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# AC Potentiometers

Introduction
 Both magnitudes and phases of the two( unknown V and
Potentiometer V) have to be same to obtain balance.
Factors to be considered
 Equality of voltages being compared at all instants.
 Equal phase and magnitude at all instants.
 Frequency and waveform of the current in the potentiometer
must be same as measured voltage.
 Ac source Purely sinusoidal.
Types of AC Potentiometer
1. Polar type

2. Co-ordinate type

1.Polar Type

## Magnitude is read from one scale

Phase angle w.r.to some reference phasor is read directly from second
scale.

V
2.Co-ordinate type

V1 +V2
Magnitude of V=

## Phase angle, =tan(V2/V1)

1. Drysdale Polar Potentiometer
 Consists of

## (Resistance Coils- Non-inductively wound)

2.Auxillary Apparatus

## A, Drysdale Phase shifting transformer

B, Transfer Instrument
Drysdale phase shifting transformer
Construction of PST

##  Phase shifting transformer (PST)  consists of stator and rotor

(Laminated silicon steel)

## * Supply current in stator creates a rotating magnetic field  induced

emf in rotor winding

## * Phase displacement of the rotor emf being equal to the angle

through which the rotor has been moved from its zero position.
 For a particular position of the rotor, the induced emf due to

## each of the stator winding is proportional to the cosine of the

angular displacement from position of maximum emf.

##  Scale  graduated both in degrees and cosines of angles.

 Scale & Pointer  Indicate the angle through which rotor has been

## moved from its zero position.

 Rotor induced emf due to stator winding 1,

e= KI Sin(t-)

##  Phase angle is given by rotor position

Transfer Instrument
 Precision type electro-dynamometer ammeter
Drysdale (Polar type) AC Potentometer
 Kelvin-Varley Slide Principle

##  r Shunting resistor ( used for range reduction)

 A Precision ammeter

##  Balance of potentiometer  successive adjustment of the sliding

contacts of the slide wire circuit and of the rotor of the phase
shifter.
 Magnitude of V read from potentiometer dials and slide

##  Phase angle of V read from scale on the phase shifter.

2.Gall-Tinsaley (Co-ordinate type) AC
Potentiometer
Phase Splitting Circuit
 T1,T2 Step down transformers 6V, provides isolation,

mA)

##  Only one pair to which unknown V is applied.

 Selector switch Test position allows I in quadrature potentiometer

## slide wire to be compared with that in the inphase potentiometer

wire, utilizing mutual inductance M.

##  Current in in-phase potentiometer is adjusted to its standard

value.[DC supply, Standard Cell, D Arsonval type galvanometer]

##  Current in quadrature potentiometer= Current in in-phase

potentiometer [50mA]

##  Two currents must be exactly in quadrature.

 Rheostat R is adjusted until I is in-phase potentiometer=50 mA.

## in phase behind the current in the primary winding (i.e) in quadrature

potentiometer slide wire.

 i Primary current

##  Emf induced in secondary= 2fMi

 e = 2x50x0.0636x0.05=1.0V

 For balance,

##  Unknown V is switched in the circuit by means of S3.

 Two slide wire circuits are in series with one another & with

vibration Galvanometer.
 Balance is obtained by adjusting the both pairs of sliding contacts

(bb & cc) together with the reversal of switches S1 & S2.

 At balance,

## * Reading of slide wire of the in-phase potentiometer together with

position of S1 ,gives the magnitude & sign of the in-phase
component of unknown V.

## * Reading of slide wire of the quadrature potentiometer together with

position of S2 ,gives the magnitude & sign of the quadrature
component of unknown V.
Phasor diagram of Co-ordinate type
potentiometer
Phasor Diagram Of Phase Splitting Circuit
V jV

----------------------- = ------------

## R1+ L2= 1/C

L1-R2=R
Errors
 Harmonics in the supply waveform

##  Mutual inductance between the various parts of the circuit.

Applications of AC Potentiometers

1. Voltmeter calibration

2. Ammeter Calibration

## 4. Measurement of self reactance of a coil

5. Other applications
1.Voltmeter Calibration
 Low V( upto 1.5V) measured directly

##  High Vusing 2 capacitors in series with potentiometer

2.Ammeter Calibration
 Using non-inductive standard resistors with potentiometer
3. Wattmeter & Energy meter Testing
 Same as DC potentiometer application

## different power factors.

4.Measurement of self reactance of a coil
 Standard resistance S is connected in series with the coil whose

reactance is to be measured.

## V across the standard resistor= Vss

V across coil=Vc c

## Current through the coil= Vs/S s

 Impedance of coil=Z= Vc / I = (SVc c /Vs s)

 ={SVc/ Vs} c- s

## = [SVc / Vs] Sin (c- s)

Other applications of AC potentiometer
 Gives excellent results in magnetic testing & precise
testing of instrument transformers.