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Conceptual Framework

Theoretical Framework

Many labor markets exhibit a persistent mismatch between available workers and

available jobs. Mismatch is likely to arise due to the inability of market participants to fully

anticipate and instantaneously adjust to changes in the labor market. Workers acquire skills or

decide where to reside without knowing the needs of the labor market, and firms design jobs

with specific qualifications in mind, not necessarily those required by the local labor market.

Thus, workers may find themselves unemployed because the qualifications they offered no

longer meet existing demands. Workers cannot easily relocate or learn new skills, and jobs

cannot be easily redesigned to accommodate the characteristics of unemployed workers. These

resource reallocations are costly, uncertain, and typically involve long spells of unemployment.

Mismatch is certainly a factor in unemployment: There were 4.2 million job openings as

of the end of February, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Even though millions of

people are still looking for work. But mismatch has always existed. The main finding is that

such a model of mismatch is quantitatively consistent with two robust features of labor markets:

the negative correlation between unemployment and vacancies.

The quality of a job match, i.e. the degree of fit between required and acquired skills, determines

the productivity level and earnings in a job. If an employee works in a non-matching job, his

acquired skills are under-utilized. This imposes a limitation on his labour productivity, resulting

in lower wages. The allocation of workers is optimal if every worker is matched to a job in

which, in relative terms, he performs better than all other workers. The incidence of job

mismatches, then, is explained by differences in the shares of vacant jobs of a given level and

available workers with adequate educational qualifications. Most of the research addressing the
topic of job mismatches refers to over-education (see among others Borghans and De Grip, 2000;

Clogg and Shockey, 1984; Freeman, 1976; Groot and Maassen van den Brink, 2000; Halaby,

1994; Hartog and Oosterbeek, 1988; Smith, 1986; Wolbers, De Graaf and Ultee, 2001). Workers

are over-educated if the level of education acquired exceeds the level of education required to

perform their jobs adequately. Far less attention is paid to job mismatches referring to the field of

education obtained (exceptions are Witte and Kalleberg,1995; Solga and Konietzka,1999;Van de

Werfhorst, 2001). Moreover, the minor attention given to this kind of job mismatch is based on

empirical studies that consider only a single country.


Skills
1. I organize my works and set priorities.
2. I can relate well to others, both co-workers and customers.
3. I shows professionalism and follow ethics.
4. Im able to share information using various communication technologies, like voice
email, email and computer
5. I listened and ask question in order to understand instructions and other peoples point of
view
6. I am emotionally mature, show gloomy outlooks, energetic and organize behaviour
7. I recognize many dimension of problem and can determine a root of cause
8. I like learn new things
9. I learn from my mistakes and can accept feedback
10. I can assess situations, identify problems and evaluate solutions
11. I know where I need to improve and like to set learning goals
12. I can identify and access learning opportunities
13. I can listen to instruction and act on those instruction with minimal guidance
14. I can helped others especially in case of emergency
15. I am confident that I will finished my work at early time
16. I am willing on what position are available.
17. I am good worker and enjoy helping people
18. I can read and understand information in words, graphs, diagrams or charts
19. I respect the thoughts, opinion and contributions of others
20. I am sensitive enough in multi-cultural environment and build rapport with others
21. I accomplished works to the best of my knowledge and ability.
22. I am satisfied with my ability whenever I get a career.
23. I am confident with my technical ability in terms of accomplishing results.
24. A skill in a certain job is a significant aspect in having a career.
25. I think I am under-qualified in my chosen career.
26. I think I am over-qualified in my chosen career.
27. I am open in any comments and suggestion regarding my job skills or performance.
28. I seek for improvements in terms of my skills.
29. I speak fluent in English as much as possible when it comes to job interviews.
30. I am dependable customer-focused.

Economy
1. I get my expected profit in our company.
2. I have to frugal my expenses because of economic crisis.
3. Are you affected in global economic.
4. Are you aware in illegal recruitment abroad
5. Are you agreeing in occupations exporting industries
6. Do you experience reallocation of labour
7. I am aware of the economic status of our country.
8. Economic downturn affects job placement.
9. Government acts regarding the problem on job mismatch.
10. I am aware of the in demand jobs or works available.
11. I am deeply affected in the economic stability of our country.
12. I am aware of the job vacancies and employment lost in the industry.
13. I am aware of paying taxes.
14. I am aware of the minimum wages in the job industry.
15. I participate and give insights in employment issues in the industry.
16. I am aware of the priorities of the government most specifically job openings, job seeking
and job fairs.
17. My monthly salary is not enough for my daily expenses
18. I am satisfy on our public utility transportation like train, bus and jeep
19. I cant afford to buy my own house
20. My daily allowance is not enough for my living expenses
21. Theres always an adequate supply of medicine on our public hospital
22. Many people have get a permanent job
23. Government always offer a job fair monthly
24. I was unable to pay my bill my bills on due date
25. I always stay at least 2 years and more on every company that I have worked
26. You still working for a job that gives you a low profit
27. Are you willing to work in our company whether our system is not good
28. Are you working for job that does not compatible on your degree
29. Are you able to work whether it is a minimum fare
30. Are you aware in every agency when you seek a job

Time Management
1. I able to handle pressure in doing job work.
2. I can handle deadlines, frustrations, difficult people and silly rules in a job.
3. I am flexible enough to multi-task and shift continuous works in my job.
4. I attend job meetings regarding company evaluation and improvements.
5. Time management is a big problem for me.
6. I tend to leave because of unnecessary situations I need to deal with.
7. I tend to resign in my job because of time related issues that I cant handle.
8. Are you aware of over-time and under-time in job industry?
9. Are you aware of the circumstances when you have an absent or lack in you working
record.
10. I am open in any changes that would occur in my working schedule.
11. I always pass my requirements on time
12. I can manage my time effectively
13. I judge myself by accomplishment of task rather than by amount activity busy-ness
14. I try to do the most important task during my most unenergetic task periods of the day
15. I prevent interruptions from distracting me from high priority task
16. I prioritize my list in order of importance, not urgency
17. I am spending enough time planning
18. I tackle difficult or unpleasant task without procrastinating
19. I am able to meet deadlines without rushing at the last minute
20. I finished my task 5 minutes before the exact time
21. I go to the company earlier before my boss arrived
22. The problem outside the company does not affect my work to become late
23. Helping others is not hindrance to finish my work
24. Being traffic every day is conflict to my work
25. Are you wasting your time in your working hours
26. I can handle the traffic because I early go to my work
27. Are you on time to pass your report on your boss
28. I keep up-to-date on reading to make my task easy
29. Are you able in overtime working hours
30. I am satisfied with the way I use my time

Self-efficacy
1. 1. I am considerate and understanding to the behaviour of my boss, co-worker and
costumer.
2. I have a high self-esteem and confidence.
3. I motivate myself that I can do certain task even though it is the first time for me
to do it.
4. I am conscious in terms of my looks and hygiene whenever I go to work.
5. I ask questions regarding things that I am curious on and open in my guidance.
6. Remember well information presented in a work
7. Stand up for myself when I feel I am being treated unfairly
8. Overcome discouragement when nothing you try seems to work
9. I am friendly especially to my co-workers
10. I love my job thats why I finish it early
11. Im Confident whatever it is
12. Im religious person and pray always especially for the safeness of company
13. I explore many things when it comes to company
14. Avoiding myself for being upset by everyday problem
15. I have a standard in my work attire.
16. I have patience when boss shout me.
17. Prevent problem behavior in the office.
18. Control disruptive behavior in office.
19. I can manage when the customer get angry.
20. Express my views freely important matters.
21. Influence the decisions that are made from office.
22. Get a help from co-worker when I have a social problems
23. I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough
24. If someone opposes me, I can find the means and ways to get what I want
25. It is easy for me to stick to my aims and accomplish my goals
26. I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events.
27. I can solve most problems if I invest the necessary effort
28. When I confronted with a problem, I can usually find several solutions
29. If I am trouble, I can usually think of a solution
30. I can usually handle whatever comes my way

Experience

1. I experience worst embarrassing situation in terms of my skills.


2. I grow or changed over job experiences.
3. I set career goals.
4. I study company transactions to become familiarized in the industry.
5. I attend seminars, talks and trainings regarding my job.
6. I seek additional knowledge to improve my performance and ability.
7. I am an active employee that will accomplish my work according to the rule of the
company.
8. I contribute ideas and suggestions that could add to the progress of the company.
9. Experience is a great advantage when it comes to job description.
10. I dont easily get frustrated whenever I make mistakes and errors.
11. At work, I often do the same thing over and over
12. I usually dont know what is going on in organization
13. My work objective are unrealistic & difficult to achieve
14. I can work under pressure time
15. Im flexible on any work that had given to me
16. I can easily adapt on any environment that assign in me
17. Works to establish and maintain a positive relationship with all employees supervised
18. Demonstrate appropriate interaction with the public
19. Deals effectively and professionally with other employees
20. Effectively collaborates with other department members as necessary
21. Are you compatible if your work is not familiar in your previous work.
22. Do you set a standard to choosing a job.
23. In the interview, are you flexible to answer the non familiar questions.
24. You are worrying if you have a memo from your boss.
25. You are flexible in every kind of job.
26. Do you feel comfortable on your former job.
27. Are you fine with your workmate.
28. The interviews get worse on me.
29. I satisfied in our management.
30. My boss rarely praises my work.