) = -avg;

end

49 | P a g e

end

figure(4)

plot(real(clipped));

xlabel('Time');

ylabel('Amplitude');

title('clipped Signal');

grid on;

noise = randn(1,len_ofdm_data) + sqrt(-1)*randn(1,len_ofdm_data);

without clipping

for i=1:length(ofdm_signal)

if ofdm_signal(i) > avg

ofdm_signal(i) = ofdm_signal(i)+noise(i);

end

if ofdm_signal(i) < -avg

ofdm_signal(i) = ofdm_signal(i)+noise(i);

end

end

figure(5)

plot(real(ofdm_signal));

xlabel('Time');

ylabel('Amplitude');

title('OFDM Signal after HPA');

grid on;

with clipping

avg=0.4;

for i=1:length(clipped)

if clipped(i) > avg

50 | P a g e

clipped(i) = clipped(i)+noise(i);

end

if clipped(i) < -avg

clipped(i) = clipped(i)+noise(i);

end

end

figure(6)

plot(real(clipped));

xlabel('Time');

ylabel('Amplitude');

title('clipped Signal after HPA');

grid on;

channel = randn(1,block_size) + sqrt(-1)*randn(1,block_size)

after_channel = filter(channel, 1, ofdm_signal);

awgn_noise = awgn(zeros(1,length(after_channel)),0);

recvd_signal = awgn_noise+after_channel;

recvd_signal_matrix = reshape(recvd_signal,rows_ifft_data, cols_ifft_data);

recvd_signal_matrix(1:cp_len,:)=[];

for i=1:cols_ifft_data,

fft_data_matrix(:,i) = fft(recvd_signal_matrix(:,i),no_of_fft_points);

end

recvd_serial_data = reshape(fft_data_matrix, 1,(block_size*num_cols));

qpsk_demodulated_data = pskdemod(recvd_serial_data,M);

figure(7)

51 | P a g e

stem(qpsk_demodulated_data,'rx');

grid on;

Page :- 42

xlabel('Data Points');

ylabel('received data phase representation');

title('Received Data "X"')

after_channel = filter(channel, 1, clipped);

awgn_noise = awgn(zeros(1,length(after_channel)),0);

recvd_signal = awgn_noise+after_channel;

Convert Data back to "parallel" form to perform FFT

recvd_signal_matrix = reshape(recvd_signal,rows_ifft_data, cols_ifft_data);

recvd_signal_matrix(1:cp_len,:)=[];

for i=1:cols_ifft_data,

fft_data_matrix(:,i) = fft(recvd_signal_matrix(:,i),no_of_fft_points);

end

recvd_serial_data = reshape(fft_data_matrix, 1,(block_size*num_cols));

Demodulate the data

qpsk_demodulated_data = pskdemod(recvd_serial_data,M);

figure(8)

stem(qpsk_demodulated_data,'rx');

grid on;

xlabel('Data Points');

ylabel('received data phase representation');

title('Received Data clipped "X"')

52 | P a g e

OUTPUT

53 | P a g e

54 | P a g e

55 | P a g e

56 | P a g e

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

OFDM is an efcient multicarrier modulation technique for both wired and

wireless applications due to its high data rates, robustness to multipath fading

and spectral efciency. Despite these advantages, it has the major drawback of

generating high PAPR, which drives the transmitters PA into saturation, causing

nonlinear distortions and spectral spreading. The literature is rich with PAPR

reduction techniques, which decrease PAPR substantially at the expense of

increased BER, increased transmitted power, reduced bit rate, or increased

complexity. This survey has discussed many important aspects of PAPR reduction

techniques and the impact of these techniques on a number of critical design

factors. Some absolutely essential mathematical formulations were presented

including the statistics of PAPR and the distribution of the OFDM signal. We

demonstrated that no single technique is the best under all circumstances and the

proper technique should be selected based on system requirements and available

resources. For example, in OFDM systems with a large number of subcarriers (N

256), signal distortion techniques and specically clipping and ltering are the

least demanding in terms of computational complexity, while achieving good

PAPR reduction. The subject of PAPR reduction assumes increased importance

due to the fact that future wireless systems are likely to apply OFDM structures

with higher number of subcarriers than present ones in order to achieve higher

data rates and mobility. This implies that the problem of developing PAPR

reduction schemes for OFDM systems that are capable of mitigating the problem

with best performance trade-offs, including minimum complexity and cost, is a

rich subject with exciting possibilities for conducting further research. Besides

providing an extensive set of references to the subject of PAPR reduction

techniques, this survey brings up to date previously available surveys with a

treatment of most recent research as well as provides original contributions with

simulations, complexity analyses, and a treatment of the topic under transmitted

power constraint. The authors strongly believe that this survey will serve as a

valuable pedagogical resource to researchers, OFDM system architects, designers,

and developers by providing them an understanding of the current research

contributions in the area of PAPR reduction in OFDM systems, the different

available techniques and their trade-offs towards developing more efcient and

practical solutions.

57 | P a g e

Future work

The search for a good PAPR reduction and ICI cancellation scheme for OFDM

systems still faces many challenges. Future research could be carried out in the

following directions to further improve the PAPR reduction and ICI cancellation in

OFDM systems

performances of QCT.

In this thesis we have derived the companding and de-companding

functions for QCT, which are functions of three independent parameters ( l

ba and , ). By taking few sets of these parameters as examples, we have

shown a trade-off between PAPR reduction capability and BER

performance, and proved the outperformance of the proposed schemes

over EC, TC and TDBC. However, there is still a need to find a criterion for

independent selection of parameters for joint optimization of PAPR and

BER performances.

Analytical results for BER performance of OFDM system using QCT over

AWGN and fading channels.

In this thesis, we have derived an analytical expression for PAPR

performance of QCT, whereas the BER performance of proposed

companding transform over AWGN and fading channels is evaluated by

computer simulations. QCT has a non-linear function and in mathematical

analysis of BER, the noise term cannot be separated from the desired signal

at the receiver. But the derivation of a formula for BER performance may

be possible by taking some approximations to separate the noise term from

desired signal term.

Three dimensional trade-off between PAPR, BER and spectral spreading.

In this thesis we have ignored the effect of spectral spreading because it

can be eliminated using iterative oversampling and filtering. If it is not

eliminated then its effect can be taken into consideration to get the

58 | P a g e

parameter of companding transform for achieving three dimensional

between PAPR, BER and spectral spreading.

A phase optimization scheme for proposed SI free PTS-OFDM system with

minimal computational complexity.

Conventional PTS scheme as well as proposed SI free PTS schemes requires

an exhaustive search for a set of phase factors to minimize the PAPR of

OFDM signal, which increases the computational complexity. Therefore, a

phase optimization scheme needs to be explored to reduce the number of

iterations to find optimal set of phase factors.

Generation of more number of candidate signals for M-2M mapping

based PTSOFDM systems to improve PAPR reduction capability.

M-2M mapping based PTS scheme uses two phase factors to limit the

constellation size extension, and provides same number of candidate

signals as conventional PTSOFDM system using two phase factors. The

PAPR performance of proposed M-

increased computational complexity if the number of candidate signals is

increased. Therefore, there is a need to find the schemes to increase the

number of candidate signals in PTS based PAPR reduction using two phase

factors to further improve the PAPR reduction capability.

Analytical expressions for BER performance of OFDM system utilizing joint

ICI cancelation and PAPR reduction.

We have derived an analytical expression of PAPR performance of three

popular ICI cancellation schemes such as ICI self-cancellation scheme, new

ICI self-cancellation and ICI conjugate cancellation schemes. The analytical

expressions for BER performance for the proposed joint ICI cancellation and

PAPR reduction scheme still needs to find after exploring the feasibility of a

closed form expression for ICI power.

59 | P a g e

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. "Digital Modulation Efficiencies". Barnard Microsystems. Archived from the original on 2011-04-30.

2. "Ciena tests 200G via 16-QAM with Japan-U.S. Cable Network". lightwave. April 17, 2014.

Retrieved 7 November 2016.

3. Kylia products Archived July 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., dwdm mux demux, 90 degree

optical hybrid, d(q) psk demodulatorssingle polarization

4. http://www.homeplug.org/media/filer_public/a1/46/a1464318-f5df-46c5-89dc-

7243d8ccfcee/homeplug_av2_whitepaper_150907.pdf Homeplug_AV2 whitepaper

5. http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.992.3-200904-I section 8.6.3 Constellation mapper - maximum number

of bits per constellation BIMAX 15

6. http://www.trangosys.com/products/point-to-point-wireless-backhaul/licensed-wireless/trangolink-

apex-orion.shtml A Apex Orion

7. http://www.trangosys.com/products/point-to-point-wireless-backhaul/licensed-wireless/trangolink-

apex-orion.shtml A Apex Orion

8. Cho, Kyongkuk; Yoon, Dongweon (July 2002). "On the General BER Expression of One- and Two-

Dimensional Amplitude Modulations". IEEE Trans. Commun. 50 (7): 1074

1080. doi:10.1109/TCOMM.2002.800818.

9. http://asp.eurasipjournals.com/content/2010/1/942638 DVB Hierarchical QAM constellation

10. Blahut, R. E. (1988). Principles and Practice of Information Theory. Boston, MA, USA: Addison

Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 0-201-10709-0.

11. Howard Friedenberg and Sunil Naik. "Hitless Space Diversity STL Enables IP+Audio in Narrow STL

Bands" (PDF). 2005 National Association of Broadcasters Annual Convention. Retrieved April

17, 2005.

5. Jonqyin (Russell) Sun "Linear diversity analysis for QAM in Rician fading channels", IEEE WOCC

2014

The notation used here has mainly (but not exclusively) been taken from

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