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Booklet 2

Cambridge PRIMARY
Science
Teachers Resource Samples
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educational materials, resources and services to teachers and learners, from ages 3-19, in over
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education.cambridge.org
A view from the publisher why
we have commissioned Cambridge
Primary Science

An enquiry-based, language-rich approach


to learning with an international focus

Methodology and approach


Cambridge Primary Science is a flexible series that can be used to support a range
of teaching methods in different settings. We do this by offering a variety of ideas
for activities to support teaching and learning of each objective in the curriculum
framework, from which you can select those most suited to your learners.

In keeping with the Cambridge International Examinations curriculum framework,


Cambridge Primary Science strongly supports a science curriculum in which
enquiry is central. Support for the scientific enquiry learning objectives is
embedded across the series, with full guidance for teachers on how to develop
the required skills. Throughout, activities are suggested that will help learners to
discover and investigate scientific concepts for themselves in an engaging way.

Cambridge Primary Science is a truly international series, written for a global


audience. Exercises focussing on scientific vocabulary and suggestions for
classroom discussion are included throughout the series, thus supporting
development of language as well as subject knowledge. Examples from a
wide range of international settings are included and alternative activities are
suggested in case certain materials are hard to come by in your part of the world.
Key features
In our Learners Books, all required learning objectives are covered in an engaging visual
layout and suggestions for hands-on activities encourage enquiry-led learning. The Talk
about it! features stimulates classroom discussion and the Check your progress questions
present assessment opportunities and help learners prepare for the Progression and
Checkpoint Tests.

In the Activity Books, additional exercises for each topic may be completed in class or set
as homework. The exercises help to consolidate understanding, apply knowledge in new
situations and develop scientific enquiry skills. Core vocabulary is developed in a dedicated
language activity for each unit in Stages 3 to 6.

The Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM offers support for using all three components.
The teaching ideas offer flexibility with plenty of activity suggestions, as well as guidance on
differentiation, assessment and using resources available online. Additionally, a collection of
worksheets supports suggested activities. The resource offers flexible delivery, with all content
both in print and in editable format on the CD-ROM.

We hope you enjoy your sample copy and dont forget to visit
education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary to find out more!

The International Education team


Introducing Cambridge Primary
Cambridge Primary series
In addition to our market-leading titles for Cambridge Checkpoint, Cambridge O Level,
Cambridge IGCSE and Cambridge International AS and A Level, we will be publishing an
exciting new series for the Cambridge Primary curriculum frameworks developed by Cambridge
International Examinations for Stages 1-6 and for the Cambridge Primary English as a Second
Language (ESL) curriculum framework developed by Cambridge English Language Assessment.
This will complete the learners journey with Cambridge materials from Primary to Pre-University.

We are working with Cambridge International Examinations towards endorsement of the


brand new suite of products for English, Mathematics and Science. Cambridge Global English
will not go through the Cambridge endorsement process as it follows the curriculum framework
developed by Cambridge English Language Assessment.

About the Cambridge Primary Curriculum


Cambridge Primary, typically for 511 year olds, gives schools a curriculum framework to develop
skills, knowledge and understanding in younger learners. Cambridge Primary provides guidance
for curriculum development and classroom teaching and learning. It enables teachers to assess
childrens learning as they progress with Cambridge Primary Progression Tests. [Cambridge English
Language Assessment tests for learners at the Cambridge Primary stage are: Cambridge English
Starters, Movers and Flyers and Key English Test (KET) for schools].

About Cambridge Primary Science


Cambridge Primary Science fully covers the Cambridge Primary Science curriculum framework.
The course offers plenty of teaching ideas to give flexibility, allowing teachers to select activities
most appropriate to their classroom and learners.

An enquiry-based style of teaching and learning is stimulated, with the scientific enquiry
objectives integrated throughout to encourage learning of these skills alongside the scientific
concepts. The language level is carefully pitched to be accessible to EAL/ESL learners, with
concepts illustrated through diagrams to allow visual understanding and learning. There is
dedicated support for practising scientific language and vocabulary.

Comprehensive teaching support helps teachers to bring all elements of the course together in
the classroom.

IGCSE is the registered trademark of Cambridge International Examinations.


What is in your free sample?
Included you will find a representative sample chapter for two stages of:

Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book

There is another sample booklet available titled Science Booklet 1 which has within it sample
chapters for two stages of:

Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book


Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book

To see samples of all stages as they become available simply visit


education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary

What is in the complete series?


Cambridge Primary Science

Learners Books
Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 1 - 9781107611382
Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 2 - 9781107611399
Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 3 - 9781107611412
Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 4 - 9781107674509
Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 5 - 9781107663046
Cambridge Primary Science Learners Book 6 - 9781107699809

Activity Books
Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 1 - 9781107611429
Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 2 - 9781107611436
Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 3 - 9781107611450
Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 4 - 9781107656659
Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 5 - 9781107658974
Cambridge Primary Science Activity Book 6 - 9781107643758

Teachers Resource Books


Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 1 - 9781107611467
Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 2 - 9781107611481
Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 3 - 9781107611504
Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 4 - 9781107661516
Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 5 - 9781107676732
Cambridge Primary Science Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 6 - 9781107662025
How do I order, find out more and register my interest?
Simply visit education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary for more information on
the series, extended sample material and to pre-order your copies!

Also available for Cambridge Primary


Cambridge Primary Mathematics

Learners Books
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 1 - 9781107631311
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 2 - 9781107615823
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 3 - 9781107667679
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 4 - 9781107662698
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 5 - 9781107638228
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Learners Book 6 - 9781107618596

Games Books
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 1 - 9781107646407
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 2 - 9781107623491
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 3 - 9781107694019
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 4 - 9781107685420
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 5 - 9781107614741
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Games Book with CD-ROM 6 -9781107667815

Teachers Resource Books


Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 1 - 9781107656833
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 2 - 9781107640733
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 3 - 9781107668898
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 4 - 9781107692947
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 5 - 9781107658547
Cambridge Primary Mathematics Teachers Resource Book with CD-ROM 6 - 9781107694361

We also have a comprehensive range of materials for Cambridge Checkpoint, Cambridge IGCSE,
Cambridge O Level and Cambridge International AS and A Level.

Simply visit education.cambridge.org for more information on all these series.


How do I order, find out more and register my interest?
Simply visit education.cambridge.org/cambridgeprimary for more information on
the series, extended sample material and to pre-order your copies!

Also available for Cambridge Primary


Cambridge Global English*

Learners Books
Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 1 - 9781107676091
Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 2 - 9781107613805
Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 3 - 9781107613843
Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 4 - 9781107613638
Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 5 - 9781107619814
Cambridge Global English Learners Book with Audio CD 6 - 9781107621251

Activity Books
Cambridge Global English Activity Book 1 - 9781107655133
Cambridge Global English Activity Book 2 - 9781107613812
Cambridge Global English Activity Book 3 - 9781107613836
Cambridge Global English Activity Book 4 - 9781107613614
Cambridge Global English Activity Book 5 - 9781107621237
Cambridge Global English Activity Book 6 - 9781107626867

Teachers Resource Books


Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 1 - 9781107642263
Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 2 - 9781107664968
Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 3 - 9781107656741
Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 4 - 9781107690745
Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 5 - 9781107646124
Cambridge Global English Teachers Resource Book 6 - 9781107635814

*Cambridge Global English has not been through the Cambridge endorsement process.

We also have a comprehensive range of materials for Cambridge Checkpoint, Cambridge IGCSE,
Cambridge O Level and Cambridge International AS and A Level.

Simply visit education.cambridge.org for more information on all these series.


Cambridge PRIMARY
Science
Teachers Resource

Unit
Being alive

Jon Board
Alan Cross
Unit 1
Teaching ideas
Background knowledge
Some things are alive, some are dead and some things have never been alive. The characteristics of
living things are movement, respiration (needing air), sensitivity, growth, reproduction, excretion
(producing waste) and nutrition (needing food and water). Learners do not need to memorise these
characteristics at this stage. But they should start to think about the differences between things that
are alive and things that are not. Some objects, such as rainbows and fire, may confuse learners.

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Be aware that some learners may not have experienced the death of a relative or a pet at this stage.
However, some learners will have had this experience, perhaps recently. Treat this topic with care.

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Living things inhabit local environments. An environment needs to provide food and shelter for
animals. An environment needs to provide suitable soil and the right amount of water and light for
plants. (Plants need nutrients from the soil.) Animals and plants also need protection from predators
(including humans) to survive. Different animals inhabit the same and different environments. For
example, a bat and a pigeon may live in the same local habitat but eat slightly different foods, find
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food in different ways and sleep in different places. Some animals live in their natural habitats. Some
animals are kept in unnatural habitats such as zoos. You may wish to talk about the work zoos
undertake in the field of conservation in terms appropriate to the learners age.
Animals produce young. These young grow into healthy adults who themselves produce young.
Plants also have young. They produce seeds in the flower which are dispersed, for example, by wind
or by insects. Insects also help in the fertilisation of seeds. The reproduction of plants is beyond the
scope of this unit, but learners may ask about it.
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Humans need a healthy diet. Some foods are healthy, for example, fruit and vegetables contain fibre,
minerals and vitamins. Other foods are less healthy, for example, high sugar foods. Too many of
these foods can lead to tooth decay and obesity. A healthy lifestyle is important and includes healthy
food choices, exercise and the right amount of sleep. Remember that learners at this stage will not
have much control over their diet. Treat this subject carefully.
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Cambridge Primary Science 1


11
Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Unit overview
Topic Number Outline of lesson Resources Resources Resources
of content in Learners in Activity in Teachers
lessons Book Book Resource
1.1 Animals 2 Learners find out Activity 1.1 Exercise 1.1 Worksheet 1.1a
and plants that there are living Su L Su Ex
alive! things and things
Worksheet 1.1b
that have never
been alive. L Su
Resource sheet 1.1
L Su
1.2 Local 2 Learning about the Activity 1.2a Exercise 1.2 Worksheet 1.2a
environments local environments Ex

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which suit different
Activity 1.2b L Su Worksheet 1.2b
animals and
plants. Learners Ex L Su
explore this for Resource sheet

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themselves. 1.2a
L Su
Resource sheet
1.2b
am L Su
Resource sheet
1.2c
L Su
1.3 Animal 2 The focus in this Activity 1.3 Exercise 1.3 Worksheet 1.3
babies lesson is baby Ex L Ex
animals and their
Ex Resource sheet
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parents. Learners
1.3a
make a model
nursery for an L Su
animal of their Resource sheet
choice. 1.3b
L Su
Resource sheet
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1.3c
L Su
1.4 Healthy 2 This lesson looks Activity 1.4 Exercise 1.4 Worksheet 1.4a
food and drink at the range of L Su Ex
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healthy and less L Su Ex Worksheet 1.4b


healthy foods.
Ex L Su
Resource sheet
1.4a Su
Resource sheet
1.4b Su

Check your Questions Worksheet 1.5


progress 1 Su , L
2 Su ,
3 L ,
4 L

Ex Extension L Language Scientific enquiry Su Support


Cambridge Primary Science 1
12
Teaching ideas Unit 1

Resource list Ideas for the lesson


clipboards (one per pair or group)
Look at the picture on page 6 of the
digital cameras (optional) Learners Book and talk about things in the
safe invertebrates, such as snails or woodlice picture that are alive and things that have
water and food trays never been alive. Alternatively, you could use
bird seed Picture 1.1 on the CD-ROM which includes
modelling material or construction kits further examples.
cardboard
Activity 1.1 in the Learners Book asks
scissors
learners to go outside and observe living
glue
things. Higher achieving learners could use
sticky tape
Worksheet 1.1a, which asks them to predict
nursery items such as food, water, shelter
what living things they will find. Making
pictures of food to cut out
predictions is an important scientific enquiry
fruit and vegetable examples, or pictures of

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food plants that grow locally skill to be developed at this stage.
small samples of fruit An alternative to making a tour of the
skewers school grounds with the learners would be

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for you to collect examples from around the
school, such as pets and plants. Learners
Topic 1.1 Animals and plants should not forget that humans are also
alive! living things. So you can talk about adults
and young people too. Worksheet 1.1a can
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This topic will allow you to find out about the
learners understanding of the range of living
things and see whether they understand the
be used for this alternative as well. Here, the
learners think about the living things they
distinctions between living and non-living and might find, note the living things found and
never been alive. are encouraged to group them into animals
and plants, allowing them to practise the
science skills of sorting and grouping.
Learning objectives
Use Exercise 1.1 in the Activity Book to

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Know that plants and animals are living encourage learners to talk some more about
things. living things and non-living things in the
context of a pet and garden centre. Learners
Know that there are living things and things
are asked to talk about how the pet and
that have never been alive.
garden centre owner cares for the animals
Try to answer questions by collecting and plants in her shop. Learners might
evidence through observation.
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think about drink, food, space and the home


Record stages in work. provided for the animals. Or the water and
light provided for the plants.
Curriculum links Worksheet 1.1b gives further support in
talking about living and non-living things.

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This topic links to environmental studies


It is set in the context of a farm, which links
as the learners are looking at the range of
with the next topic on environments.
living things in the world. This should help
them appreciate the beauty and wonder Resource sheet 1.1 provides the words to
of the natural world and realise that it is learn for this topic. You could use these to
something that should be cared for. support lower achieving learners, or use
them to start a wall display for this unit.
There is an opportunity to link to
Learners could produce pictures of animals
mathematics in Activity 1.1 if learners
are involved in sorting and classifying and plants to go in the alive section of
living things, comparing their heights and the display, and pictures of, for example,
measuring them using standard and non- tractors, rocks and clouds, to go in the non-
standard units. living section of the display.

Cambridge Primary Science 1


13
Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Ask learners to tell you about animals and predictions is another scientific enquiry skill to
plants that they see in the environment. be developed at this stage.

Talk about the photographs on page 7 of


Check (as far as possible) that the
the Learners Book. Ask learners to identify
things that are living and things that are areas that you visit are free from
non-living. Picture 1.1 on the CD-ROM poisonous or stinging plants. Also
might come in useful here as well. Higher check for any allergies to plant material
achieving learners should be expected to and for hayfever. Make sure that
give reasons for their answers; for example, learners wash their hands after
living things need food and water, living the activity.
things can move, and living things have
young. Ensure that learners are well-
supervised at all times, particularly in
You could end the lesson by asking learners
areas where there may be vehicles.
questions such as: Is a rainbow alive? Which

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is alive, the nest or the bird?
Internet and ICT
Notes on practical activities The website www.bbc.co.uk/nature/collections/

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p00fxfvq includes a film of baby animals. It
Activity 1.1 would be a great starting point for talking
Each pair or group will need: about animals. However, make sure you
watch it beforehand to check there is no
clipboard
content that would be inappropriate for
digital camera (optional).
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Allow learners the opportunity to observe
your learners. The film is well signposted
and you could choose not to use all of it.
in the school grounds. Tell them that the
search outside is to answer the question What Assessment
living things can we find? and that they will
be collecting evidence through observation
(looking). This is a scientific enquiry skill
Can learners describe animals or plants as
living things? Give learners pictures or real
required at this stage. Learners can develop examples. Can they talk or write about the
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recording skills by making sketches or taking features?


photographs of the living things they find. This
will encourage them to look at the plants and Can learners identify living things and
things that have never been alive? Ask
animals outside and recognise them as living
learners to sort pictures of living and non-
things (make sure that learners are able to
living things. They might colour code them.
distinguish between living things and non-living
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things). Focus the learners attention on where Learners could self-assess their drawings
plants grow and where animals are observed, for from Activity 1.1. Ask them to say two
example in trees, under logs or stones and things that they think are good about
in the soil. them and one thing that they would like to
improve.
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Give learners an objective, for example, to find


six things. This will encourage them to look Higher achieving learners could self-assess
harder. Another way to encourage careful the accuracy of their predictions about what
observation is to ask questions such as What living things they would find in Activity 1.1,
is the tallest living thing you can observe? This as recorded on Worksheet 1.1a.
question could also be linked to mathematics
if you involve the learners in comparing Differentiation
heights and measuring using non-standard and
standard units. Support lower achieving learners by
selecting very familiar examples of living
Higher achieving learners could use Worksheet and non-living things and assisting them
1.1a for this activity. This worksheet asks with vocabulary. As stated previously,
learners to predict what living things they might Resource sheet 1.1 could be useful for this
find before they start the search and to record group of learners.
those they do. Comparing what happened with

Cambridge Primary Science 1


14
Teaching ideas Unit 1

Higher achieving learners could be asked to Results of observation: what living things were
make predictions about what living things found.
they might find in Activity 1.1 and record
them using Worksheet 1.1a. Sorting: learners create a set of animals and a
set of plants.
Common misunderstandings and Worksheet 1.1b
misconceptions
The following things should be circled: goat,
Learners are often confused about whether horse, cow, sheep, duck, bird, chicken, goose,
the following are living things or non-living trees, flowers, grass and bushes.
things: a river, a cloud, a clock, a rainbow, a
flame.
Topic 1.2 Where do I live?
Homework ideas
This topic encourages learners to think about

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Worksheet 1.1b. the many local environments that animals and
plants live in. Living things often share a local
Ask learners to draw four of their favourite
environment but live quite different lives.
living things. These pictures could be used

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for a wall display for the unit, as suggested
as a lesson idea. Learning objectives

Answers to Activity Book exercises Explore ways that different animals and
plants inhabit local environments.
Exercise 1.1
am Make predictions.
Learners should colour in everything that is Explore and observe in order to collect
alive, for example like this: evidence (measurements and observations)
to answer questions.

Make comparisons.

Compare what happened with predictions.


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Model and communicate ideas in order to


share, explain and develop them.

Curriculum links
This topic links to environmental education.
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It is about living things living in local


environments. Learners might find out
about a local environment and think about
the impact which people have, or might
have, on it.
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Learners are asked to talk about how the pet Activity 1.2b links to design and technology
and garden centre owner cares for the animals when learners are asked to design a way to
and plants in her shop. Learners might think help birds.
about drink, food, space and the home provided
for the animals. Or the water and light provided
There are opportunities to link to literacy if
you use the stories suggested in the ideas for
for the plants. the lesson.

Answers to Worksheets Ideas for the lesson


Worksheet 1.1a Use the large picture in the Learners Book
Prediction: accept any sensible suggestions on page 8 to find out what learners know
about the living things that might be found. about animals and the local environments in
which they live. Alternatively, you could use
Picture 1.2 on the CD-ROM, which shows a

Cambridge Primary Science 1


15
Unit 1 Teaching ideas

variety of animals in different environments. 1.2a. Take the class outside to observe
If you use this picture you might ask higher plants growing. Focus their attention on
achieving learners to suggest why the where plants do and do not grow.
environments are suitable for the animals
shown in the pictures. Suggesting ideas is Most schools have birds visiting the site
during the school day. Before introducing
an important scientific enquiry skill to be
Activity 1.2b, you might use the extension
developed at this stage.
activity to ask learners to observe (look
Remind learners about Worksheet 1.1b. at) the birds and where they are seen.
What animals were there on the farm? Talk Learners can then carry out Activity 1.2b
about what a farm does. Point out that some to design a feeding station for the birds.
farms produce crops (plants that we eat), Point out that providing food and water
some produce animals that we eat (many makes the environment better for the birds.
learners may not make the link between The availability of food is very important
animals on farms and the meat they eat in making an environment suitable for an

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treat this subject with care) and some animal or plant to live in.
produce both.
Exercise 1.2 in the Activity Book involves
You could read the story of The Gruffalo matching animals to their environments.

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by Julia Donaldson. All the animals have It allows learners to make comparisons.
different houses and yet they live in the You could use it to start a discussion or as
same woods. They all want to eat the mouse. a quick assessment of learners knowledge
What else can they eat? and understanding.


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Ask learners to talk about animals they see
in the local area. These may be pets (animals
Worksheet 1.2b could be used to support
lower achieving learners. Learners are asked
kept in the home), farm animals and wild to cut out pictures of animals and stick
animals. Ask them to talk about how wild them or the picture of the environment they
animals choose where to live and that live in.
they must have certain things (food, water,
shelter, and so on). Resource sheet 1.2c provides the words
to learn for this topic. You could also use
Hand out animal pictures to half the these to support lower achieving learners.
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class. To the rest, hand out pictures of Add them to the wall display for the unit.
environments. (You will find suitable Learners could be asked to draw some
pictures on Resource sheets 1.2a and 1.2b.) different environments, things you would
Ask learners to speak to one another and to find on a farm (for example animals, crops
match each animal with an environment it and objects such as tractors), and pets
could live in. (domestic animals) to add to the display.
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Bring some safe invertebrates, such as snails You could use these questions at the end of
or woodlice, into class for a few days. Ensure the lesson: Where do birds build their nests?
that you care for them well and ask learners Why does a frog live near water? What does
to talk about their care. Discuss where a plant need to grow? (The final question is
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these animals are found. Ensure you return more suitable for higher achieving learners,
the animals to their natural environments unless you have already taught Unit 2.)
after you have studied them, and explain to
learners why you must do so. Notes on practical activities
Ask the learners to think back to what they Activity 1.2a
did in the last lesson. Where did they find
living things in the school grounds? At this Each pair or group will need:
point learners could do Activity 1.2a. This clipboard
activity introduces learners to environments digital camera (optional).
where plants grow. Ask learners to predict
where they might find plants growing in the
school grounds. Higher achieving learners
could record their predictions on Worksheet

Cambridge Primary Science 1


16
Teaching ideas Unit 1

Before going outside, learners should predict Begin by asking the learners to talk about the
where they might find plants growing. Allow birds they see on the school site. Encourage
learners to then examine areas on the school site them to talk about the different types of birds
that are different in character, for example, a (describing the differences in appearance, at
place where there is lots of good soil and a place least). Allow the learners to look outside for a
where there is not much soil. Tell them that the short period of time (five or ten minutes). Can
search outside is to answer the question Where they see birds? Where do they see birds?
do plants grow? and that they will be collecting
evidence through observation (looking). This is Ask learners to talk with others and to think
a scientific skill required at this stage. Learners about how they might design a bird feeding
could consider environments that are very station. What would they include? A perch?
unsuitable for plants (a roadway) and more Water? Food? A roof ? There is the opportunity
suitable areas (a flower bed or field). Encourage here to practise the scientific enquiry skill of
learners to talk about what they observe and to modelling and communicating ideas in order
explain what they see. to share, explain and develop them. Ask the

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learners to draw sketches to show their ideas.
Ask learners to identify the features that plants If you have time, and appropriate materials,
appear to like, for example, soil to grow in, then you might ask learners to make the feeding

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space to grow, little disturbance and water. station they have designed.
Learners can develop the scientific enquiry
skill of recording stages in work as they record You could challenge learners further by asking
what they find using drawings, photographs or them to suggest ways that they could encourage
both. Higher achieving learners can record their more birds. As well as providing food directly,
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predictions and their findings on Worksheet
1.2a. All learners can compare their findings
this could involve sowing seed-bearing plants or
plants that will encourage insects.
with their predictions. They can also make
comparisons between different areas in terms Internet and ICT
of how many plants they found. Making
comparisons and comparing what happened The website www.bbc.co.uk/learningzone/
clips/how-have-different-animals-adapted-to-
with predictions are both scientific enquiry skills
their-habitats/12665.html shows animals in
to be developed at this stage.
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their habitats. Turn the sound down and
ask the children to talk about what they see.
As in Topic 1.1, check (as far as The film shows lizards, penguins, camels,
possible) that the areas that you visit birds and bats. Make sure that all these are
are free from poisonous or stinging culturally appropriate before using the film.
plants. Also check for any allergies to
plant material and for hayfever. Make The website www.sebastianswan.org.uk/swan/
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sure that learners wash their hands bksw.html is an online book about the life of
after the activity. Sebastian Swan. This could lead to thought
and discussion about the places that swans
and other birds and animals live.
Ensure that learners are well-
The website www.gruffalo.com/ is the official
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supervised at all times, particularly in


areas where there may be vehicles. website for all things connected to The
Gruffalo story.
Activity 1.2b
Assessment
Each pair or group will need:
water and food trays Can learners describe the ways that different
bird seed. plants live in local environments? You might
The resources above can be used to illustrate the make use of Worksheet 1.2a to elicit the
requirements for a feeding station. Learners will ideas of the learners.
develop important scientific enquiry skills here
associated with modelling and communicating
Can learners describe the ways that different
animals live in (inhabit) local environments?
ideas. Ask learners to talk about local
environments, and how animals live there,
for example in a lake, up in a tree, amongst

Cambridge Primary Science 1


17
Unit 1 Teaching ideas

the bushes. You could use Activity Book Answers to Activity Book exercises
Exercise 1.2 to make a quick assessment of
learners knowledge. Exercise 1.2
Learners could self-assess Activity 1.2a by goat field
thinking about what they did well and what duck river
they would like to improve if they repeated crab seashore
the activity. bird tree
Learners could look at another learners
design for helping the birds in Activity 1.2b Answers to Worksheets
and say two things they like about it and
one thing that could be improved. Higher Worksheet 1.2a
achieving learners should be asked to
Prediction: accept any sensible suggestions
explain how this thing could be improved.
about where plants might grow.

e
Differentiation Results of observation: where plants were
found.
Lower achieving learners would benefit

pl
from being provided with extra support in Worksheet 1.2 b
terms of structure in tasks, modelling and
vocabulary support (Resource sheet 1.2c forest: owl, deer, squirrel
would be useful for this). The matching river and bank: duck, swan, fish
activity, Exercise 1.2, would be particularly
am
suitable for this group of learners. You
could use a story format, as in The Gruffalo
seashore: crab, starfish, sea bird, dolphin (Note:
fish may be placed here.)
or the story about Sebastian Swan. Provide
opportunities for learners to talk about what
they see. Be prepared to challenge them as Topic 1.3 Animal babies
appropriate, to give them the opportunity to
develop their ideas. This topic appeals to learners interests in
animals and in young animals in particular. It
Cater for higher achieving learners by asking
ts
refers to the young of a number of animals and
them to make a number of suggestions and how these young can grow into healthy adults
to explain what they think. For example, who themselves can have young.
when talking about a desert environment
you might ask them the question: Why
dont many plants live here? Learning objectives
Know that humans and other animals
af

Common misunderstandings and produce offspring which grow into adults.


misconceptions
Suggest ideas and follow instructions.
Learners may not realise that wild animals Record stages in work.
choose where they make a home, for

dr

Model and communicate ideas in order to


example a nest, very carefully. share, explain and develop them.
Learners may not realise that wild animals
living in the wrong place will have to move Curriculum links
or they will die.
This topic only discusses the offspring of
Homework ideas humans and animals. However, you could
make a link to Unit 2, where young plants
Exercise 1.2 in the Activity Book. are discussed, and point out that plants also
have babies.
Worksheet 1.2b.
Ask learners to list the living things they can There are links with design and technology
see from a window at home. as learners will design and make a nursery
for young animals.

Cambridge Primary Science 1


18
Teaching ideas Unit 1

Ideas for the lesson and baby animals (including humans) for
the display.
Talk about the picture of adult and baby
Exercise 1.3 in the Activity Book can be
animals on page 10 of the Learners Book.
used to reinforce the idea that babies grow.
Alternatively, you could use Picture 1.3 on
Explain that in time young animals grow
the CD-ROM, which offers the opportunity
into adults. This exercise also extends
to extend the examples being considered
learning and gives learners the opportunity
to include young that look very different
to practise comparing, predicting, modelling
to their parents. Talk to the learners about
and communicating, and deciding what to
adults and their young, using the questions
do to answer a science question.
in the Learners Book as a guide for the
discussion. The picture of the animal Play the game: I am a . , my babies
nursery illustrates a number of talking are called . . For example, I am a
points, for example, What are the zoo cat, my babies are called kittens. This is an
keepers doing? You could talk about the opportunity to work on vocabulary.

e
years of care humans give to their young,
then compare this example to that of a baby
You can use the following questions to
summarise the learning in this lesson: Are
duck who is only looked after by its parents most young animals like their parents?

pl
for a few weeks. What is a young goat called? Why do
some animals have lots of babies? The
If possible, arrange a class visit to either a
last question is particularly suitable for
zoo or a farm to look at animals and their
babies. higher achieving learners as it involves

am
The website www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/
AnimalsTwobyTwo/index.html could be
understanding the dangers that young
animals face in the wild, linking back to
Topic 1.2 about environments.
introduced at this point.

Resource sheets 1.3a and 1.3b provide Notes on practical activities


pictures of baby animals and the adults.
Learners could play a matching game Activity 1.3
using these pictures. This game would be Each pair or group will need:
ts
particularly suitable for lower achieving
learners. modelling material or a construction kit
cardboard
Talk briefly about the needs of animals: scissors
shelter, food and water. glue

Activity 1.3 asks learners to make a model sticky tape


nursery items such as food, water, shelter.
af

of a nursery for an animal. Higher achieving


learners could be asked to draw a plan of Models could be made from paper and card,
their nursery before they make it. They modelling material, clay or a construction kit.
could use Worksheet 1.3 to record their Learners can design an ideal nursery for an
ideas and help to develop the scientific animal of their choice. Ask learners to think
dr

enquiry skills of suggesting ideas and about what should be included in their nursery,
recording stages in work. for example, a bed, a shelter, water, food and a
space to play. Higher achieving learners could
You could use Activity 1.3 to begin a
be asked to plan their nursery more carefully
discussion about how to care for young
and record their ideas on Worksheet 1.3. This
animals and humans. Some learners may
activity is an opportunity for learners to talk
have younger siblings or young pets they can
about the needs of young animals for food,
talk about.
water and shelter. They should suggest, model
Resource sheet 1.3c gives the words to and communicate ideas. These are all important
learn for this topic. These could be used to scientific enquiry skills to be developed.
support lower achieving learners. You could
also add them to the wall display for this The picture on page 11 of the Learners Book
unit. Ask learners to draw pictures of adult shows a baby monkey. If learners are unable to
think of a baby animal of their own, then they
could design a nursery for this baby.

Cambridge Primary Science 1


19
Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Internet and ICT Homework ideas


The website www.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/ Ask learners to choose two animals, find out
AnimalsTwobyTwo/index.html includes a something about them and draw pictures of
simple game with photos of baby animals the adult and young.
which need to be matched to photos of
adult animals. Most of the matches are Answers to Activity Book exercises
straightforward and this might be especially
beneficial for lower achieving learners. Exercise 1.3
Learners could make a presentation of 1 The baby is growing.
photos of themselves as babies, or of their 2 Learners should draw a slightly larger
younger siblings. footprint.
3 Sheena will need bigger shoes.
Assessment 4 Accept any sensible suggestions about taking

e
measurements of the babys hand growth.
Learners can look at another learners
nursery from Activity 1.3. They should say
two things that they like about the design Answers to Worksheets

pl
and one thing that they would like to
change. Higher achieving learners should Worksheet 1.3
be asked to say why and how they would Animal: any suitable animals may be chosen.
change this one thing.
Animals needs: accept any sensible suggestions,
Differentiation
am for example, shelter, food, drink, environment.
Materials required: accept any suitable
Support lower achieving learners by suggestions of what materials would be needed.
providing many concrete examples and
opportunities to talk about what they see Drawing: learners draw their nursery ideas.
and their experiences. Resource sheets 1ac
may be useful for these learners. Assist with
their vocabulary. This group will find the Topic 1.4 Healthy food and
ts

website mentioned above particularly useful. drink


Cater for higher achieving learners by In this topic, learners have the opportunity to
expecting them to be able to talk about a think about healthy and less healthy foods. They
wide range of animals and their babies. This are asked to think about a range of foods and
group could be introduced to the idea of life to compare what they eat themselves to healthy
cycles. Challenge them with more examples, foods. They learn that many foods are good for
af

for example by making use of Picture 1.3 on you, but that some should only be eaten in small
the CD-ROM. quantities at any one time.

Common misunderstandings and Learning objectives


dr

misconceptions
Know about the need for a healthy diet,
Some learners may think that babies are including the right types of food and water.
identical in every way to the adults they
grow in to, but smaller. Explain that Suggest ideas and follow instructions.
babies are often similar to adults, but that
they develop as they grow. Some young,
Record stages in work.

particularly invertebrates, and some birds,


Make comparisons.

amphibians and reptiles, are very different


from their parents. A wider range of
Curriculum links
examples can be considered on Picture 1.3
on the CD-ROM.
You can make a link to Unit 2 if you explain
that fruit and vegetables come from plants.
Learners could be encouraged to think
about which parts of the plant are used for
food.

Cambridge Primary Science 1


20
Teaching ideas Unit 1

This topic links to personal and social This activity is most suitable for higher
education and to health education. It achieving learners. It asks them to suggest
focuses on the need for a healthy diet and ideas and record their work, both of which
taking care of our bodies. are important scientific enquiry skills.

Ideas for the lesson The Learners Book introduces the idea that
fruit and vegetables come from plants.
You could bring in examples or pictures of
Ask learners to look at a selection of foods.
food plants that grow locally.
Resource sheet 1.4 could be helpful here.
Discuss with them what the foods are and Supply food for the learners to make a
whether they think the foods are good for healthy fruit kebab. You could bring in
you or not so good for you. Sort the foods different types of fruit and cut them into
into three groups, for example: foods which bite-size pieces. Learners can thread the
are mostly good for you, foods which are pieces onto skewers. Learners will have
good in some ways but can be a problem if the opportunity to handle, talk about and

e
eaten too much and foods which should not discuss the various fruits.
be eaten too often.
Take care when asking learners to eat

pl
Talk about the picture on page 12 of the in class. Make sure that learners wash
Learners Book. Alternatively, you could their hands before the activity. Check
use Picture 1.4 on the CD-ROM. There for any food allergies or intolerance.
are prompts for discussion in the Learners Follow local regulations about handling
Book. These opportunities for talking and preparing food.
am
are very important in science as it is an
opportunity to use the science vocabulary
Be aware that skewers are sharp, so
and to share and explore ideas.
show learners how to use them safely.
You could use the simplified food pyramid
on the website www.globaleye.org.uk/primary_
spring2002/focuson/index.html at this point.
Use Exercise 1.4 in the Activity Book
to encourage learners to think about
healthy and less healthy foods. There is an
Show the learners two plates. Put a set of
opportunity for learners to add their own
ts
healthy foods on one plate and a set of less
healthy foods on the other. Ask learners ideas. Challenge higher achieving learners
to talk about the positive and negative to give ideas for breakfast, and then other
effects of different foods, but try to avoid meals or for a party dinner.
confusion. Worksheet 1.4b asks children to classify
foods as healthy or unhealthy. Assist lower
Activity 1.4 asks learners to develop their
af

recording skills by drawing what they have achieving learners by talking through the
eaten today and to compare it with a healthy healthy and unhealthy foods before they try
meal. Making comparisons is an important the worksheet.
scientific skill to develop at this stage. Resource sheet 1.4b gives the words to
learn for this lesson. Use it to support lower

dr

Ask learners to design their own healthy


meal. They could use Worksheet 1.4a to achieving learners. You could also add
record their ideas. Recording stages in work to the wall display for this unit by asking
is a scientific enquiry skill to be developed learners to draw pictures of sugar, salt, fat,
at this stage. Present learners with a wide a healthy person doing exercise, and a range
range of foods from which they can select of food.
foods for a meal. You might ask different
groups to deal with breakfast, lunch and
Invite a health professional into class to talk
the learners about healthy diets.
an evening meal. Can they talk about good
combinations? Can they talk about healthy You could use these questions at the end
of the lesson to summarise the learning:
foods and less healthy foods? They could use Should you eat lots of salty foods? Why are
pictures of food cut from magazines, or they sugary foods and drinks bad for you? Why is
could choose from the pictures of healthy fruit good for you?
foods on Resource sheet 1.4a.

Cambridge Primary Science 1


21
Unit 1 Teaching ideas

Notes on practical activities Learners can self-assess their plate of food


from Activity 1.4. Can they say if it is
Activity 1.4 healthy or unhealthy?
Each pair or group will need: Learners can look at another learners
design for a plate of healthy food and
pictures of food to cut out.
say whether it is healthy or not. Higher
Learners should draw what they have eaten achieving learners should be expected to
today, or stick on pictures of foods that they give reasons to support what they say about
have eaten. They then compare their plate with the plate.
a plate of healthy food. Learners should be
presented with a wide range of pictures of foods
from which they can select foods.
Differentiation
You could show learners a plate of healthy Support lower achieving learners by
food for them to make comparisons with. providing real life examples of different

e
Alternatively, learners could choose foods from foods and making use of posters and
the selection of pictures they have, or they could prompts with relevant language, and so on.
draw a plate of healthy food Worksheet 1.4a Ensure that learners focus on the different
effects that healthy and less healthy foods

pl
could be used here. You could extend this part
of the activity further by asking learners to can have on the body.
design their own healthy meal. Look back to the Cater for higher achieving learners by
notes in the lesson ideas section for Worksheet expecting them to deal with a wider range of
1.4a. Can they talk about good combinations? food and food categories. Challenge them by
am
Can they talk about healthy foods and less
healthy foods?
expecting them to explain why some foods
are healthy and others less so. This group
of learners would find the simplified food
If learners decide that what they have eaten pyramid particularly useful when explaining
today could be healthier, ask them to suggest their choices when they design their own
changes that could make it more healthy. healthy plate of food.
Suggesting ideas is another important scientific
enquiry skill. Be aware that learners of this age
Common misunderstandings and
ts
may not have much control over what they eat
at home, so treat this subject with care. misconceptions

Internet and ICT


Many children are confused by the term
diet. They confuse a slimming diet with a
healthy diet.
The website www.globaleye.org.uk/primary_
spring2002/focuson/index.html contains a Take care with the word fat as many
af

useful simplified food pyramid. children see it as a descriptive term for


overweight people. Explain that is a food
Assessment type.

Can learners talk about the need for a Be aware that in most households children
dr

are not in control of what they eat. Look for


healthy diet? Are they able to link diet to ways to communicate positive messages to
aspects of good health? parents and carers.
Can learners describe examples of the right
types of food and water in a healthy diet? Homework ideas
For example, you could ask learners to
describe a healthy meal for a given person, Worksheet 1.4b.
such as a young child. Ask learners to list the foods they eat
tonight at home and then describe them as
Show learners a collection of foods. Can
healthy or less healthy foods.
they talk about why some are less healthy?
For example, sugary drinks can damage
your teeth.

Cambridge Primary Science 1


22
Teaching ideas Unit 1

Answers to Activity Book exercises adult frog group of tadpoles


4 Healthy foods: milk, apple, orange,
Exercise 1.4 sweetcorn, chicken, fish.
Note: salt can be included (you might talk
The following foods should be circled: banana, about salt being essential but never too
pineapple, chicken, rice, tomato, grapes, milk, much).
lettuce and cucumber.
Answers to Worksheets
Answers to Worksheets
Worksheet 1.5
Worksheet 1.4a
This baby is alive.
Healthy foods should be stuck onto the plate.
He needs milk to stay healthy.
Worksheet 1.4b Food will help him to grow.

e
Healthy food for Harry: chicken, apple, pear,
milk, egg, carrot, banana, water. He needs to live in a safe environment.
In time, he will grow into an adult.

pl
Unhealthy food for Sam: burger, butter, sweets,
chocolate, cola, pop.
Note: margarine can go into either group.
am
Topic 1.5 Check your progress
Learning objectives
Review the learning for this unit.

Ideas for the lesson


ts

Learners can be asked to answer the


questions on the Check your progress
pages of the Learners Book. These
questions cover topics from the whole unit.
Some answers are ambiguous, which will
lead to discussion that will help to assess
af

learners understanding of this unit.

Worksheet 1.5 covers ideas from the


whole unit and practices some of the core
vocabulary.
dr

Answers to Learners Book


questions

Check your progress


1 Alive: frog, dog, cats and kittens,
bears, birds
Never alive: metal, fire, water, clouds
2 desert: meerkat, camel, scorpion
pond bank: duck, frog, dragonfly, newt
Note: snake can go into either group.
3 adult bird chick
adult goat kid
adult cheetah two cheetah cubs

Cambridge Primary Science 1


23

Resource sheet 1.1



Plant hunt

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

living
What plants can you find outside the classroom?

plant
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
animal alive
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

non- look
living
Cambridge Primary Science 1
24 Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.2a

Plant hunt
Environment cards

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

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Cambridge University Press 2014 25

Resource sheet 1.2b

Plant hunt
Animal cards

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

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26 Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.2c



Plant hunt

environment
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
farm
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

pet
Large plant Another plant
af
dr

compare
Cambridge Primary Science 4
Cambridge University Press 2014 27

Resource sheet 1.3a

Plant hunt
Baby animal cards

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

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28 Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.3b

Plant hunt
Parent cards

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014 29

Resource sheet 1.3c



Plant hunt

Name: ________________________

baby
What plants can you find outside the classroom?
Date: ________________________

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
calf
am
stem leaves
ts

human
roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

young
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30 Cambridge University Press 2014

Resource sheet 1.4a Worksheet 1.2a


DayPlant hunt


DayName: ________________________
Date: ________________________


DayWhat plants
can you find outside the classroom?
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af

Conclusion
dr

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

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Cambridge University Press 2014 31

Resource sheet 1.4b



Plant hunt

healthy
Name: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Date: ________________________

Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant

food
flower

pl
am
stem

fat
leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant

sugar
af
dr

salt
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32 Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.1a

Plant hunt
What living things can we find?
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________
What plants can you find outside the classroom?
ILabel
think I can find these living things:
the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
_________________________________________________
flower

pl
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
am
_________________________________________________
stem leaves
_________________________________________________
ts

roots
What I actually found:
Large plant Another plant

_________________________________________________
af

_________________________________________________
dr

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014 33

Worksheet 1.1a

Now
Plantsort
huntthe living things into animals and plants and draw
them below.
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Write a label for each group.
What plants can you find outside the classroom?
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots
______________________________________
Large plant Another plant
af
dr

______________________________________

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Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.1b Worksheet 1.2a


Worksheet 1.2a

DayPlanthunt
On the farm

DayName: ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________

DayWhat plants
can you find outside the classroom?
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Draw a circle around each of the living things.

e
Example Small plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af

Conclusion
dr

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

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Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.2a

Plant hunt
Where do plants grow?
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________
What plants can you find outside the classroom?

ILabel the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
think plants will grow here:

e
Example Small plant

_________________________________________________
flower

pl
_________________________________________________
am
_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
stem leaves
ts

Where I foundroots
plants:
Large plant Another plant
_________________________________________________
af

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________
dr

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

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36 Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.2b

Plant hunt
Who lives here?
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________
What plants can you find outside the classroom?
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

Cambridge Primary Science 1


Cambridge University Press 2014 37

Worksheet 1.2b

Cut outhunt
Plant these pictures of animals.
Stick them on the right picture to
Name: ________________________
show where they live.
Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

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38 Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.3

Plant hunt
Plan an animal nursery
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________
What plants can you find outside the classroom?

ILabel
amthe stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
planning a nursery for a: ________________________

e
Example Small plant
flower
This animal needs:

pl
_________________________________________________
am
_________________________________________________

stem leaves
_________________________________________________
ts

roots

To build
Large plantmy nursery I need these materials:
Another plant

_________________________________________________
af

_________________________________________________
dr

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

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Cambridge University Press 2014 39

Worksheet 1.3

This
Plantis hunt
what my nursery will look like:
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

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40 Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.4a Worksheet 1.2a

DayPlant
hunt
My healthy

plate


DayName: ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________

DayWhat plants
can you find outside the classroom?
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af

Conclusion
dr

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

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Cambridge University Press 2014 41

Worksheet 1.4b

Plant hunt
Feed the giants
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________
What plants can you find outside the classroom?
Our two
Label the giants,
stem, Harry
leaves and and
flowers thenSam, need
draw how to be
the roots fed.
might look.

e
Sam is unhealthy because he eats
Example Smallunhealthy
plant food.
flower
Harry eats only healthy food.

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

Draw arrows to show which foods Harry would eat and


which foods Sam would eat.
Cambridge Primary Science 1
42 Cambridge University Press 2014

Worksheet 1.5 Worksheet 1.2a

DayPlant
hunt
Keeping

a baby healthy


DayName: ________________________
Date: ________________________

Name: ___________________ Date: ___________________



DayWhat plants

can you find outside the classroom?
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

Write the right word into the space in each sentence.

e
Example Small plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.
environment healthy baby grow adult

pl
This _________________________ is alive.
am
He needs to live in a safe
stem leaves

_________________________
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant

In time, he will grow into an


af

_________________________
Conclusion
dr

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


Food will help him to
What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
_________________________
______________________________________________________________________
He needs milk to stay

_________________________
Cambridge Primary Science 1
Cambridge University Press 2014 43
Cambridge PRIMARY
Science
Teachers Resource

3
Unit 6
Forces and movement

Jon Board
Alan Cross
Unit 6 Teaching ideas Unit 6

Teaching ideas
Background knowledge
This topic is an introduction to everyday forces such as pushes, pulls and friction. You can make it
more accessible to learners by using familiar examples such as push-pull toys, sports and games.
You will teach about how forces make things move, stop and change direction. Forces can make
things move, for example, when you kick a ball or pull a door open. The object will not move until a
force is applied. Learners sometimes do not recognise very small forces as forces. One example would

e
be lifting a sheet of paper. In this case, the pulling or lifting force is so small that we hardly notice it,
but it is a force. We use forces to stop moving objects such as a ball rolling towards us. In order to
stop the ball, we must apply a force. Even a small stopping force is still a force. When a larger object

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like a trolley is moving, we have to apply a larger pulling or pushing force to stop its movement.

We regularly use forces to change the shape of objects. In the kitchen, we will push and pull to knead
dough, tear bread or break an egg. Learners will be familiar with modelling materials and, perhaps,
am
clay where they push, pull, press and squeeze the material to change its shape. We are surrounded by
materials that are easy to shape, such as paper, card, plastics, fabrics, clay and foodstuffs.

You will teach learners about the newton (N), the unit of measurement for force. They will learn to
use forcemeters calibrated in newtons. Learners will be taught that the force of friction is a force that
acts when two surfaces are in contact.

Friction is a force that you experience every day. If you rub your hands together, you will feel the
friction, and that this slowly warms your hands. The force of friction occurs when any two surfaces
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come into contact and rub against one another. Friction is present whether or not the surfaces are
moving relative to each other, but in this unit we only consider friction that is present when two
surfaces are moving against each other. The amount of friction between two surfaces depends on
the surfaces. There is less friction between the sole of a shoe and ice than between the same sole and
tarmac. This is why it is easier to slide on ice than it is on tarmac. Learners just need to know that
friction acts between two surfaces that are in contact and moving against each other, and that the
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size of the friction force depends on the materials that make up the surfaces. Friction slows things
down. For example, friction between the tyres of a car and a roadway slow the car down. Friction
can also help us, for example, the brakes of a car use friction to slow the vehicle. Learners will
experience friction when they slide down a playground slide, or when they fall on a hard surface and
the friction painfully breaks the skin on their knees.
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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Unit overview
Topic Number Outline of Resources Resources Resources
of lesson content in Learners in Activity in Teachers
lessons Book Book Resource
6.1 Push 12 Observing and Activity 6.1 Exercise 6.1 Worksheet 6.1a
and pull talking about Su Su
Questions 1,
familiar forces in
2, 3 Worksheet 6.1b
action.
Su

6.2 12 Observing and Activity 6.2a Exercise 6.2 Worksheet 6.2a


Changing talking about Ex
shape how forces can Activity 6.2b Worksheet 6.2b

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change the
shape of things.
Ex
Questions 1, Worksheet 6.2c
2, 3

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6.3 How big 1 Observation Activity 6.3 Exercise 6.3 Worksheet 6.3
is that force? and qualitative
judgements
about the Questions

6.4 2
forces.
Using a
am
magnitude of 1, 2

Activity 6.4 Exercise 6.4 Worksheet 6.4


Forcemeters forcemeter. Ex
Learning to use Questions
the newton to 1, 2
measure forces.
6.5 Friction Investigating Activity 6.5 Exercise 6.5 Worksheet 6.5a
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friction. Ex
Worksheet 6.5b

Worksheet 6.5c
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6.6 Check 1 Checking Check your Language


your learners progress review L
progress understanding.

Ex Extension L Language Scientific enquiry Su Support


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Resources
a ball some forcemeters
some water in a bowl some small trolleys
some balloons different types of surface
a chair
a pencil
some clay
some rulers
some small, heavy balls
different objects to drop a ball onto
paper tubes
some objects to push against

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Teaching ideas Unit 6

Topic 6.1 Push and pull Exercise 6.1 in the Activity Book provides
further support. Learners are asked to sort
The activities in this topic allow learners to things into things that they push and things
explore familiar forces from everyday life. They they pull. They could be asked to add their
will have the opportunity to experience different own ideas to each category.
forces, to talk about them and their effects, and
learn to measure them. Ask learners to talk about times that they
stop things, start things and change the
direction of moving things. Activity 6.1
Learning objectives asks learners to consider how things can be
stopped from moving or have their direction
Explore how forces can make objects start
changed using forces.
or stop moving.

Suggest ideas, make predictions and


Notes on practical activities
communicate these.

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Activity 6.1
Measure using simple equipment and record
observations in a variety of ways. Each pair or group will need:
a ball

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Curriculum links
water in a bowl
A link could be made to the topic of
a balloon
magnets. The pull of a magnet on a
magnetic object is a force as it makes the a chair
object move.
am pencils.
This topic links to Design and Technology
Learners are asked to find ways to start and
which uses pushes and pulls in mechanisms.
stop the objects from moving. They are also
This topic links to Physical Education (P.E.), asked to suggest how they could change the
where pushes and pulls form the basis of direction of the object once it is moving. They
controlled movement. are asked to feel the force that they are using to
make the change in movement.
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Ideas for the lesson The water in the bowl presents some difficulty
because to make it move you have to move the
As this is the first lesson in this unit, it is an bowl to rock or swish the water around. An
opportunity to find out what the learners alternative would be to use a spoon, stick or
already know about forces. Ask a learner finger. You might discuss all these examples
(or learners) to walk around the classroom with the learners. This is a harder example
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demonstrating pushes and pulls as forces because if learners dont use fingers or a spoon,
that make things move, for example, opening they have to use the friction between the bowl
and closing doors, sharpening a pencil, etc. and the water. This is not as effective as a spoon
Note the language of pushing and pulling or finger. Discussion which the learners might
have around this example may be very valuable.
on the board or on a poster, for example,
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press, hit, push, lift, twist, bang, flick, etc. All learners will have experience of playing with
You could begin a class glossary of words a ball and moving a chair and pencil so these
related to forces. should be the most straightforward examples.
Learners could discuss the picture of Luiz
on Worksheet 6.1a in pairs. Are they able Internet and ICT
to identify items that Luiz can push and
pull? Encourage them to talk about their This interactive resource reinforces the ideas
decisions and use scientific vocabulary. in this topic:
http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/vtc/push_pull/
Worksheet 6.1b gives further examples of eng/Introduction/MainSession.htm
familiar pushes and pulls. Again, they could
work in pairs to complete this and The website http://wsgfl2.westsussex.gov.uk/
discuss ideas. aplaws/intergames/science/v5_CyrilsCheese2.
swf reinforces the vocabulary of pushes and
pulls.

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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Assessment Some learners think that very small objects


require no force at all to make them move.
This initial lesson will allow you to find out
about the learners understanding about Homework ideas
forces by listening to and observing their
responses. Can they talk about simple Exercise 6.1 in the Activity Book.
pushes and pulls as forces? Can they
describe how forces might stop objects and Worksheet 6.1b.
change their direction?
Answers to Learners Book
You can involve the learners in self- questions
assessment by asking them to talk about
things they did well in the lesson and things 1 Learners will suggest their own examples of
that they would have liked to change. forces.
2 Examples: toy car, door, window blind, gate,

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Differentiation drawers.
3 Examples: cricket, football, basketball, etc.
Cater for lower achieving learners by
Answers to Activity Book exercise

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providing straightforward instructions with
clear examples. Encourage the use of the
In most cases they can be both pushed and
science vocabulary. Allow them to handle
pulled.
equipment and to talk about examples
they have seen in the real world. You may
am
also assist them with reading instructions.
Ask them to tell you what they have to do
Answers to Worksheets
Worksheet 6.1a
before they do it. This ensures that they have
understood the instructions. This group of Push Pull
learners may benefit from the reinforcements
provided by the website suggested in the chair chair
Internet and ICT section. Exercise 6.1 in table table
the Activity Book also provides support. tins tins
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It has just a few specific examples to think
about. You can then encourage the learners opening window peeling banana
to add their own examples, such as applying pull spoon out of mug
thinking in new situations.
ball ball
Cater for higher achieving learners by window blind down
expecting them to give more examples and
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to use the scientific terms more accurately. door door


Ask them to explain what they did to start, drawers drawers
stop and change direction of the objects in
Activity 6.1. Worksheet 6.1b
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Talk about it! Push Pull

This is an opportunity to link this unit with the pushing a light switch pulling open a
drawer
learning from Unit 5. Magnetism is one of the
four fundamental forces of nature. There is a pushing a buggy pulling out a chair
force acting between a magnet and a magnetic from behind desk
material, or between two magnets. Learners will pushing a door shut pulling a window
be able to feel this force when they use magnets. shut

Common misunderstandings and


misconceptions
Some learners think that all circular/
spherical things can move by themselves.

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Teaching ideas Unit 6

Topic 6.2 Changing shape Ask the learners to drop objects onto a slab
of clay or modelling material. Ask learners
In this topic, learners are given the opportunity to observe and describe the shapes made
to observe, predict, test and record a range of in the material. Try to ensure that everyone
changes made to objects and materials when agrees that there has been a change of
forces are applied. shape even if it is small. Activity 6.2a is
an opportunity for learners to conduct a
Learning objectives similar investigation and comment on the
results. Worksheet 6.2a provides a recording
Explore how forces can change the shape of sheet for this activity.
objects.

Collect evidence in a variety of contexts to Activity 6.2b gives learners the opportunity
to carry out a test to see what happens when
answer questions or test ideas. an object is dropped on different materials.

After the activity, ask the learners to present

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Curriculum links
their results. Ask them to say what they
There are clear links to be made with Unit have found and answer the question: What
happens to objects when a hard force presses
5 regarding material properties. It is very

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easy to change the shape of some materials, on them?
but not others. There are also materials that
break, rather than change their shape. Worksheet 6.2c asks learners to consider
how the shape of different objects has been
This topic links to parts of the curriculum changed by forces.
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where learners shape materials, such as,
Design and Technology, and Art. Notes on practical activities
Ideas for the lesson Activity 6.2a
Each pair or group will need:
Ask the class to examine the shape of a
lump of modelling clay. Ask them to predict a ball of clay
its shape if you press on it. Take care as you
a ruler.
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press very hard on the clay. Ask learners to
describe the new shape. For this activity, learners need to drop a ball of
clay from different heights. Show them how to
Show the class, and ask them to measure the height using a ruler. They may find
demonstrate the use of, equipment that is it helpful to fix the ruler so that it is vertical.
used in school to change the shape of things, They need to record what happens to the ball of
for example, a pencil sharpener, scissors, clay (how its shape changes) when it is dropped.
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clay tools, modelling clay, pastry cutter, This recording could take the form of before
hole punch, etc. Ask them to work in pairs and after drawings which show the change in
to think of one piece of equipment and shape of the surface of the clay that hits the
describe, using the word forces, how the ground first. Learners should find that clay
equipment changes the shape of things. Ask
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that is dropped from greater heights is


several pairs to share their ideas. deformed more.
With a tray of sand and a small cup, ask a
Activity 6.2b
learner to make a mini sand castle. Ask all
the learners to talk about the forces used For this activity pairs or groups will require:
to make the shape, for example, lifting,
pushing, and pressing. You could use the a small but heavy ball
photos on page 60 of the Learners Book as a large sheet of paper e.g. A1 or A2
an opportunity for learners to describe how
forces change the shape of things. Exercise sticky tape
6.2 in the Activity Book extends this idea materials to test (a raw vegetable, the
by asking learners to consider the types same vegetable but cooked, a grape, clay,
of forces that could be used to change the modelling material, etc.).
shape of different objects.

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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

change the shape of things: http://www.bbc.


There is always danger when objects co.uk/learningzone/clips/the-use-of-force-to-
are being dropped. As the objects change-shape/2489.html
are inside the tube, on impact pieces
cannot fly towards eyes. Therefore, The website http://www.craftexpert.co.uk/
safety goggles are not required, but VideoMakingPlatePottery.html shows how
might be used if they are available. a plate is made on a potters wheel and
Ensure that you can supervise the demonstrates the pushing and pulling that
class and that learners are warned to is required.
think about how to keep themselves
safe and how to keep others safe. Assessment
Show the learners how a ball or wooden brick This is another opportunity to elicit
can be dropped safely down a paper tube understanding and to determine whether
onto a test material. Ask learners to suggest learners appreciate the cause and effect of a

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materials which could be tested e.g. clay, force and the change of shape.
Blu-Tack, biscuit, hard boiled egg, grape,
pasta, etc. Worksheet 6.2b provides a table for Can learners describe the changes they
observe using scientific terms? Can they

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recording predictions and results. Ensure that collect evidence and present results?
the learners think and talk about how to make
this a fair test. Here are questions that should be Ask the learners to say whether they think
considered at this point: they have grasped the concept of a fair test,
using the traffic light system where green
am
Should objects be dropped from the same height?
Should they always use the same tube?
means they have grasped it fully, amber
means they are not quite sure, and red
means they do not follow it at all.
Would it be fair if learners dropped the objects on
different surfaces?
Differentiation
Allow the learners to raise any points about the
equipment used in the tests. Ensure that they Cater for lower achieving learners by
realise that only one thing will change from test providing clear step-by-step guidance. You
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to test, which is the object being dropped. might provide prompts for different stages
in the lesson. Ask them to tell you what they
You will need to demonstrate an example and
have to do before they do it.
ask learners to talk about the tests, including
how to ensure this is safe. Show how the tube Cater for higher achieving learners by
covers the object on impact, which adds to challenging them to give clear explanations
safety by preventing the ball rolling outside the of how forces affect the shape of materials
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test area. and why some materials are affected


differently. They might also be challenged by
Ask learners to devise a science question to
expecting greater autonomy when designing
be answered. For example, how are materials/
and carrying out tests. Exercise 6.2 in the
objects affected when a force hits them from
Activity Book is particularly suitable for this
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a falling ball? Encourage them to make


group of learners.
predictions.
Ask them to carry out one or two tests followed Talk about it!
by a mini plenary to discuss the tests and the
results before completing others. This question is quite challenging and could
feature as part of the discussion after
After completing the tests, ask pairs or groups Activity 6.2b.
to discuss the results and report back. Can the
Landscape features such as cliffs, beaches,
class identify any patterns? Were the predictions
rivers, mountains, etc. are all the result of
confirmed? Has the question been answered?
natural forces in one form or another. Cliffs and
beaches are the result of erosion of the land by
Internet and ICT water. Rivers are another feature where the force
of water has carved out a channel in the land
The following website is a montage of
which has been filled with water. Mountains
different ways in which forces are used to

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Teaching ideas Unit 6

are formed when plates on the Earths surface pulling and twisting
collide, but then they are shaped by wind and forces shaped
water. balloons

Homework ideas
Ask the learners to make a paper or metal
foil sculpture. Ask them to make a note of balloons
the shape of the sheet of paper at the start
and how they applied forces to shape it. pushing force
smashed cup

Answers to Learners Book


questions
1 Some will but it depends on how hard the

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material is for example, stone will not
change shape if it is pulled or pushed by
hand. broken cup

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2 Examples are bakers, potters, builders,
carpenters.
Topic 6.3 How big is that force?
Answers to Activity Book exercise This topic asks learners to begin to think about
the size of pushes and pulls. They have the
Wood: sawing, chiselling, etc.
Sandcastle: patting, pushing.
am chance to compare pushes, make predictions
and a qualitative judgement, as well as describe
Elastic band: pulling and record results.

Answers to Worksheets Learning objectives


Worksheet 6.2c Know that pushes and pulls are examples of
forces and that their sizes can be compared.
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Object How the shape was
changed Collect evidence in a variety of contexts to
answer questions or test ideas.
pushing and pulling
forces shaped clay Suggest ideas, make predictions and
communicate these.
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Ideas for the lesson


Show the learners a video or picture
illustrating a large force, for example, an
modelling clay elephant pushing a tree. Contrast this with
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tiny forces. For example, ask a learner to


pushing force
push a matchstick or sheet of paper or a
squashed can
balloon. Explain that these tiny forces are
so small that some people think there is no
force at all. Explain that to make anything
move, a force is required.

On page 62 of the Learners Book, there are


pictures of a boy pulling toys with an elastic
aluminium can band. Ask learners how they can tell that
some toys are being pulled with more force
than others (longer elastic band for some
than others).

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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Ask a learner to demonstrate a tiny push could challenge this by comparing how much
to a table that is put against a wall, then a force is needed to move a pencil and a heavy
slightly larger push and then again a slightly book. Remember to ask learners to make a
larger push. Ask the rest of the class if they prediction first.
can tell exactly how big these pushes are.
(They cannot as they are not visible.) Ask Internet and ICT
the learner to repeat the pushes by pushing
with an inflated balloon. Everyone should It will be helpful to find links to show large
now see the greater pushing as the balloon forces being applied such as elephants
will be squashed more with a greater push. working, rockets blasting off, etc. The
following website http://latimesblogs.latimes.
Activity 6.3 in the Learners Book discusses
com/technology/2011/08/nasa-juno-jupiter-
the use of a balloon (or other soft item) as
atlas-v.html shows the launch of Juno to
a means of seeing how large a force is being
Jupiter and the website http://www.bbc.co.uk/
used.

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learningzone/clips/elephant-pushes-over-an-
acacia-tree/2442.html shows an elephant
Notes on practical activities moving an acacia tree to reach the leaves.

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Activity 6.3
Assessment
Each pair or group will need:
an inflated balloon Can learners compare forces? Can they talk
about the effects of different forces? Can
objects to push.
am
Learners should not attempt to move
they talk about bigger forces and smaller
forces?
heavy objects or move objects in a way Ask the learners to discuss Activity 6.3.
that would present a risk to themselves What two things did they do well? What
or others. would they like to have done better?

Explain that, because the balloon is elastic it Differentiation


can be used to indicate the size of the forces.

ts
Cater for lower achieving learners by
Allow everyone, perhaps working in pairs, to providing support such as providing clear
have a go with a balloon or similar item. Warn instructions, and providing a table for them
learners to take care. Ask them to agree a to complete. As suggested previously, ask
language to describe the magnitude of the push, them to tell you what they have to do before
for example, tiny push, gentle push, push, hard they do it. Make sure that you are willing
push, big push. Check that they can see how the
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to reduce the support and challenge these


balloon (or equivalent) shows how hard they are learners where appropriate. Exercise 6.3 in
pushing. the Activity Book is particularly suitable for
Now ask them to predict, investigate and this group of learners.
record the magnitude of the force required
Cater for higher achieving learners by
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to push a range of safe objects, for example, expecting them to suggest how to conduct
books, small boxes, footwear, a ball, boxfile, and record predictions and tests.
box of sand, etc. Warn them to take care. You
may need to talk with learners about how they
can judge a force to be small, medium or large. Talk about it!
Explain that this is not a precise measure. Ask learners to suggest how their observations
Worksheet 6.3 provides a grid for a bar chart on in this topic help them to compare the sizes of
which they can record results. forces. Have they been able to find the precise
Ask learners to feedback results and to discuss value of a force? (No, for that you need a
any patterns they see. For example, larger forcemeter which they will meet in the
objects require more force to move them. You next topic.)

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Teaching ideas Unit 6

Common misunderstandings and still not be able to move. Ask the other
misconceptions learners if they can tell how much pushing
is happening. (They cannot because the
Some learners think that all circular/ amount of pushing is not visible.) Ask the
learners to suggest how they could see how
spherical things are able to move by
themselves. much pushing is happening (they should
refer back to the previous topic).
Some learners think that very small objects
require no force at all to make them move. Now do a similar activity but pull on the
box or a similar object. Begin with a very
Homework ideas small pull. Again the force is not visible, so
ask the learners to pull using a strong elastic
Ask learners to list the things at home that band. (Please note that the elastic must be
require big, medium and small forces to firmly fixed to the box and learners should
move them. wear safety goggles.)

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Exercise 6.3 in the Activity Book. Ask the class whether they thought the
balloon and elastic were helpful. Ask if they
Answers to Learners Book have ever seen a machine that will measure

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questions forces. Show them a forcemeter.

1 train pulling wagons, horse pulling cart, girl Activity 6.4 in the Learners Book asks
lifting book, bird picking up leaf learners to use their forcemeter to test
2 a pulling force different pulling forces in the classroom or

Answers to Activity Book exercise


am around school. They can use Worksheet 6.4
to record their results.

Small force: ant pulling leaf, hand using scissors. Exercise 6.4 in the Activity Book asks
learners to match objects to the size of force
Big force: train, child pushing door, elephant
needed to move them. This is a challenging
pushing log, swing.
exercise and will be most suitable for the
more able learners.
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Topic 6.4 Forcemeters Notes on practical activities


The activities in this topic allow learners to
explore forces in a familiar setting. They will Activity 6.4
have the opportunity to compare the size of Each pair or group will need:
forces using a forcemeter.
access to forcemeters
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Learning objectives objects to push or pull (for example,


a plastic brick, a book, a sheet of paper,
Know that pushes and pulls are examples of a shoe, a coin, a door).
forces and that they can be measured with
Learners have the opportunity to pull objects
forcemeters.
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here using a forcemeter to investigate the force


Measure using simple equipment and record need to move it.
observations in a variety of ways.
Talk with the learners about how to take
their measurements. Perhaps they will repeat
Ideas for the lesson a measurement to check that it is right?
Support learners with reading the scales on the
Ask a learner to demonstrate pushing
forcemeters and give advice about selecting the
against a door using a piece of foam (use the
classroom door). right forcemeter with the correct scale to use.
They should note the results and then put them
Ask a learner to give a very small, careful
in order from the lowest force to the highest
push to a box of equipment or books. The
box should not move. Ask the learner to force.
increase the push slightly, the box should

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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Differentiation Topic 6.5 Friction


Cater for lower achieving learners by The activities in this topic allow learners to
experiment with objects and the friction the
providing clear examples at each stage. Give
them time to look for other examples such objects experience when they are moved.
as, do we push or pull a computer mouse?
Ensure that these learners are involved in Learning objectives
your demonstrations. Ask them to tell you
what they need to do before they do it. You Explore how forces, including friction,
may need to suggest what these learners test can make objects move faster, slower or
with their forcemeter. change direction.

Cater for higher achieving learners by Suggest ideas, make predictions and
expecting more independence. Challenge communicate these.
them to come up with several suggestions
With help, think about collecting evidence

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for things that they might test using a and planning fair tests.
forcemeter.
Measure using simple equipment and record
observations in a variety of ways.

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Talk about it!
Learners can use objects that change shape Curriculum links
when pressed against things. These might
include a soft ball, a balloon, a sponge and There are clear links to be made with Unit 5
on material properties. Encourage learners
am
modelling materials. Encourage learners to
think and talk about examples such as this.
They hold a balloon against a box. As they
to think about the properties of materials
that cause a lot of friction and those that
push on the balloon it is squashed. They can see cause very little friction.
how much it is squashed and this indicates the
amount of the force applied.
There are strong links with Mathematics
with regards to the investigative work where
learners gather, present and interpret data.
Homework ideas
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Ideas for the lesson
Exercise 6.4 in the Activity Book.
Explain that friction is a force that acts
Answers to Learners Book when two surfaces are in contact with each
questions other. Some materials cause more friction
than others. At this stage, concentrate on
1 newton the friction between objects that are moving
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2 so that it does not break in use relative to each other, for example, a tray
being pulled across a table.
Answers to Activity Book exercise
brick 20 newtons
Ask the learners to rub their hands together
and describe what they feel.
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book 1 newton
box of paper 10 newtons Activity 6.5 in the Learners Book gives
learners the opportunity to explore friction.
shoe 5 newtons
car 10 000 newtons After the activity, ask learners if they can
heavy door 25 newtons suggest ways to reduce friction, for example,
by placing a sheet of paper under the object.
Try one suggestion. Ask the learners to
measure the force this time and attempt to
explain why the force has changed.

Try moving a chair on different floor


surfaces in class if you have more than one
type of surface, or on a P.E. mat or other
mat if not. Ask learners to predict what the
change will be and discuss in pairs why they

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Teaching ideas Unit 6

think this is so. Explain that any difference 6.5a provides a frame that the learners can use
is explained by friction and that they should for guidance. Learners should record results,
use that word. discuss them and report back to class.

Worksheet 6.5b shows learners how friction After the activity, ask learners to explain what
can be used to change the direction of an happened by talking about the forces, the
object. You might ask learners to work direction and size of the forward forces and
with a partner to do this Worksheet. The friction. (The friction force acts in the opposite
discussion about what has happened will be direction to the dragging force. If the dragging
beneficial to learners understanding. Take force and the friction force are the same size
feedback after the learners have done this then the object being dragged will not move.
worksheet and make sure that the concept The object will only move when the dragging
has been understood. force is larger than the friction force. The size
of the friction force depends to a certain degree
Show the learners a range of shoes with
on the material from which the surface is made.
different soles. Ask them whether they have

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It is not expected that learners will give all this
shoes which can be slippery and do not have
detail they may simply talk about the friction
a good grip. Ask them to explain this using
force and the dragging force but it is included
the word friction. Worksheet 6.5c could be

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for completeness.)
used here. You could introduce the extension
activity (see notes below) at this point. Can learners explain why some surfaces require
(Note that there may be cultural sensitivities more force? Can learners talk about patterns in
around the soles of feet. This part of the their observations/results?
am
lesson should therefore concentrate on shoes
and not involve learners in taking off their
shoes.)
Extension activity: Investigating the
grip of shoes
Exercise 6.5 in the Activity Book asks Each group or pair will need:
learners to identify where friction is acting
in different situations. This activity is a slope
designed to check that learners appreciate footwear.
that friction acts between two surfaces. Ask learners to think about shoes that grip well
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and others they have worn. Make the link with


Notes on practical activities friction: good grip means high friction.
Ask them to do a thought experiment. Can they
Activity 6.5 close their eyes and imagine this experiment
Each group or pair will need: with a slope and shoes? Ask them to talk about
the headings on Worksheet 6.5c in their pairs or

af

a tray
groups. Ask selected learners to report back and
some string then prepare plans as a drawing with labels.
a forcemeter Can they explain how they would determine
the shoe with most friction? Ask them to draw
sheet materials or different floor materials
dr

over which to drag the tray. the sole of a shoe and explain why it would be a
grippy sole (material, pattern).
Care is required with activities such This exercise has more meaning if learners carry
as this not to cause trip hazards or to out the experiment.
drop items.
Internet and ICT
Show learners examples of objects sliding on the
floor. Explain that friction is a force slowing the
objects down. Demonstrate a tray sliding, and
Use a computer microscope or visualiser to
enable learners to observe the roughness of
ask them to suggest how you would measure the seemingly smooth surfaces.
force required using a forcemeter.
Ask learners to devise a question and make
predictions. Learners can plan and carry out
the investigation for themselves. Worksheet

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Unit 6 Teaching ideas

Differentiation Answers to Learners Book


questions
Cater for lower achieving learners by
1 between two surfaces
providing clear instructions. You can also
help these learners by making the forces 2 Less friction between slide and cotton
explicit, for example, by using a number of clothes than between slide and woollen
cut out arrows of different sizes that can clothes.
be held in position with examples to show
where forces are, their direction and size. As Answers to Activity Book exercise
always, ask them to tell you what they have
to do in practical activities as it is useful between car and surface
to check that they have understood the between hands
instructions. between wheel and brake pads
between ground and knee
Cater for higher achieving learners by

e
expecting them to explain their observations Answers to Worksheets
using the scientific terms given. Challenge
them to make accurate predictions and to Worksheet 6.5b

pl
explain these. Challenge them by expecting
There is friction between the bike and the path.
a range of suggestions for surfaces that they
The puddle made the path wet. This reduced the
could test in Activity 6.5.
friction between Samirs tyres and the road as
she changed direction, and so her bike slipped
Talk about it!
am
This relates to ideas for the lesson section where
learners explored different soles. For a sole to
and she fell off. Kali was on the dry path as she
changed direction and so the friction was not
reduced. She changed direction safely.
have a good grip on the ice, it needs to be able
to create as much friction as possible between Worksheet 6.5c
the sole and the ice. Soles which are smooth
foot carpet polished ice
will not be able to do this and so shoes with
covering/ floor
smooth soles will not be very safe to wear in icy surface
ts
conditions.
shoes good grip fair grip not much
grip or no
Common misunderstandings and grip
misconceptions depending
on shoes
Some learners may find it difficult to see
socks fair grip no much not much
friction as a force as it appears to be passive,
af

grip grip
unlike pushes and pulls.
no foot fair grip not much no grip
Homework ideas covering grip

Ask the learners to draw their home and


dr

add drawings to show at least four examples


where friction features. For example, on the
floor, mats or carpets as they walk, holding
onto handles, holding onto banister rails,
opening jars, bottles, etc.

Exercise 6.5 in the Activity Book.

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Teaching ideas Unit 6

Topic 6.6 Check your progress


Learning objectives
Review the learning for this unit.

Ideas for the lesson


Learners can be asked to answer the questions
on the Check your progress pages of the
Learners Book (pages 6869) and the
Language review on page 40 of the
Activity Book.

Answers to Learners Book

e
questions
1 a catch it

pl
b push it in another direction using, for
example, a bat
2 forcemeter C
3 a grass
b stone
4
am
grass, it requires more force to pull a
skateboard over grass than the other
surfaces which suggests that grass creates
the most friction.

Answers to Activity Book exercise


force a push or a pull
ts
newton the unit of force
pull opposite of push
forcemeter a machine for measuring forces
friction a force which acts when two surfaces
are incorrect
push opposite of pull
af
dr

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Worksheet 6.1a Worksheet 1.2a


Pushing
Day and
pulling

Name:
Day ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

Day Ranjit is in his room he pulls and pushes things.


When

When Luiz is in his room he pulls and pushes things.
Identify which things he can push and which things he can pull.
Identify which things he can push and which things he can pull.
Which objects can he push and pull?

e
Draw and label the plants at the end.

pl
am
ts
af

Conclusion
dr

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________


What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

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Worksheet 6.1a

Plant hunt
Complete the table.

Push Pull
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

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Worksheet 6.1b Worksheet 1.2a


Push
Day or pull?

Push or pull?
Name:
Day ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Day of these are pushes and which are
Which

pulls?

Which of these are pushes and which are pulls?


Write push or pull under each picture.

e
Draw and label the plants at the end.

pl
am
ts

Write them in the correct column of the table.


af

Push Pull

Conclusion
dr

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

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Worksheet 6.2a

Investigating forces

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________


Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

Height in
Height / cm What the ball of clay looked like
cm What the ball of clay looked like
55

e
pl
10

10
am

ts


af
dr

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Worksheet 6.2b Worksheet 1.2a


Dropping
Day objects
a ball onto different
objects

Name:
Day ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

Day
In this activity you will drop a ball (safely) onto different objects and materials to observe
In thishappens.
what activity, you will drop a ball (safely) onto different objects to observe
what happens.

e
Object Prediction Result
Object
Draw and label the plants at Prediction
the Result
end.

pl
am


ts
af

Conclusion
dr


Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________


______________________________________________________________________

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Worksheet 6.2c

Plant hunt
Forces change the shape of things

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________


Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Look at the objects in the table. The shape of each has been changed by a force.
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Explain how the shape of the object was changed by forces.

e
Example Small plant
flower
Object How the shape was changed

pl
am
modelling clay
stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant

aluminium can
af
dr

balloons

broken cup

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Worksheet 6.3

Worksheet 1.2a
Worksheet 6.3a
Worksheet 6.3a
Plant

How
Day big

huntis
this force?

How big is this force?


How
Day big
Name:
Name: is this force?
________________________
________________________

Date: ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________
Name:
________________________
Day plants
Date: ________________________
What can you find outside the classroom?
In this activity, you have to test objects to see if they need a small, medium or big
InLabel the stem,
this activity youleaves and
have to flowers
test then
objects draw
to see how the
if they needroots mightmedium
a small, look. or big push
push
to this
make
to make
them you
them
move.
move.
Record
Record
your
your
results
results
on this
as a
graph.
bar chart.
In activity have to test objects to see if they need a small, medium or big push

e
Example Small
to make them move. Record your results on this graph. plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at of
Size
Size the
ofend.
forcetotomake
force makeobjects
objects move
move

pl
Size of force to make objects move

large push
large
large push
am
stem leaves
of push

Size of push
of push

ts

medium push
medium roots
medium push
Size

Large plant Another plant


Size

af

Conclusion
small push
small
dr

small push

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________
Object
Object
Object

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Worksheet 6.4

Plant hunt forces


Measuring

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________


Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

dowelling
What plants can you find outside the classroom? elastic band stretched
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower
carboard tube elastic band small object

pl
Use a forcemeter to measure different pulling forces around your school.
Record the sizes of the forces in this table.

Object
am Force needed in newtons

stem leaves
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af
dr

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Worksheet 6.5a Worksheet 1.2a

Plant
Forces
Day hunt
and
friction

Name:
Day ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________


Day plants can
What you find outside the classroom?
In this activity, you will drag a tray over different surfaces. You will measure the
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
force (in newtons) needed to pull the tray. Use these questions to help you to plan

e
your investigation.
Example Small plant
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.

pl
What is your science question?
_____________________________________________________________________
What is your prediction?
am
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
stemyou do?
What will leaves

_____________________________________________________________________
ts

roots
_____________________________________________________________________
Large plant Another plant

Draw the test.


af

Conclusion
dr

Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________

What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________

______________________________________________________________________

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Worksheet 6.5a

Plant
What hunt
were your results?

Name: ________________________
Surface Date:needed
Force ________________________
in newtons

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.

e
Example Small plant
flower

pl
am
stem you found out?
What have leaves

_____________________________________________________________________
ts

roots

_____________________________________________________________________
Large plant Another plant

_____________________________________________________________________
af

_____________________________________________________________________
dr

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Worksheet 6.5b Worksheet 1.2a

Plant
Day hunt
Friction saves
Kali!

Name:
Day ________________________
Date: ________________________
Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________


Day plants can
What you find outside the classroom?
We can use the force of friction to change the direction of an object.
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
Kali and Samir have ridden down the path on their bikes. Kali kept to the dry side.

e
Samir rode on the wet side in the puddle.Small plant
Example
flower
Draw and label the plants at the end.
Samir

pl
<art work WSN6.5.1 of a pathway which is
curved, one one side of the path is a puddle
and wet skid marks leading to a crashed
cycle. One girl (black) labelled Kali has
am
safely cycled to the end and is stopped
with one leg down and is smiling. Another
girl (asian) labelled Samir has skidded
in a puddle skidded o the path and is
sitting beside her crashed cycle rubbing her
shoulder , arm or leg>
stem leaves

Kali
ts

roots

Large plant Another plant


af

What has happened? Explain this using these words.


Conclusion
dr

puddle path wet tyres friction reduces


Do plants need water to grow? ____________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
What happens if plants have no water? _____________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

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Worksheet 6.5c

Plantneed
You hunta good grip

Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________


Name: ________________________ Date: ________________________

What plants can you find outside the classroom?


Leela, Rabia and Mandisa are going to test different foot coverings (shoes, socks
Label the stem, leaves and flowers then draw how the roots might look.
and no foot covering) to see how much grip these have on different surfaces.

e
Example Small plant
Fill in the table to predict what their results will be. Describe the grip in each case
as good grip, fair flower
grip, not much grip, or no grip.

pl
Foot covering/ carpet polished floor ice
surface
shoes
am
stem leaves
ts

roots
socks
Large plant Another plant
af
dr

no foot covering

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