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B.Tech. IV Semester

Code: ME434 Max. Marks: 100

Subject: Advanced manufacturing Technology Duration: 3 Hrs
1. a. Temperature
Forming process requires stress above flow stress of the material being deformed. The effect of external work
done on work piece during forming is converted into heat. About 5 to 10% of the work is stored within as
internal energy. Friction can also result in heating and increase in internal energy of work piece. Assuming
frictionless deformation, the temperature increase during metal forming operation can be written as:
T = U plastic / Cp, where Uplastic is plastic work done per unit volume of work piece. is density C p is specific
With friction, T = U total / Cp, where is fraction of deformation work converted to heat. Normally, = 0.95-
Temperature rise is calculated using stress-strain curve, as the plastic work is calculated as the area under stress-
strain curve for plastic flow. For slow deformations, the temperature rise of the work piece may be small as the
heat generated gets dissipated through the die, surrounding air, etc. However, adiabatic condition may prevail
under large deformation speeds, resulting in large rise in temperature of the work piece. This may cause incipient
melting. Therefore, strain rate also influences the temperature rise during working. For low carbon steel, the
temperature rise for a true strain of 1 has been estimated to be 553 K. This is without heat lost from the billet.
Strain Rate
Strain rate is the rate at which strain is induced in the metal.
It is also a measure of rate of deformation, as the metal is being worked at a known speed. Viz., the rate at which
deformation is taking place.
If V= Deformation Velocity, t= Instantaneous thickness of the metal
then strain rate, = V/t
As strain rate increases, the metal becomes hardened and flow stress increases.
An increase in the strain rate increases the strain hardening in the metal.
The metal temperature required for deformation increases with increase in strain
Surface asperities on two surfaces in contact get interlocked with each other. When a surface tends to slide
against another stationary surface, say a die surface, there is a shear stress induced at interface which opposes the
flow of material. This condition is called sliding friction. Condition of sliding friction or sticking friction can
arise at the interface between the work piece and die/tool in forming operations. Sliding friction arises due to
surface shear stress opposing the metal flow. Friction is undesirable as it increases the deformation work
required, leads to non-homogeneous deformation of material, causes tool wear, causes residual stress in the
product and may lead to cracking of surface.
Coefficients of friction in forming processes are quiet high. If coefficient of friction becomes very high it leads to
a situation called sticking friction.
In this case, the surface shear stress exceeds shear yield strength of material, the two surfaces adhere to each
other. Metal beneath the surface undergoes shear deformation.
Theoretical forming pressure without friction is: p = f [flow stress]. With sliding friction, having coefficient of
Coulomb friction = /p, the forming pressure increases exponentially along the interface, as given below for a
disc under forging;
P = f (exp2/h (a-r)), where h is height of billet, a is radius of the cylindrical billet.
As a result of friction, forming pressure rises exponentially, forming a friction hill in the lateral direction.
Friction factor m is sometimes used in place of coefficient of friction.
m = / k, where k is shear yield strength. m is independent of normal pressure at interface and it is easy to
Board drop forging hammer
Forging defects
1.Incomplete forging penetration:
Dendritic ingot structure at the interior of forging is not broken. Actual forging takes place only at the
Cause: Use of light rapid hammer blows
Remedy: To use forging press for full penetration.
2. Surface Cracking
Cause: Excessive working on the surface and too low temperature. High sulfur in furnace leading to hot
Remedy: To increase the work temperature
3. Cracking at the flash: This crack penetrates into the interior after flash is trimmed off.
Cause: Very thin flash
Remedy:-Increasing flash thickness, relocating the flash to a less critical region of the
forging, hot trimming and stress relieving.
4. Cold shut (Fold): Two surfaces of metal fold against each other without welding completely
Cause: Sharp corner (less fillet), excessive chilling, high friction
Remedy: increase fillet radius on the die
5.Scale pockets and Underfills: They are loose scale/ lubricant residue which accumulate in deep recesses
of the die.
Cause: Incomplete descaling of the work
Remedy: Proper decaling of work prior to forging
6. Internal cracks
Cause: Secondary tensile stresses developed during forging
Remedy: Proper die design
Expression for drawing load by slab analysis
Consider a rectangular strip of initial thickness h o and uniform width. This strip is passed through a
convergent die, so that its thickness gets reduced to h f. The semi die angle is taken to be .
In the analysis, we may assume plane strain compression of the strip, as the width of the strip does not
change during the process.
Consider a strip of thickness dx within the die. Let the strip of initial thickness h+dh be reduced in
thickness to h after the deformation. We can write the force balance on the elemental strip.
The slant area of the strip = dx/cos (Width is taken as unity)
Stretch forming: Stretch forming is a metal forming process in which a piece of sheet metal is stretched
and bent simultaneously over a die in order to form large contoured parts. Stretch forming is performed on
a stretch press, in which a piece of sheet metal is securely gripped along its edges by gripping jaws. The
gripping jaws are each attached to a carriage that is pulled by pneumatic or hydraulic force to stretch the
sheet. The tooling used in this process is a stretch form block, called a form die, which is a solid contoured
piece against which the sheet metal will be pressed. The most common stretch presses are oriented
vertically, in which the form die rests on a press table that can be raised into the sheet by a hydraulic ram.
As the form die is driven into the sheet, which is gripped tightly at its edges, the tensile forces increase and
the sheet plastically deforms into a new shape. Horizontal stretch presses mount the form die sideways on
a stationary press table, while the gripping jaws pull the sheet horizontally around the form die.
very low and homogeneous residual stresses,
greatly reduced spring back,
Machining and assembly operations without deformation since no fiber are compressed.
increased hardness by about 2 %,
forming of sheets, bars and rolled or extruded sections,
final normalized metallurgical state of the product after completion of the various forming and
heat treatment phases
easy and fast tools changeover,
finished product matching the shape of the tool,
low cost forming (1 tool instead of 1 die + 1 punch) : about one-third of conventional tools,
Typical stretch formed parts are large curved panels such as door panels in cars or wing panels on aircraft.
The variety of shapes and cross sections that can be stretch formed is almost unlimited. Window systems,
skylights, store fronts, signs, flashings, curtain walls, walkway enclosures, and hand railings can be
accurately and precisely formed to the desired profiles.
Other stretch formed parts can be found in window frames and enclosures. Close and consistent tolerances,
no surface marring, no distortion or ripples, and no surface misalignment of complex profiles are important
benefits inherent in stretch forming. A smooth and even surface results from the stretch forming process.

Flow chart for wire drawing:

In these forming processes large amount of energy is applied for a very short interval of time. Many metals
tend to deform more readily under extra fast application of load which make these processes useful to
form large size parts out of most metals including those which are otherwise difficult to form.
The parts are formed at a rapid rate, and thus these processes are also called high velocity forming
processes. There are several advantages of using these forming processes, like die costs are low, easy
maintenance of tolerances, possibility of forming most metals, and material does not show spring-back
effect. The production cost of components by such processes is low. The limitation of these processes is
the need for skilled personnel.
There are three main high energy rate forming processes:
1. Explosive forming, 2. Magnetic forming, and 3. Electro hydraulic forming.

Methods of producing powders

Mechanical methods:-
1. Milling 2. Machining 3. Shotting 4. Graining

Physical methods:-
Electrolytic deposition
Atomization: Water Atomization, Gas Atomization, Vacuum Atomization, Centrifugal Atomization,
Rotating disk Atomization, Ultrasonic Atomisation
Advantages of HERF Processes
i) Production rates are higher, as parts are made at a rapid rate.
ii) Die costs are relatively lower.
iii) Tolerances can be easily maintained.
iv) Versatility of the process it is possible to form most metals including difficult to form metals.
v) No or minimum spring back effect on the material after the process.
vi) Production cost is low as power hammer (or press) is eliminated in the process. Hence it is
economically justifiable.
vii) Complex shapes / profiles can be made much easily, as compared to conventional forming.
viii) The required final shape/ dimensions are obtained in one stroke (or step), thus eliminating
intermediate forming steps and pre forming dies.
ix) Suitable for a range of production volume such as small numbers, batches or mass production.
i) Highly skilled personnel are required from design to execution.
ii) Transient stresses of high magnitude are applied on the work.
iii) Not suitable to highly brittle materials
iv) Source of energy (chemical explosive or electrical) must be handled carefully.
v) Governmental regulations/ procedures / safety norms must be followed.
vi) Dies need to be much bigger to withstand high energy rates and shocks and to prevent cracking.
vii) Controlling the application of energy is critical as it may crack the die or work.
viii) It is very essential to know the behavior or established performance of the work metal initially.
i) In ship building to form large plates / parts (up to 25 mm thick).
ii) Bending thick tubes/ pipes (up to 25 mm thick).
iii) Crimping of metal strips.
iv) Radar dishes
v) Elliptical domes used in space applications.
vi) Cladding of two large plates of dissimilar metals.
Blending and conditioning in PM
Blending: mixing powder of the same chemical composition but different sizes
Mixing: combining powders of different chemistries
Blending and mixing are accomplished by mechanical means:
Except for powders, some other ingredients are usually added are called as conditioning:
Lubricants: to reduce the particles-die friction
Binders: to achieve enough strength before sintering
Deocculants: to improve the ow characteristics during feeding

Effect of friction factor on metal forming

Friction forces are developed between the work piece and tool.
Friction is the resistance to sliding along an interface.
The higher the contact pressures, the higher will be the friction resulting in an increase in the deformation
resistance of the work metal.
Excessive friction is undesirable due to the effects:
Friction increases the amount of force or power required to perform an operation.
Friction reduces metal flow, hence induces inhomogeneity in the formed part leading to certain defects.
Friction increases heat at the interface resulting in wear of the working tools.
Friction between the work and the tool give rise to shearing stresses along the contact surface.

Friction is characterized by coefficient of friction () which is the ratio of the frictional resistance force ()
to the normal force (p).
= /p
= .p (Coulombs friction law)
The value of the coefficient of friction () depends on:
Work metal being formed
Tool material
Surface roughness of the work and the tool
Speed of deformation
Type of lubricant used
According to Tresca model of friction we can write: = m k, where m is called friction factor. m varies
between 0 and 1. If m =1 we have the interfacial shear stress equal to the shear yield strength. In such a
situation, we have sticking friction. The surfaces get interlocked with each other so that they could not
slide against each other. Material beneath the surface undergoes shear deformation. The die material
should not deform plastically and the work material could undergo plastic deformation. Sticking friction
could happen at normal stresses greater than the flow stress by at least a factor of 3. Under the
circumstances, the soft work material penetrates into the surface of the die material.
According to Coulomb model, the frictional stress increases with coefficient of friction, as the shear force
is proportional to normal pressure. According to Tresca model, the frictional shear force is independent of
the normal pressure, because, the shear stress is proportional to shear yield strength, which is a constant. In
mixed mode of friction, both Coulombic model and Tresca model could happen simultaneously. It has
been experimentally verified that when a cylindrical work piece is upset, along the outer circumference
there is sticking friction, and inside towards axis of forming there is sliding friction. This can be due to
the run out of the lubricant and hence the metal-to-metal contact along the periphery.

Twist Compression Test

The twist compression test was developed specifically to model hydro
forming of tubes and for sheet forming operations in general. The twist
compression test is used for evaluating the frictional behaviour of
lubricants and die materials for metal forming applications. The test
involves loading a 25 mm cylindrical specimen of tool material against
a flat sheet work-piece sample and subjecting the contact to low speed
rotation. The resulting torque is measured and, post test, the surfaces are
examined for wear and material transfer.

Twist Compression Test (TCT) is widely used as a laboratory screening test for evaluating metal
working lubricants
In the TCT, a rotating annual tool is pressed against a fixed sheet metal specimen with selected
pressure and sliding speed to simulate the metal forming process.
The coefficient of friction (COF, ) is estimated as a function of time by the ratio of friction force
and normal force.
Coulomb law of friction
Coulomb friction, named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, is a model to describe friction forces. It is
described by the equation:
Ff = Fn where, Ff is either the force exerted by friction, or, in the case of equality, the maximum possible
magnitude of this force.
is the coefficient of friction, which is an empirical property of the contacting materials,
Fn is the normal force exerted between the surfaces
For surfaces at rest relative to each other = s, where s is the coefficient of static friction. This is usually
larger than its kinetic counterpart. The Coulomb friction may take any value from zero up to F f, and the
direction of the frictional force against a surface is opposite to the motion that surface would experience in
the absence of friction. Thus, in the static case, the frictional force is exactly what it must be in order to
prevent motion between the surfaces; it balances the net force tending to cause such motion. In this case,
rather than providing an estimate of the actual frictional force, the Coulomb approximation provides a
threshold value for this force, above which motion would commence.
For surfaces in relative motion = k, where k is the coefficient of kinetic friction. The Coulomb friction
is equal to Ff, and the frictional force on each surface is exerted in the direction opposite to its motion
relative to the other surface.
This approximation mathematically follows from the assumptions that surfaces are in atomically close
contact only over a small fraction of their overall area, that this contact area is proportional to the
normal force (until saturation, which takes place when all area is in atomic contact), and that frictional
force is proportional to the applied normal force, independently of the contact area (you can see the
experiments on friction from Leonardo Da Vinci). Such reasoning aside, however, the approximation is
fundamentally an empirical construction. It is a rule of thumb describing the approximate outcome of an
extremely complicated physical interaction. The strength of the approximation is its simplicity and
versatility though in general the relationship between normal force and frictional force is not exactly
linear (and so the frictional force is not entirely independent of the contact area of the surfaces), the
Coulomb approximation is an adequate representation of friction for the analysis of many physical

Strip Drawing Test

In this test a strip is drawn between two opposing flat dies that are wider than the strip. The coefficient of
friction is given by
The coefficient of friction may be changed with the amount of stretching.
The test can be performed in different speeds or speed profile, different radii and die material.