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# Elastic-Plastic

Fracture Mechanics

Professor
GEC Thrissur

Outline

Introduction

T.L. Anderson
Introduction

## Fracture mechanics is the science

of why things fail

## Negligence during its design, construction

or operation
Application of a new design or material
Definition

## Fracture mechanics is the science which relates the

maximum permissible applied loads acting upon
a structural component to the size and location of
a crack either real or hypothetical, in the component.

FM can also be used to predict the rate at which
a crack can approach a critical size in fatigue or by
environmental influences.

Or to determine the conditions in which a
rapidly propagating crack can be arrested.
Historical Perspective

## Designing structures to avoid fracture

is not a new idea

Bridges after
industrial revolution

## Changes in design, led to

unexpected failures
Catatstrophic Failures

## During World War II, over 30% of the

5000 new US Liberty Ships failed.

Fracture Mechanics as an
engineering discipline
was evolved
Comet jetliner -1952

## Venezuelan Natural gas

pipeline rupture - 1993
Milestones in Fracture Research

## Strength varies inversely with wire length

Inglis, C. E. (1913)

## Stress concentration at the tip 2a

max = nom 12 a/

as --> 0 ,
infinite stress at the crack tip
Griffith, A. A. (1920)
Size effect on Glass fibers
(Griffith's expt)
Actual strength of materials
is much less than theoretical
strength ?

Presence of defects

dE d d
Griffith's law: = =0
dA dA dA

## A crack begins to grow when the decrease in PE becomes

equal to the work required to create new surfaces.
Irwin, G. R. (1948)
Modified Griffiths theory

## Energy release rate criterion ; Cracks grows, G = Gc

Gc a measure of fracture toughness

## G is related to Stress Intensity Factor, K

Crack tip fields scales with K ;
Cracks grows, K = Kc , Fracture toughness

Rice, J. (1968)
J-integral ; Non-linear fracture mechanics
MPa m1/2
Fracture Toughness

## Ref: Kanninen & Popelar

1.1

6.9 MPa

4340 steel
LEFM:

SIF, K(,a) = Kc

Kc fracture foughness,
a material property
Scope of Fracture Mechanics
KIc vs Failure Mechanism

2a
FAILURE
STRESS
Collapse

Analyses
e
tur

Nonlinear
ac

Fracture
Fr

Mechanics
e
ittl
Br

LEFM
Ductile Fracture

## FRACTURE TOUGHNESS, KIc

Applications

Applied Stress
Fracture based
design
Strength of Materials
approach
Yield Strength

Applied Stress

Fracture Mechanics
approach

## Flaw Size Fracture Toughness

Engineering Structural Integrity Assessment

1
LEFM EPFM

K
K Ic
1 / FS
Engg
design SM
regime

0 1 / FS max 1

y
Applications
Fatigue :
da
=C K n Paris Law Threshold SIF
dN
(K)th
da Environmental
=D Kn assisted cracking
dt

ac
Crack length

Damage Tolerance
approach :
ao
Aircrafts, Railways,
t t
offshore structures ...

td tc
Time

Fatigue

## Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics, LEFM

Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechnics, EPFM
Material response Visco-elastic Fracture Mechanics
Visco-plastic Fracture Mechanics

## Stress corrosion cracking

Environment Hydrogen assisted cracked
Creep
Current Research

## Fracture Mechanics of Composites & Polymers

Micro-mechanics of Fracture

Mixed-mode Fracture

Nano Fracture
Reference books
Fracture Mechanics T.L. Anderson

M.F. Kanninen & C.H. Popelar

K.R.Y. Simha

Related journals

## Engineering Failure Analysis

Linear Elastic Fracture
Mechanics
Atomic view of Fracture
A material fractures when sufficient
stress and work applied at the
atomic level to break the bond
that holds the atoms together.

E E s
c =
xo

## But actual strength is much smaller

than the theoretical one !!!

## Flaws must lower the global strength

by magnifying the stress locally
Stress concentration effect of flaws
(Inglis, 1913)

2a
A = 1 +
b

a
A = 1 + 2 ,
=
b2
a

a
When a >> b A = 2

## for metals, =xo E

1/ 2

f = s
4a
Griffiths energy balance
(Griffith, 1924)
Based on First law of Thermodynamics :

dE d dWs d dWs
= + = 0 =
dA dA dA dA dA
ie., for fracture to occur, the energy stored in the structure must be
sufficient to overcome the surface energy of the material.

2 a 2 B
1/ 2 = o
2 E s E
f =
a d 2 a
=
dA E

## Griffiths criterion is Ws = 4aB s = 2 s

insensitive to

dWs
valid only for brittle matls = 2 s
dA
Modified Griffiths equation

## Limitations of Griffith's law:

Insensitive to

Apply only for brittle matls

## Extention to metals (Irwin & Orowan, 1948)

1/ 2
2 E ( s + p )
f =
a
s - Surface energy per unit area

## p - Plastic work per unit area

Energy Release Rate, G
(Irwin, 1956)
An energy approach - equivalent to Griffiths model

## Energy d G Crack Extension Force

release rate
G = or Crack Driving Force
dA G is a measure of the energy available
for an increment of crack extension

## Crack extension occurs when

G reaches a critical value, Gc ie., G = Gc
Gc is a measure of Fracture Toughness
of the material

dWs 2 a
Gc = = 2w f G=
dA E
wf = s + p
Expression for G
The potential energy
of an elastic body, = U Wext U SE stored in the body
Wext W.D. by external forces

1 dU P d 1 dU dP
G= = G= =
B da P 2 B da P B da 2 B da
2
P dC
for both cases : G= , C=
2B da P
dU dU
ie., G is same for both Load & Disp control : Also =
da P da
Instability & R-curve
Stable crack growth:
dG dR
G=R &
da da

Unstable dG dR
>
da da

Ga for CCP
2 (for brittle matls)
Ga for DCB

## Shape of the R-curve depends on -

Material behaviour

(ductile matls)

## Rate of change of G depends

on how the structure is loaded

## Most specimens shows falling

G-a in disp control

## During R-curve test, specimen

Stress Analysis of Cracks
(Westergaard, 1939; Sneddon,1946;
Williams, 1957; Irwin, 1957)

## Stress field in any Linear Elastic cracked body is:

ij =

k
r
f ij A m r m/2 g m
m=0 ij

k a constant
fij a dimensionless funtion of

## Higher order terms depends on geometry

1
As r 0,
r
; u r
(Stress singularity)
Fracture Modes

## A cracked body can be loaded in any one/combination of these modes

Fracture Modes

Load is normal to the crack plane

Tends to open the crack

Tends to slide one crack face
with respect to the other

Each mode causes stress singularity
Stress Intensity Factor
(Irwin, 1957)

## ie., crack tip stress field in a

isotropic liear elastic solid : K -- defines amplitude of crack-tip
singularity.
lim ( I ) = K I f ij( I ) ( )
r0
ij
2r K completely defines crack-tip
conditions.
KI
lim ij( II ) = f ij( II ) ( )
r0 2r
For a mixed-mode problem :
(I )
lim ( III ) = KI
f ij( III ) ( )
( total )
ij = ij + ij( II ) + ij( III )
ij
r0 2r
Mode-I crack-tip field

KI 3
xx = cos 1 sin sin
2r 2 2 2

KI 3
yy = cos 1 + sin sin
2r 2 2 2

KI 3
xy = cos sin cos
2r 2 2 2

[ ]
KI r
ux = cos 1sin2
2 2 2 2 = 3 4 for plane strain

(3 4 )

[ ]
KI r = for plane stress
uy = sin 1cos 2 (1 + )
2 2 2 2
Relation between SERR & SIF
(Irwin, 1957)
G Net change in energy release rate for a (global)
K Characterises the crack-tip field (local)

U
for Linear Elastic case: G= lim

x = a
1
U = dU ( x)
x =0
; dU ( x) = 2 Fy ( x) u y ( x) = yy ( x) u y ( x) dx
2

( + 1) K I (a + a ) a x K I (a)
uy = ; yy =
2 2x

a
lim ( + 1) K I (a ) K I (a + a ) a x
G= a 0
4 a 0
x
dx

2 2 2
K 2I E' = E Plane stress KI K II
K III
G= ' E : G= ' '
E E' =
1 2
Plane strain
E E 2
Singularity dominated zone
Region where Williams eqns describe the crack-tip fields.
KI
for =0, xx = yy =
2r
xy = 0

## Singularity dominates only

near the crack-tip.

## Away from the crack-tip, stress

field deviates from singular soln.

## K has a unit of stress length

K =O a ( ) MPa m
SIF - solutions
Closed form K solns are derived for simple geometries:

## Through crack Edge crack Penny crack

2
K I = a K I = 1 . 12 a K I = a

## K for any specimen is related to the through crack : K I = Y a

Embedded Surface flaw
flaw
Use coordinate transformation

## y ' y ' = cos 2 ( ) ; y ' x ' = sin( ) cos( )

K I = y ' y ' a

K II = y ' x ' a
Effect of finite size

2W a
1/ 2

K I = a tan
a 2W

Based on FEM:

a 1 / 2 a
2
a
4

## K I = a sec 1 0.025 + 0.06

2W W W
(Ref:
Anderson)
(Ref:
Anderson)
Principle of superposition

## For example, K I(total ) = K I( membrane ) + K I(bending )

Semi-elliptical crack
Internal pressure

K I( a ) = K I( b ) K I( c )

= K I( b ) 0

K (a)
I =K (b)
I

## Boundary tractions can be

replaced with crack face
tractions, if two configurations
results in the same SIF

## KI(a) = KI(b) + KI(c) = KI(b) since KI(c)=0

Design Example

6PL
max = 2 F M approach:
BH
S M approach:

## y 2 K =1.12 max a (edge

max BH crack)
P y
FS 6F S L K Ic
K =K Ic or K=
FS
Take:
BH 2 K Ic
K Ic =30 MPa m , y =225 MPa , F S =3, P
B=10 cm , H =20 cm , L=1m , a=2 cm 6F S L 1.12 a

## P < 50 kN P < 23.8 kN

Applications

Pd
Pressure vessel : h=
2t
S M approach: F M approach:
y 2t
max P y K =1.12 max a
FS FS d
K Ic
K =K Ic or K=
Take: FS
2t K Ic
K Ic =30 MPa m , y =450 MPa , F S =3, P
d=1m , t =2 cm , a=1 cm F S d 1.12 a

Tutorial - I

## 1. Name the parameters which govern the design based on Strength of

Material and Fracture Mechanics approaches ?

SM : = y FM : K (, a) = Kc

## 2. Write relation between SERR and SIF ? 2

KI
G=
E'
3. Write SIF expressions for following configurations ?

## a) CCP (through crack) K I = a

b) CT (edge crack) K I = 1 . 12 a
2
c) Penny shaped crack K I = a

Tutorial - I

4.What is the order of the elastic crack tip field near the tip?
1
Stress : (singular)
r
Displacement: r (non-singular)

## 5. What is the approximate value of fracture toughness for steel ?

K Ic =50~150 MPa m

## 6. Plot the near tip stress variation

KI
xx = yy =
2r
r
Tutorial - I
7. A large plate with a small central hole is loaded as shown ? Is design safe for
= 10 Mpa, if a = 1 mm, Kc = 50 Mpa m1/2, y = 300 Mpa.

SM approach

## max = 3 = 30 Mpa << y = 300 Mpa

design is safe
a

FM approach
for an edge crack: K I = 1 . 12 a

KI = 59.54 Mpa m1/2 > Kc = 30 Mpa m1/2

design is unsafe !!
Nonlinear Effects
Plasticity corrections
(Irwin, 1958)
2

First-order : r y=
1 KI
2 ys (Plane stress)

ry ry
KI
Second order : YS rp = yy dr = dr
0 0 2r
2

r y=
1 KI

ys
(Plane stress)

r y=

1 KI
6 ys
(Plane strain)

## Effective crack depth & SIF :

a eff = a + ry
K eff = a eff a eff
Strip Yield Model
(Dugdale ; Baranblatt, 1962)
A long slender crack-tip plastic zone
in a non-hardening material
in plane stress.

## Through crack in an infinite plate:

modelled with a crack length 2a+2, with
a closure stress (= YS ) applied at the crack-tip.

## find , such that SIF is zero.

r y=
KI

8 ys
&

K eff = a sec

2 YS
Comparison of Plastic Zone Corrections
Plastic zone shape

Applying Von-Mises
yield criterion:

e = y on
Elastic soln
Mode-I plastic zones from FEM

Elastic-plastic boundary
from LEFM

## (Dodds et. al., 1994)

Plane strain vs plane stress

## Plane Strain, near the tip, except

close to the free surface.

## Away from the tip (r >> t), Plane

Stress prevails.
(Narasimhan &
Rosakis, 1981)
Plastic zone shape Vs thickness
Stress state at the Elastic-Plastic boundary depends on rp / t :

2
K
shape with I /B

ys

## ie. Stress state changes

from plane strain to
plane stress.

## (Nakamura & Parks, 1987)

Small-Scale Yielding

K( , a) Stress Intensity Factor

K dominant region
R

Inelastic region
boundary of D
inelastic region
SSY condition
outer boundary of
K-dominant
region
R < D, or B
2

Fracture Criterion
R
1 KI

2 ys

K( , a) = Kc
K as a failure criterion
K defines the crack tip field

## Matl locally fails at a critical &

A critical K value
Kc Fracture Toughness
( Material constant)

## Under certain conditions K is valid

with non-linear matl behaviour.
Effect of specimen dimensions

relaxes

## Lower Triaxiality Higher

Fracture toughness

## The lowest critical value of K

Plane strain fracture toughess (KIc)

## Plane stress R-curve is steeper

than plane strain R-curve

## Large in-plane dimensions to confine the K Ic K IIc K IIIc

plastic zone to the singularity
dominated zone. Usually, K Ic > K IIc , K IIIc
Limits to the validity of LEFM
(a + r ) (a + r )
yy = ; xx =
2ar + r 2
2ar + r 2

a KI
As r 0, yy = xx = =
2r 2r

a
2a Assuming singularity zone, rs = ,
50
2
1 K I
set ry=rs in p , ry =
6 ys
2 2
50 K I* K I*
= 2.65

a=
6 ys

ys

ASTM standard for KIc :
2 the limit of LEFM is:
K
*
a, B, (W a) 2.5 I K I* = 0.35 YS a

ys
ensure P Ensure nominal LE
behaviour
Applications
Pressure vessel :

Minimum Flaw size, given the max pressure

a=
y
K Ic
- geometry dependent
parameter

Importance of Location 4340 steel air frame
K Ic =50 MPa m , y =1680 MPa , F S =4

2 K Ic

2 ac =9 mm

1

K Ic
1.25
ac =3.6 mm

## Edge crack is more critical !

Applications

Pressure vessel :
Edge crack :

Influence of Material 2

ac=
1

K Ic
1.25

## 4340 steel air frame

ac =3.6 mm
K Ic =50 MPa m , y =1680 MPa , F S =4

K Ic =60 MPa m , y =1200 MPa , F S =4 ac =10.2 mm

## Selection of material is very important!

Applications

2c
Pressure vessel /
t
Pipelines : a

Part-through-wall
surface crack

Type A
Type B
Type B is more
2ac critical !
Type C

2cc

Leak-before-brake condition (Type A)
Introduction to EPFM

## LEFM Valid when plasticity is confined to the near-tip.

In many materials, LEFM fails to apply.

## EPFM Applies to matls that exhibit time independent non-linear

behaviour (ie., plastic deformation).

## Elastic-Plastic crack-tip parameters:

- Crack tip opening displacement (CTOD)
- J-integral

## CTOD & J describe crack-tip conditions Fracture criterions

Limitations of EPFM
Crack tip opening Displacement, CTOD ()

## Crack tip blunting increases with fracture toughness

Proposed CTOD as a measure of fracture toughness

Wells (1961)

## Based on Irwins plastic zone correction,

2
4 KI
=2u y = (for p)
ys E

In general,
Based on Strip yield model: 2
Burdeking & Stone (1966) KI G
= =
2 m ys E m ys
[ ]
2
KI 1
= 1
ys E 6 2 ys m ~1-2 (p p)
(for Griffith's problem)
CTOD definition

Rice, 1968

FE measurements

## Laboratory measurement of CTOD (BS & ASTM):

Modified Hinge model (V, P)

Vp

## Rotates about a hinge point 2

Inaccurate, when is primarily elastic KI r p W a V p
= e p =

'

r : Plastic rotational factor 0.44
p m ys E r p W a a
J Contour Integral
Rice (JAM, 1968) Rices J-integral

elastic material

## Rice applied Deformation theory of plasticity to

show J as a Nonlinear energy release rate

Hutchinson (JMPS, 1968); in nonlinear elastic and
Rice & Rosengren (JMPS, 1968); elastic-plastic matls are identical.
J uniquely characterises crack tip field in For 3D, it is a good assumption
nonlinear materials.
In 3D deformation theory of
J-integral Energy parameter and plasticity is eqvt to non-linear
elasticity.
Stress intensity parameter.
J Path independent line integral

J = w dy T i

u i
x
ds
ij

w= ij d ij ; T i= ij n j
0
Assumptions :
Homogenious hyper-elastic matl
Rice showed that : Small strains
Time independent processes
Plane stress & disp fields
J is path-independent &
Crack face parallel to X
No body force
J = Energy release rate. Traction free crack surfaces
Nonlinear energy release rate
(Rice 1968)
d
J = = U W ext
dA
for unit thickness,
A=a

*
dU dU
J= = or
da P da

P
J=
0

a P
dP =
0
P
a
d
For a linear elastic matl :
2
KI
J = G and J= '
E
HRR Solution
J Stress intensity parameter ( Hutchinson; Rice & Rosengren, JMPS, 1968)

## Deformation theory of plasticity n

Power law hardening (Ramberg-Osgood eqn)
Elastic strains are small
Stress x Strain varies as 1/r near the crack tip

=
0 0

0
1

ij= 0 2
EJ
0 I n r
n1
ij n , In Integration constant,
depends on n and p/p
n
0
ij=
EJ

E 02 I n r
n1
ij n ,
, -- Dimensionless fns of n and
depends on p/p

## Reduces to LEFM 1/ r singularity as n1 (linear elastic)

Varation of In with hardening
Shih et. al. 1981
Angular stress distribution

(Hutchinson, 1968)
HRR - significance
Importance of HRR soln:
LEFM
singularity
J-integral defines the amplitude HRR
of HRR singularity singularity

## J-completely defines the conditions

within the plastic zone

## Demonstrates much higher stresses Fracture

in plane strain than in plane stress Process zone

## First term in asymptotic series & neglect elastic strain

Dominates only near the crack tip, well within the plastic zone

## Small strains Invalid where finite strains are important

Effect of large strain

## (McMeeking and parks, 1979)

Exptl. measurement of J
Multiple specimen test : (Landes and Begely, 1972)

## Uses Energy release

rate definition of J

J =
1 U
B a

## Curves depends on matl,

specimen geometry, temp. etc.
Single specimen test : (Rice et. al., 1973)

=nc c
For deep crack, nc << c

U = M d
0

M c
J =
0

c
a M
2
dM M d c
b 0

In general: Uc
J= is a dimensionless constant
Bb
J CTOD relationship
For LEFM : J =G=m YS
This applies beyond validity of LEFM.

J = YS

## Shih (1981) : using HRR soln

=d n J / o - dn is dimensionless constant

## Fracture toughness can be quantified by a

critical value of J or CTOD
Varation of dn with hardening

=1

## Strong dependence on n and

mild dependence on o/E

=1

## For a non-hardening matl in

plane stress, dn=1.0
Agrees with strip yield model
Crack growth resistance curve

## Tearing modulus: slope of the J-R curve, is

an indication of relative stability

E dJ R
T R= 2
0 da

## J=J R and T app T R

Load control is less stable than
displacement control
J for a growing crack

## Virtual SERR defn of J is not valid for

a growing crack

Deformation J : U D=U D P , a

J D=
1 U D
B a

## The issue of J-validity is questionable

J controlled fracture

If R << D

## J completely characterizes the

R
crack tip conditions

J( , a) = Jc boundary of D
process zone

J-dominant
region

## Questionable when there is excessive plasticity or

significant crack growth

## Fracture toughness and J-CTOD relationship depend

on the size and geometry of the structure or specimen
Extent of crack tip characterization
K-dominated zone
Stationary crack:
K - dominance
ij
0
K 2I
=F ij 2 ,
0r
: 0r r s

## K or J chracterizes J dominated zone

the crack tip field
J - dominance
ij

'
E J
=F ij 2
, : 0r r J
0 0r

## J or CTOD uniquely No single parameter

charactersizes the characterization

## Single parameter fracture

mechanics fails
Large strain region
J-controlled crack growth

## When crack growth is contained in the J-dominated zone,

R-curve is uniquely characterised by J
Crack growth under SSY

J
ij

'
1 E J
=F ij 2 ,
0 0r

ij

'
E J a
=F 3ij , ,
0 20 r i

ij
0
=F 3ij
E' J
2
0r
,
Stage 2 : Rising R-curve, under SSY

J R =J R a
J-R curve is a material property
Crack-tip Constraint under Large-scale Plasticity

## Under SSY K, J or CTOD characterises

the crack-tip field : Single Parameter FM

## With excessive plasticity SPFM breaks down

Fracture toughness depends on the size
and geometry of the test specimen

McClintock(1971)
Plane strain,
Non-hardening matl
Slip-line analyses

## Geometry effects are less severe in

strain hardening matls, particularly
in bend specimens, so that SPFM
is approx. valid

## Critical CTOD values for cleavage

Fracture for a low alloy steel (Anderson 1988)

## Effect of crack depth and

specimen thickness on
cleavage fracture
Effect of a/W on J-R curves
Towers and Garwood, 1986

## Effect of specimen geometry for

initiation of ductile tearing

a = 1 mm

## Effect of specimen geometry

on tearing modulus
Towers and Garwood, 1986
Current Reseach Topics
Two-Parameter
Fracture Mechanics
Elastic T-stress

K, J along with T-stress as the second parameter Hancock & coworkers, 1990

## Elastic T-tress : Second term in Williams crack tip field.

Non-singular stress, parallel to the crack plane.

ij=
KI
2r [ T 0 0
f ij 0 0 0
0 0 T ]
Fracture toughness strongly increases with negative T

T-stress strongly affects shape and size of crack tip plastic zone
KI
ij= f ij T 1i 1j
2r

## Kirk et al. 1991

T- stress depends on geometry

T=
P

f
B aW W
a
, where =
T a
KI
is the biaxiality parameter
J Q Theory (ODowd and Shih, 1991)

2

## ij= ij T=0 Q 0 ij for

2

yy yy T=0 r 0
Q at =0 and =2
0 J
Q & T are related under SSY

Evolution of Q
depends on crack depth
J-Q theory

J c =J c Q

## Shih et al., 1993

Application of
J-Q toughness locus
Micro-mechanics of Fracture
Fracture mechanisms in metals

2
1

1. Ductile fracture

2. Cleavage fracture

3. Intergranular fracture

3 4. Fatigue
Ductile fracture

## Microvoids nucleate at inclusions

and second phase particles; the voids
grow together to form a macroscopic

## Void nucleation: Formation of a free surface at an inclusion or second

phase particle by either interface decohesion or
particle cracking.
Void growth: Growth of the void around the particle, by means of
plastic strain and hydrostatic stress.
Void coalescence: Coalescence of the growing void with adjacent voids.
Schematics of various stages in ductile fracture:

1 Inclusions in a
ductile matrix
2 Void nucleation 3 Void growth

4 Strain localisation
between voids
5 Necking between voids 6 Void coalescence
and fracture
Void Growth and Coalescence

Once voids form, further plastic strain and hydrostatic stress cause the
voids to grow and eventually coalesce.

## SEM fractograph of steel ductile fracture surface

Cleavage Fracture
-- Rapid propagation of a crack along a
particular crystallographic plane

## -- Brittle, but can be preceded by large scale

plastic deformation and ductile crack growth

## -- Preferred cleavage planes are those with

the lowest packing density

## -- Fracture path is transgranular in Cleavage in A508 steel

polycrystalline materials

## -- Propagating crack changes direction

in each grains. Nominal cleavage orientation
is perpendicular to the max principal stress

## -- Cleavage is likely when plastic flow is

restricted. FCC metals usually no cleavge.
At low temp. BCC metals fail by cleavage.
Multifaceted surface and river
HCP metals also susceptible to cleavage.
pattern is typical in cleavage
Dynamic Fracture Mechanics
Dynamic Fracture

## Fracture phenomena in which the role of

material inertia and strain rate sensitivity
becomes important.

## Rapidly propagating cracks.

Inertia effects are important for
short time response
Long time response is essentially quasi-static

## EDFM theory well established :

KIt
ij t = f ij
2r
Time dependent Same quasi.static fns Time
Independent of time

Fracture initiation :
D
K I t =K Ic Dynamic fracture toughness
Rate sensitivity effect on Fracture toughness

## Barsom, 1975 Dynamic fracture toughness depends on

Failure mechanism

## Joyce & Hacket, 1984

Decrease in cleavage fracture HY80 steel
(stress controlled) toughness
at high strain rates

## Ductile fracture (strain controlled)

toughness is gets enhanced
H(t)

## (Chen et al., 1974) a

p
H(t)

t
!!! Maximum K d 2.5 K stat !!!
Schematic illustration of explosive damage in Pan Am
Aircraft from the Lockerbie tragedy:

## Fracture occurs not only at primary blast site (region A)

but also at other regions (loaded by traveling stress waves).
Dynamic J-integral

## Energy release rate the energy flux into the

crack tip devided by the crack speed

F
J=
V

[
J =lim 0 W T dy ij n j

ui
x
ds ]
ij
1 ui ui
t
where, W = ij d ij = ij ij dt ; T=
0 0
2 t t

## Dynamic J is path dependent

Computational
Fracture Mechanics
Fracture specimens

P(t) = t +
t2

## Schematic of (a) SEN(T) specimen and (b) TPB specimen

Finite element model of a typical
TPB specimen (a/W = 0.5) and
details of near-tip mesh.

P(t)

Crack tip
element size
5 10 m
E = 200 GPa
= 0.3
= 7,800 kg/m3
.
Kdc K variations

Sharp increase
in
. Kdc around
K = 106 MPa m1/2/s

Proposed dynamic
crack initiation
model is verified
.
Experimental data from
Owen et al., 1998

Numerical
Owen results
qualitatively
agree with
experimental
results.

.
Reeling
Pipe Geometry

D = 400 mm

D / t = 20 t = 20 mm

L = 1200 mm

a / t = 0.1 - 0.5
c / R = 0.04 - 0.3
a = 2 and 10 mm

2c = 25 - 378 mm
Finite Element Model

Crack

end
1/4th of the pipe model
Mid-
section 20 noded brick elements

30 40,000 d.o.f
0.025 mm Abaqus FE package

## User MPCs for bending

Results : Expts & FEA
Tutorial-II

## 1. What is the effective stress intensity factor?

2
To account for plasticity correction : r y=
1 KI
2 ys (Plane stress)

## 2. Plot the effect of specimen thickness Plane

with fracture toughness ? Kc stress

Plane
KIc strain

t
Tutorial-II

## Crack Tip Opening Displacement

J-integral

5. Definition of CTOD?

Tutorial-II

## 6. Name the variables in J =

w dyT
u
i x
i
ds
contour from bottom to crack face
W strain energy density
Ti - traction
Ui - displacement
1

7. HRR field
Name the variables?
What is the order of singularity?
ij= 0 2

EJ
0 I n r
n1
ij n ,

In Integrationconstant,
, n, o matl constants
depends on n and p/p

depends on p/p
Tutorial-II

## Crack tip parameter for EPFM

Ramberg-Osgood relationship

Deformation plasticity