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AC Potentiometers

Introduction
 Both magnitudes and phases of the two( unknown V and
Potentiometer V) have to be same to obtain balance.
Factors to be considered
 Equality of voltages being compared at all instants.
 Equal phase and magnitude at all instants.
 Frequency and waveform of the current in the potentiometer
must be same as measured voltage.
 Ac source Purely sinusoidal.
Types of AC Potentiometer
1. Polar type

2. Co-ordinate type

1.Polar Type

Magnitude is read from one scale

Phase angle w.r.to some reference phasor is read directly from second
scale.


V
2.Co-ordinate type

* Provided with 2 scales

* One for-in phase component(V1)

* Another one for quadrature component (V2)

V1 +V2
Magnitude of V=

Phase angle, =tan(V2/V1)


1. Drysdale Polar Potentiometer
 Consists of

1.Potentiometer of ordinary dc type

(Resistance Coils- Non-inductively wound)

2.Auxillary Apparatus

A, Drysdale Phase shifting transformer

B, Transfer Instrument
Drysdale phase shifting transformer
Construction of PST

 Phase shifting transformer (PST)  consists of stator and rotor


(Laminated silicon steel)

 Stator carries 2 or 3 phase winding

 Rotor has only one winding

 Small air gap

* Supply current in stator creates a rotating magnetic field  induced


emf in rotor winding

* Phase displacement of the rotor emf being equal to the angle


through which the rotor has been moved from its zero position.
 For a particular position of the rotor, the induced emf due to

each of the stator winding is proportional to the cosine of the


angular displacement from position of maximum emf.

 Scale  graduated both in degrees and cosines of angles.

 Scale & Pointer  Indicate the angle through which rotor has been

moved from its zero position.


 Rotor induced emf due to stator winding 1,

e1=KI Sin t Cos

 Rotor induced emf due to stator winding 2,

e2=KI Sin (t+90) Cos (+90)=-KI Cos t Sin

 Resultant emf in the rotor,

e= KI [Sin t Cos - Cos t Sin ]

e= KI Sin(t-)

 Rotor emf has a constant amplitude.

 Phase angle is given by rotor position


Transfer Instrument
 Precision type electro-dynamometer ammeter
Drysdale (Polar type) AC Potentometer
 Kelvin-Varley Slide Principle

 Detector Vibration Galvanometer (V.G)

 Tuned to give resonance at the frequency of the circuit under test.

 r Shunting resistor ( used for range reduction)

 A Precision ammeter

 R Adjusting the slide wire current.

 Standardization ( DC source, dArsonval galvanometer)

 Balance of potentiometer  successive adjustment of the sliding

contacts of the slide wire circuit and of the rotor of the phase
shifter.
 Magnitude of V read from potentiometer dials and slide

wire (at balance)

 Phase angle of V read from scale on the phase shifter.


2.Gall-Tinsaley (Co-ordinate type) AC
Potentiometer
Phase Splitting Circuit
 T1,T2 Step down transformers 6V, provides isolation,

provided with earthed screens between windings.

 S1,S2Sign changing switches (To reverse the direction of

unknown emf applied to the slide-wires).

 A reflecting dynamometer instrument (Torsion head type)

for maintaining current in slide wire circuit at standard value (50


mA)

 S3Selector switch ( Used to place unknown V in the circuit)

 S3 Consists of 4 pairs of terminals.

 Only one pair to which unknown V is applied.


 Selector switch Test position allows I in quadrature potentiometer

slide wire to be compared with that in the inphase potentiometer


wire, utilizing mutual inductance M.

 Current in in-phase potentiometer is adjusted to its standard


value.[DC supply, Standard Cell, D Arsonval type galvanometer]

 Current in quadrature potentiometer must be same as that in in-phase

potentiometer . [Standard value-50mA].

 Current in quadrature potentiometer= Current in in-phase


potentiometer [50mA]

 Two currents must be exactly in quadrature.


 Rheostat R is adjusted until I is in-phase potentiometer=50 mA.

 Selector switch S3 is thrown to test position.

 Emf induced in secondary winding of mutual inductor M will lag 90

in phase behind the current in the primary winding (i.e) in quadrature


potentiometer slide wire.

 i Primary current

 Emf induced in secondary= 2fMi

 e = 2x50x0.0636x0.05=1.0V

 Slide wire of in-phase potentiometer is set to calculated value of

induced emf in secondary of M.

 R and C are adjusted until exact balance is obtained.


 For balance,

 I in quadrature potentiometer slide wire= Standard value=

Exactly 90 out of phase with I in in-phase slide wire.

 Emf in secondary of M lags 90 in phase behind primary current.

 This emf should be in phase with V drop across a portion of in-

phase slide wire.

 Current in primary of M must be in exact quadrature with I in

this in phase potentiometer slide wire.

 Unknown V is switched in the circuit by means of S3.

 Two slide wire circuits are in series with one another & with

vibration Galvanometer.
 Balance is obtained by adjusting the both pairs of sliding contacts

(bb & cc) together with the reversal of switches S1 & S2.

 At balance,

* Reading of slide wire of the in-phase potentiometer together with


position of S1 ,gives the magnitude & sign of the in-phase
component of unknown V.

* Reading of slide wire of the quadrature potentiometer together with


position of S2 ,gives the magnitude & sign of the quadrature
component of unknown V.
Phasor diagram of Co-ordinate type
potentiometer
Phasor Diagram Of Phase Splitting Circuit
Quadrature adjustment of currents
V jV

----------------------- = ------------

R+R2+ j{L2-(1/C)} R1+j L1

R1+j L1=j( R+R2)-{L2-(1/C)}

Conditions for phase splitting

( Obtained by equating real & imaginary parts on both sides)

R1+ L2= 1/C

L1-R2=R
Errors
 Harmonics in the supply waveform

 Due to inter capacitance, earth capacitance and mutual

inductance effects in the slide wire.

 In accuracy in method of measuring the frequency.

 Mutual inductance between the various parts of the circuit.


Applications of AC Potentiometers

1. Voltmeter calibration

2. Ammeter Calibration

3. Wattmeter and energy meter

4. Measurement of self reactance of a coil

5. Other applications
1.Voltmeter Calibration
 Low V( upto 1.5V) measured directly

 Medium V using Volt-ratio box

 High Vusing 2 capacitors in series with potentiometer


2.Ammeter Calibration
 Using non-inductive standard resistors with potentiometer
3. Wattmeter & Energy meter Testing
 Same as DC potentiometer application

 Phase shifting transformer is included in the potential

circuit to vary the phase of voltage w.r.to current .

 Hence wattmeter's and energy meters can be tested at

different power factors.


4.Measurement of self reactance of a coil
 Standard resistance S is connected in series with the coil whose

reactance is to be measured.

 Two voltages are measured.

 One across the standard resistance

 Other across the coil.

Polar type potentiometer

V across the standard resistor= Vss

V across coil=Vc c

Current through the coil= Vs/S s


 Impedance of coil=Z= Vc / I = (SVc c /Vs s)

 ={SVc/ Vs} c- s

 Resistance of coil= R= Z Cos (c- s)

= [SVc/ Vs] Cos (c- s)

 Reactance of coil=X= Z Sin (c- s)

= [SVc / Vs] Sin (c- s)


Other applications of AC potentiometer
 Gives excellent results in magnetic testing & precise
testing of instrument transformers.

 Gives an accuracy of 0.5 to 1%

 More convenient & simpler