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Refrigeration is defined as the process of extracting heat from a lower-temperature heat source,
substance, or cooling medium and transferring it to a higher-temperature heat sink. Refrigeration
maintains the temperature of the heat source below that of its surroundings while transferring the
extracted heat, and any required energy input, to a heat sink, atmospheric air, or surface water.

A refrigeration system is a combination of components and equipment connected in a

sequential order to produce the refrigeration effect. The refrigeration systems commonly used for
air conditioning can be classified by the type of input energy and the refrigeration process as

1. Vapor compression systems: In vapor compression systems, compressors activate the refrigerant
by compressing it to a higher pressure and higher temperature level after it has produced its
refrigeration effect. The compressed refrigerant transfers its heat to the sink and is condensed to
liquid form. This liquid refrigerant is then throttled to a low-pressure, low-temperature vapor to
produce refrigerating effect during evaporation. Vapor compression systems are the most widely
adopted refrigeration systems in both comfort and process air conditioning.
2. Absorption systems: In an absorption system, the refrigeration effect is produced by thermal
energy input. After absorbing heat from the cooling medium during evaporation, the vapor
refrigerant is absorbed by an absorbent medium. This solution is then heated by direct-fired
furnace, waste heat, hot water, or steam. The refrigerant is again vaporized and then condensed
to liquid to begin the refrigeration cycle again.
3. Air or gas expansion systems: In an air or gas expansion system, air or gas is compressed to a
high pressure by mechanical energy. It is then cooled and expanded to a low pressure. Because
the temperature of air or gas drops during expansion, a refrigeration effect is produced.

A refrigerant is the primary working fluid used for absorbing and transmitting heat in a
refrigeration system. Refrigerants absorb heat at a low temperature and low pressure and release
heat at a higher temperature and pressure. Most refrigerants undergo phase changes during heat
absorptionevaporation and heat releasingcondensation.


In general, there is no ideal refrigerant available yet. However, it is desired to have the features
below in any refrigerant:
1. Low boiling and freezing point.
2. High critical pressure and temperature.
3. High latent heat of vaporization.
4. Low specific heat of liquid, and high specific heat of vapor.
5. Low specific volume of vapor.
6. High thermal conductivity.
7. Non-corrosive to metals.
8. Non-flammable and non-explosive.
9. Non-toxic.
10. Low cost.
11. Easily and regularly available.

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12. Easy to liquefy at moderate pressure and temperature.
13. Mixes well with oil.
14. High coefficient of performance.
15. Ozone friendly.
16. Easy of locating leaks by odor or suitable indicator, i.e. Leakage Detection.


The refrigerants may be classified as shown in Table (8.1). However, the refrigerants are
commonly classified into five main groups as:
1. Halocarbon Refrigerants: Halocarbon Refrigerants are all synthetically produced and were
developed as the Freon family of refrigerants. They are chemicals in which one or
more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen
atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine). Depending on whether they include chemical
elements hydrogen (H), carbon (C), chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F); they are subdivided as:
- CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons): R-11, R-12, R-113, R-114, R-115
- HCFCs (Hydrochlorofluorocarbons): R-22, R-123
- HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons): R-134a, R-404a, R-407C, R-410a
2. Azeotropic Refrigerants: An azeotropic refrigerant is a stable mixture of refrigerants whose
vapor and liquid phases retain identical compositions over a wide range of temperatures.
However, these mixtures, usually, have properties that differ from either of their components.
Examples of some azeotropes are:
- R-500: 73.8% R-12 and 26.2% R-152
- R-502: 8.8% R-22 and 51.2% R-115
- R-503: 40.1% R-23 and 59.9% R-13
- R-504: 48.2% R-32 and 51.8% R-115
3. Zeotropic Refrigerants: A zeotropic refrigerant is a mixture whose composition in liquid phase
differs to that in vapor phase. Therefore, they do not boil at constant temperatures unlike
azeotropic refrigerants. Examples of some zeotropic refrigerants are:
- R-404a: 4% R-125, 44% R-134a, and 52% R-143a
- R-407c: 52% R-32, 25% R-125, and 23% R-134a
- R-410a: 50% R-32 and 50% R-125
- R-413a: 3% R-600a, 9% R-218, and 88% R-134a

4. Inorganic Refrigerants: The inorganic refrigerants were used far earlier than the halocarbons.
They are still in use due to their inherent thermodynamic and physical properties. These
compounds include ammonia (NH3), water (H2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) in addition to the
gases used in the gas expansion systems such as air, oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar). They are
named as:
- R-717: Ammonia
- R-718: Water/Steam
- R-728: Nitrogen
- R-729: Air
- R-732: Oxygen
- R-740: Argon
- R-744: Carbon Dioxide
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5. Hydrocarbon Refrigerants: Many hydrocarbon gases have successfully been used as
refrigerants in industrial and commercial applications. They possess satisfactory
thermodynamic properties; however, they are highly flammable and explosive. Examples of
some hydrocarbons utilized as refrigerants are:
- R-170: Ethan
- R-290: Propane
- R-600: Butane
- R-600a: Isobutane
- R-1150: Ethylene

Table (8.1) Classification of Refrigerants

Refrigerant Refrigerant
Halocarbon Refrigerants Inorganic Refrigerants
R-717 (ammonia) .. Table (8.6) and Fig.(8.9)
Methane Series
R-718 (water/steam)
R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) Table (8.2) and Fig.(8.5)
R-744 (carbon dioxide)
R-22 (chlorodifluoromethane) .. Table (8.3) and Fig.(8.6)
Hydrocarbon Refrigerants
R-23 (trifluoromethane)
R-50 (methane)
R-32 (difluoromethane)
R-170 (ethane)
Ethane Series R-290 (propane)
R-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) R-600 (n-butane)
R-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) R-600a (isobutane)
R-125 (pentafluoroethane) R-1150 (ethylene)
R-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane).Table(8.4) & Fig.(8.7) R-1270 (propylene)
R-143a (1,1,1-trifluoroethane) .. Table (8.5) and Fig.(8.8) Cryogenic Fluids
R-152a (1,1-difluoroethane) R-702 (normal hydrogen)
Propane Series R-702p (parahydrogen)
R-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane) R-704 (helium)
R-728 (nitrogen)
Zeotropic Blends (% by mass) R-729 (air)
R-404A [R-125/143a/134a (44/52/4)] R-732 (oxygen)
R-407C [R-32/125/134a (23/25/52)] R-740 (argon)
R-410A [R-32/125 (50/50)]
Absorption Solutions
Azeotropic Blends Ammonia/Water
R-507A [R-125/143a (50/50)] Water/Lithium Bromide

The properties of refrigerants are usually given in form of P-h diagrams and tables of saturated
liquid and saturated vapour. Those properties for some of the most common refrigerants, i.e. R-12,
R-22, R-134a, R-143a, and R-717 (Ammonia), are respectively given in Figs.[(8.1), (8.2), (8.3),
(8.4), and (8.5)] and Tables [(8.2), (8.3), (8.4), (8.5), and (8.6)].

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Fig.(8.1) Pressure-enthalpy diagram for Refrigerant 12

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Table (8.2)

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Fig.(8.2) Pressure-enthalpy diagram for Refrigerant 22

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Table (8.3)

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Fig.(8.3) Pressure-enthalpy diagram for Refrigerant 134a

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Table (8.4)

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Fig.(8.4) Pressure-enthalpy diagram for Refrigerant 143a

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Table (8.5)

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Fig.(8.5) Pressure-enthalpy diagram for Refrigerant 717 (Ammonia)

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Table (8.6)

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A refrigeration process indicates the change of thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant and
the energy transfer between the refrigerant and the surroundings. The following refrigeration
processes occur during the operation of a vapor compression refrigerating system:
1. Evaporation: In this process, the refrigerant evaporates at a lower temperature than that of its
surroundings, absorbing its latent heat of vaporization.
2. Superheating: Saturated refrigerant vapor is usually superheated to ensure that liquid
refrigerant does not flow into the compressor.
3. Compression: Refrigerant is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature for condensation.
4. Condensation: Gaseous refrigerant is condensed to liquid form by being de-superheated, then
condensed, and finally subcooled, transferring its latent heat of condensation to a coolant.
5. Throttling and expansion: The higher-pressure liquid refrigerant is throttled to the lower
evaporating pressure and is ready for evaporation.

On the other hand, the following refrigeration processes occur during the operation of an air or
gas expansion refrigeration system:
1. Compression: Air or gas is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature.
2. Heat release: Heat is released to the surroundings at constant pressure in order to reduce the
temperature of the air or gas.
3. Throttling and expansion: Air or gas is throttled and expanded so that its temperature is
4. Heat absorption: Heat is absorbed from the surroundings because of the lower air or gas


Most refrigerants undergo a series of evaporation, compression, condensation, throttling, and
expansion processes, absorbing heat from a lower-temperature reservoir and releasing it to a higher-
temperature reservoir in such a way that the final state is equal in all respects to the initial state. It is
said to have undergone a closed refrigeration cycle. When air or gas undergoes a series of
compression, heat release, throttling, expansion, and heat absorption processes, and its final state is
not equal to its initial state, it is said to have undergone an open refrigeration cycle.


In inch-pound (I-P) units, refrigeration is expressed in British thermal units per hour, or simply
Btu/h. A British thermal unit is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise the
temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit from 59F to 60F; and 1 Btu/h = 0.293
Another unit of refrigeration widely used in the HVAC&R industry is ton of refrigeration, or
simply TR. As mentioned before, 1 TR = 12,000 Btu/h of heat removed. This equals the heat
absorbed by 1 ton (2000 lb) of ice melting at a temperature of 32F over 24 h.
As the heat of fusion of ice at 32F is 144 Btu / lb, then:
1 2000 144

12,000 Btu / h (8.1)
3.516 kW

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The pressure-enthalpy p-h diagram is the most common graphical tool to analyse and calculate
the heat and work transfer and performance of a refrigeration cycle. A single-stage refrigeration
cycle consists of two regions: the high-pressure region, or high side, and the low-pressure region, or
low side. The change in pressure can be clearly illustrated on the p-h diagram. Also, both heat and
work transfer of various processes can be calculated as the change of enthalpy and are easily shown
on the p-h diagram.
Fig.(8.6) is a general skeleton p-h diagram, where the enthalpy h (kJ/kg) is the abscissa, while
the pressure, expressed in logarithmic scale, is the ordinate. The saturated liquid line separates the
subcooled liquid from the two-phase region in which vapor and liquid refrigerants coexist. The
saturated vapor line separates this two-phase region from the superheated vapor. In the two-phase
region, the mixture of vapor and liquid is subdivided by the constant-dryness-fraction quality line.
The constant-temperature lines are nearly vertical in the subcooled liquid region. At higher
temperatures, they are curves near the saturated liquid line. In the two-phase region, the constant-
temperature lines are horizontal. In the superheated region, the constant-temperature lines curve
down sharply. Because the constant-temperature lines and constant-pressure lines in the two-phase
region are horizontal, they are closely related. The specific pressure of a refrigerant in the two-
phase region determines its temperature, and vice versa.
Also in the superheated region, the constant-entropy lines incline sharply upward, and constant-
volume lines are flatter. Both are slightly curved.

Fig.(8.6) General skeleton of pressure-enthalpy p-h diagram


The Carnot refrigeration cycle is a reverse engine cycle. All processes in a Carnot refrigeration
cycle are reversible, so it is the most efficient refrigeration cycle. Fig.(8.7.a) is a schematic diagram
of a Carnot cycle refrigerating system, while Fig.(8.7.b) shows the Carnot refrigeration cycle using
gas as the working substance. Using vapour as a working substance, Carnot cycle, shown in
Fig.(8.7.b), is composed of four reversible processes as:

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1. An isothermal process 4-1 in which heat q1 is extracted at constant temperature TR1 per (kg) of
working substance.
2. An isentropic compression process 1-2.
3. An isothermal process 2-3 in which q2 is rejected at constant temperature TR2 per (kg) of
working substance.
4. An isentropic expansion process 3-4.
Fig.(8.7.b) shows the Carnot refrigeration cycle using vapour as the working substance. Wet
vapour is the only working substance where heat supply and heat rejection processes can occur
easily at constant temperature. This is because the temperatures of wet vapour remain constant
when latent heat is supplied or rejected.
As in the gas cycle, there are two isothermal processes 4-1 and 2-3 absorbing heat at
temperature TR1 and rejecting heat at TR2, respectively, and two isentropic processes, one for
compression 1-2 and another for expansion 3-4.

Fig.(8.7) Carnot refrigeration cycle: (a) schematic diagram, (b) gas or vapour cycle


According to the first law of thermodynamics, when a system undergoes a thermodynamic
cycle, the net heat supplied to the system is equal to the net work done, or:
Heat Supplied + Heat Rejected = Net Work Done (8.2)
Referring to Fig.(8.7.a), in a Carnot refrigeration cycle,
q1 q 2 W

q1 q 2 W (8.3)
q 2 q1 W

Where; q1 = heat supplied from surroundings per kg of working substance at temperature T1

q2 = heat rejected to sink per kg of working substance at temperature T2
W = net work done by system
The heat extracted from the source at temperature TR1 by the working substance, i.e. the
refrigerating effect per kg of working substance, is
q1 TR1 (s1 s4 ) (8.4)
Where s1, s4 = entropy at state points 1 and 4, respectively in kJ/kgK. The heat rejected to the heat
sink at temperature TR2 can be calculated as:
q2 TR 2 (s3 s 2 ) TR 2 (s 2 s3 ) (8.5)
Where s2, s3 = entropy at state points 2 and 3, respectively in kJ/kgK. Because in the isentropic
process 1-2, s1 = s2, and in isentropic process 3-4, s3 = s4, thus:
q2 TR2 (s1 s4 ) (8.6)

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The coefficient of performance is an index of performance of a thermodynamic cycle or a
thermal system. Because the COP can be greater than 1, COP is used instead of thermal efficiency.
For a refrigerator, COP is defined as the ratio of the refrigeration effect q1 to the work input
Win, both in kJ/kg, that is,
Refrigerat ion Effect q1
COP (8.7)
Work Input Win
For the Carnot refrigeration cycle, from Eq.(8.3);
q2 q1
TR1 ( s1 s4 ) TR1

(TR 2 TR1 )( s1 s4 ) (TR 2 TR1 )


The Carnot cycle cannot be achieved for
the vapour cycle in actual practice because
liquid slugging would occur during
compression of the two-phase refrigerant. In
addition, the mixture, mostly liquid, does very
little work when it expands after condensation
in the heat engine. Therefore, a single- stage
ideal vapour compression cycle is used instead
of the Carnot cycle.
Fig.(8.8) shows an ideal single-stage
vapour compression cycle, where the
following points should be kept in mind:
1- The compression process occurs in the
superheated region.
2- A throttling device, such as an expansion
valve, is used instead of the heat engine.
3- Single-stage means that there is only one
stage of compression.
4- An ideal cycle is one in which the
compression process is isentropic and the
pressure losses in the pipeline, valves, and
other components are negligible.
5- Vapour compression means that the vapour
refrigerant is compressed to a higher
pressure, and then the condensed liquid is
throttled to a lower pressure to produce the
refrigerating effect by evaporation.

Fig.(8.8) Single-stage ideal vapour

compression cycle: (a) schematic diagram;
(b) p-h diagram; (c) T-s diagram.
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Fig.(8.8.b) and Fig.(8.8.c) shows the refrigeration cycle on p-h and T-s diagrams, where a
series of cyclic processes take place sequentially as follows:
1- The refrigerant evaporates entirely in the evaporator and produces the refrigerating effect.
2- It is then extracted by the compressor at state point 1, compressor suction, and is compressed
isentropically from state point 1 to 2.
3- It is next condensed to liquid in the condenser, and the latent heat of condensation is rejected to
the heat sink.
4- The liquid refrigerant, at state point 3, flows through an expansion valve, which reduces it to the
evaporating pressure. In the ideal vapour compression cycle, the throttling process at the
expansion valve is the only irreversible process, usually indicated by a dotted line. Some of the
liquid flashes into vapour and enters the evaporator at state point 4.
5- The remaining liquid portion evaporates at the evaporating temperature, thus completing the

For the evaporating process between points 4 and 1, there is no work done during evaporation
and the change of kinetic energy between points 4 and 1 is small and it is usually ignored. Then, the
refrigeration effect can be determined as:
q ref q 41 h1 h4 (kJ/kg) (8.9)
h1, h4 = enthalpy of refrigerant at points 1 and 4, respectively, kJ/kg
qref = heat supplied per kg of working substance during evaporation process, kJ/kg
For isentropic compression between points 1 and 2, work input to the compressor Win is given as:
Win h2 h1 (kJ/kg) (8.10)
Similarly, for condensation process between points 2 and 3, the heat rejected by the refrigerant in
the condenser qrej is calculated as:
qrej q23 h2 h3 (kJ/kg) (8.11)
For the throttling process between points 3 and 4, assuming that the heat loss is negligible:
h3 h4 (8.12)
Accordingly, the COP of the single-stage ideal vapour compression cycle is:
Refrigerat ion Effect
Work Input
q ref h1 h4

Win h2 h1
While the refrigerant mass flow rate r (kg/s) flowing through the evaporator is:
Qref Qref
mr (8.14)
q ref h1 h4

Where Qref is the refrigeration capacity of the system under consideration.

Note: From Eq.(8.13), the smaller the difference between the condensing and evaporating
pressures, or between condensing and evaporating temperatures, the lower the Win input to the
compressor at a specific Qref and, therefore, the higher the COP. This fact can be observed easily
from Figs.(8.8.b & c).

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Example 8.1- A standard vapor-compression cycle producing 50kW of refrigeration using
refrigerant R-22 operates with a condensing temperature of 35C and an evaporating temperature of
-10C. Calculate (a) the refrigerating effect in kJ/kg, (b) the circulation rate of refrigerant in kg/s,
(c) the power required by the compressor in kW, (d) the coefficient of performance, (e) the volume
flow rate measured at the compressor suction, (f) the power per kW of refrigeration, and (g) the
compressor discharge temperature.

Solution- The first step in the solution is to sketch the refrigeration cycle on the pressure-enthalpy
diagram, shown in Fig.(8.9), as follows:
1. The state of the vapour leaving the evaporator and entering the compressor, i.e. point 1, is
located on the saturated vapour line at -10C.
2. The condition of the superheated vapour leaving the compressor and entering the condenser, i.e.
point 2, is located by following the constant entropy lines until reaching the saturation pressure
corresponding to 35C, which is the condensing pressure 1354 kPa.
3. The condition of vapour leaving the condenser and entering the expansion valve, i.e. point 3, is
located on the saturated liquid line at 35C.
4. Starting from point 3 and following the constant enthalpy line down until reaching the
evaporator temperature of -10C, the state of vapour leaving the expansion valve and entering
the evaporator, i.e. point 4, can be located.

Now, using Table (8.3) and Fig.(8.2), the enthalpies at the key points, i.e. 1, 2, 3, and 4, can be
determined as follows:
- From Table (8.3), the specific volume and enthalpy of the saturated vapour at -10C are
respectively h1 = 401.6kJ/kg and v1=0.0652kg/m3.
- From Fig.(8.2), the enthalpy of the superheated vapour at the saturation pressure corresponding
to 35C, which is 1354kPa, is h2 = 435.2 kJ/kg.
- From Table (8.3), the enthalpy of the saturated liquid at 35C is h3 = h4 = 243.1 kJ/kg.

Fig.(8.9) The pressure-enthalpy diagram for the system in Example- 8.1

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(a) The refrigerating effect is:
qref q41 h1 h4 401.6 - 243.1 = 158.5 kJ/kg
(b) The circulating rate of refrigerant can be calculated by dividing the refrigerating capacity by the
refrigerating effect:
Q 50 kW
m r ref 0.315 kg / s
qref 158 .5 kJ / kg
(c) The power required by the compressor is the work of compression per kilogram multiplied by
the refrigerant flow rate:
Win = (0.315 kg/s) (435.2 - 401.6 kJ/kg) = 10.6 kW
(d) The coefficient of performance is the refrigerating rate divided by the compressor power:
Qref 50 kW
COP 4.72
Win 10 .6 kW
(e) The volume rate of flow at the compressor inlet can be determined as:
Volume flow rate = rv1=(0.315 kg/s) (0.0652m3/kg)
= 0.0205 m3/s = 20.5 L/s
(J) The compressor power per kilowatt of refrigeration is:
10 .6 kW 1
Power of refrigeration 0.212 kW / kW
50 kW COP
(g) The compressor discharge temperature is the temperature of the superheated vapour at point 2,
which from Fig.(8.2) is found to be 57C.

Condensed liquid refrigerant is usually subcooled to a temperature lower than the saturated
temperature corresponding to the condensing pressure of the refrigerant, shown in Fig.(8.10.a) as
point 3. This is done to increase the refrigerating effect. The degree of subcooling depends mainly
on the temperature of the coolant, e.g. atmospheric air, surface water, or well water, during
condensation, and the construction and capacity of the condenser.
The enthalpy of subcooled liquid refrigerant hsc, kJ /kg, can be calculated as:
hsc hs ,cond. c pr (Ts ,cond. Tsc ) (8.15)

hs,cond. = enthalpy of saturated liquid refrigerant at condensing temperature, kJ/kg
cpr = specific heat of liquid refrigerant at constant pressure, kJ/kgC
Ts,cond. = saturated temperature of liquid refrigerant at condensing pressure, C
Tsc = temperature of subcooled liquid refrigerant, C

Note: Enthalpy hsc is also approximately equal to the enthalpy of the saturated liquid refrigerant at
subcooled temperature. SUPERHEATING
The purpose of superheating process, shown in Fig.(8.10.b), is to avoid compressor slugging
damage, where saturated refrigerant vapor is usually superheated to ensure that liquid refrigerant
does not flow into the compressor. The degree of superheat depends mainly on the type of
refrigerant feed and compressor as well as the construction of the evaporator.

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Fig.(8.10) (a) Subcooling and (b) superheating processes

Example 8.2- A 500-ton single-stage centrifugal vapour compression system uses R-22 as a
refrigerant. The vapour refrigerant enters the compressor at dry saturated state. The compression
process is assumed to be isentropic. Hot gas is discharged to the condenser and condensed at a
temperature of 35C. The saturated liquid refrigerant then flows through a throttling device and
evaporates at a temperature of 1.7C. Calculate:
1. The refrigeration effect.
2. The work input to the compressor.
3. The coefficient of performance of this refrigeration cycle.
4. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant.
Recalculate the COP and the energy saved in work input if the refrigerant is subcooled to a
temperature of 32.2C.

1. The refrigeration effect:
From Table (8.3), the enthalpy of the saturated liquid refrigerant at a temperature of 35C,
point 3 as shown in Fig.(8.11), is h3= h4=243.075kJ/kg.
Similarly, the enthalpy of saturated vapour refrigerant at a temperature of 1.7C, point 1, is
Thus, the refrigeration effect is calculated as:
qref = h1 - h4 = 405.67- 243.075 = 162.6kJ /kg
2. The work input to the compressor:
From Fig.(8.2), the enthalpy of the superheated vapour refrigerant at temperature of 50C,
point 2, is h2= 430kJ/kg. Thus:
Win = h2 h1 = 430- 405.67 = 24.33kJ /kg
3. The coefficient of performance of this refrigeration cycle:
According to Eq.(8.13), COP of the refrigerating system is calculated as:
qref 162.6
COP 6.68
Win 24 .33
4. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant:
From Eq.(8.14), the mass flow rate of the refrigerant can be calculated as
Qref 500 3.516
mr 10 .81kg / s
qref 162 .6

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If the liquid refrigerant is subcooled to a temperature of 32.2C, then its enthalpy is found using
Fig.(8.2) to be h3= h4=240kJ/kg. Thus, the refrigeration effect is increased to:
qref = h1 - h4 = 405.67- 240 = 165.67kJ /kg
Also COP is increased to:
qref 165.67
COP 6.81
Win 24.33
Now, the electric power input to the compressor Pin without subcooling is:
Qref 500 3.516
Pin 263 .17 kW
COP 6.68
While its value with subcooling Pin is:
Qref 500 3.516
Pin 258 .15 kW
COP 6.81
Thus, the savings in electric energy required are calculated as:

Pin Pin 263 .17 258 .15
Pin 0.019 1.9%
Pin 263 .17

Fig.(8.11) The p-h diagram of the refrigeration system in Example- 8.2 SUBCOOLING AND SUPERHEATING USING HEAT EXCHANGERS

Some refrigeration systems use a liquid-to-suction heat exchanger, which subcools the liquid
from the condenser with suction vapour coming from the evaporator. This arrangement is illustrated
in Fig.(8.12.a) and the corresponding pressure-enthalpy diagram in Fig.(8.12.b).
Saturated liquid at point 3 coming from the condenser is cooled to point 4 by means of vapour
at point 6 being heated to point 1. From heat balance, h3-h4= h1-h6, and hence, the refrigeration
effect is either h6-h5 or h1-h3.

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Fig.(8.12) Refrigeration system with a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid from the condenser

Example 8.3- A refrigerant 22 vapour compression system includes a liquid-to-suction heat

exchanger in the system. A heat exchanger is installed to warm the saturated vapour coming from
the evaporator from -10 to 5C with subcooling the liquid coming from the condenser at 30C. The
compressions are isentropic in both cases listed below.
(a) Calculate the coefficient of performance of the system without the heat exchanger but with the
condensing temperature at 30C and an evaporating temperature of -10C.
(b) Calculate the coefficient of performance of the system with the heat exchanger?
(c) If the compressor is capable of pumping 12.0 L/s measured at the compressor suction, what is
the refrigeration capacity of the system without the heat exchanger?
(d) With the same compressor capacity as in (c), what is the refrigerating capacity of the system
with the heat exchanger?
(e) What is the degree of subcooling obtained with the heat exchanger?

(a) Without a heat exchanger:
- From Table (8.3), the enthalpy saturated vapour refrigerant at -10C, point 1 or 6, is h1 =
401.555 kJ/kg.
- From Fig.(8.2), the enthalpy of the superheated vapour at the saturation pressure corresponding
to 30C, which is 1191.9kPa, is h2 = 431.787 kJ/kg.
- From Table (8.3), the enthalpy saturated liquid refrigerant at 30C, point 3 or 4, is h3 =236.664
- At point 5, h5 = h3 = 236.664 kJ/kg.
Thus, the coefficient of performance is:
h h 401 .555 236 .664
COP 1 5 5.46
h2 h1 431 .787 401 .555
(b) With a heat exchanger:
- From Table (8.3), the enthalpy saturated vapour refrigerant at -10C, point 6, is h6 = 401.555
- At point 1, where the superheated vapour leaves the heat exchanger and enters the compressor,
the evaporator saturation evaporator pressure corresponding to 30C is 354.79kPa, while the
temperature is 5C. So, the enthalpy can be read from Fig.(8.2) as h1 = 411.845kJ/kg.
- From Fig.(8.2), the enthalpy of the superheated vapour leaving the compressor, point 2, at the
saturation pressure corresponding to 30C, which is 1191.9kPa, is h2 = 444.407kJ/kg.

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- From Table (8.3), the enthalpy saturated liquid at 30C, point 3, is h3 =236.664 kJ/kg.
- From heat balance, h3h4= h1h6, and hence, the refrigeration effect is either h4= h3+h6h1
=226.374 kJ/kg= h5.
Thus, the coefficient of performance is:
h h 411 .845 226 .374
COP 1 5 5.7
h2 h1 444 .407 411 .845
(c) Refrigerating capacity without heat exchanger:
From Fig.(8.2) at point 1, v1 = 0.06534m3/kg. So, the refrigerating capacity is:

Vr 12 .0 10 3 m 3 / s
Qref m r q ref (h1 h5 ) (401 .555 236 .664 ) 30 .283 kW
v1 0.06534 m 3 / kg
8.613 TR
(d) Refrigerating capacity with heat exchanger:
From Fig.(8.2) at point 1, v1 = 0.070275m3/kg. So, the refrigerating capacity is:

Vr 12 .0 10 3 m 3 / s
Qref m r q ref (h6 h5 ) (401 .555 226 .374 ) 29 .913 kW
v1 0.070275 m 3 / kg
8.508 TR
(e) The degree of subcooling obtained:
At point 4, where the enthalpy of the subcooled liquid is h4=226.374 kJ/kg; we find from Fig.(8.2)
that T4=20C. Thus:
Degree of Subcooling = T3- T4=30-20=10C

Fig.(8.13) The p-h diagram of the refrigeration system in Example- 8.3

1- Compared with the standard vapour compression cycle, the system using a heat exchanger may
seem to have obvious advantages due to the increased refrigerating effect, where both the
capacity and the coefficient of performance may seem to be improved. However, this is not
necessarily true! Even though the refrigerating effect is increased, the compression is pushed
further out into superheat region, where the work of compression in kJ/kg is greater than it is
close to the saturated vapour line. Moreover and from standpoint of capacity, point 1 has a
higher specific volume than point 6, so that a compressor which is able to pump a certain volume
delivers less refrigerant mass flow rate if the intake is at point 1.
2- However, using heat exchanger is definitely justified in situations where the vapour entering the
compressor must be superheated to ensure that no liquid enters the compressor. Another practical
advantage is to subcool the liquid from the condenser to prevent bubbles of vapour from
impeding the flow of refrigerant through the expansion valve.
Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 164


The actual vapour-compression cycle suffers from inefficiencies compared with the standard or
ideal cycle. There are also other differences from the standard, which may be intentional or
unavoidable. Some comparisons can be illustrated by superimposing the actual cycle on the p-h
diagram of the standard cycle as shown in Fig.(8.14).

Fig.(8.14) Actual vapour-compression cycle compared with the ideal cycle

The main differences between the actual and the ideal cycle appear in the pressure drops in the
condenser and evaporator, in the subcooling of the liquid leaving the condenser, and in the
superheating of vapour leaving the evaporator. The ideal cycle assumes no pressure drop occurs in
either the condenser or the evaporator. Because of the friction, however, the pressure of the
refrigerant drops in the actual cycle. The result of these drops in pressure is that the compression
process between 1 and 2 requires more work than it is in the standard cycle. The other difference in
the actual cycle is that the compression is no longer isentropic as there are inefficiencies due to
friction and other losses in the compressor.


The absorption cycle is similar in certain aspects to the vapour-compression cycle. A
refrigeration cycle will operate with the condenser, expansion valve, and evaporator as shown in
Fig.(8.15) if the low-pressure vapour from the evaporator can be transformed into high-pressure
vapour and delivered to the condenser. The vapour-compression system uses a compressor for this
task. The absorption system first absorbs the low-pressure vapour in an appropriate absorbing
liquid. Embodied in the absorption process is the conversion of vapour into liquid, since this
process is akin to condensation, heat must be rejected during the process. The next step is to elevate
the pressure of the liquid with a pump, and the final step releases the vapour from the absorbing
liquid by adding heat.
The vapour-compression cycle is described as a work-operated cycle because the elevation of
pressure of the refrigerant is accomplished by a compressor that requires work. The absorption
system, on the other hand, is referred as a heat-operated cycle because most of the operating cost is
associated with providing the heat that drives off the vapour from the high-pressure liquid. Indeed
there is a requirement for some work in the absorption cycle to drive the pump, but the amount of
work for a given quantity of refrigeration is marginal compared to with that needed in the vapour-
compression cycle.

Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 165


Fig.(8.15) Methods of transforming low-pressure into high-pressure vapour in a refrigeration system


The basic absorption cycle is shown in Fig.(8.16). The condenser and evaporator are as shown
in Fig.(8.15), while the compression operation is provided by the assembly in the left half of the
diagram. Low-pressure vapour from the evaporator is absorbed by the liquid solution in the
absorber. If this absorption process were executed adiabatically, the temperature of the solution
would rise and eventually the absorption of vapour would cease.
To maintain the absorption process, the absorber is cooled by water or air that ultimately rejects
this heat to the atmosphere. The pump receives low-pressure liquid from the absorber, elevate the
pressure of the liquid, and delivers the liquid to the generator.
In the generator, heat from a high-temperature source derives off the vapour that had been
absorbed by the solution. The liquid solution returns to the absorber through a throttling valve
whose purpose is to provide a pressure drop to maintain the pressure difference between the
generator and absorber.
The pattern for the flow of heat to and from the four heat-exchange components in the
absorption cycle is that high-temperature heat enters the generator while low-temperature heat from
the substance being refrigerated enters the evaporator.
The heat rejection from the cycle occurs at the absorber and condenser at temperatures such
that the heat can be rejected to atmosphere.

Fig.(8.16) The basic absorption unit

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In this cycle, the principles preceded for the basic absorption system are all applied herein,
where the refrigerant used in this cycle is the water while liquid solution used to absorb the water
vapour is the lithium-bromide solution. As the refrigerant used in this cycle is water, this cycle is
used only in applications where the evaporator temperature is higher than 0C. It is often utilized in
cooling the chilled water used for air-conditioning purposes.
As shown in Fig.(8.17), in the double-shell absorption system using LiBr-water solution, the
LiBr-water solution is firstly heated in the generator to release the water vapour from it.
Then, the water vapour released is flowing into the condenser, where it turns into a liquid.
After that, the condensed water is delivered to the evaporator/absorber shell and passed through an
expansion device, shaped as sprayers or a perforated plated, in order to reduce the liquid pressure
and temperature.
By spraying this cold liquid over the evaporator coil, i.e. a chilled water coil, some of the
sprayed liquid is evaporated leading to a further drop in the temperature of the liquid remaining in
the bottom of the evaporator.
In the absorber, the water vaporized earlier at the evaporator is then absorbed by the BrLi-
water solution leading to increasing the concentration of water Refrigerant, or in other words,
decreasing the BrLi concentration.
Later, the solution is pumped to the generator, where it is heated to release some of its water
content as a water vapour going to the condenser, while the remaining solution is passed over an
expansion valve to sustain the pressure difference in the cycle.

Fig.(8.17) Two-shell LiBr-water absorption refrigeration system

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Lithium bromide is a solid salt crystal; in the presence of water vapour, it will absorb the
vapour and become a liquid solution. The liquid solution exerts a water-vapour pressure that is a
function of the solution temperature and the concentration of the solution. MASS BALANCE IN SOLUTION

The composition of a solution is generally expressed by the mass fraction of its components. In
a solution containing lithium bromide (LiBr) and water, X is used to indicate the mass fraction of
lithium bromide, i.e.:
X (8.16)
ml mw
Where: ml = mass of lithium bromide in solution, kg
mw = mass of water in solution, kg
The mass fraction of water in solution is 1-X. If the mass fraction of LiBr in a solution is
expressed as a percentage, it is known as the concentration of LiBr. VAPOUR PRESSURE

In general, the total pressure of a solution is equal to the sum of the vapour pressures of the
solute and of the solvent. However, in the case of a lithium bromidewater solution, the vapour
pressure of pure LiBr can be ignored because its value is much smaller than that of water.
When LiBr is dissolved in water, the boiling point of the solution at a given pressure is raised.
However, if the temperature of the solution remains constant, the dissolved LiBr reduces the vapour
pressure of the solution.
When a solution is saturated, equilibrium is established. The number of molecules across the
interface from liquid to vapour per unit time is equal to the number of molecules from vapour into
liquid. If the number of liquid molecules per unit volume is reduced due to the presence of a solute
then the number of vapour molecules per unit volume is also reduced. Consequently, the vapour
pressure of the solution is decreased. EQUILIBRIUM CHART

The properties of an aqueous lithium bromide solution, including vapour pressure, temperature,
and the mass fraction at equilibrium, may be illustrated on an equilibrium chart based on the
Dhring plot, as shown in Fig.(8.18). The ordinate of the equilibrium chart is the saturated vapour
pressure of water and the corresponding saturated temperature, where the temperature scale is
plotted on an inclined line.
The abscissa of the chart is the temperature of the solution. Mass fraction or concentration lines
are inclined lines not parallel to each other.
At the bottom of the concentration lines, there is a crystallization line or saturation line. If the
temperature of a solution of constant mass fraction of LiBr drops below this lineor if the mass
fraction of LiBr of a solution of constant temperature is higher than the saturated conditionthe
part of LiBr salt exceeding the saturated condition tends to form solid crystals.

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Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 169


When water is mixed with lithium bromide at the same temperature to form a solution
adiabatically, there is a significant increase in the temperature of the solution. If the mixing process
is to be an isothermal process, i.e., if the temperature of the process is to be kept constant, then heat
must be removed from the solution. Such a heat transfer per unit mass of solution is called the
integral heat of the solution hi, or heat of absorption, in kJ/kg. Based on the common rule of
thermodynamics, hi is negative.
Figure Fig.(8.19) shows the enthalpy-concentration h-X diagram of an LiBr-water solution. The
ordinate of the diagram is the specific enthalpy of the solution h, in kJ/kg, while the abscissa is the
percent concentration of the LiBr-water solution. The curved lines represent the specific enthalpy of
the solution at various concentrations of LiBr mixed with water at a constant temperature. At the
right-hand side of the diagram, there is also a crystallization line. To the right of this line, excess
solid LiBr may crystallize.

Fig.(8.19) Enthalpy-concentration diagram for LiBr-water solution

Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 170


The basic cycle of LiBr-water refrigeration system is schematically explained in Fig.(8.20).
The performance of such a cycle is measured through knowing the mass flow rate and enthalpy at
key-points which are numbered, according to Fig.(8.20), as follows:
1- The concentrated solution concentrated in water leaving the absorber towards the generator.
2- The high-pressure water vapour leaving the generator towards the condenser.
3- The high-pressure diluted solution concentrated in LiBr leaving the generator towards the
absorber through the throttling valve.
4- The high-pressure water liquid leaving from the condenser towards the evaporator through the
expansion valve.
5- The low-pressure water vapour leaving the evaporator towards the absorber.

Concentrated Solution

3 4

Fig.(8.20) A schematic of the basic LiBr-water absorption refrigeration cycle

Note1- To know the mass flow rate at the key points in terms of the refrigerant mass flow rate r, a
mass balance over the system components is implemented as follows:
- Regenerator:
1m1 3 m3 m3 ( 1 3 )m1
m1 m2 m3 , but;
m 2 m r
m1 mr ( 1 3 )m1

1 ( 1 3 )
( 1 3 )
m3 mr
1 ( 1 3 )
- Condenser:
m4 m2 mr (8.17.b)
- Evaporator:
m5 m4 mr (8.17.c)

- Absorber: The mass balance done above can be double checked, where: m3 m5 m2

Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 171

Note2- Now, the heat added/removed from each part of the system can be determined through
implementing a heat balance over that part as:
- Regenerator:
m1h1 q g m2 h2 m3 h3
q g m2 h2 m3 h3 m1h1 (8.18.a)

- Condenser:
m2 h2 qc m4 h4 , but; m2 m4 mr
qc mr (h2 h4 ) (8.18.b)

- Evaporator:
m4 h4 qe m5 h5 , but; m4 m5 mr
qe mr (h5 h4 ) (8.18.c)

- Absorber:
m3 h3 m5 h5 m1h1 qa
qa m3 h3 m5 h5 m1h1 (8.18.d)
Note3- The coefficient of performance for this cycle can be written as:
refrigeration rate q
COPabs e
rate of heat addition at the generator q g
mr (h5 h4 ) mr (h5 h4 )

m2 h2 m3 h3 m1h1 ( 1 3 ) 1
mr h2 mr h3 mr h1
1 ( 1 3 ) 1 ( 1 3 )
h5 h4
COPabs (8.19)
( )h h1
h2 1 3 3
1 ( 1 3 ) 1 ( 1 3 )

Example 8.4- Compute the rate flow of refrigerant (water) through the absorption refrigeration
cycle illustrated in Fig.(8.21), if the pump delivers 0.6kg/s of LiBr-water solution and the following
temperatures prevail: generator, 100C; condenser, 40C; evaporator, 10C; and absorber, 30C.
Also, determine each of qg, qa, qc, qe, and the COP.

Fig.(8.21) A schematic of the absorption system in Example- 8.4

Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 172

Solution- The following procedure may be followed in the analysis of the basic absorption sytem:
1- There are two different pressures exist in the system: a high pressure prevails in the generator
and condenser, while the low pressure prevails in the absorber and evaporator. As a saturated
condition of pure water prevails in the condenser due to simultaneous existence of liquid and
vapour, the condensing temperature of 40C, fixes the pressure in the condenser, and thus in the
generator. So:
- From the table of thermodynamic properties of water at saturation, i.e. Table (2.4), at
Tc=40C, we find that pc=7.3835kPa= pg.
- Similarly, but at the evaporator temperature Te=10C, we find that pe=1.228kPa= pa.
2- Then, the concentration of the BrLi-water solution and its corresponding enthalpy are computed
as follows:
- For the BrLi-water solution leaving the absorber and entering the generator at points 1, its
concentration can be found from Fig.(8.18) at the corresponding temperature and pressure of
Ta=30C and pa=1.228kPa to be 1=49%.
Now, from Fig.(8.19) at Ta=30C and 1=49%, the enthalpy of point 1 is h1=81kJ/kg.
- For the BrLi-water solution leaving the generator and entering the absorber at points 2, its
concentration can be found from Fig.(8.18) at the corresponding temperature and pressure of
Tg=100C and pg=7.3835kPa to be 2=66%.
Then, from Fig.(8.19) at Tg=100C and 2=66%, the enthalpy of point 2 is h2=256kJ/kg.
3- Now, the remaining key points are all located on the pure water side, thus the enthalpy at points
3, 4, and 5 are computed from of the BrLi-water solution and its corresponding enthalpy are
computed from thermodynamic properties table of water at saturation, i.e. Table (2.4), as:
- At point 3, the condition of the water refrigerant is saturated vapour at the generator
temperature of Tg=100C, hence, h3=2675.44kJ/kg.
- At point 4, the condition of the water refrigerant is saturated liquid at the condenser
temperature of Tc=40C, hence, h4=167.52kJ/kg.
- At point 5, the condition of the water refrigerant is saturated vapour at the evaporator
temperature of Te=10C, hence, h5=2519.12kJ/kg.
4- At this stage, the mass flow rate at the corresponding points need to be computed in terms of the
solution mass flow rate delivered by the pump, i.e. 1=0.6kg/s. So, by doing a mass balance over
the generator, we have:
1m1 2 m2 m2 ( 1 2 )m1
m1 m2 m3 ; but, m1 ( 1 2 )m1 mr
m3 mr
mr [1 ( 1 2 )]m1 (1 0.49 0.66 ) 0.6 0.155 kg / s m4 m5
m2 ( 1 3 )mr (0.49 0.66) 0.6 0.445 kg / s
5- Then, the values of qg, qa, qc, qe, and COP can be determined as follows:
q g m2 h2 m3 h3 m1h1 0.445 256 0.155 2675 .44 0.6 81
480 kW
qa m2 h2 m5 h5 m1h1 0.445 256 0.155 2519 .12 0.6 81
455 .78 kW
qc mr (h3 h4 ) 0.155 (2675 .44 167 .52)
388 .73kW
qe mr (h5 h4 ) 0.155 (2519 .12 167 .52)
364 .5kW
q 364 .5
COPabs e
qg 480
Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 173
6- As a final check, the cycle analysed must be thermally balanced as:
Ein q g qe 480 364 .5 844 .5kW
E q q
out a c 455 .78 388 .73 844 .51kW
in out and the cycle is thermally balanced. LiBr-WATER ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE WITH HEAT EXCHANGER

Having a close look at simple/basic/ideal absorption cycle and operating temperatures given in
Example- 8.4 reveals that the solution at point 1 leaves the absorber at a temperature of 30C and
must be heated to 100C at the generator. Similarly, the solution at point 2 leaves the generator at
100C and must be cooled to 30C in the absorber. One of the major operating cost in the
absorption refrigeration system is the heat added in the generator qg, and legalistically there will be
some cost associated with removal of heat from the absorber.
Thus, a logical addition to the basic cycle is a heat exchanger, as shown in Fig.(8.22) to transfer
heat between the two streams of the BrLi-water solution. This heat exchanger will heat the cold
solution coming from the absorber on its way to the generator and cool the hot solution returning
from the generator to the absorber.

Fig.(8.22) Absorption system with heat exchanger

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Example 8.5- The basic/simple cycle operating at the temperatures given in Example-8.4 is
modified by inserting a heat exchanger between the generator and the absorber, as shown in
Fig.(8.23), such that the temperature at point 2 is 52C. If the mass flowrate delivered by the pump
is 0.6kg/s, what is the temperature at point 4? Also, compute the rates of energy transfer at each of
the system components and the COPabs of this cycle.

Fig.(8.23) A schematic of the absorption system in Example- 8.5

1- Some quantities have not been changed from Example-8.4, which are:
- The mass flow rate at all the key points have not changed as follows:
m1 m2 0.6kg / s
m3 m4 0.445 kg / s
m5 m6 m7 0.155 kg / s
- The enthalpies that remain unchanged are:
- The heat transfer rates at the condenser and the evaporator that remain unchanged as:
qc 388 .73kW
qe 364 .5kW
2- Now, the temperature of the 49% concentration leaving the heat exchanger at point 2 is 52C.
Thus, the enthalpy of the solution at that condition can be found from Fig.(8.19) at T2=52C and
2=49% to be h2= 130kJ/kg.
3- To find the temperature of the 66% concentration leaving the heat exchanger at point 4, a heat
balance is done over the heat exchanger to find the enthalpy there as follows:
m1 (h2 h1 ) m3 (h3 h4 )
m1 (h2 h1 ) 0.6
h4 h3 256 (130 81)
m3 0.445
189 .9kJkg

Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 175

Then, from Fig.(8.19) at h4= 189.9kJ/kg and 4=66%, we find that the temperature of the
solution leaving the heat exchanger in the way of the absorber is T2=65C .
4- Now, the values of qg, qa, and COP can be determined as follows:
q g m3 h3 m5 h5 m2 h2 0.445 256 0.155 2675 .44 0.6 130
450 .61kW
qa m4 h4 m7 h7 m1h1 0.445 189 .9 0.155 2519 .12 0.6 81
426 .37 kW
q 364 .5
COPabs e
q g 450 .61
This COPabs is an improvement over the value of 0.76 applicable to the simple/basic system
without a heat exchanger.

5- As a final check, the cycle analysed must be thermally balanced as:

Ein q g qe 450 .61 364 .5 815 .11kW
E q q
out a c 426 .37 388 .73 815 .1kW
in out and the cycle is thermally balanced.

Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 176

1- It is proposed to replace R-12 with the ozone friendly R-134a in a standard vapour-compression
refrigeration system producing 10TR refrigeration capacity with evaporator and condenser
working at a temperature of 0C and 40C, respectively. Compare the refrigerant mass flow rate,
compressor work in kW, condenser heat rejection in kW, coefficient of performance, and the
fraction of liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator.
Ans. For R-12: 0.31 kg/s, 6.25kW, 41.25kW, 5.6
For R-134a: 0.245 kg/s, 6.13kW, 41.13kW, 5.7
2- A vapour-compression plant using R-12 operates between 35C condensing temperature and -
5C evaporation temperature with saturated vapour leaving the evaporator. The plant consist of
twin cylinder, single acting compressor having 100mm diameter and 120mm stroke running at
300rpm. If the compressor has a volumetric efficiency of 85% and its mechanical efficiency is
90%, determine the COP, Power required, and Tonnage capacity of the plant.
Ans. 5.476, 2.87kW, 4.1TR
3- A refrigeration system of 10TR capacity at an evaporator temperature of -12C requires a
condenser temperature of 28C.The refrigerant NH3 is subcooled by 5C before entering the
expansion valve. If the state of the vapour leaving the evaporator is 0.95 dry, determine: the
vapour temperature at the outlet of the compressor, the dryness fraction at the entrance of the
evaporator, the COP, and the power required. If the cooled liquid is used to heat the vapour
entering the compressor and make it totally saturated vapour by passing them through a heat
exchanger, find the new power required and COP. Ans. 60C, 0.12, 5.7, 6.14kW
4- A freezer of 20TR capacity has evaporator and condenser temperatures of -30C and 25C,
respectively. The refrigerant R-12 is subcooled by 4C before it enters the expansion valve and
superheated by 5C before leaving the evaporator. If a six cylinder, single compressor with
stroke equal to bore diameter running at 1000rpm is used, determine: a) the COP of the
refrigeration system, b) the mass of refrigerant to be circulated per min, c) theoretical piston
displacement per min, d) theoretical bore and stroke of the compressor.
Ans. 3.64, 34.12kg/min, 5.56m3/min, 0.106m
5- A vapour-compression system of 2400kJ/min capacity works at an evaporator temperature of
263K and condenser temperature of 303K. The refrigerant used is R-12 and is subcooled by 6C
before entering the expansion valve and superheated by 7C after leaving the evaporator coil.
The refrigeration compressor is two cylinder, single acting with a stroke to bore ratio of 1.25 and
runs at 1000rpm. Determine: a) the COP and power required to run the compressor, b) the mass
of refrigerant circulated per min, c) theoretical piston displacement per min, d) bore and stroke of
the compressor.
6- A simple LiBr-water absorption cycle operates at the following temperatures: generator, 105C;
condenser; 35C; evaporator, 5C; absorber, 30C. If the flow rate of the solution delivered by
the pump is 0.4kg/s, a) what are the mass flowrates of the solution returning from the generator
to the absorber and of the refrigerant?, b) What are the rates of heat transfer at each of the system
components, and the COP? Ans. a) r=0.093kg/s, b) qe=220kW
7- In the absorption cycle shown in Fig.(8.23), the solution temperature leaving the heat exchanger
and entering the generator is 48C. All other temperatures and the flow rate are as given in
Fig.(8.23). What are the rate of heat transfer at the generator and the temperature at point 4?
Ans. T4=70C
8- The solution leaving the heat exchanger and returning to the absorber is at temperature of 60C.
If the generator temperature is 95C, what is the minimum condensing temperature permitted in
order to prevent crystallization in the system? Ans. 37C

Dr Ahmed Alhusseiny 177