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OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES

Edited by

D a v i d J. R e i m e r
OLD TESTAMENT STUDIES

T h e m i d - t w e n t i e t h century w a s a period of great confidence in the study


of the H e b r e w Bible: m a n y historical a n d literary q u e s t i o n s a p p e a r e d
to b e settled, a n d a c o n s t r u c t i v e t h e o l o g i c a l p r o g r a m m e w a s well
u n d e r w a y . N o w , at the turn of the c e n t u r y , the picture is very different.
Conflicting positions are taken on historical issues; scholars d i s a g r e e
not only on h o w to p o s e the q u e s t i o n s , but also on w h a t to a d m i t as
e v i d e n c e . S h a r p l y d i v e r g e n t m e t h o d s are u s e d in e v e r m o r e p o p u l a r
literary studies of the B i b l e . T h e o l o g i c a l f e r m e n t persists, but is the
B i b l e ' s theological vision c o h e r e n t , or o t h e r w i s e ?
T h e O l d T e s t a m e n t S t u d i e s series p r o v i d e s an outlet for thoughtful
d e b a t e in the f u n d a m e n t a l a r e a s of biblical h i s t o r y , t h e o l o g y and
literature. Martin H e n g e l is well k n o w n for his seminal w o r k on early
J u d a i s m and nascent Christianity. In this v o l u m e h e turns his attention to
the S e p t u a g i n t t h e first bible of the c h u r c h , yet a p r o d u c t of G r e e k -
s p e a k i n g J u d a i s m . H e n g e l p r o b e s into the historical and t h e o l o g i c a l
p u z z l e s p o s e d by the S e p t u a g i n t o p e n i n g a w i n d o w on the formation of
c a n o n a n d attitudes to scripture in the Christian tradition, a n d on the
relationship b e t w e e n J u d a i s m and Christianity in the early c e n t u r i e s of
the era.
THE SEPTUAGINT
AS CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURE
THE SEPTUAGINT
AS CHRISTIAN SCRIPTURE
Its Prehistory and the Problem of Its Canon

Martin Hengel
with the assistance of R o l a n d D e i n e s

Introduction by
Robert Hanhart

Translated by
M a r k E. Biddle

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A c a t a l o g u e record for this b o o k is a v a i l a b l e f r o m the British Library

Typeset by Waverley Typesetters, Galashiels


Printed and b o u n d in Great Britain by M P G B o o k s Ltd, B o d m i n , C o r n w a l l
In honour of my colleague
Luise Abramowski
CONTENTS

Preface xi

Select B i b l i o g r a p h y xv

Introduction: P r o b l e m s in the History of the L X X T e x t from


Its B e g i n n i n g s to O r i g e n 1
by R o b e r t H a n h a r t

I. A Difficult S u b j e c t 19

II. T h e L X X a s a C o l l e c t i o n o f W r i t i n g s C l a i m e d b y
Christians 25
1. T h e T r a n s l a t i o n L e g e n d in J u d a i s m and the N u m b e r
of the T r a n s l a t o r s 25
2. Justin 26
(a) The Legend in the A p o l o g y and D i a l o g u e 26
(b) Justin's Old Testament Library' 28
(c) The Dispute about the Translation of Isaiah 7:14 29
(d) The Appeal to the Seventy and the Charge of
Falsifying Scripture 31
(e) The 'Generous' Treatment of Minor Variants 33
if) Justin's Appeal to the Seventy in his Discussion
with Jews in Rome 34
3. T h e S e v e n t y in L a t e r ' D i a l o g u e s ' 35
4 . T h e T r a n s l a t i o n L e g e n d in the Early F a t h e r s after Justin 36
(a) Persistent Problems 36
(b) Pseudo-Justin's C o h o r t a t i o ad G r a e c o s 37
(c) Irenaeus 38
(d) Clement and Tertullian 40
(e) Summary 40
5. T h e F o r m of the Christian L X X 41
6. T h e J e w i s h Reaction 43
7. T h e Q u e s t i o n of the H e b r e w O r i g i n a l s ' 47
8. A u g u s t i n e ' s A t t e m p t at C o m p r o m i s e 51
9. T h e P r o b l e m of the Book of Enoch 54
III. T h e L a t e r C o n s o l i d a t i o n of the C h r i s t i a n ' S e p t u a g i n t
Canon' 57
1. T h e First C o d i c e s : T h e W r i t i n g s C o n t a i n e d in T h e m
and T h e i r O r d e r 57
2. T h e Earliest C a n o n Lists 60
3. T h e ' S e c o n d C l a s s ' C h a r a c t e r of the W r i t i n g s N o t
C o n t a i n e d in the ' H e b r e w C a n o n ' 66
4 . T h e Rejection of A u t h e n t i c ' A p o c r y p h a ' 70

I V . T h e O r i g i n of t h e J e w i s h L X X 75
1. T h e T r a n s l a t i o n of the T o r a h and Its E n d u r i n g
Significance 75
2. T h e T r a n s l a t i o n of O t h e r W r i t i n g s 80
(a) Dependence on Palestinian Judaism 80
(b) The Translation and Origin of Individual
Writings 83
(c) The Writings Not Found in the 'Hebrew Canon' 91
3. T h e C a n o n in the J e w i s h D i a s p o r a 96
(a) The Prologue of Jesus ben Sirach 96
(b) Philo 's T h e r a p e u t a e 98
(c) Josephus: A p 1:37^3 99

V. T h e O r i g i n of t h e ' C h r i s t i a n S e p t u a g i n t ' a n d Its


Additional Writings 105
1. Early Christianity 105
2. T h e P r o b l e m of the I n c l u s i o n of the W r i t i n g s N o t
C o n t a i n e d in the ' H e b r e w C a n o n ' 112
(a) Writings Outside the 'Hebrew Canon' 113
(b) Independent Documents outside the 'Hebrew
Canon' 114
(c) The Dissemination and Prevalence of These Writings
in the Church 122

Index of Biblical and Extra-Biblical Citations 129

Index of A u t h o r s 143

Index of Subjects 147


PREFACE

W i t h the S e p t u a g i n t , it is the s a m e as in G o e t h e ' s lines:

Poems are painted window panes!


From the market one looks into the church,
Where all is dark and sombre . . .

A c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of t h e o l o g i a n s r e g a r d the S e p t u a g i n t as G o e t h e
v i e w s the p o e m s in ' d e r H e r r P h i l i s t e r ' : they k n o w it, if at all, m e r e l y
from the o u t s i d e , and are therefore able to d o little with it. At best, it h a s
a subservient function, for e x a m p l e in aiding the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the
text of the H e b r e w B i b l e , as proof of q u o t a t i o n s and a l l u s i o n s , and also
for N e w T e s t a m e n t l e x i c o g r a p h y . D u e to the o v e r w h e l m i n g orientation
t o w a r d the original H e b r e w text of the O l d T e s t a m e n t a n d the G r e e k text
of the N e w T e s t a m e n t , larger related p a s s a g e s in the S e p t u a g i n t , let
alone o n e or m o r e b o o k s , are s e l d o m read with the a i m of ascertain
ing their style, translation t e c h n i q u e and historical l o c u s . Rather, the
Septuagint is u s e d as a reference w o r k for individual v e r s e s a n d sections.
This view 'from the m a r k e t into the c h u r c h ' w h e r e 'all [ s e e m s ] dark and
s o m b r e ' distorts o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of its intrinsic historical and t h e o
logical v a l u e . T h e S e p t u a g i n t is not only a u n i q u e linguistic m o n u m e n t
without a n a l o g y in the G r e e k literature of antiquity (no other w o r k of
this scale w a s translated into G r e e k from a foreign l a n g u a g e ) , but it also
constitutes the first c o m p l e t e a n d p r e - C h r i s t i a n ' c o m m e n t a r y ' to the
O l d T e s t a m e n t . F o r e v e r y translation is an interpretation, and the L X X ,
as the first r e n d e r i n g of the writings of the H e b r e w B i b l e into the G r e e k
lingua franca, is this in an especial w a y . It was both the bible of primitive
Christianity a n d the early c h u r c h until well into the s e c o n d c e n t u r y , and
later it w a s t h e ' O l d T e s t a m e n t ' of the G r e e k c h u r c h . A l s o , it funda
m e n t a l l y f o r m e d the theological l a n g u a g e of oldest Christianity and,
m o r e o v e r , assisted in c h a n g i n g and leaving its m a r k on the spiritual
world of late A n t i q u i t y .
T h i s relative neglect of the S e p t u a g i n t has m a n y different c a u s e s .
First of all, s o m e are external, in that there is still n o h a n d y bilingual
H e b r e w - G r e e k version w h i c h w o u l d m a k e constant c o m p a r i s o n possible,
inviting intensive and continuous reading. Further, the excellent
G t t i n g e n edition is still unfinished (and the price virtually p r o h i b i t i v e ) ,
w h i l e R a h l f s ' s w i d e l y d i s s e m i n a t e d edition is scarcely sufficient for
a c a d e m i c p u r p o s e s b e c a u s e of its too n a r r o w textual b a s i s , all too limited
c r i t i c a l a p p a r a t u s , a n d , in p a r t i c u l a r , b e c a u s e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
references to variants of the later revisions and r e w o r k i n g of the text are
v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e l y a b s e n t . T h u s , t h e r e v i s i o n of R a h l f s ' s P s a l m
edition in the G t t i n g e n S e p t u a g i n t is an u r g e n t d e s i d e r a t u m . S e c o n d ,
the S e p t u a g i n t is seen as a ' m e r e ' (and thus s e c o n d - c l a s s ) ' t r a n s l a t i o n ' ,
of interest to only a few specialists of the i n t e r t e s t a m e n t a l p e r i o d
a l t h o u g h p a r t i c u l a r l y in its l a t e s t w r i t i n g s it s h o w s t h a t t h e ' O l d
T e s t a m e n t ' lasted into the first c e n t u r y AD, that is, until the t i m e of J e s u s
a n d early Christianity. It is thus easily o v e r l o o k e d that the S e p t u a g i n t
r e p r e s e n t s a n y t h i n g but a u n i t y . R a t h e r it s t e m s from 3 5 0 y e a r s of
t u r b u l e n t h i s t o r y a n d r e p r e s e n t s the m o s t i m p o r t a n t s e l f - w i t n e s s to
G r e e k - s p e a k i n g J u d a i s m . T h e b a s i c s t u d y of s o - c a l l e d ' H e l l e n i s t i c
J u d a i s m ' of the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of early Christianity in the truest sense of
t h e w o r d , s h o u l d b e g i n w i t h t h e S e p t u a g i n t a n d not w i t h P h i l o of
A l e x a n d r i a . For P h i l o , b e i n g a J e w i s h religious p h i l o s o p h e r , w a s rather
an outsider; his actual theological a c h i e v e m e n t lay in the fact that h e , as
a P l a t o n i z i n g p h i l o s o p h e r , e x t e n s i v e l y interpreted, in several s t a g e s , the
translation of the P e n t a t e u c h by the S e v e n t y .
H o w e v e r , w h e n o n e d o e s actually e n t e r the ' h o l y c h a p e l ' a n d 'is
greeted', one cannot escape astonishment:

There at once it's coloured bright,


History and ornament flashing light,
Portentous effect of a gentle glow;
This to God's children applies,
Flourish and feast your eyes!

T h i s translation c o n t a i n s an i m m e n s e r i c h n e s s of philological, historical


a n d t h e o l o g i c a l p o i n t s of v i e w , a n d o n e c a n c o n t i n u a l l y m a k e n e w
d i s c o v e r i e s both in it and in the history of its influence on J e w s and
C h r i s t i a n s . Further, the S e p t u a g i n t is an e c u m e n i c a l w o r k , e v e n t h o u g h
the object of J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n c o n t r o v e r s y for t w o centuries (until the
C h r i s t i a n s snatched it a w a y from the J e w s , w h o replaced it with A q u i l a ' s
' G r e e k T a r g u m ' ) , not only b e c a u s e it is still the Bible of the O r t h o d o x
C h u r c h today but also m u c h m o r e b e c a u s e through the so-called
a p o c r y p h a l b o o k s it constantly r e m i n d s the Christian church of its J e w i s h
roots.
U n l i k e the N e w T e s t a m e n t , its fifty-three d o c u m e n t s ( w i t h o u t the
Psalms of Solomon) still offer a fallow field in w h i c h n e w d i s c o v e r i e s
c a n b e m a d e in d i v e r s e w a y s , b o t h from the p o i n t of v i e w of the
f o r m a t i o n of the t e x t s at v a r i o u s t i m e s , p l a c e s and u n d e r different
influences, and from the point of view of the history of its controversial
i m p a c t , w h i c h is a basic c o m p o n e n t of c h u r c h history.
T h e i m p o r t a n t introductory essay w h i c h Prof. Dr Robert H a n h a r t ,
the great Septuagint scholar, contributed to this v o l u m e g o e s b a c k to
a T b i n g e n O b e r s e m i n a r d u r i n g the w i n t e r term 1 9 9 0 / 1 . At this
O b e r s e m i n a r I d e l i v e r e d a short v e r s i o n of m y b o o k w h i c h on the
PREFACE xiii

w h o l e has a l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d history. His o p i n i o n deviated from


m i n e o n s e v e r a l p o i n t s , a n d t h i s m a k e s his c o n t r i b u t i o n e s p e c i a l l y
v a l u a b l e . T h e p r o b l e m s of the S e p t u a g i n t need o p e n d i s c u s s i o n .
A first, m u c h briefer version w a s p r e s e n t e d in 1987 in a series of
p a p e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e c a n o n a n d t h e i n t e r -
confessional differences p e r t i n e n t to the s c o p e of its Old T e s t a m e n t
p o r t i o n at an a n n u a l m e e t i n g of the E c u m e n i c a l W o r k i n g G r o u p of
Protestant and Catholic theologians. After thorough editing and
e x p a n s i o n , section 11:1-4 (pp. 2 5 - 4 1 ) of the s a m e p a p e r c o m p r i s e d the
basis for a p a p e r at the s e c o n d D u r h a m - T b i n g e n R e s e a r c h S y m p o s i u m
on Earliest Christianity a n d J u d a i s m in D u r h a m , E n g l a n d , in S e p t e m b e r
1989. T h e l e a d i n g t h e m e of the s y m p o s i u m w a s the d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n
J e w s and C h r i s t i a n s in the first and s e c o n d c e n t u r i e s . It a p p e a r e d in
1992 in the s y m p o s i u m v o l u m e edited by J. D . G. D u n n (Jews and
Christians: The Parting of the Ways A.D. 70 to 135 [ W U N T 1/66;
T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 2 ] , 3 9 - 8 4 ) u n d e r the title ' D i e S e p t u a g i n t a als von d e n
Christen b e a n s p r u c h t e S c h r i f t e n s a m m l u n g bei Justin u n d den V t e r n vor
O r i g e n e s ' . S i n c e the p a p e r s of the E c u m e n i c a l W o r k i n g G r o u p are also
n o w b e i n g p u b l i s h e d , I p r e p a r e d the w h o l e p a p e r for publication with
the assistance of D r R o l a n d D e i n e s . D r D e i n e s has b e e n very helpful in
editing the notes and twice p r e p a r i n g the m a n u s c r i p t in v a r i o u s versions.
T h e greatly a b b r e v i a t e d s u m m a r y of m y c o n t r i b u t i o n to the collected
v o l u m e of the s e c o n d D u r h a m - T b i n g e n S y m p o s i u m is also his work. I
offer h i m c o r d i a l t h a n k s h e r e for h i s e n e r g e t i c a s s i s t a n c e . In t h e
m e a n w h i l e , the p a p e r s of the T h e o l o g i c a l W o r k i n g G r o u p h a v e also
a p p e a r e d in p r i n t u n d e r t h e t i t l e Verbindliches Zeugnis 1:
Kanon-Schrift-Tradition, W. P a n n e n b e r g and T. Schneider, eds
(Dialogue der Kirchen VII; Freiburg and Gttingen, 1992). M y
contribution is printed there on p p . 3 4 - 1 2 7 . S i n c e then, I h a v e r e w o r k e d
and s u p p l e m e n t e d it. For their v a l u a b l e advice, I t h a n k m y c o l l e a g u e s
R o b e r t H a n h a r t , A n n a M a r i a S c h w e m e r and C h r i s t o p h M a r k s c h i e s .
MARTIN HENGEL
SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

A n e x t e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y up to and including 1969 a p p e a r s in: S. P.


B r o c k , C. T. Frisch and S. Jellicoe, A Classified Bibliography of the
Septuagint ( L e i d e n , 1973). It is s u p p l e m e n t e d in the Bulletin of the
International Organization of Septuagint and Cognate Studies ( a b b r e
viated B I O S C S ) w h i c h has a p p e a r e d since 1968. . a s s e m b l e d a
specialized b i b l i o g r a p h y c o v e r i n g lexical and g r a m m a t i c a l p r o b l e m s : A
Classified Bibliography of Lexical and Grammatical Studies on the
Language of the Septuagint ( J e r u s a l e m , 1982). T h e following also offer
o v e r v i e w s with rich bibliographies: . , ' D i e griechischen
B i b e l b e r s e t z u n g e n ' , ANRWII 20/1 (Berlin and N e w Y o r k , 1987): 1 2 1 -
89; S. P. B r o c k , ' B i b e l b e r s e t z u n g e n I 2: D i e b e r s e t z u n g e n des Alten
T e s t a m e n t s ins G r i e c h i s c h e ' , TRE V I ( 1 9 8 0 ) , 1 6 3 - 7 2 .
T h e f u n d a m e n t a l literature m e n t i o n e d b e l o w (in alphabetical order)
will be cited in the footnotes o n l y b y the a u t h o r ' s n a m e . In all other
references to literature, the b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l information will b e stated at
the first o c c u r r e n c e and thereafter will b e indicated only by a u t h o r ' s
n a m e and, if n e c e s s a r y , short title:

D . B A R T H L M Y , Etudes d'histoire du texte de l'Ancien Testament


( O B O 21 ; F r e i b u r g and G t t i n g e n , 1978), a collection of e s s a y s with
m a n y i m p o r t a n t w o r k s on the L X X .
R. BECKWITH, The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church
and Its Background in Early Judaism ( L o n d o n , 1985).
G. J. BROOKE and B . LINDARS, e d s , Septuagint, Scrolls and Cognate
Writings ( S B L . S C S S 3 3 ; Atlanta, 1992), a c o l l e c t i o n of e s s a y s .
O. EISSFELDT, Einleitung in das Alte Testament (4th e d n ; T b i n g e n ,
1976).
M . H A R L , G. DORIVAL and O . M U N N I C H , La Bible Grecque des Septante
(Paris, 1 9 8 8 ) , an e x t e n s i v e s u m m a r y of r e s e a r c h with a c o m p r e
hensive bibliography.
S. JELLICOE, The Septuagint and Modern Study (Oxford, 1968).
S. JELLICOE a n d H . M . ORLINSKY, e d s , Studies in the Septuagint: Origins,
Recensions, and Interpretation: Selected Essays with a Prolegomenon
by S. Jellicoe ( N e w York, 1974), cited as Studies.
J.-D. KAESTLI and O. WERMELINGER, e d s , Le Canon de Ancien Testament
( G e n e v a , 1984), a collection of e s s a y s .
F . G. K E N Y O N a n d A . W . A D A M S , Der Text der griechischen Bibel
(Gttingen, 1961).

. SCHRER, G. V E R M E S , F . M I L L A R a n d M . G O O D M A N , The History of the


Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, Vols I-III/2 (Edinburgh,
1 9 7 3 - 8 7 ) , cited as S c h r e r [rev.].

A . C . SUNDBERG, The Old Testament in the Early Church (HTS 2 0 ;


Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1 9 6 4 ) .

H. B . SWETE, An Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek (Cambridge,


1 9 0 2 = N e w York, 1968).

J. ZIEGLER, Sylloge: Gesammelte Aufstze zur Septuaginta (MSU 1 0 ;


Gttingen, 1971).
INTRODUCTION

Problems in the History of the LXX Text


from Its Beginnings to Origen

ROBERT HANHART

T o a p p e a r s u d d e n l y in an a d v a n c e d s e m i n a r , unfamiliar with its p r e v i o u s


p r o c e e d i n g s , c a n easily a w a k e n fearfear of e x p l i c a t i n g w h a t is already
well k n o w n , b u t e v e n m o r e of c o n t r a d i c t i n g the shared c o n c l u s i o n s of
s e m i n a r m e m b e r s , so that, afterward, they face the task of r e c o n s i d e r i n g
e v e r y t h i n g . M y c o l l e a g u e , Prof. D r H e n g e l , w h o h a s i n f o r m e d m e of the
general t h e m e of y o u r s e m i n a r a n d h a s p r e p a r e d m e intellectually with
h i s e x t r e m e l y r i c h s t u d y of ' T h e S e p t u a g i n t as C h r i s t i a n S c r i p t u r e
a n d t h e D e v e l o p m e n t of Its C a n o n ' , h a s s o m e w h a t m i t i g a t e d t h i s
s e c o n d fear with his g r a c i o u s s t a t e m e n t that he d e s i r e d m y participation
precisely ' b e c a u s e ' I q u o t e ' y o u see m a n y things differently' (letter
of 3 S e p t e m b e r 1990). O n e thesis u n d e r l y i n g m y p r e s e n t a t i o n , entitled
' P r o b l e m s in t h e H i s t o r y of t h e L X X T e x t f r o m Its B e g i n n i n g s to
O r i g e n ' , will p r o b a b l y very q u i c k l y b e c o m e a p p a r e n t to you as such a
'different p e r s p e c t i v e ' . N o w the d e f e n c e of a thesis is not easy in any
c a s e r e c e n t l y I r e a d the following s t a t e m e n t in a n e w s p a p e r : ' W h o
e v e r defends a thesis m u s t leave g a p s . ' T h e g a p s m a y often be filled
by that w h i c h q u e s t i o n s or e v e n c o n t r a d i c t s the thesis. W i t h this reser
vation a n d in the h o p e that, if not the thesis, then a few of the detailed
o b s e r v a t i o n s m a y b e v a l u a b l e to y o u , I d a r e a p p e a r b e f o r e y o u ; I
h o p e not like a wild b o a r in the v i n e y a r d of the L o r d ( P s . 8 0 [ L X X
79]:14).
A s befits m y discipline, I w o u l d like to present a few t h o u g h t s c o n
c e r n i n g the history of the L X X text from the t i m e of its origin to the
time of its final e s t a b l i s h m e n t as ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' in the Christian c h u r c h .
T h e b e g i n n i n g is d o c u m e n t e d by the legend of the p s e u d e p i g r a p h a l Letter
of Aristeas, the end by the philological w o r k of O r i g e n .
Before w e turn o u r attention to w h a t s e e m to m e s o m e of the important
aspects of the t e x t ' s history d u r i n g this period, p e r m i t m e briefly to
present w h e r e I believe the e s s e n c e of this period c a n be seen in light
of the ' G r e e k H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' . T h i s a t t e m p t m a y a p p e a r as a 'terrible
s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ' , not only b e c a u s e of the simplification o c c a s i o n e d by
brevity, but also b e c a u s e of its o b v i o u s theological p r e m i s e s . It m a y ,
h o w e v e r , o c c a s i o n discussion.
T o e x p r e s s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e G r e e k O l d T e s t a m e n t for t h e
J u d a i s m of t h e H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d a n d for t h e p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n
c h u r c h I f o l l o w t h e d e f i n i t i o n of F r a n z O v e r b e c k , a l t h o u g h a l s o
i n c l u d i n g the J u d a i s m of the p e r i o d i t m a y essentially b e defined as
the ' U r g e s c h i c h t e ' (primal h i s t o r y ) . T h i s m e a n s that the literary forms of
the t w o c o m m u n i t i e s r e g a r d l e s s of w h e t h e r ' c a n o n i z e d ' or ' e x t r a -
c a n o n i c a l ' a r e f u n d a m e n t a l l y the g e n r e s of c a n o n i z e d w i t n e s s e s . W i t h
r e f e r e n c e to t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t , t h e s e g e n r e s a r e h i s t o r i o g r a p h y ,
p r o p h e c y - a p o c a l y p t i c a n d w i s d o m . E x c e p t i o n s , such as n a s c e n t literary
c o m m e n t a r i e s , confirm the rule. F o r m s of e x p r e s s i o n that d o , i n d e e d ,
originate in the c a n o n i z e d w i t n e s s , but that are not c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u c h
as the letter and a p o l o g e t i c s a r e not literary g e n r e s in the precise sense,
b u t c a m e to b e r e c o r d e d l i t e r a r i l y as t h e r e s u l t of t h e p r e s s u r e s of
c i r c u m s t a n c e . F r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e of literary form a distinction b e t w e e n
c a n o n i c a l a n d e x t r a - c a n o n i c a l c a n n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d .
T h e p r o b l e m of the t e x t ' s h i s t o r y , the subject of m y p r e s e n t a t i o n ,
relates to canonical S c r i p t u r e , c a n o n i c a l for b o t h the J e w i s h a n d the
C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s . At this point I c a n d o n o m o r e than o u t l i n e the
c o n c e p t u a l basis for the v i e w of the p r o b l e m s of the history, intellectual
history a n d t h e o l o g y of the c a n o n itselfin the sense of t h o s e subtle
p e r c e p t i o n s for w h i c h w e are grateful to o u r c o l l e a g u e H a n s Peter R g e r
( w h o unfortunately p a s s e d a w a y so y o u n g ) w h i c h are r e p r e s e n t e d here.
W e c a n see that H e l l e n i s t i c J u d a i s m h a d a relatively well defined
c a n o n of ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' a l r e a d y in the s e c o n d century BC, w h i c h thus
p r e c e d e d the w i t n e s s e s of the N e w T e s t a m e n t w r i t i n g s ; in the definition
of w h a t w a s to b e r e g a r d e d as ' c a n o n i c a l ' the f o u n d a t i o n is being laid for
the later differentiation b e t w e e n ' c a n o n i c a l ' a n d ' a p o c r y p h a l ' .
I see e v i d e n c e for this p o s i t i o n in the p r o l o g u e of J e s u s b e n Sirach
from the s e c o n d half of the s e c o n d p r e - C h r i s t i a n c e n t u r y : he a s s u m e s
as c a n o n i c a l S c r i p t u r e n o t o n l y t h e t h r e e d i v i s i o n s t r a n s m i t t e d by
the Masoretes comprising the (the m m ) , the
(the c x - 3 : ) and the ( 1 0 ; cf. 1) or the
( 2 5 ; the c m r c ) , which, including the already c o m p o s e d
Dodekapropheton ( 4 9 : 1 0 ) , w e r e available to the g r a n d s o n a n d trans
lator in the Praise of the F a t h e r s in his g r a n d f a t h e r ' s b o o k of p r o v e r b s
( C h a p . 4 4 - 5 0 ) . H e also d i s t i n g u i s h e s this literature from the o n e b a s e d
on it as c o m m e n t a r y , b e g i n n i n g with the w o r k of his grandfather, b e c a u s e
of the and the resulting ( 1 0 - 1 2 ) . H e r e p e a t s the
s a m e d i s t i n c t i o n in r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r o b l e m of translation by
b a s i n g his e x c u s e for t h e o b s c u r i t y of his o w n t r a n s l a t i o n (

, 22) on the fact that ' e v e n the law, the p r o p h e t s ,
and the other b o o k s r e a d in the original ( ) manifest
a significant difference ( , 2 6 ) ' w h e n
c o m p a r e d with the translation.
It s e e m s to m e justifiable to c o n c l u d e that the d i s t i n c t i o n i n relation
both to their c h a r a c t e r and the quality of their t r a n s l a t i o n b e t w e e n L a w ,
P r o p h e t s and the other W r i t i n g s , on the o n e h a n d , a n d the literature first
exemplified in the w o r k of his grandfather, on the other, w a s g r o u n d e d
first and f o r e m o s t in the distinction b e t w e e n ' c a n o n i c a l ' and ' a p o c r y p h a l '
already c u r r e n t at the time.
It c a n t h e r e f o r e b e a s s u m e d t h a t a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n , ' H o l y
S c r i p t u r e ' as a w h o l e was already existing in J u d a i s m . I believe that the
primitive C h r i s t i a n w i t n e s s e s attest this differentiation as a ' g i v e n ' : the
Palestinian c a n o n in the form p r e s e r v e d in the M a s o r e t i c tradition w a s
seen as authentic c a n o n , the other writings transmitted in the A l e x a n d r i a n
c a n o n b o t h those translated from H e b r e w or A r a m a i c and those
originally written in G r e e k a s ' a p o c r y p h a l ' .
It m a y s e e m like an o v e r - s t a t e m e n t to use this t e r m i n o l o g y in relation
to this p e r i o d , a l t h o u g h sufficient e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h a t e x t e r n a l
categories m a y b e m o r e appropriate for characterizing a period than those
already k n o w n . B u t this distinction b r i n g s one c l o s e a s early as the
p r e - C h r i s t i a n e r a of J u d a i s m t o the solution of a p r o b l e m that will be
significant for the p r o b l e m of the Christian c a n o n . T h e content of the
A l e x a n d r i a n L X X c a n o n , w h i c h d o e s not m e e t the c a n o n i c a l standard
transmitted in J o s e p h u s (c. Ap 1 3 6 - 4 2 ) a c c o r d i n g to w h i c h the succession
of t h e p r o p h e t s , d e t e r m i n a t i v e of c a n o n i c i t y , e n d e d in t h e t i m e of
A r t a x e r x e s I or E z r a and N e h e m i a h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of the Seleucid
religious p e r s e c u t i o n in 1 and 2 M a c c a b e e s , J e s u s b e n S i r a c h ' s m e n t i o n
of the h i g h priest S i m o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n , from the outset, not only
a p p e n d e d t o , b u t c o n s i d e r e d i n f e r i o r in t e r m s of a u t h o r i t y to t h e
Scriptures of the Palestinian c a n o n . T h e only q u e s t i o n that r e m a i n s o p e n
is w h e t h e r this distinction w a s a p h e n o m e n o n c o m m o n to Palestinian
and Hellenistic J u d a i s m or a p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o c o m
m u n i t i e s : to m y k n o w l e d g e , there are n o p r e - C h r i s t i a n s o u r c e s useful in
a n s w e r i n g that q u e s t i o n .
In r e f e r e n c e to o u r p r o b l e m of t h e t e x t u a l h i s t o r y of c a n o n i c a l
Scriptures in the J e w i s h and the Christian traditions, the issue c a n n o t be
the conflict e v i d e n t in both r e a l m s s u r r o u n d i n g the c a n o n i c i t y of certain
writings. R e f e r e n c e to a d a n g e r s e e m s justified to m e h e r e ; n a m e l y , that
often o n e d o e s not p e r m i t the e x c e p t i o n to p r o v e the rule, but m a k e s
the e x c e p t i o n into the rule and c o n c l u d e s from the e x i s t e n c e of such a
conflict that an original multiplicity of c a n o n i c a l w i t n e s s e s w a s r e d u c e d
only in later p e r i o d s . For the q u e s t i o n of the textual history of c a n o n i c a l
Scripture, the ' A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n ' m a y be a s s u m e d to b e a reliable basis:
originating in p r e - C h r i s t i a n J u d a i s m a l t h o u g h differing in size in the
Christian m a n u s c r i p t t r a d i t i o n a n d a c c e p t e d by the p r i m i t i v e Christian
c h u r c h as ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' . W i t h i n this d o c u m e n t , there is only o n e
definitive line w h i c h can be d r a w n , the line s e p a r a t i n g the m a t e r i a l s
b e l o n g i n g to b o t h the Palestinian and the A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n s from those
t r a n s m i t t e d in t h e A l e x a n d r i a n o n l y . F u r t h e r g r a d a t i o n s w i t h i n the
c o m p l e x so d e m a r c a t e d , e s p e c i a l l y the special status of the T o r a h within
the c a n o n ( w h i c h also h a s p a r t i c u l a r significance for the history of L X X
origins since it constitutes t h e basis in t e r m s of l e x i c o g r a p h y a n d trans
lation t e c h n i q u e for the translation of the o t h e r S c r i p t u r e s ) , c a n n o t be
d e n i e d . B u t , since a r e c i p r o c a l p o l e m i c b e t w e e n v a r i o u s t h e o l o g i c a l
s t r e a m s m a y not, in m y o p i n i o n , b e d e d u c e d from the e v i d e n c e , the fact
that Hellenistic J u d a i s m a r o u n d that t i m e (i.e. in the s e c o n d half of the
s e c o n d p r e - C h r i s t i a n c e n t u r y ) p o s s e s s e d d o c u m e n t s confirming b o t h the
special status of the T o r a h (the p s e u d e p i g r a p h i c a l Letter of AristeasY
and the e x i s t e n c e of the A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n in its full s c o p e (the P r o l o g u e
2
of J e s u s b e n S i r a c h ) r e m a i n s for m e proof that differentiation within a
b o d y of literature r e c o g n i z e d as c a n o n i c a l , apart from the d i v i d i n g lines
m e n t i o n e d , signifies, at m o s t , difference in d e g r e e but not in s u b s t a n c e .
B e s i d e q u o t a t i o n s in w r i t i n g s b e l o n g i n g o n l y to t h e A l e x a n d r i a n
c a n o n , I b e l i e v e that the r e f e r e n c e to p r o p h e t i c w o r d as S c r i p t u r e in the
Damascus Scroll (to n a m e o n l y o n e e x a m p l e ) supplies the best e v i d e n c e
in the realm of pre-Christian Judaism of the Hellenistic p e r i o d that all
the w r i t i n g s of the ' P a l e s t i n i a n c a n o n ' t r a n s m i t t e d in the M a s o r e t i c tradi
tion a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d the c a n o n i c a l significance of ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' .
A c c o r d i n g to current historical-critical e v i d e n c e , this w o r d o r i g i n a t e d
in t h e H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d . D e u t e r o - Z e c h a r i a h ' s call for the s w o r d to
arise against the g o o d s h e p h e r d ( Z e c h . 13:7) is linked to the r e f e r e n c e to
the ' s h e p h e r d a l l e g o r y ' ( c h a p . 11): '. . . w h e n the w o r d transpires that
w a s w r i t t e n by the p r o p h e t Z e c h a r i a h : ( m r o sinn
N'Din), ' A w a k e s w o r d against m y s h e p h e r d s ( ^ m a D i n ) ' . But
3
those w h o o b e y h i m are ' t h e p o o r of the flock' (]X^n "]y c n 1 1 : 1 1 ).
T h e fact that this d o c u m e n t reflects the a w a r e n e s s of a particular trend
w i t h i n H e l l e n i s t i c J u d a i s m is, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the q u e s t i o n of the
c a n o n i c i t y of the Palestinian c a n o n , m u c h m o r e likely an a r g u m e n t for
an early fixation of a c k n o w l e d g e d Scripture than an a r g u m e n t for an
4
isolated r e c o g n i t i o n . For the realm of the primitive Christian church

1
A c c o r d i n g to the s t y l i s t i c a r g u m e n t s o f E. B i c k e r m a n n ('Zur D a t i e r u n g d e s P s e u d o -
A r i s t e a s ' , Z N W 2 9 [ 1 9 3 0 ] = S t u d i e s in J e w i s h and Christian H i s t o r y I [ L e i d e n , 1976],
1 0 9 - 3 6 ) b e t w e e n 145 and 125 BCE.
:
A f t e r 117 BCE: ( P t o l e m y P h y s k o n 170-164, 145-117)arrival in the thirty-eighth
y e a r ( = 1 3 2 ) , translation ( 2 7 ) a f t e r his death.
' C D ( T e x t ) X I X : 7 - 9 ; cf. ' D i e B e d e u t u n g der S e p t u a g i n t a in neutestamentlicher
Z e i t ' , ZThK. 81 ( 1 9 8 4 ) : 3 9 5 - 4 1 6 ; e s p . 4 0 7 . 3 2 .
4
T h e fact that appeal can be m a d e i n a d o c u m e n t to be d e f i n e d as a confessional
w r i t i n g that c o u l d by fo rm e a s i l y be ' H o l y Scripture' and b e l o n g i n g to a r e m o t e J e w i s h
c o m m u n i t y in the H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d t o an extant w i t n e s s as 'written w o r d ' (2TC
s p e a k s i n d e e d for the fact that the J u d a i s m o f this p e r i o d as a w h o l e k n e w the 'Holy
S c r i p t u r e s ' as an o b j e c t o f r e f e r e n c e , and that o n l y the s c o p e o f the w r i t i n g s r e c o g n i z e d as
' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' r e m a i n s an o p e n q u e s t i o n , as is c l e a r l y the c a s e for the S a m a r i t a n s and
the S a d d u c e e s with r e s p e c t to their restriction to the Torah.
and its S c r i p t u r e , I c o n t i n u e to see similar e v i d e n c e in the m a n n e r and
fashion in w h i c h the N e w T e s t a m e n t w i t n e s s e s take up the literature
of the P a l e s t i n i a n c a n o n as Scripture. B u t for this I m u s t refer to obser
v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the ' S i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e S e p t u a g i n t in t h e N e w
T e s t a m e n t P e r i o d ' w h i c h I w a s a b l e to p r e s e n t s e v e n y e a r s a g o a l s o in
5
Tbingen.
E v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g the history of the text m u s t n o w be c o n s i d e r e d
in the light of t h e s e theoretical p r e m i s e s c o n c e r n i n g the c a n o n . T h i s
e v i d e n c e , valid b o t h for the J e w i s h tradition of c a n o n i z e d w i t n e s s e s and
for the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n b a s e d u p o n it, h a s b e e n a s c e r t a i n e d o n l y
recently by d i s c o v e r i e s of the last d e c a d e s , especially with respect to the
J e w i s h tradition. A s far as I c a n see, this e v i d e n c e p l a c e s the history of
the biblical text d u r i n g the p e r i o d of the ' U r g e s c h i c h t e ' , b o t h in the
J e w i s h and in the Christian r e a l m s , in a n e w light. A s a translation of
already c a n o n i z e d w r i t i n g s , the L X X translation itself h a s c a n o n i c a l
significance b o t h for J u d a i s m a n d for the Christian c h u r c h . It derives this
significance, h o w e v e r , only from the strength of the c a n o n i c a l authority
of its H e b r e w original. It w a s for this r e a s o n that the G r e e k translation
w a s from the m o m e n t of its origin o n w a r d c o n t i n u o u s l y subjected to
verification against the original H e b r e w text and to r e c e n s i o n a l correction
a c c o r d i n g to t h i s c r i t e r i o n , as d e m o n s t r a t e d b y r e c e n t l y d i s c o v e r e d
t r a n s l a t i o n s of J e w i s h o r i g i n f r o m p r e - C h r i s t i a n a n d early C h r i s t i a n
t i m e s . T h e definition of this r e l a t i o n s h i p as ' o r i g i n a l ' a n d ' c o p y ' is
c o m p l e t e l y justified in this c a s e . W h a t w e already k n e w , t h r o u g h O r i g e n ,
c o n c e r n i n g the Christian c h u r c h of the late s e c o n d a n d third centuries,
and t h r o u g h the translations or n e w editions of A q u i l a , T h e o d o t i o n and
S y m m a c h u s in the s e c o n d c e n t u r y , in regard to J u d a i s m of Christian
t i m e , has n o w b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d to b e equally true for the J u d a i s m of
the p r e - C h r i s t i a n and p r e - A q u i l a n p e r i o d . In 1 9 0 3 , E d u a r d S c h w a r t z
saw 'the b e g i n n i n g of a n e w era of H e x a p l a research, hopefully in the
6
not too distant f u t u r e ' based o n Cardinal M e r c a t i ' s discovery of frag
m e n t s of a Psalter H e x a p l a from the tenth c e n t u r y CE in the B i b l i o t h e c a
A m b r o s i a n a t h e first a n d o n l y d i s c o v e r y of e x t e n s i v e p o r t i o n s of
O r i g e n ' s H e x a p l a in the original c o l u m n a r format; the s a m e is true to an
e v e n greater d e g r e e for research on the S e p t u a g i n t in the period before
O r i g e n a n d A q u i l a based on the d i s c o v e r y of the G r e e k M i n o r P r o p h e t s
7
scroll from N a h a l Hever. T h e former case c o n c e r n s only the clarification
and d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of an already k n o w n textual history, but the
latter c o n c e r n s the confirmation of a state of affairs w i t h o u t p r e v i o u s

s
Cf. a b o v e , p. 4 n. 3 .
b
E. S c h w a r t z , 'Zur G e s c h i c h t e der H e x a p l a ' , Nachrichten v.d.k. Gesellschaft der Wiss.
Zu Gttingen, phil.-hist. Klasse (Gttingen, 1903 f 19041). 6 9 3 - 7 0 0 (= Gesammelte
Schriften 5 [ B e r l i n , 1 9 6 3 | . 1 8 3 - 9 1 ). T h e c i t a t i o n is from p. 1 9 0 (= p. 6 9 9 ) .
7
D . B a r t h l m y , Les devanciers d'Aquila, V T S u p 10 ( L e i d e n , 1 9 6 3 ) ; . , e d . , The
Greek Minor Prophets Scroll from Nahal Hever, D J D VIII ( O x f o r d . 1 9 9 0 ) .
d o c u m e n t a r y attestation, but at best h y p o t h e t i c a l l y postulated: the pre
d e c e s s o r s of Aquila.
T h e final e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the Scripture as u n i m p e a c h a b l e w i t n e s s of
revelation w a s realized in p r e - C h r i s t i a n J u d a i s m t h r o u g h the c o n t i n u o u s
c o m p a r i s o n of the G r e e k translation to the H e b r e w original, the c o p y to
the p r o t o t y p e . T h e d i s p u t e d in the P r o l o g u e of J e s u s ben
S i r a c h m a y b e e x p l a i n e d in this w a y . T h e first C h r i s t i a n w i t n e s s e s
a d o p t e d it in this form. F r o m this p e r s p e c t i v e , in light of the text form
of the M i n o r P r o p h e t s scroll from N a h a l Hever, I w o u l d e x p l a i n the
d i v e r g e n c e s transmitted in N e w T e s t a m e n t m a t e r i a l from the L X X form
of the text, w h i c h s t a n d s c l o s e r to the H e b r e w o r i g i n a l , as g i v e n in
J u d a i s m a n d not as t h e r e s u l t of i n d i v i d u a l i n i t i a t i v e . V i a the inter
m e d i a r y of the s e c o n d - c e n t u r y J e w i s h translators, it w a s taken up again
in the s a m e w a y in the p h i l o l o g i c a l w o r k of O r i g e n a t the p o i n t of
transition from a p o l o g e t i c to p o s t - a p o l o g e t i c Christian literature, from
' U r g e s c h i c h t e ' to ' G e s c h i c h t e ' , from c a n o n i c a l Scripture as a form of
e x p r e s s i o n to c o m m e n t a r y t o test a g r e e m e n t with the H e b r e w original
as a c o n t r o l for t h e L X X t e x t , n o w c a n o n i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d in t h e
Christian c h u r c h .
S o far as its object is c o n c e r n e d , the p e r i o d i z a t i o n resulting from these
c a e s u r a e relates to an identical p h e n o m e n o n : the u n a d u l t e r a t e d preser
v a t i o n of the w i t n e s s e s e s t a b l i s h e d as H o l y S c r i p t u r e in v i e w of the
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n original and translation. In o t h e r respects, h o w e v e r ,
such as their b a c k g r o u n d of intellectual history a n d of t h e o l o g y , e a c h
period differs.
F o r p r e - C h r i s t i a n J u d a i s m , this is a t h e o l o g i c a l a n d text-historical
p r o b l e m w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y as a w h o l e a n d is d o c u m e n t e d as
a g r e e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n conflict b e t w e e n P a l e s t i n i a n a n d H e l l e n i s t i c
Judaism.
T h e p r i m i t i v e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h , h o w e v e r , sees itself as c o n c e r n e d
with an extant t h e o l o g u m e n o n that, as such, r e p r e s e n t s an object open
neither to d i s p u t e nor d i s c u s s i o n . T h e q u e s t i o n of the original form of
an O l d T e s t a m e n t w i t n e s s a d o p t e d as s c r i p t u r a l e v i d e n c e c o m e s up
n o w h e r e in the N e w T e s t a m e n t w i t n e s s e s . S u b s e q u e n t l y , in O r i g e n at
the e n d of the ' U r g e s c h i c h t e ' , it is the object of discussion a l o n g t w o
lines. ( 1 ) F r o m an a p o l o g e t i c / p o l e m i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e it is a dispute with
c o n t e m p o r a r y J u d a i s m c o n c e r n i n g a J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n battle o v e r the
falsification of Scripture that erupted in the p e r i o d of the A p o l o g i s t s ,
p r i m a r i l y in J u s t i n . (2) W i t h i n t h e C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t y itself the
q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n s c a n o n i c i t y in the translation of statements t r a n s m i t t e d
by the L X X that d o not agree with the H e b r e w original.
W i t h r e s p e c t to the first p e r i o d , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the c o n t i n u o u s
c o r r e c t i o n of the G r e e k t r a n s l a t i o n of the L X X a g a i n s t the H e b r e w
o r i g i n a l , it m a y be difficult to d e d u c e t h e o l o g i c a l i s s u e s or c o n t r o
v e r s i e s f r o m c u r r e n t l y k n o w n r e c e n s i o n a l e l e m e n t s r e f l e c t i n g the
H e b r e w original. T h e tradition is t o o f r a g m e n t a r y . W i t h respect to the
a m o u n t of such r e c e n s i o n a l w o r k reflecting the H e b r e w text, the step
from t h e r e c e n s i o n p e r c e p t i b l e in t h e f e w p r e - C h r i s t i a n f r a g m e n t s
( P a p y r u s F o u a d 2 6 6 [Deut.]) to that a p p e a r i n g in the M i n o r P r o p h e t s
scroll, the w o r k , a l t h o u g h significant, also s e e m s to b e o n l y quantitative,
and n o t q u a l i t a t i v e . It is o n l y in the M i n o r P r o p h e t s scroll that o n e
m i g h t h a v e found clear e v i d e n c e for c o r r e c t i o n s of t h e old L X X - t e x t
against t h e H e b r e w original, w h i c h a r e n o t m e r e l y formal, b u t involv
ing c o n t e n t as well. T h e s e parts, h o w e v e r , are lost; b u t b a s e d o n the
r e c e n s i o n p r i n c i p l e it m a y b e a s s u m e d that t h e s e c o r r e c t i o n s w e r e
found t h e r e . S e v e n y e a r s a g o I p o i n t e d o u t , w i t h r e f e r e n c e to c a s e s
significant for N e w T e s t a m e n t scriptural e v i d e n c e , that, a c c o r d i n g to
the principle of r e c e n s i o n o b s e r v a b l e in t h e p r e s e r v e d f r a g m e n t s , O l d
T e s t a m e n t s t a t e m e n t s such as Z e c h a r i a h 12:10 Onpy-ups nx icrarn,
' T h e y will l o o k o n m e w h o m t h e y h a v e p i e r c e d ' ) m a y h a v e b e e n
t r a n s m i t t e d in t h e M i n o r P r o p h e t s scroll n o t in t h e s e n s e of t h e o l d
L X X ' , ' T h e y will
l o o k u p o n m e so that they m a y d a n c e [ j o y o u s l y ] ' ) , b u t in the form
c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the H e b r e w original transmitted in J o h n 19:37 (
v , cf. R e v . 1:7). Similarly, t h e s t a t e m e n t in Isaiah
1
2 5 : 8 (ns ? rnan ub2, ' H e [ Y H W H , v. 6] d e v o u r e d d e a t h for e v e r ' )
m a y h a v e b e e n transmitted in a h y p o t h e t i c a l G r e e k ' I s a i a h scroll' n o t
in t h e f o r m o f t h e L X X text ( , ' h e ,
death, b e c o m e m i g h t y , h a s d e v o u r e d ' ) , b u t in t h e s e n s e of a form of
t h e t e x t r e s e m b l i n g t h a t c i t e d b y P a u l a s in
1 C o r i n t h i a n s 1 5 : 5 4 - 5 5 in c o m b i n a t i o n with H o s e a 13:10 ( j o ]
8
) , or with Paul and Theodotion
( ) . These are truly 'substantive
corrections' !

In this c o n n e c t i o n I w a n t to call attention to a p h e n o m e n o n that I c a n


explain o n l y as the result of the intention of the J e w i s h tradents of the
L X X , n o w d o c u m e n t a r i l y attested, to revise the translation as the c o p y
against the H e b r e w original. I refer to the m u c h d i s c u s s e d fact that all
G r e e k biblical texts of J e w i s h origin found to d a t e , w h e t h e r from p r e -
C h r i s t i a n o r C h r i s t i a n t i m e s , t r a n s m i t the n a m e mrr n o t in the form
e n c o u n t e r e d in all the L X X m a n u s c r i p t s of Christian origin, b u t
in s o m e form of the T e t r a g r a m m a t o n . I explain this, as I d i d before, in
t e r m s of the c o n s i s t e n t r e c e n s i o n a l principle of the translation as c o p y to
the original, n o t in t e r m s of the t r a n s l a t o r s ' i n t e n t i o n i n other w o r d s , in
a s e c o n d a r y p h a s e in the history of the text, n o t in t h e origin of the
G r e e k e d i t i o n of I s r a e l ' s H o l y S c r i p t u r e . T h e r e p l a c e m e n t of t h e
sacred n a m e w i t h , u n d o u b t e d l y first transmitted m a s o r e t i c a l l y , b u t

8
Cf. ' ; '
( 81 [ 1 9 8 4 ] , 4 0 4 - 5 ) . "
9
already p r e s u m e d in the Damascus Scroll, is the precursor a n d origin
of the translation of the n a m e mrr in the L X X as , not (contra
10
Graf B a u d i s s i n ) the c o n s e q u e n c e d r a w n from it by the M a s o r e t e s .
T h e fact that, in a s e c o n d a r y p h a s e in the t e x t ' s history, J e w i s h L X X
manuscripts consistently replace with the Tetragrammaton
r e n d e r s e v e n m o r e i m p r o b a b l e B a u d i s s i n ' s t h e s i s of a later r a b b i n i c
r e p l a c e m e n t of the n a m e mrr- with the honorific " ~ x on the basis of
t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e n a m e w i t h in t h e L X X a r a t h e r
unlikely thesis to b e g i n w i t h ; for w h e n in the p o s t - a p o l o g e t i c p e r i o d
c o u l d the L X X h a v e still p o s s e s s e d such authority for J u d a i s m ? T h e
T e t r a g r a m m a t o n in L X X m a n u s c r i p t s could not g i v e rise to the e q u a t i o n
of mrr w i t h " n x . T h e r a b b i n i c t h e o l o g u m e n o n w o u l d then d e p e n d on
Christian m a n u s c r i p t s !
T h e original association, within J u d a i s m , of the epithet ":ix with the
n a m e mrr is t o o c l o s e a l r e a d y in the b o o k s of the T o r a h t o h a v e
o r i g i n a t e d w i t h i n H e b r e w t r a d i t i o n in t h e t h e o l o g u m e n o n of t h e
ineffability of the sacred n a m e . T h e existing, original association is the
s o u r c e of the t h e o l o g u m e n o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , the d e s i g n a t i o n of I s r a e l ' s
G o d as , w h i c h is attested in Hellenistic J u d a i s m , the ' a p o c r y p h a l '
writings of the A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n : the b o o k of 2 M a c c a b e e s , the W i s d o m
of S o l o m o n , and P h i l o , is t o o t h o r o u g h l y a c c e p t e d a n d w i d e s p r e a d for its
legitimation to h a v e b e e n b a s e d on a n y t h i n g o t h e r than the c a n o n i z e d
writings of the L X X .
T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n (that the Old T e s t a m e n t d i v i n e n a m e of w a s
a ' g i v e n ' for the first C h r i s t i a n w i t n e s s e s t h r o u g h the scriptural w i t n e s s
of J u d a i s m and w a s not created by Christian w i t n e s s e s ) is of decisive
significance for the u n d e r s t a n d i n g the N e w T e s t a m e n t Scriptures. This
is as o b v i o u s as it is w e i g h t y for q u e s t i o n s ( c o n c e r n i n g w h i c h I can
only learn from the N e w T e s t a m e n t scholars) arising from it. W h a t is
i m p o r t a n t for o u r present p u r p o s e is the c o n c l u s i o n that from the very
b e g i n n i n g on there has b e e n no conflict in the early Christian c h u r c h
to a c c e p t the G r e e k O l d T e s t a m e n t in the f o r m in w h i c h it a l r e a d y
existed in J u d a i s m : as the G o d of the O l d T e s t a m e n t is the G o d
of the Christian c h u r c h a n d t o use a p h r a s e I often heard from H a n s
C o n z e l m a n n t h e F a t h e r of J e s u s Christ.
A J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n c o n f r o n t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the truth a n d falsi
fication of the c o m m o n ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' did, indeed, arise at a certain
point in the period w e c h a r a c t e r i z e as ' U r g e s c h i c h t e ' . T h e basis for
the conflict is not, h o w e v e r , t h e t r a n s l a t i o n p h e n o m e n o n , e i t h e r in
the sense of w h e t h e r the c h o i c e of the G r e e k equivalent c o r r e s p o n d s
to the s e m a n t i c s of the H e b r e w w o r d in q u e s t i o n , as is the case for

" p . 15:1 ( c h a p . 19:1). L. R o s t . Die Damaskusschrift ( L i e t z m a n n s k l e i n e T e x t e 167:


B e r l i n , 1 9 3 3 ) , 2 6 . . L o h s e , Die Texte aus Qumran ( M u n i c h , 1 9 6 4 ) , 9 7 .
1(1
Kyrios, 1929.
the d i v i n e epithet ; or in the sense, already e n u n c i a t e d in the
P r o l o g u e of J e s u s ben Sirach, that a translation can n e v e r be totally
faithful to its o r i g i n a l . T h e p o i n t at issue is t h e bilateral c h a r g e of
falsification of Scripture by m e a n s of t e n d e n t i o u s a d d i t i o n s or o m i s s i o n s
in either the original or the translation. T h e p r o c e s s of translation at
m o s t offers n e w possibilities for such falsification, in that a translation
e q u i v a l e n t m a y intentionally alter the m e a n i n g of the o r i g i n a l a s the
Christians s u p p o s e d that the J e w i s h translators in the s e c o n d Christian
c e n t u r y r e p l a c e d ' v i r g i n ' with ' y o u n g w o m a n ' in
Isaiah 7 : 1 4 in reference to the m o t h e r of I m m a n u e l , n c b a . " T h e c a u s e
of the J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n conflict a b o u t authenticity a n d falsification of
Scripture is not to be seen in the existing multiplicity of forms of the
text. T h e c o n t i n u i n g c o m p a r i s o n of the t r a n s l a t i o n as c o p y with the
original, r e c o g n i z e d by both sides, a l l o w e d for this multiplicity, as the
M i n o r P r o p h e t s scroll from the t i m e of Paul i n d i c a t e s . O n the b a s i s
of this e v i d e n c e , the widely h e l d thesis that the translation efforts of
Aquila, to b e d a t e d a few d e c a d e s later, w e r e p r o m p t e d by the J e w i s h -
Christian d i s p u t e c o n c e r n i n g falsification of S c r i p t u r e m u s t be n e w l y
r e c o n s i d e r e d . T h e c a u s e lies d e e p e r , and the multiplicity of Scripture,
of w h i c h the G r e e k translation is the m o s t significant p h e n o m e n o n ,
w a s at m o s t t h e s e c o n d a r y c a u s e , a m e a n s a n d tool in the J e w i s h -
Christian d i s p u t e . T h e c a u s e w a s not a m a t t e r of textual history, but
the q u e s t i o n of w h a t the text in its existing multiplicity m e a n t . T h i s
q u e s t i o n m u s t h a v e b e c o m e a b u r n i n g issue at the p o i n t w h i c h t o
use the t e r m i n o l o g y of F r a n z O v e r b e c k m a r k e d the transition from
' U r g e s c h i c h t e ' to history, from primitive Christian to Christian liter
ature: n a m e l y at that point at w h i c h the a p o l o g e t i c / p o l e m i c a l d i s p u t e
b e t w e e n J e w i s h a n d C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t i e s b e c o m e s an a c k n o w
l e d g e m e n t o n e w h i c h c o n t i n u e d , from o u r p e r s p e c t i v e unfortunately,
to b e largely p o l e m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d o f the c o e x i s t e n c e of the t w o
communities.

O r i g e n stands at this d i v i d i n g line. His w o r k p o i n t s both b a c k w a r d


and forward: b a c k w a r d t h r o u g h its a p o l o g e t i c m a t e r i a l t h e final form
of e x p r e s s i o n of the ' U r l i t e r a t u r ' a n d as such the link c o n n e c t i n g to
Christian literature in the p r o p e r s e n s e ; forward t h r o u g h its exegetical
material and its s y s t e m a t i c . T h e essential prerequisite for the c o m p l e t i o n
of this transition is the ultimate clarification of the q u e s t i o n of the final
form of the ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' c o m m o n to J e w s and C h r i s t i a n s . T h i s part
of O r i g e n ' s w o r k , c o m p l e t e d in the m o n u m e n t a l w o r k of the H e x a p l a
a n d t h e T e t r a p l a , p o i n t s , a c c o r d i n g to a u t h e n t i c s t a t e m e n t s f r o m
O r i g e n himself, from this d i v i d i n g line b a c k w a r d to the apologist past
and forward to the Christian literature of the future. For O r i g e n both
directions are e q u a l l y significant. T h e a p o l o g e t i c aspect of the dispute

11
Just. Dial. 4 3 : 8 , etc.
with J u d a i s m , n o w d r a w i n g to its end, c a n n o t b e m o r e clearly e x p r e s s e d
12
than in the w o r d s of his letter to A f r i c a n u s :

We take pains not to remain ignorant of that transmitted [forms of the text]
among them [the Jews] so that, in the dispute with the Jews, we will not offer
something that is not transmitted in their manuscripts, and so that we adduce
what is transmitted among them, even if it is not transmitted in our books.
For if we are prepared in this way, they will not scorn us.

T h e significance of the t e x t u a l f o r m of t h e G r e e k O l d T e s t a m e n t
r e c o g n i z e d as c a n o n in the C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h c a n n o t b e m o r e c l e a r l y
e m p h a s i z e d than w h e n , in the s a m e letter, h e calls for the unfailing
r e c o g n i t i o n by the Christian faith of those parts of the L X X translation
not t r a n s m i t t e d in the H e b r e w o r i g i n a l . T o a b a n d o n t h e m w o u l d b e
in effect to a b a n d o n t h e h i g h e s t c o n t e n t of t h e C h r i s t i a n faith. F o r
' P r o v i d e n c e , w h o g r a n t e d to all the c h u r c h e s of Christ edification in the
H o l y Scriptures (
) w o u l d not h a v e , then, been c o n c e r n e d
with it' ( 8 ) .
W h a t m a y be a b a n d o n e d are not t h o s e p o r t i o n s m a r k e d in his p h i l o
logical w o r k with an o b e l u s as a d d i t i o n s to the H e b r e w original; they
h a v e b e e n established as ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' , . W h a t m a y b e
a b a n d o n e d are the parts m a r k e d with an asterisk, existing only in the
H e b r e w original, and s u p p l i e d by O r i g e n from the n e w translations of
the J e w i s h translators of the s e c o n d Christian c e n t u r y a s w e k n o w from
1 3
J e r o m e , a n d as the t r a d i t i o n c o n f i r m s , p r i m a r i l y from T h e o d o t i o n .
H e r e a n d h e r e o n l y t h e textual value of the m a t e r i a l r e m a i n s an o p e n
question:

Whoever will, may admit them; whoever finds them a stumblingstone,


however, may proceed as he will to accept or reject them (
,
; In Matthaeum XV: 14 regarding
14
Matt. 19:16-30).

2
' ,
,
'
.
, (9).
" Prologus in libra Paratipomenon, B i b l i a Sacra iuxta L a t i n a m V u l g a t a m V e r s i o n e m
VIII ( R o m e , 1 9 4 8 ) , 4 - 5 .
14
T h e f r e e d o m o f u s e relates o n l y to the a s t e r i s k e d p o r t i o n s m e n t i o n e d i m m e d i a t e l y
a b o v e , not to the o b e l i s k e d p o r t i o n s from the o l d L X X tradition m e n t i o n e d first. T h e
s t a t e m e n t , ' w e dared not e x p u n g e t h e m f u l l y ' ,
can h a v e o n l y c a t e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e in v i e w o f the affirmation in the letter to A f r i c a n u s :
'Had w e dared, w e w o u l d h a v e incurred guilt."
H e r e , a n d o n l y here, at the d i v i d i n g line w h i c h c a n be d i s c e r n e d as
u n a m b i g u o u s l y as this only in O r i g e n ' s w o r k s t i l l o p e n in its c o n n e c
tion back to the a p o l o g e t i c - p o l e m i c a l c o n t r o v e r s y with c o n t e m p o r a r y
J u d a i s m o v e r the truth and falsification of the w o r d of Scripture, and
forward to the final e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the text as H o l y Scripture, in the
Christian c h u r c h n o w in the L X X form and i n c l u d i n g p o r t i o n s different
from the H e b r e w o r i g i n a l c a n I b e y o n d any d o u b t m a k e out the intel
lectual a n d t h e o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n w h i c h w a s to lead to the rift in the
J e w i s h a n d C h r i s t i a n c o m m u n i t y o v e r the Old T e s t a m e n t text in the
o r i g i n a l a n d its G r e e k t r a n s l a t i o n , w h i c h up to t h a t t i m e h a d b e e n
a c c e p t e d as their c o m m o n bible. T h i s rift, on the J e w i s h side, resulted in
]5
the c o n d e m n a t i o n of the G r e e k translation per se, and on the Christian
s i d e b y m e a n s of the Philonic interpretation of the Letter of Aristeas
in the theory of the divine inspiration of the translation, a theory that
16
justifies the d i f f e r e n c e s .
H e r e a g a i n , w e c a n n o t b e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e
' c a n o n i c a l - a p o c r y p h a l ' , i.e., with the definition of w h a t w a s r e c o g n i z e d
by both sides at the t i m e as c a n o n i c a l . T h i s q u e s t i o n is freighted with
insoluble p r o b l e m s in O r i g e n particularly. H i s c a n o n c a t a l o g u e trans
mitted in E u s e b i u s {Hist Eccl V I , 2 5 : 2 ) r e a c h e s his i n t e n d e d n u m b e r of
t w e n t y - t w o b o o k s without the M i n o r P r o p h e t s a n d lists as a p o c r y p h a l
writings, ' , only (with the inexplicable
H e b r e w d e s i g n a t i o n ) . Yet, r e s e a r c h into the history
of the text, t a k i n g into a c c o u n t the frequent references to a p o c r y p h a l
w i t n e s s e s in t h e w r i t i n g s of O r i g e n , h a s a l s o y i e l d e d w i t h r e l a t i v e
17
certainty a h e x a p l a r i c or ' O r i g e n i c ' r e c e n s i o n of J e s u s b e n S i r a c h , of
18
the W i s d o m of S o l o m o n (written originally in G r e e k ) , and p r o b a b l y
19
e v e n of the B o o k of Judith (a h e x a p l a r i c s c h o o l ? ) . W e are interested
n o w in the f u n d a m e n t a l distinction b e t w e e n original a n d translation in
w h a t is r e c o g n i z e d as c a n o n i c a l .
W i t h r e s p e c t to O r i g e n ' s w o r k , w e are c o n c e r n e d h e r e o n l y with the
v i e w to the past that reveals h o w far, in view of this n e w l y arisen division,
he took seriously the (Christian) duty to elucidate in detail the differences
in the textual tradition that w e r e the point of c o n t e n t i o n . H e himself, like
the A p o l o g i s t s , w a s not yet able to see these differences in t e r m s of the
alternative b e t w e e n original or translation. It is r e v e a l i n g that the Letter

15
For c i t a t i o n s s e e VT 12 ( 1 9 6 2 ) : 1 3 9 - 6 3 . here 144 and 1 4 7 - 9 .
1 6
T h e c i t a t i o n s are the s a m e as in n. 15.
17
J. Z i e g l e r , Septuaginta X I I / 2 ( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 6 5 ) , 5 7 - 6 3 ; cf. idem, ' D i e h e x a p l a r i s c h e
B e a r b e i t u n g d e s g r i e c h i s c h e n Sirach", BZNF 4 ( 1 9 6 9 ) : 1 7 4 - 8 5 ( = ' S y l l o g e ' , MSU 10
[ 1 9 7 1 ] , 5 1 0 - 2 8 ) ; and idem, ' D i e V o k a b e l - V a r i a n t e n der 0 - R e z e n s i o n i m g r i e c h i s c h e n
S i r a c h ' , FS G. R. Driver ( O x f o r d . 1 9 6 3 ) : 1 7 2 - 1 9 0 ( = ' S y l l o g e \ 6 1 5 - 3 3 ) .
18
J. Z i e g l e r , Septuaginta XII/1 (Gttingen, 1962). 5 0 - 6 .
1 9
R. Hanhart, Septuaginta V I I I / 4 ( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 7 9 ) : 2 3 - 5 ; idem, ' T e x t und T e x t
g e s c h i c h t e d e s B u c h e s Judith". MSU 14 ( 1 9 7 9 ) : 1 4 - 4 5 .
ofAristeas is interpreted as inspiration of the S e v e n t y by C l e m e n t of
A l e x a n d r i a , but not by O r i g e n .
T h e t h o r o u g h e l u c i d a t i o n of the p r e c o n d i t i o n s of the t e x t ' s history
b a s e d on t h e b a c k g r o u n d of C h r i s t i a n - J e w i s h a p o l o g e t i c s s e e m e d to
O r i g e n to b e the only p o s s i b l e a n d , from the Christian standpoint, the
only j u s t i f i a b l e b a s i s for d i a l o g u e and a c c o r d b e t w e e n the Christian
c h u r c h of his time and c o n t e m p o r a r y J u d a i s m . A c c o r d i n g to this e l u c i
dation, the multiplicity of the old L X X t r a d i t i o n b o t h with respect to
d i s c r e p a n c i e s in relation to the H e b r e w original finally e s t a b l i s h e d as
c a n o n i c a l , as well as in relation to c h a n g e s in the G r e e k resulting from
the p r o c e s s of c o p y i n g from o n e m a n u s c r i p t to the n e x t i s c o u n t e r
b a l a n c e d by the a t t e m p t to identify the translation with the original in
20
J e w i s h translations of t h e s e c o n d Christian c e n t u r y .
W e h a v e source material r e v e a l i n g the t h o r o u g h n e s s and intensity of
this w o r k ; it is rare in the history of t h o u g h t that, after centuries h a v e
passed, a historiographical tradition from Late Antiquity not only
confirms but also e x p l a i n s p r e v i o u s l y i n e x p l i c a b l e s t a t e m e n t s t h r o u g h
n e w l y d i s c o v e r e d sources.
I a m s p e a k i n g of the f r a g m e n t s of the t e n t h - c e n t u r y Psalter H e x a p l a ,
d i s c o v e r e d in 1896 by c a r d i n a l G i o v a n n i M e r c a t i in t h e B i b l i o t e c a
A m b r o s i a n a in M i l a n a n d p u b l i s h e d in 1958, o n e y e a r after his d e a t h ,
w h i c h h a v e t h r o w n n e w light on O r i g e n ' s textual w o r k as r e p o r t e d by
21
Eusebius.

Origen was gripped by such a powerful determination to investigate meticu


lously the divine word (
) that he (even) learned the Hebrew language
and familiarized himself with the writings transmitted among the Jews in
their original in the Hebrew script (

) and that he even sought out
and studied the versions of others beside the Seventy who translated the Holy

2,1
T h e w e i g h t l i e s on the a g r e e m e n t to be attained by the c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the original
via the m i d d l e term o f the n e w J e w i s h translations. It is not c l e a r h o w far he b e l i e v e d
it p o s s i b l e to identify an original text a l o n g this path o n w h i c h the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o f
the o l d L X X tradition arose t h r o u g h the n e g l i g e n c e or a u d a c i t y o f the c o p y i s t s
, ,
, in Matt. X V : 14).
21
Psalterii Hexapli Reliquiae cura et studio Johannis Card. Mercati editae, in B i b l i o -
t h e c a V a t i c a n a ( V a t i c a n C i t y , 1 9 5 8 ) ; idem, ' O s s e r v a z i o n i ' ( 1 9 6 5 ) ; cf. Adrian S c h e n k e r ,
Hexaplarische Psalmenbruchstcke ( O B O 8; F r e i b u r g / G t t i n g e n , 1 9 7 5 ) ; idem, Psalmen
in den Hexapla (Studi e Testi 2 9 5 ; V a t i c a n C i t y , 1 9 8 2 ) . M e r c a t i ' s first report w a s ' D ' u n
p a l i m p s e s t o A m b r o s i a n o c o n t e n e n t e i S a l m i e s a p l i e di u n ' a n t i c a v e r s i o n e latina del
c o m m e n t a r i o perduto di T e o d o r o di M o p s u e s t i a al S a l t e r i o ' , Atti delta Reale Accademia
delle Scienze di Torino 31 ( 1 8 9 6 ) : 6 5 5 - 7 6 (= Opere minor! I, Studi e testi 7 6 [ V a t i c a n
C i t y . 1937J: 3 1 8 - 3 8 ) .
Scriptures (
). In addition he located a few more,
differing from the well-known translations of Aquila, Symmachus and
Theodotion (
, ' ,
). I do not know where he found them, in whatever nook the
previous era had hidden them, and brought them to light ( '

) . Since, because they were un-known, he could say
nothing about authorship, he reported that he had found one of them in
Nikopolis near Actium, and the other in another such place ('
, ' , ,
, )
).
Now, in the Hexapla of the Psalms, where, in addition to the known four
editions, he juxtaposed not only a fifth, but also a sixth and a seventh
translation, he reports once again that one of them was found in Jericho in a
clay jar from the time of Antoninus, the son of Severus (

, ' ,

) .
By assembling all the translations and arranging them side by side in
columns, together with the Hebrew wording, he left us the manuscript of the
so-called Hexapla (


) . Apart from that, he arranged the editions of Aquila,
Symmachus and Theodotion together with the LXX in the Tetrapla (
'
) (Eusebius, Hist Eccl
VI:16).

E u s e b i u s ' t e s t i m o n y requires c a u t i o u s interpretation. F r o m his m e n


tioning of these t w o m a n u s c r i p t s in his b i o g r a p h y of O r i g e n , i m m e d i a t e l y
after the a c c o u n t of his R o m e trip of AD 2 1 2 , it c a n n o t b e d e d u c e d that
t h o s e m a n u s c r i p t s w e r e f o u n d at t h a t t i m e ; t h i s is b a s e d not on a
22
c h r o n o l o g i c a l but a t h e m a t i c a r r a n g e m e n t . W h e n , at the very end of his
report, he relates the p r o d u c t i o n of the T e t r a p l a in a participial clause in
the aorist, in t e r m s of ' a n d additionally m a d e ' t h i s
should not, b e c a u s e of the preposition in the v e r b , b e u n d e r s t o o d as a
2 3
s u c c e s s i o n in t i m e nor, b e c a u s e of the aorist, b e p l a c e d in the past

2 2
Cf. . S c h w a r t z . GCS 9 / 3 . 3 3 .
2 3
Cf. . S c h w a r t z , ' H e x a p l a ' . 6 9 4 .
perfect. All that r e m a i n s certain is the t e m p o r a l point of the d i s c o v e r y of
the S e x t a u n d e r C a r a c a l l a (AD 2 1 1 - 1 8 ) , w h i c h establishes a terminus post
quern for the c o m p l e t i o n of the w h o l e work. W e n e e d not d o u b t that the
six c o l u m n s that give the w o r k its n a m e consist of the H e b r e w text, the
G r e e k transcription of the H e b r e w text, Aquila, S y m m a c h u s , the restored
L X X , and T h e o d o t i o n , as R u f i n u s ' Latin translation of E u s e b i u s ' report
24
a l r e a d y a t t e s t s . T h e M e r c a t i fragments s u p p o r t this a r r a n g e m e n t r a t h e r
than c o n t r a d i c t i n g it. W h a t is important is the e v i d e n c e of the transcrip
tion, w h i l e the a b s e n c e of the H e b r e w is not surprising.
T h e c o m p a r i s o n of E u s e b i u s ' report with M e r c a t i ' s Psalter f r a g m e n t s
s h o w s that this is an e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e , r e l a t i n g , as E u s e b i u s a l r e a d y
m a d e e x p l i c i t , to the t r a n s m i s s i o n of t h e P s a l t e r . It is of s i n g u l a r
significance both for the authenticity of E u s b e i u s ' report and for the
theological intention of O r i g e n ' s textual w o r k , w h a t this m a n u s c r i p t ,
w h i c h is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 0 0 y e a r s y o u n g e r , s h o w s . T h i s later form of the
H e x a p l a tradition takes for g r a n t e d that w h i c h is true of all the biblical
b o o k s and p r e s e r v e s only the peculiarities.
W h a t all b o o k s h a v e in c o m m o n is the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a f o r m
of the L X X text a c c o r d i n g to the criterion of a g r e e m e n t with the H e b r e w
original by m e a n s of the J e w i s h translations of A q u i l a , S y m m a c h u s and
T h e o d o t i o n . O r i g e n ' s t h e o l o g i c a l g o a l w a s to p r e s e r v e t h e a n c i e n t
tradition, e v e n w h e n it d i v e r g e s from the original, as c a n o n i c a l Scripture
of the C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h , and to find points of a g r e e m e n t , e v e n if attained
only by the n e w translations of the s e c o n d Christian c e n t u r y , for p o s s i b l e
c a n o n i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n on the part of C h r i s t i a n s and for n e c e s s a r y use in
the d i s p u t e with c o n t e m p o r a r y J u d a i s m . In this c o n n e c t i o n , the a d o p t i o n
of the T e t r a g r a m m a t o n in the L X X c o l u m n , significantly a c c o m p a n i e d
in a few p a s s a g e s by the nomen sacrum , also indicates n o t h i n g o t h e r
t h a n the C h r i s t i a n r e c o g n i t i o n of the J e w i s h t h e o l o g u m e n o n of t h e
r e p l a c e m e n t of the n a m e w i t h TIN.
T h e p e c u l i a r i t y , true of the Psalter to a r e m a r k a b l e d e g r e e , is the
focus in E u s e b i u s ' report on the tradition of J e w i s h translation from the
s e c o n d Christian century of u n k n o w n origin, d i s c o v e r e d at the t i m e of
the translations of Aquila, S y m m a c h u s and T h e o d o t i o n : the ' q u i n t a , ' the
' s e x t a ' and the ' s e p t i m a ' .
T h e syntactical difficulty in E u s e b i u s ' report is that, after m e n t i o n i n g
t w o translations (one of w h i c h w a s found in A c t i u m n e a r N i k o p o l i s )
in addition to the four k n o w n (Aquila, S y m m a c h u s , the L X X c o l u m n
and T h e o d o t i o n ) , n o t h i n g is said c o n c e r n i n g the d i s c o v e r y of a s e v e n t h
and an e i g h t h translation. Instead he d i s c u s s e s a sixth and a seventh,
one of w h i c h , d i s c o v e r e d in J e r i c h o from the time of C a r a c a l l a . T h i s
difficulty is n o w e l u c i d a t e d by the Mercati f r a g m e n t s ; c o l o p h o n s in the
P s a l t e r - C a t e n a e confirm this.

: 4
Contra P. N a u t i n . Origne (Paris, 1 9 7 7 ) . 3 1 4 - 1 5 .
A s p r e s e r v e d H e x a p l a r i c n o t a t i o n s d e m o n s t r a t e , the final c o l u m n of
the M e r c a t i f r a g m e n t s is not T h e o d o t i o n ( w h i c h is not r e p r e s e n t e d ) but
Q u i n t a . N o t a t i o n s w h i c h c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d in a few p l a c e s in the
m a r g i n of Q u i n t a ( P s . 4 9 : 1 4 [ L X X 4 8 : 1 4 ] :
) r e p r e s e n t the variants e x h i b i t e d by the s e c o n d of t h o s e
m a n u s c r i p t s E u s e b i u s c o m b i n e d as Q u i n t a o v e r against the first: b e c a u s e
they are so similar, they w e r e c o m b i n e d as the Q u i n t a .
T h e c o l o p h o n s of the P s a l t e r - C a t e n a e confirm this: ' ' ,

' , ' ,

.
T h e fact that this H e x a p l a tradition m u s t be g e n u i n e O r i g e n k n o w n to
E u s e b i u s in this form, not a story g r o w i n g out of E u s e b i u s ' report, is
a p p a r e n t e s p e c i a l l y in that E u s e b i u s r e t a i n e d the s t a t e m e n t ' s halting
s y n t a x . T h e c o l o p h o n d i s c u s s e s Q u i n t a in the first p e r s o n :
(Origen) have found'. Consequently, Eusebius explains
. . . , ' H e reports that he found
o n e of t h e m in N i c o p o l i s ' . T h e c o l o p h o n d i s c u s s e s S e x t a in the p a s s i v e
v o i c e : ' . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , E u s e b i u s r e c o u n t s ,
, 'It w a s l e a r n e d that it w a s
found in J e r i c h o ' .
T h e c o l o p h o n ' s s t a t e m e n t a b o u t the Q u i n t a (
' ) does not need (contra
. S c h w a r t z ) to b e c o m p l e t e d with a subject, '.
It is possible to u n d e r s t a n d as the subject. ' O n t h e m a r g i n is that
w h i c h ( ) d i v e r g e s from it ( ' ) : T h e m a i n c o l u m n of the
" Q u i n t a " , in a related m a n u s c r i p t ' I u n d e r s t a n d as a rarely
used intrasitive m o d e of the active v o i c e , as found in E u s e b i u s ' report:
25
T h i s , too, a d o p t e d in this form from the c o l o p h o n .
T h e special focus on the Q u i n t a in O r i g e n ' s Psalter H e x a p l a , with the
related translation noted only w h e n it differs, m a y d e r i v e , i n d e e d , from
O r i g e n ' s s e c o n d , and theological, intention. A c c o r d i n g to this goal, the
r e c e n s i o n a l p r i n c i p l e of assimilation or a p p r o x i m a t i o n to the H e b r e w
original e n c o u n t e r s , and in a few p a s s a g e s even confronts, the L X X w h e n
this offers, not a literal translation, but interpretation a n d w h e n , in this
form, i n d e p e n d e n t of the original, it is established as c a n o n i c a l Scripture
in t h e e a r l y c h u r c h . T h i s a s p e c t of O r i g e n ' s w o r k r e q u i r e s further
clarification in relation to the M e r c a t i Psalter f r a g m e n t s . In c o n c l u s i o n ,
let m e refer only to o n e e x a m p l e o n c e again related to the p r o b l e m of the
divine n a m e .
In P s a l m 31 ( L X X 3 0 ) : 3 , the old L X X passes d o w n an interpreting
r e n d e r i n g , d e e p l y rooted in the old translation tradition and apparently

2 5
Cf. a l s o Hist Eccl VIII/9:3.
b a s e d on the t h e o l o g u m e n o n of a v o i d i n g a n t h r o p o m o r p h i s m ; it translates
the m e t a p h o r i c a l d i v i n e epithet , ' r o c k ' , by the w o r d , ' g o d ' , itself (rrn
, L
-tfs'p ? ) , w h i l e the J e w i s h translators p r e s e r v e the
i m a g e in v a r i o u s forms ( , A q u i l a and the basis of Q u i n t a ;
, S y m m a c h u s ) . B u t the i n t e r p r e t i n g form of t h e original
L X X , , is still p r e s e r v e d in the form of the text noted o n l y as
m a r g i n a l i a to the Q u i n t a ( ) . O r i g e n m a y h a v e t a k e n this
as c o n t e m p o r a r y J e w i s h confirmation of the a c c u r a c y of the old L X X
tradition.
T h e m a r g i n a l i a in the L X X c o l u m n itself, w h i c h reads as
, can easily b e e x p l a i n e d in t e r m s of translation t e c h n i q u e : in
the older L X X tradition (2 K g s 2 2 : 3 , 4 7 ; 23:3) "lis is derived from
Its integration in O r i g e n ' s textual w o r k m a y p e r h a p s b e e x p l a i n e d by the
s t a t e m e n t in a c o l o p h o n f o u n d b e f o r e E z e k i e l in t h e L X X C o d e x
M a r c h a l i a n u s : that the E z e k i e l text g o e s b a c k to a m a n u s c r i p t of the
K o i n o b i a r c h A p o l i n a r i u s , w h i c h , in turn, w a s b a s e d on the H e x a p l a r i c
a n d T e t r a p l a r i c edition ' r e v i s e d a n d g l o s s e d ' by O r i g e n himself:
2 7
[i.e. ] . Origen
h i m s e l f g l o s s e d his L X X c o l u m n .
B u t m u c h h a s h a p p e n e d here b e t w e e n the origin of the H e x a p l a and
the T e t r a p l a in the third c e n t u r y AD and t h e s t a g e of textual history
r e a c h e d in t h e t e n t h c e n t u r y w i t h t h e M e r c a t i f r a g m e n t s in t h e i r
c o m b i n a t i o n with the c a t e n a e tradition. T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t in the interim
p e r i o d is e v i d e n c e d , not only by the E z e k i e l C o l o p h o n in the C o d e x
M a r c h a l i a n u s , b u t b y c o l o p h o n s p r e s e r v e d for I s a i a h L X X in t h e
S y r o h e x a p l a and in C o d e x M a r c h a l i a n u s , a n d for E s t h e r a n d 2 E z r a in
C o d e x S i n a i t i c u s . P r o b a b l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t in t h e text
t r a n s f o r m a t i o n is the i n d e p e n d e n t tradition of the r e c e n s i o n of O r i g e n ' s
L X X c o l u m n as w e find it with his disciples E u s e b i u s and P a m p h i l u s and
in its m a r g i n a l incorporation g o i n g b a c k to m a n u s c r i p t s not p r o p e r l y of
O r i g e n i c origin such as, for the m o s t part, the C o d i c e s Sinaiticus and
Marchalianus.
W i t h O r i g e n ' s t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e n t i o n , t h e t h e o l o g u m e n o n o f the
e x c l u s i v e r e c o g n i t i o n of ' t h e ' L X X translation as H o l y Scripture within
the Christian church was acceptedthe theologumenon which was
the intrinsic reason for the e x c l u s i v e r e c o g n i t i o n of the H e b r e w original
w i t h i n J u d a i s m c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h O r i g e n a n d the r e j e c t i o n of the
t r a n s l a t i o n a n d t h e r e b y of P h i l o ' s H e l l e n i s t i c - J e w i s h i n t e r p r e t a -

2 h
Cf. 4 K g s 17:9; 18:8; Prov 4 : 1 3 . e t c . ; Isa 2 6 : 3 ( ) ; Prov 2 0 : 2 8 ( ) :
E z e k l 19:9 ( r m s c , for ^ ) .
2 7
Cf. J. Z i e g l e r , Ezechiel, S e p t u a g i n t a X V I / 1 ( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 5 2 , 2 n d edn 1 9 7 7 ) , 3 2 ^ :
' T h e g l o s s e s m a y be d i v i d e d i n t o a n d : t h e f o r m e r w e r e t h e
a n o n y m o u s marginal r e a d i n g s and the translations o f the "three"; the latter w e r e v a r i o u s
other m a r g i n a l i a , w h i c h did not offer a biblical r e a d i n g , but e x e g e t i c a l g l o s s e s . '
tion of the Aristeas legend as the inspiration of the S e v e n t y . But ' t h e '
translation n o l o n g e r existed. T h e goal of O r i g e n ' s textual w o r k had b e e n
the theologically m o t i v a t e d differentiation b e t w e n the a n c i e n t tradition
as the ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' of the Christian c h u r c h and that w h i c h h a d n e w l y
b e e n i n t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h c o m p a r i s o n with the H e b r e w original by the
J e w i s h translators of the second C h r i s t i a n century as the object of the
d i s p u t e with J u d a i s m . S i n c e , h o w e v e r , this differentiation soon lost its
significance for the tradents, O r i g e n ' s textual reconstruction did not, c o n -
trary to his original intention, lead to a clear definition a n d standardiza-
tion of the translation text in the Christian c h u r c h . Instead, as J e r o m e ' s
c o m m e n t in the preface to his translation of the b o o k s of C h r o n i c l e s
attests, it resulted in three Christian r e c e n s i o n s . T h u s there a r o s e within
the c h u r c h itself a confrontation n o l o n g e r c o n c e r n e d , as h a d b e e n the
d e b a t e b e t w e e n O r i g e n and Julius Africanus, w i t h the q u e s t i o n of the
c a n o n i c a l l e g i t i m a c y of the A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n in c o n t r a s t to s t a t e m e n t s
a n d w i t n e s s e s related to the Palestinian. I n s t e a d g i v e n the Christian
initiative for a n e w Latin translation, not of the L X X , but of the H e b r e w
o r i g i n a l t h e q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n e d the l e g i t i m a c y of a v e r n a c u l a r
translation n o l o n g e r b a s e d on the old tradition of the L X X a n d other
related traditions such as the Old Latin. T h i s is the first d e c i s i v e b r e a k
in a p e r i o d i z a t i o n of the textual history b e y o n d the ' U r g e s c h i c h t e ' . T h e
Aristeas l e g e n d h a d b e e n u n d e r s t o o d as a story a b o u t the d i v i n e inspira-
tion of the S e v e n t y translators, b o r r o w e d from Hellenistic J u d a i s m by
the c h u r c h ' s writers in O r i g e n ' s t i m e as an a r g u m e n t for the c a n o n i c a l
legitimacy of the L X X translation in the apologetic d i s p u t e with the J e w s .
N o w it b e c a m e a w e a p o n in a c o n t r o v e r s y b e t w e e n C h r i s t i a n s . A s often
h a p p e n s , it is A u g u s t i n e (De civitate Dei X V : 14) w h o f o r m u l a t e s it m o s t
c l e a r l y h e r e p r o b a b l y with his o p p o s i t e , J e r o m e , in m i n d :

Sed ubi non est scriptoris error, aliquid eos [sc. Septuaginta interprtes]
divino spiritu, ubi sensus esset consentaneus veritati, et praedicans veritatem,
non interpretantium more, sed prophetantium libertate aliter dicere voluisse
credendum est. Unde merito, non solum Hebraeis, verum etiam ipsis, cum
adhibet testimonia de Scripturis, uti Apostolica invenitur auctoritas.
But, if scribal error is not involved, it must be believed that, where the
sense corresponds to the truth and proclaims the truth, they [i.e. the seventy
translators], moved by the divine Spirit, wished to deviate [from the Hebrew
original], not in the manner of interpreters [translators], but in the freedom of
those prophesying. Consequently, the apostles, in their authority, when they
appealed to the Scriptures, quite rightly utilized not only the Hebrew, but
also their ownthe witness of the Seventy.
A DIFFICULT SUBJECT

T h e N e w T e s t a m e n t e x e g e t e p e r h a p s b e c a u s e of the necessity of giving


a lecture on the s u b j e c t d e a l i n g for the first time m o r e t h o r o u g h l y with
the p r o b l e m of the L X X as a w h o l e , q u i c k l y o b s e r v e s h o w very m u c h h e
has entered a terra incognita, full of surprises. S o it w a s for t h e author,
also, w h e n he w a s a s k e d to read a p a p e r on ' t h e A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n of the
Septuagint' before a theological working group. He suddenly found
h i m s e l f again in a r e a l m in w h i c h O l d T e s t a m e n t a n d Patristics scholars
are m o r e at h o m e : a r e a l m , h o w e v e r , c o m p l e t e l y d o m i n a t e d in reality by
specialists in L X X r e s e a r c h ; o n e of the m o s t e x c l u s i v e b e c a u s e it is
so c o m p l i c a t e d s p e c i a l i t i e s of t h e o l o g y or philologia sacra. H e is c o m
p l e t e l y a w a r e of the i m p e r f e c t i o n of his c o n t r i b u t i o n . In e s s e n c e , it
1
c o m p r i s e s o n l y an e x t e n s i v e o u t l i n e of t h e p r o b l e m ( w i t h a f e w
idiosyncratic m a r g i n a l c o m m e n t s ) .
T h e s e c o n d limitation results from the d e b a t a b l e n a t u r e of the subject
itself. W e c a n n o t p r o v e the e x i s t e n c e of a g e n u i n e J e w i s h , pre-Christian
c o l l e c t i o n of c a n o n i c a l v a l u e , u n a m b i g u o u s l y a n d c l e a r l y d e l i m i t e d ,
d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e t h r o u g h its greater s c o p e from the c a n o n of the H e b r e w
B i b l e in the r e a l m of the h i s t o r i c a l b o o k s a n d w i s d o m w r i t i n g s a n d
written in G r e e k . N o r , especially, c a n it be s h o w n that such a ' c a n o n '
w a s already f o r m e d in p r e - C h r i s t i a n A l e x a n d r i a . O n e c a n only p r o c e e d
f r o m t h e fact t h a t t h e five b o o k s of M o s e s ' T o r a h , t h e s o - c a l l e d
P e n t a t e u c h , w e r e translated into G r e e k u n d e r P t o l e m y II P h i l a d e l p h u s
( 2 8 2 - 2 4 6 ) , at t h e latest t o w a r d the m i d d l e of the third c e n t u r y . T h e
p s e u d e p i g r a p h i c a l Letter of Aristeas, w r i t t e n t o w a r d t h e e n d of the
s e c o n d c e n t u r y , a t t r i b u t e d t h i s t r a n s l a t i o n , u n i q u e in A n t i q u i t y , in
l e g e n d a r y f a s h i o n to t h e s e v e n t y - t w o e l d e r s f r o m t h e P a l e s t i n i a n
2
h o m e l a n d . T h i s is the source of the later d e s i g n a t i o n , ,
S e p t u a g i n t a , for the e n t i r e G r e e k O l d T e s t a m e n t , a d e s i g n a t i o n first
attested in Christian a u t h o r s (see b e l o w , p p . 2 5 - 6 ) . It, t o o , is m i s l e a d
ing. T h e enterprise r e c o u n t e d in the story w a s , in fact, limited exclusively
to t h e t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e Pentateuch as t h e J e w i s h l a w b o o k . T h e

1
S e e r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d in the s e l e c t b i b l i o g r a p h y .
2
A . Pelletier, Lettre d'Ariste Ph'ocrate ( S C 8 9 ; Paris, 1 9 6 2 ) ; s e e b e l o w , pp. 3 1 - 3
and 7 5 - 8 0 . . L. C o l l i n s ( ' 2 8 1 BCE: T h e Y e a r o f the T r a n s l a t i o n o f the P e n t a t e u c h into
G r e e k under P t o l e m y ' , in B r o o k e and L i n d a r s , 4 0 3 - 5 0 3 ) n o w s e e k s to p l a c e the translation
very e a r l y i n m y o p i n i o n t o o early.
translation of the historical and p r o p h e t i c b o o k s and of the h a g i o g r a p h a
followed only g r a d u a l l y in a p r o c e s s e x t e n d i n g o v e r 3 0 0 y e a r s d o w n to
the e n d of the first century CE. In addition, a few writings in the Septuagint
are not translations at all, but w e r e c o m p o s e d in G r e e k from the outset.
I n d e e d , u p o n e x a m i n i n g t h e r e s t of t h e i n d e p e n d e n t J u d a e o -
A l e x a n d r i a n writings and the biblical literature e m p l o y e d or attested in
t h e m o n e is m o r e likely to get the i m p r e s s i o n that the n u m b e r of ' H o l y
S c r i p t u r e s ' r e c o g n i z e d in the E g y p t i a n m e t r o p o l i s w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y
s m a l l e r than in the P h a r i s a i c ' H e b r e w c a n o n ' d e v e l o p e d in P a l e s t i n e and
(quite certainly) than in the later L X X of the c h u r c h . F u r t h e r m o r e , it
s e e m s that the P e n t a t e u c h stood at the centre e v e n m o r e in the E g y p t i a n
m e t r o p o l i s than in the h o m e l a n d . Of c o u r s e o n e c a n p r o c e e d from the
fact that, b e g i n n i n g with the P e n t a t e u c h , not only the majority of the
writings of the G r e e k B i b l e but also n u m e r o u s other w o r k s w e classify
as a p o c r y p h a a n d p s e u d e p i g r a p h a w e r e t r a n s l a t e d ( a n d a l s o s o m e
c o m p o s e d ) in A l e x a n d r i a , the great centre of the J e w i s h D i a s p o r a . But it
r e m a i n s u n c e r t a i n d i s r e g a r d i n g a c o r e : l a w , history b o o k s , p r o p h e t s ,
P s a l m s and P r o v e r b s w h e t h e r and w h e n the ' s c r i p t u r e s ' b e y o n d this
' c o r e ' w e r e really r e c o g n i z e d there as inspired ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' , that is
as ' c a n o n i c a l ' . M a n y of t h e m c o u l d h a v e e v e n b e e n simply treasured and
utilized, at first, as m o r e or less private religious d e v o t i o n a l literature. In
addition, the n u m b e r of writings translated or c o m p o s e d in G r e e k in the
h o m e l a n d itself (or e l s e w h e r e o u t s i d e E g y p t , p e r h a p s in A n t i o c h ) should
3
not b e u n d e r e s t i m a t e d . D i a s p o r a J u d a i s m , s c a t t e r e d o v e r the e n t i r e
R o m a n E m p i r e , h a d n o central court of a p p e a l that could establish a
c a n o n of H o l y S c r i p t u r e . F u r t h e r m o r e , its religious c e n t r e r e m a i n e d
J e r u s a l e m until the d e s t r u c t i o n of the t e m p l e in 7 0 CE. Y e a r after year,
a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of J e w s f r o m t h e G r e e k - s p e a k i n g D i a s p o r a
a s s e m b l e d for the great feasts, not in A l e x a n d r i a b u t in J e r u s a l e m . Before
7 0 CE J e w s in A n t i o c h , R o m e , or E p h e s u s l o o k e d for their religious
q u e s t i o n s m o r e to the ' h o l y c i t y ' than to the E g y p t i a n m e t r o p o l i s . In
the final a n a l y s i s , t h e r e w a s n o r e l i g i o u s c o u r t of a p p e a l that c o u l d
e x e r c i s e decisive influence on other c e n t r e s of ' H e l l e n i s t i c ' J u d a i s m in
the R o m a n E m p i r e . T h e a s s u m p t i o n of an ' A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n ' that the
early c h u r c h a d o p t e d w i t h o u t deliberation a n d to a d e g r e e s e a m l e s s l y is
an e i g h t e e n t h - and n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y h y p o t h e s i s that has p r o v e d to be a
4
w r o n g t u r n i n g . O n e m u s t not forget that the J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y in
A l e x a n d r i a and in E g y p t w a s almost c o m p l e t e l y annihilated b e c a u s e of
the suicidal rebellion of 1 1 5 - 1 7 in the territories of the former P t o l e m a i c

' C f . M . H e n g e l , The 'Hellenization' of Judaea in the First Century after Christ


( L o n d o n and P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1 9 8 9 ) , 2 4 - 9 .
4
Cf. S u n d b e r g , w h o s e w o r k has refuted the o l d h y p o t h e s i s ; cf. a l s o Harl, D o r i v a l and
M u n n i c h , 1 1 2 - 1 9 ; B e c k w i t h , 3 8 2 - 6 : H. v o n C a m p e n h a u s e n , Die Entstehung der
christlichen Bibel ( B H T h 3 9 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 6 8 ) , 8 - 9 .
k i n g d o m ( E g y p t , C y r e n a i c a a n d C y p r u s ) , s i m i l a r to the fate of t h e
5
c o m m u n i t y in J u d a e a in 1 3 2 - 5 . F u r t h e r m o r e , r e p o r t s c o n c e r n i n g
E g y p t i a n J e w r y for the next t w o g e n e r a t i o n s break off almost c o m p l e t e l y .
W e d o not k n o w w h a t the c o l l e c t i o n of h o l y writings in the giant, five-
n a v e d s y n a g o g u e in A l e x a n d r i a a f t e r the J e r u s a l e m t e m p l e the largest
6
religious c e n t r e of J u d a i s m l o o k e d like. Like the J e r u s a l e m t e m p l e in
7 0 CE, it too w a s d e s t r o y e d in the rebellion of 115. S i n c e , apart from the
7
e n i g m a t i c A p o l l o s (Acts 1 8 : 2 5 ) and the n a m e s a n d d o c t r i n e s of a few
early G n o s t i c s , w e p o s s e s s n o d e p e n d a b l e reports c o n c e r n i n g E g y p t i a n
Christianity prior to the s e c o n d half of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y , w e can also
only s p e c u l a t e a b o u t a p o s s i b l e early a d o p t i o n of J e w i s h writings by the
8
A l e x a n d r i a n c h u r c h . C e r t a i n l y , C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a (c. 2 0 0 ) k n e w a
n u m b e r of b i b l i c a l a n d a p o c r y p h a l w r i t i n g s , b u t it is i m p o s s i b l e to
d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a n d w h e n m a n y of t h e m w e r e r e a d in C h r i s t i a n

5
Cf. M . H e n g e l , ' M e s s i a n i s c h e H o f f n u n g und p o l i t i s c h e r R a d i k a l i s m u s in der j d i s c h
h e l l e n i s t i s c h e n D i a s p o r a ' , in Apocalypticisms in the Mediterranean World and the Near
East, D . H e l l h o l m , e d . ( T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 3 , 2 n d edn 1 9 8 9 ) , 6 5 5 - 8 6 ; idem, 'Hadrians Politik
g e g e n b e r J u d e n und C h r i s t e n ' , JANES 1 6 / 1 7 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , 1 5 3 - 8 2 ( F S E. B i c k e r m a n ) , both
r e p u b l i s h e d a l s o in Judaica et Hellenistica. Kleine Schriften I ( W U N T 90; Tbingen,
1 9 9 6 ) , 3 1 4 - 4 3 , 3 5 8 - 9 1 . For the situation o f the J e w s in E g y p t in g e n e r a l , cf. A . K a s h e r ,
The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt ( T S A J 7; T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 5 ) ; Harl, D o r i v a l and
M u n n i c h , 3 1 - 8 ; E. S t a r o b i n s k i - S a f r a n , 'La c o m m u n a u t j u i v e d ' A l e x a n d r i e l ' p o q u e
de P h i l o n ' , in , F S C . M o n d s e r t , SJ (Paris, 1 9 8 7 ) , 4 5 - 7 5 . For the
J e w i s h i n s c r i p t i o n s , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the late third century BCE, s e e W . Horbury and D .
N o y , Jewish Inscriptions of Graeco-Roman Egypt ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 9 2 ) .
b
Cf. M . H e n g e l , ' P r o s e u c h e u n d S y n a g o g e : J d i s c h e G e m e i n d e , G o t t e s h a u s und
G o t t e s d i e n s t in der D i a s p o r a und in P a l s t i n a ' , in Tradition und Glaube, F S K. G. Kuhn
( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 7 1 ) , 1 5 7 - 8 4 , e s p . 177 = Kleine Schriften I [I n. 5 ] , 1 7 1 - 9 5 [ 1 8 8 ] .
7
C o d e x D c o n t a i n s the a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n that A p o l l o s w a s i n s t r u c t e d )
in the w o r d s o f the Lord and thus i m p l i e s that Christian instruction w a s already
taking p l a c e in A l e x a n d r i a in the y e a r 5 0 (cf. . M . M e t z g e r , A Textual Commentary on
the Greek New Testament [2nd e d n ; L o n d o n and N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 5 ] , 4 6 6 ) . For this p r o b l e m
cf. M . H e n g e l and A . M . S c h w e m e r , Paulus zwischen Damaskus und Antiochien (WUNT
108; Tbingen, 1998), 3 9 2 - 4 .
s
Cf., for e x a m p l e , C . H. R o b e r t s , Manuscript, Society and Belief in Early Christian
Egypt ( O x f o r d , 1 9 7 9 ) , as w e l l as Chr. M a r k s c h i e s , Valentinus Gnosticus? Untersuchungen
zur valentinianischen Gnosis mit einem Kommentar zu den Fragmenten Valentins (WUNT
1/65; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 2 ) , 3 1 8 - 2 3 ( ' E x k u r s IV: Zur G e s c h i c h t e der c h r i s t l i c h e n G e m e i n d e
A l e x a n d r i e n s ' ); B . A . P e a r s o n and J. E. G o e h r i n g , e d s , The Roots of Egyptian Christianity
( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1 9 8 6 ) , e s p e c i a l l y the c o n t r i b u t i o n by B. A . P e a r s o n , 'Earliest Christianity
in E g y p t ' , 1 2 3 - 5 6 , and the r e v i e w o f it b y W . A . L o h r in ThLZ 112 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , 3 5 1 - 3 , c o n
c l u d i n g w i t h the n o t e w o r t h y s t a t e m e n t : ' W h e r e the s o u r c e s are s i l e n t , the h i s t o r i a n ' s
o p t i o n s c o m e to an e n d ' ; cf. a l s o n o w the e s s a y s about an a l l e g e d J e w i s h origin o f a pre-
Christian G n o s t i c i s m in A l e x a n d r i a : B . A . P e a r s o n , Gnosticism, Judaism, and Egyptian
Christianity ( M i n n e a p o l i s , 1 9 9 0 ) , e s p . 1 0 - 1 2 , 1 6 5 - 7 , 1 9 4 - 6 ; s e e a l s o Harl, D o r i v a l and
M u n n i c h , 3 2 3 , w h o c o n t e n d that the d i v i s i o n o f the transmitted w r i t i n g s into a three-
tiered s c a l e o f v a l u e , as attested in O r i g e n . w a s a ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in u s e in A l e x a n d r i a n
J u d a i s m ' in his t i m e . For the ' c a n o n ' o f C l e m e n t , s e e J. R u w e t , ' C l e m e n t d ' A l e x a n d r i e :
C a n o n d e s critures et A p o c r y p h e s ' , Bib 2 9 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , 7 7 - 9 9 . 2 4 0 - 6 8 , 3 9 1 - 4 0 8 , w h o w a n t s
to draw the b o u n d a r i e s t o o sharply.
w o r s h i p . O u r k n o w l e d g e of the spiritual life a n d literature of the J e w i s h
c o m m u n i t i e s in other c e n t r e s of the J e w i s h D i a s p o r a , A n t i o c h , E p h e s u s ,
9
or R o m e , is not greater, but m u c h m o r e limited. W e h a v e n o o c c a s i o n to
speculate that the c o r p u s of sacred writings in use in the s y n a g o g u e s
there, stored in the T o r a h ark a n d utilized in w o r s h i p and instruction,
was larger than in the h o m e l a n d .
F r o m the very b e g i n n i n g , C h r i s t i a n s a s a J e w i s h - m e s s i a n i c sect with
a strong m i s s i o n a r y i m p u l s e u t i l i z e d and e x e g e t e d 'the l a w a n d the
p r o p h e t s ' u n d e r the rubric of e s c h a t o l o g i c a l fulfilment. T h u s , they also
very early e m p l o y e d I recall only the H e l l e n i s t s in J e r u s a l e m a n d the
p r e a c h i n g of S t e p h e n in the G r e e k - s p e a k i n g s y n a g o g u e s in J e r u s a l e m
10
( A c t s 6 : 1 - 1 5 ) t h e i r G r e e k t r a n s l a t i o n . T h i s use of the L X X as H o l y
Scripture is practically as old as the c h u r c h itself. For N e w T e s t a m e n t
w r i t i n g s , b e g i n n i n g with Paul, it is the r u l e . "
It c a n e a s i l y b e d e d u c e d from the v e r b a t i m c i t a t i o n s in the N e w
T e s t a m e n t and the A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s w h i c h collection of writings w e r e
i n v o l v e d a n d w h i c h b o o k s w e r e g i v e n preference. A g l a n c e in the index
of the loci citati vel allegati in N e s t l e / A l a n d ' s 26th edition m a y suffice
here. W e o b v i o u s l y e n c o u n t e r a fixed c o r e , b u t a clearly defined, b i n d i n g
c a n o n that c a n be said to e x t e n d b e y o n d the H e b r e w Bible c a n n o t be
d e m o n s t r a t e d . N o r c a n w e a s s u m e that the early Christian c o m m u n i t i e s
12
of the first century all h a d the s a m e b o o k s on their b o o k s h e l v e s . Instead,
w e m u s t a s s u m e a c o n s i d e r a b l e r a n g e of variation. O n the b a s i s of this
c o m p l i c a t e d situation, the q u e s t i o n presents itself: h o w did it c o m e about
that the collection of J e w i s h writings in the G r e e k l a n g u a g e , significantly
larger than the scope of the H e b r e w Bible, b e c o m e , u n d e r the designation
'the S e v e n t y ' , the authoritative ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' of the Old T e s t a m e n t
in the Christian c h u r c h ? For, since the fathers t o w a r d the e n d of the
s e c o n d and the b e g i n n i n g of the third c e n t u r i e s , it b e c o m e s m o r e and
m o r e c l e a r that this n o l o n g e r i n v o l v e s a c o l l e c t i o n e m p l o y e d in the

9
For R o m e , s e e S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I l l / 1 , 7 3 - 8 1 ; H. J. L e o n , The Jews of Ancient Rome
( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1 9 6 0 ) ; P. L a m p e , Die stadtrmischen Christen in den ersten beiden
Jahrhunderten ( W U N T U / 1 8 ; 2 n d e d n ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 9 ) , s e e the index under ' J u d e n /
j d i s c h ' . M a n y i n s c r i p t i o n s h a v e b e e n p r e s e r v e d , to be sure, but they are late; n o t h i n g is
k n o w n o f the literary activity o f R o m a n J e w r y . S e e D . N o y , Jewish Inscriptions of Western
Europe, Vol. 2, The City of Rome ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 9 5 ) .
'"Cf. H e n g e l , 'Hellenization' ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 0 n. 3 ) , 1 4 - 1 5 , 18, 2 1 , 4 3 - 4 ; idem,
' D e r v o r c h r i s t l i c h e Paulus*, in Paulus und das antike Judentum, M. H e n g e l and U . H e c k e l ,
e d s ( W U N T 1 / 5 8 : T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 1 ) . 1 7 7 - 2 9 1 . e s p . 2 3 2 - 9 , 2 5 8 - 6 0 ; idem, 'Die
S c h r i f t a u s l e g u n g d e s 4 . E v a n g e l i u m s auf d e m H i n t e r g r u n d der urchristlichen E x e g e s e ' ,
JBThA ( 1 9 8 9 ) , 2 4 9 - 8 8 .
11
Cf. D . - A . K o c h , Die Schrift als Zeuge des Evangeliums (Wih 6 9 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 6 ) .
But the text u s e d by Paul w a s not u n i f o r m . S e e further b e l o w , p p . 1 0 8 - 9 .
12
Cf. M . H e n g e l , Die Evangelienberschriften ( S H A W . P H , 3; Heidelberg, 1984), 3 7 -
9. S e e further b e l o w , pp. 1 1 1 - 1 2 and n o w idem. The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of
Jesus Christ ( L o n d o n . 2 0 0 0 ) .
A DIFFICULT SUBJECT 23

J e w i s h s y n a g o g u e s , b u t o n e utilized in the C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h e s . T h i s
o b s e r v a t i o n influences the structure of the investigation. I b e g i n with the
'Christian c l a i m ' to the L X X and the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of its c a n o n and then
first ask about its J e w i s h ' p r e h i s t o r y ' and the accretion of the writings
e x c l u d e d from the H e b r e w c a n o n .
THE LXX AS A COLLECTION OF WRITINGS
CLAIMED BY CHRISTIANS'

1. The Translation Legend in Judaism


and the Number of the Translators

First of all, it m u s t b e established t h a t s o far as can b e d e m o n s t r a t e d


h i s t o r i c a l l y a Christian author first applied the designation ' S e p t u a g i n t '
as a c o d e for the legendary s e v e n t y ( - t w o ) translators to indicate w h a t
w a s an o r i g i n a l l y J e w i s h c o l l e c t i o n of w r i t i n g s , the s c o p e of w h i c h ,
i n d e e d , h a d n o t y e t b e e n firmly e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s d e s i g n a t i o n for
the G r e e k translation, w h e t h e r of the P e n t a t e u c h or of the w h o l e O l d
T e s t a m e n t , d o e s not yet o c c u r in p r e - C h r i s t i a n J e w i s h s o u r c e s . C o n
s e q u e n t l y , o n e c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e that the J e w s a l r e a d y e m p l o y e d it.
N o t a b l y , the label d o e s not c h a r a c t e r i z e the c o n t e n t , but r e p r e s e n t s a
reference to the story of its origins for w h i c h the J e w i s h translation legend
constitutes the starting point. Its oldest w i t n e s s , the Letter of (Pseudo-)
Aristeas, r e l a t e s h o w , u n d e r P t o l e m y II P h i l a d e l p h u s ( 2 8 2 - 2 4 6 B C ) ,
s e v e n t y - t w o J e w i s h elders (six from each tribe), b r o u g h t from Palestine
to A l e x a n d r i a for the task, translated the law of M o s e s in s e v e n t y - t w o
d a y s (see b e l o w , p p . 7 5 - 8 0 ) .
O n l y the dating c a n be c o n s i d e r e d the historical kernel of this account.
T h e rest c a n b e e x p l a i n e d by the a t t e m p t of the Letter of Aristeas to
legitimize a certain version of the L X X as solely valid (see b e l o w , p p .
76-7).
N o reference to the n u m b e r of the translators a p p e a r s in the writings
of the A l e x a n d r i a n Philo o v e r a h u n d r e d y e a r s later. J o s e p h u s , almost
a n o t h e r c e n t u r y later, w r i t e s in a r e p o r t d e p e n d e n t o n the Letter of
Aristeas c o r r e c t l y o n c e a g a i n of the s e v e n t y - t w o e l d e r s , b u t t h e n
w i t h o u t h a r m o n i z i n g the c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f t h e s e v e n t y t r a n s l a t o r s .

1
M y s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e e x t e n s i v e e s s a y appeared under this title ( ' D i e S e p t u a g i n t a als
v o n den Christen b e a n s p r u c h t e S c h r i f t e n s a m m l u n g bei Justin und den Vtern vor
O r i g e n e s ' ) in the 1991 D u r h a m S y m p o s i u m v o l u m e : Jews and Christians: The Parting of
the Ways, J. G. D . D u n n , e d . ( W U N T 1/66; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 2 ) , 3 9 - 8 4 = M . H e n g e l , Judaica,
Hellenistica et Christiana: Kleine Schriften II ( W U N T 109; T b i n g e n . 1 9 9 9 ) . 3 3 5 - 8 0 .
Paragraphs l - 4 e here are a s u m m a r y o f this larger m a n u s c r i p t . F o r the s a k e o f e a s i e r
c r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g , the structure o f the D u r h a m c o n t r i b u t i o n will be a d o p t e d here w i t h o u t
alteration (2.1 c o r r e s p o n d s to 2a, e t c . ) . W i t h i n the current e s s a y , the p r e v i o u s e s s a y w i l l
be cited as ' M . H e n g e l , D u r h a m ' .
T h i s m a y b e a first indication of the uniform f o r m u l a
2
for the entire L X X , a l t h o u g h the texts cited a l w a y s s p e a k only of the
t r a n s l a t i o n of ' t h e l a w ' . O n l y P h i l o a m o n g J e w i s h a u t h o r s e m p h a
sizes the m i r a c u l o u s c h a r a c t e r of the t r a n s l a t i o n : the ' m o s t e m i n e n t
H e b r e w s (Vit Mos 2:32) did not e a c h write s o m e t h i n g different, but, in a
p r o p h e t i c m a n n e r a n d as t h o u g h u n d e r d i v i n e m o t i v a t i o n (
) , all the s a m e t e r m s and w o r d s as t h o u g h
o n e inspiration dictated invisibly in e a c h ' . F o r this reason, those m e n are
' n o t to be called translators, but h i e r o p h a n t s a n d p r o p h e t s , w h o , b e c a u s e
their t h o u g h t s w e r e as clear as daylight, c o u l d k e e p p a c e with the very
3
p u r e s t intellect of M o s e s ' .

2. Justin

T h e silence of J e w i s h as well as N e w T e s t a m e n t texts, i n c l u d i n g the


A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s , a b o u t the L X X and its special c h a r a c t e r is r e m a r k a b l e ,
since this t h e m e s u d d e n l y attains central status for the e d u c a t e d Christian
t e a c h e r Justin, a former Platonic peripatetic, in his disputes with J e w i s h
Dialogue partners.

a) T h e L e g e n d in the Apology and Dialogue

In t h e Apology (c. 1 5 2 - 5 CE), w h i c h , j u d g i n g from its title, is a d d r e s s e d


p r i m a r i l y to p a g a n r e a d e r s , Justin i n t r o d u c e s the translation l e g e n d in an
o t h e r w i s e u n k n o w n form that contradicts the o l d e r J e w i s h e x a m p l e s at
m a n y p o i n t s . In contrast to the historical tradition, h e lays all the w e i g h t
on the n o t i o n that, on the initiative of the E g y p t i a n king P t o l e m y , J e w s
translated into G r e e k prophetic writings written in H e b r e w long before
Christ. In order to a c h i e v e this, P t o l e m y is said to h a v e written t w o suc
c e s s i v e letters to the J e w i s h k i n g H e r o d (!). In r e s p o n s e to the first,
4
H e r o d sent only the H e b r e w Scriptures and, to the second, the t r a n s l a t o r s .

2
Ant 1 2 : 5 6 . S i x m e n from e a c h tribe, i.e. 1 2 x 6 translators. I m m e d i a t e l y thereafter, in
Ant 1 2 : 5 7 , he s p e a k s o f o n l y 'the S e v e n t y ' . J o s e p h u s a l s o m e n t i o n s the s e v e n t y - t w o - d a y
p e r i o d o f translation (Ant 1 2 : 1 0 7 ; cf. A . P e l l e t i e r , Flavius Josephe adapteur de la Lettre
d'Ariste [ E e C 4 5 ; Paris, 1962J, 1 2 5 - 7 , 199; Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 4 7 , 5 9 - 6 1 ;
P.-J. Shutt, ' N o t e s o n the Letter o f A r i s t e a s ' , BIOSCS 1 0 [ 1 9 7 7 1 , 2 2 - 3 0 ) . L u k e 10:1 (cf.
the v a r i a n t t r a d i t i o n s ) m a y a l s o b e d e p e n d e n t o n t h i s f o r m u l a . T h e S e v e n t y ( - t w o )
translated the Torah for 'the n a t i o n s ' . O r i g i n a l l y , the m o d e l o f N u m . 1 1:24, 2 6 : 7 0 + 2.
m a y a l s o h a v e p l a y e d a role. C o n c e r n i n g later rabbinic r e f e r e n c e s , s e e B i l l . 111:323 and
G. V e l t r i , Eine Tora fur den Knig Talmai: Untersuchungen zum bersetzungs
verstndnis des hellenistischen undpalastinischen Judentums ( T S A J 41 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 4 ) .
S e e a l s o the r e v i e w o f Veltri by . , in The Greek & Hebrew Bible: Collected Essays
on the Septuagint (Ml.S 7 2 ; L o n d o n , 1 9 9 9 ) , 7 5 - 8 2 .
3
Vit Mos 2 : 3 7 , 4 0 .
4
W e d o not yet e n c o u n t e r the t w o letters in the J e w i s h s o u r c e s , but in the peculiar account
o f E p i p h a n i u s ( s e e p. 3 8 n. 4 3 b e l o w ) and in A u g u s t i n e ' s Civ Dei 18:42 ( s e e b e l o w , p. 51
n. 8 4 ) .
T h e context d i s c u s s e s neither the S e v e n t y elders n o r the fact that u n d e r
Ptolemy only the Pentateuch was translated. Instead, the entire Old
T e s t a m e n t , i n c l u d i n g the M o s a i c law, is u n d e r s t o o d , in a c c o r d a n c e with
early C h r i s t i a n interpretation, as p r o p h e c y c o n c e r n i n g Christ, and all
these p r o p h e t i c w r i t i n g s , he leads the r e a d e r to b e l i e v e , w e r e already
translated u p o n the k i n g ' s w i s h at that t i m e . T h u s Justin d i s t a n c e s himself
also from N e w T e s t a m e n t u s a g e , w h e r e c a n still d e s i g n a t e the
whole Old Testament, although here too we already encounter clear
5
t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d a p r o p h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the w h o l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s
t h e five b o o k s of t h e L a w r e m a i n e d an e x e m p l a r y p a r a d i g m . T h e
Christian writers of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y preferred to write w o r k s in 'five
b o o k s ' , so P a p i a s , H e g e s i p p u s , A p o l l i n a r i s of L a o d i c e a and I r e n a e u s .
T h e w o r d ' P e n t a t e u c h ' a p p e a r s for the first time in the letter of P t o l e m y ,
a c o n t e m p o r a r y of Justin, to Flora.
T h e Christian p h i l o s o p h e r e m p h a s i z e s that the translated Scriptures
are a v a i l a b l e to a n y o n e ' e v e n t o d a y ' in the A l e x a n d r i a n library and
a m o n g the J e w s , so that a n y o n e c a n confirm the truth of the scriptural
witness with w h i c h Justin a t t e m p t s to c o n v i n c e his p a g a n a d d r e s s e e s .
In contrast, the appeal to the G r e e k translation m a d e u n d e r P t o l e m y
has an entirely different t e n d e n c y in J u s t i n ' s s o m e w h a t later Dialogue
with the J e w T r y p h o . Here Justin m e n t i o n s the translation of the S e v e n t y
n o fewer than six t i m e s ; this frequency is u n i q u e in the early Christian
literature of the s e c o n d and third centuries. It is a p p a r e n t l y related to
t h e p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n of t h e Dialogue with a scholar from Judaea
w h o is n e v e r t h e l e s s learned in G r e e k . Justin t w i c e e x h o r t s his J e w i s h
conversation partner to remain with the a c k n o w l e d g e d text of the Seventy
elders and not to depart, with the n e w e r translations, from the ' c o r r e c t '
6
w o r d i n g . E v e n in other p a s s a g e s , for the m o s t part, he o n l y a p p e n d s the
(purported) r e a d i n g of the L X X a p p a r e n t l y authoritative for h i m a s
an afterthought. H e first cites a n o t h e r version of the text that could also
h a v e b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d by his J e w i s h Dialogue p a r t n e r s , a l t h o u g h the
7
text of the L X X in J u s t i n ' s edition is usually m o r e ' c h r i s t o l o g i c a l ' . T h e
A p o l o g i s t h i m s e l f is c o n v i n c e d that he h a s the o r i g i n a l w o r k of the

s
Justin, Apal I 3 1 : 1 - 5 ; M o s e s is d e s c r i b e d a l m o s t s t e r e o t y p i c a l l y as a prophet ( s e e
D e u t . 3 4 : 1 0 ) , o n c e e v e n as 'the first p r o p h e t ' ( 3 2 : 4 ; cf. Sir. 4 6 : 1 ) . P r o p h e c y itself b e g i n s
after the Fall (Dial 9 1 : 4 ; cf. G e n . 3 : 1 4 ) . For the m e a n i n g o f as a r e f e r e n c e to the
O l d T e s t a m e n t in J u d a i s m and Christianity, s e e Bill. 1 1 : 5 4 2 - 3 ; III: 1 5 9 . 4 6 2 ( o n John 1 0 : 4 2 ;
R o m . 3 : 1 9 ; 1 Cor. 14:21 ). T h e first s i g n s o f a p r o p h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g a p p e a r in R o m . 1:2;
H e b . 1:1; 1 Peter 1:10, e t c . Cf. C a m p e n h a u s e n ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 0 n. 4 ) , 2 8 - 1 2 2 : ' S e e n in
this light, the " p r o p h e t i c " , " c h r i s t o l o g i c a l " interpretation o f the O l d T e s t a m e n t is as o l d as
the church i t s e l f ( 2 9 ) . O n the ' P e n t a t e u c h ' , s e e E p i p h a n i u s , Pan. 3 3 , 4 , 1, and M . H e n g e l ,
in Judaica, Hellenistica et Christiana: Kleine Schriften II (WUNT 109; Tbingen, 1999),
p. 2 0 . T o write five b o o k s against the G n o s t i c s p o s s i b l y s e e m e d a ' s i g n o f o r t h o d o x y ' .
b
Dial 68:7; 71:1.
7
In t h e s e p a s s a g e s , L X X is the subject o f (Dial 120:4; 131:1; 137:3 [ 2 x ] ) ;
the o f the L X X is m e n t i o n e d o n c e ( 1 2 4 : 3 ) .
S e v e n t y in the translation available to h i m . In reality, this p u r p o r t e d L X X
text is b a s e d in g o o d part on Christian t e s t i m o n i a collections that had
b e e n o c c a s i o n a l l y a l t e r e d by C h r i s t i a n s . I n c o n t r a s t , n o n e o f t h e
amplifications a n d e x a g g e r a t i o n s in the translation legend e n c o u n t e r e d
in the later Fathers since I r e n a e u s o c c u r in the Dialogue. Nevertheless,
J u s t i n ' s m a n n e r of arguing s h o w s clearly that the weight of his a r g u m e n t s
a g a i n s t his J e w i s h o p p o n e n t s c o u l d be s u b s t a n t i a l l y s t r e n g t h e n e d by
e v i d e n c e of a divine confirmation of the translation of the S e v e n t y as w e
find it later. H e himself, h o w e v e r , still refrains from such an a r g u m e n t
and c a n in c o n s e q u e n c e basically appeal only to the credibility of the
Seventy.

b) J u s t i n ' s O l d T e s t a m e n t L i b r a r y '

J u s t i n d o e s not e x p l i c i t l y m e n t i o n in the Dialogue which prophetic


b o o k s w e r e translated u n d e r K i n g P t o l e m y . H e certainly did not think,
h o w e v e r , of the five b o o k s of M o s e s o n l y , but, as in the Apology, of all
p r o p h e t i c a l l y inspired w r i t i n g s , i.e., the J e w i s h ' c a n o n ' f o r m i n g in his
t i m e . T h i s c a n o n , i n c l u d i n g e v e n the few b o r d e r l i n e c a s e s ( Q o h e l e t h ,
S o n g of S o l o m o n , E s t h e r a n d w i t h a n e g a t i v e r e s u l t S i r a c h ) c o n c e r n
ing w h i c h the d e c i s i o n h a d indeed already b e e n m a d e , already c o r r e s
8
p o n d e d to the final ' m a s o r e t i c c a n o n ' . Justin cites as H o l y S c r i p t u r e
a l m o s t all these b o o k s e x c e p t Q o h e l e t h , E s t h e r a n d the S o n g of S o l o m o n .
J o b is e m p l o y e d only t w i c e , L a m e n t a t i o n s only o n c e in C h r i s t i a n i z e d
9
f o r m , a n d t h e s o l e c i t a t i o n f r o m ' E z r a ' is u n c e r t a i n . It c a n n o t b e
d e t e r m i n e d with certainty w h e t h e r Justin k n e w the Old T e s t a m e n t b o o k s
in their entirety or relied, in part, on t e s t i m o n i a c o l l e c t i o n s , a l t h o u g h the
latter s e e m s likely in all t h o s e c a s e s w h e r e strong Christian influence is
p e r c e p t i b l e in his p u r p o r t e d 'text of the L X X ' .
A p p a r e n t l y his Scripture collection c o r r e s p o n d e d to that in use in the
R o m a n c h u r c h , the last p l a c e w h e r e h e taught. T h e w i d e - r a n g i n g a g r e e
m e n t b e t w e e n biblical b o o k s cited by h i m a n d by C l e m e n t of R o m e
s u p p o r t s this inference. It is only o n e or t w o d e c a d e s after Justin that the
p r o b l e m of the d e l i m i t a t i o n of the H o l y Scriptures of the Old T e s t a m e n t

8
Cf. Dial 30:1 - 2 w h i c h p r e s u m e s the tripartite d i v i s i o n o f the c a n o n into the b o o k s o f
M o s e s , the p r o p h e t s and the p s a l m s (as in L u k e 2 4 : 4 4 ) . T h e threefold d i v i s i o n i m p l i e s , at
the s a m e t i m e , a c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e q u e n c e .
g
T o be sure, Justin m e n t i o n s the n a m e Ezra t w i c e as the n a m e o f a biblical prophet
( 7 2 : 1 : 1 2 0 : 5 ) , but the text he c i t e s c o n c e r n i n g P a s s o v e r as a t y p e for Christ is m i s s i n g in
m a n u s c r i p t s o f the L X X and p r o b a b l y s t e m s f r o m a Christian t e s t i m o n i a c o l l e c t i o n ( s e e
P. Prigent, 'Justin et l ' A n c i e n T e s t a m e n t " , EtB [Paris, 1 9 6 4 ] , 1 7 4 - 5 : and O. S k a r s a u n e ,
The Proof from Prophecy: A Study in Justin Martyr's Proof-Text Tradition: Text-Type,
Provenance, Theological Profile [ N T . S 5 6 : L e i d e n . 1 9 8 7 | , 4 2 ) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the q u e s t i o n
r e m a i n s o p e n as to the f o r m in w h i c h he k n e w 'Ezra' ( 1 st or 2 n d Ezra. E z r a - A p o c a l y p s e ? ) ;
S e e a l s o M. H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 4 6 . n. 2 7 .
first b e c o m e s clearly a p p a r e n t in a Christian author, n a m e l y M e l i t o of
10
S a r d i s . B e c a u s e Christians a d d r e s s e d the p r o b l e m of the Old T e s t a m e n t
' c a n o n ' later than J e w s , they w e r e , on this point, n e v e r really c o m p l e t e l y
i n d e p e n d e n t of the s y n a g o g u e . J u s t i n ' s attitude in the Dialogue already
d e m o n s t r a t e s this: he cites as ' S c r i p t u r e ' n o n e of the texts later e x c l u d e d
from the c a n o n as a p o c r y p h a or p s e u d e p i g r a p h a , a l t h o u g h he s e e m s to
h a v e k n o w n the Book of Enoch as well as the l e g e n d s c o n c e r n i n g the
Martyrdom of Isaiah." T h i s m a y b e related to his c i r c u m s p e c t i o n in
regard to his J e w i s h Dialogue p a r t n e r s , with w h o m h e w a n t s to discuss
1 2
only 'the p a s s a g e s still r e c o g n i z e d a m o n g y o u ' .
T h e v a r i o u s a n o n y m o u s r e c e n s i o n s of the L X X already in circula
tion at that t i m e , p r o b a b l y by Palestinian J e w i s h scholars w h o w i s h e d
to i m p r o v e the often i n a d e q u a t e translation of the L X X in light of the
H e b r e w o r i g i n a l , p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m to this d i s c u s s i o n . E v e n J u s t i n
e m p l o y e d such a r e c e n s i o n a l text in, for e x a m p l e , his citations from the
13
Minor Prophets.

c) T h e D i s p u t e a b o u t the Translation of Isaiah 7:14

T h e central significance of Isaiah 7:14 for J u s t i n ' s C h r i s t o l o g y c o m p e l l e d


h i m to i n t r o d u c e his u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the translation of the L X X at this
point, for o n l y by m e a n s of the G r e e k text c o u l d h e a d d u c e scriptural
e v i d e n c e for the virgin birth of the M e s s i a h . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , Justin w a s
able to e m p h a s i z e the d i v i n e aspect of J e s u s ' virgin birth and still hold
firmly to the real ' i n c a r n a t i o n ' of the pre-existent son of G o d a m a t t e r
of s u p r e m e i m p o r t a n c e in the light of his dual i n t r a - c h u r c h conflict with

1,1
S e e b e l o w , p p . 6 0 - 1 . M e l i t o , t o o , o r i e n t s h i m s e l f s i m p l y to the J e w i s h m o d e l .
11
S e e R. H. C h a r l e s , The Book of Enoch or 1 Enoch ( O x f o r d . 1 9 1 2 ) . L X X x i - L X X xii;
M . H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 4 9 n. 3 8 . Justin m a y h a v e already k n o w n Asclsa c o n t a i n i n g the
Martyrdom, a l t h o u g h his a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h the l e g e n d s m a y a l s o s t e m f r o m oral tradition
s u c h as is a l s o apparent in H e b . 1 1 : 3 7 . S e e M. H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 6 2 , n. 8 9 . Cf. n o w A . M .
S c h w e m e r , Studien zu den frhjdischen Prophetenlegenden Vitae Prophetarum (TSAJ
4 9 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 5 ) 1, 1 0 7 - 1 5 .
12
Dial 7 1 : 2 : '
. S e e a l s o Dial 120:5 and S k a r s a u n e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 8 n. 9 ) , 3 4 .
n
S e e S k a r s a u n e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 8 n. 9 ) , 1 7 - 2 3 , 4 2 4 - 6 . T h i s d e p e n d e n c e o n r e c e n s i o n a l
texts b e c o m e s c l e a r through a c o m p a r i s o n o f J u s t i n ' s c i t a t i o n s from the M i n o r P r o p h e t s
( e s p . M i c . 4 : 3 - 7 ) and the G r e e k M i n o r P r o p h e t s scroll from N a h a l H e v e r , written at the
turn o f the era. S e e D . B a r t h l m y , Les devanciers d'Aquila ( V T . S 1 0 ; Leiden, 1963),
2 0 3 - 1 2 ; idem, ' R e d c o u v e r t e d'un c h a n o n m a n q u a n t d e l ' h i s t o i r e d e la S e p t a n t e ' , RB 6 0
( 1 9 5 3 ) : 1 8 - 2 9 ( n o w in B a r t h l m y , 3 8 - 5 0 , and Studies, 2 2 6 - 3 8 ) ; P. Katz, Justin's Old
Testament Quotations and the Greek Dodekapropheton Scroll ( S t u d i a Patristica 1/1;
B e r l i n , 1 9 5 7 ) , 3 4 3 - 5 3 ( n o w in Studies, 5 3 0 ^ 4 0 ) ; . , The Greek Minor Prophets Scroll
from Nahal Hever (8 Hev XIIgr) ( D J D 8; O x f o r d , 1 9 9 0 ) , e s p . 158 c o n c e r n i n g J u s t i n ' s text
o f the p r o p h e t s ; d a t e s the scroll very early in the m i d d l e o f the first century BCE. O n
the p r o b l e m o f r e c e n s i o n s , s e e S. P. B r o c k , ' T o R e v i s e or not R e v i s e ' , in B r o o k e and
Lindars, 3 0 1 - 3 8 .
the E b i o n i t e s on the o n e h a n d a n d with M a r c i o n a n d his disciples on the
other.
T h e Dialogue cites Isaiah 7:14 nine t i m e s in the L X X v e r s i o n (
) ; four t i m e s Justin contrasts the r e a d i n g he so v e h e m e n t l y
d e f e n d e d with the o n e h e rejected, the o n e d e f e n d e d by the J e w s (
1 4
) . T h e E b i o n i t e d o c t r i n e that J o s e p h w a s
15
J e s u s ' f a t h e r as well as T r y p h o n ' s c o n t e n t i o n that only a m e s s i a h as
1 6
c o u l d be the p r o m i s e d son of D a v i d force
J u s t i n to c l i n g s t u b b o r n l y to the r e a d i n g ( . . .) that he
d e f e n d e d . O n this point, the apologist c a n n o t yield so m u c h as a finger's
b r e a d t h . T h e text is a l a n d m a r k in his s y s t e m of prophetic-christological
scriptural proofs:

Now if I demonstrate that this prophecy of Isaiah's was said of our Christ
and not, as you contend, of Hezekiah, will I not thereby render you unsure
whether you failed to obey your teachers who dared to claim that the trans
lation of your seventy elders, who were with the Egyptian king Ptolemy, does
not correspond in many ways to the truth? For if scripture passages reproach
you for obviously imprudent and selfish thinking, you dare contend that it is
17
not so written.

J u s t i n ' s a r g u m e n t a s s u m e s that, on the w h o l e , his J e w i s h partners still


r e c o g n i z e the authority of the A l e x a n d r i a n translation of the L X X , e v e n
if they fault it for a few e r r o r s , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e they a l r e a d y k n o w
Palestinian r e c e n s i o n s that h a v e i m p r o v e d the text. A s t o n i s h i n g l y , the
fact that the Christian e x t e n d s the translation l e g e n d to all S c r i p t u r e s ,
especially to the p r o p h e t s a n d P s a l m s , d o e s not s e e m to disturb t h e m ,
since that w o u l d h a v e already b e e n a significant objection against J u s t i n ' s
i n s i s t e n c e on the authority of the L X X with r e s p e c t to Isaiah 7:14. At
this point, h o w e v e r , there m a y still h a v e b e e n a certain basic c o n s e n s u s
b e t w e e n C h r i s t i a n s a n d J e w s c o n c e r n i n g the L X X and e v e n the J e w i s h
u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the authority of the L X X a l r e a d y included all G r e e k
translations of the w r i t i n g s of the O l d T e s t a m e n t . N o r d o the J e w i s h

14
Dial 4 3 : 3 - 8 ( 2 x ) ; 6 6 : 2 - 4 and the J e w i s h r e s p o n s e in 6 7 : 1 ; 6 8 : 9 ; 7 1 : 3 ; 7 7 : 3 ; 84:1
( 2 x ) , and the J e w i s h r e s p o n s e in 8 4 : 3 . T h e Apologia c i t e s Isa. 7 : 1 4 o n l y o n c e (I 3 3 : 1 , 4 -
6 ) . Cf. H. G e s e , ' N a t u s e x v i r g i n e ' , in Vom Sinai zum Zion ( B e v T h 6 4 ; M n c h e n , 1 9 7 4 ) ,
1 3 0 - 4 6 ( 145f.): ' T h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r the G r e e k translation o f 'alm by in
Is 7 , 1 4 in the m i d s t o f the 2 n d c e n t u r y BC in E g y p t p r e s u p p o s e s the idea o f a virginal birth
o f the m e s s i a h r e m a i n s o p e n . ' S e e a l s o A . K a m e s a r , ' T h e V i r g i n o f Isaiah 7 : 1 4 : T h e
P h i l o l o g i c a l A r g u m e n t from the S e c o n d t o the Fifth C e n t u r y ' , JThS N S 4 9 ( 1 9 9 0 ) : 5 1 - 7 5 ;
M . R s e l , ' D i e Jungfrauengeburt d e s e n d z e i t l i c h e n I m m a n u e l : Jesaja 7 in der b e r s e t z u n g
der S e p t u a g i n t a ' , JBTh 6 ( 1991 ), 1 3 5 - 5 1 .
15
Dial 4 8 : 4 , cf. Irenaeus, Adv Haer 3:21:1.
l 6
D f W 4 9 : l ; 67:2; 68:5.
17
Dial 6 8 : 6 - 8 : T h e d e f i n i t i v e p a s s a g e ( 6 8 : 7 ) r e a d s :

, .
o p p o n e n t s appeal to an entirely n e w a n d better translation ( p e r h a p s that
of A q u i l a ) , a l t h o u g h texts c o r r e c t e d against the original w e r e already in
circulation a n d Justin o c c a s i o n a l l y utilized such a text. T h e r e a d i n g
, c h a m p i o n e d by T r y p h o n and his friends, a p p a r e n t l y derives from
such a r e c e n s i o n .

d) T h e A p p e a l to the S e v e n t y and the C h a r g e of Falsifying Scripture

S i n c e the J e w i s h and Christian v e r s i o n s differ at certain p o i n t s , despite


the still u n d i s p u t e d c o m m o n reference to the L X X , Justin c h a r g e d his
d i a l o g u e p a r t n e r s w i t h falsifying Scripture. In contrast, the idea that his
o w n text c o u l d contain Christian e x p a n s i o n d o e s not o c c u r to h i m . T h e
falsification c h a r g e included t w o e l e m e n t s : translational alterations, as
for e x a m p l e in Isaiah 7:14, a n d omissions of significant references to
Christ.

1. In no way will I allow myself to be convinced by your teachers who will


not admit that the Seventy elders of Ptolemy, the king of Egypt, produced
a good translation and who, instead, attempt their own translations.
2. I want you to know that they have completely removed from the trans
lation of Ptolemy's elders many passages which clearly demonstrate that
the crucified himself is proclaimed as God and Man who will be crucified
8
and die . . .'

Dialogue 7 1 : 3 m a k e s it clear that the first p o r t i o n of t h e citation (71:1)


refers o n c e again to the p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d d i s p u t e d interpretation of
Isaiah 7:14; the c h a r g e of falsification is o n c e m o r e forcefully repeated
in relation to this p a s s a g e :

You dare, however, to falsify even the translation that your elders prepared
under Ptolemy by contending that the scriptures do not read as they
translated, but '! . . the young woman . . . will conceive', as though it were a
reference to some great event for a woman to bear a child as the result of
sexual intercourseall young women (), except for the barren, do
this."'

I s a i a h ' s w o r d to king A h a z refers to a ' s i g n ' ( , 8 4 : 2 ; cf. Isa.


7:10). A c c o r d i n g to Justin, this can only b e true if an e x t r a o r d i n a r y ,

18
71:1' ,

, ' . 7 1 : 2

,

, .
Dial 8 4 : 3 . Cf. M . H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 6 0 n. 7 9 .
w o n d r o u s e v e n t is a s s o c i a t e d with this birth since g i v i n g birth r e p r e s e n t s
n o t h i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y for y o u n g w o m e n . J u s t i n justifies the s e c o n d
p o r t i o n of his c h a r g e of falsification ( 7 1 : 2 ) at his d i a l o g u e p a r t n e r ' s
insistence by g i v i n g the following four e x a m p l e s :
First, h e m e n t i o n s ' E z r a ' s e x e g e s i s of the P a s s o v e r l a w ' w h i c h is
found neither in the m a n u s c r i p t s of the b o o k s of E z r a n o r in the a p o c
r y p h a a n d w h i c h refers to Christ as the p a s c h a l l a m b (cf. 1 C o r . 5:7). It
c o n c e i v a b l y originated in a n o w lost Christian E z r a - a p o c r y p h o n , or as a
C h r i s t i a n addition in a text of 1 or 2 E z r a in the c o n t e x t of the P a s s o v e r
20
festival.
D i s r e g a r d i n g a few v a r i a n t s , the s e c o n d e x a m p l e (72:2) is identical
21
w i t h t h e L X X of J e r e m i a h 11:19 a n d is f o u n d in all m a n u s c r i p t s .
A d m i t t e d l y , Justin a d d s that this p a s s a g e c a n still be found in a few
m a n u s c r i p t s from J e w i s h s y n a g o g u e s since it h a d only b e e n e x p u n g e d
22
very r e c e n t l y .
T h e third e x a m p l e ( 7 2 : 4 ) c o n c e r n i n g the d e s c e n t of I s r a e l ' s L o r d
and G o d to the dead is also s u p p o s e d to s t e m from J e r e m i a h , but c a n be
found neither in a m a n u s c r i p t of the p r o p h e t s n o r in an a p o c r y p h o n . Like
the E z r a text, it is surely of Christian origin, p e r h a p s from a J e r e m i a h
23
apocalypse.
T h e fourth case c o m e s from P s a l m 9 5 : 1 0 . Justin a c c u s e s the J e w s of
omitting the words following the phrase
b e c a u s e they identify the L o r d and C r e a t o r of the w o r l d
with the crucified J e s u s (Dial 7 3 : 1 - 2 ) . B u t this case, too, c o n c e r n s a
very old Christian addition that a p p e a r s in o n l y a few w i t n e s s e s to the
2 4
LXX. F o r Justin, the p s a l m itself is also an i m p o r t a n t christological
25
text, a l r e a d y c i t e d e x t e n s i v e l y in his Apologia a n d also q u o t e d in
totality in Dialogue 7 3 : 3 - 4 , a l t h o u g h n o w in the traditional L X X form.

211
7 2 : 1 ; cf. 1 Ezra 1 : 1 - 2 ; 7 : 1 0 - 1 2 ; 2 E z r a 6 : 1 9 - 2 1 . S e e S k a r s a u n e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 8 n.
9), 40, 42.
: i
S e e S k a r s a u n e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 8 n. 9 ) , 4 0 , 4 2 , 187, 3 0 1 , 4 5 2 . It is attested in n u m e r o u s
T e s t i m o n i a lists from the e a r l y c h u r c h p e r i o d . S e e P r i g e n t ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 8 n. 9 ) , 173-5,
178-80, 181, 190-2.
2 2
Cf. M . H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 5 7 n. 6 9 .
2 i
I r e n a e u s c i t e s the s a y i n g six t i m e s in s l i g h t l y v a r i e d f o r m s and attributes it o n c e to
Isaiah (Adv Haer 3 : 2 0 : 4 ) and t w i c e to J e r e m i a h (Adv Haer 4 : 2 2 : 1 ; Epideixis 78). The
r e m a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e s are u n a t t r i b u t e d (Adv Haer 4:33:1; alii4:33:12; a prophet
5 : 3 1 : 1 ) . S e e A . R e s c h , Agrapha ( 2 n d e d n ; L e p z i g , 1 9 0 6 [= D a r m s t a t d t , 1 9 6 7 ] ) , 320-2.
T h e text c o n c e r n s ( p r o t o - ) T h e o d o t i o n ' s v e r s i o n o f D a n . 1 2 : 1 : yf\
(Dial 7 2 : 4 ) . S e e also H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 58
n. 7 0 .
2 4
For the evidence see A. Rahlfs, Psalmi cum Odis. i n . Septuaginta: Vetus
Testamentum Graecum X (3rd e d n ; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 7 9 ) , 3 1 , 2 4 7 . S o already S w e t e , 423-4;
S k a r s a u n e , 3 5 ^ 2 . Tertullian (Adv Marc 3 : 1 9 : 1 ; Adv Jud 10:11 - 1 2 ; cf. 13:11 ), P s - C y p r i a n
(De Montibus Sina et Sum 9, C S E L 3 / 3 , G. Hrtel, e d . [ V i e n n a . 18711, 1 1 3 ) . and Barn 8:5
(in a s l i g h t l y altered f o r m ) a l s o m e n t i o n the r e a d i n g .
2 5
A/70/1 41:4.
Skarsaune correctly concludes that here Justin utilized a Jewish
m a n u s c r i p t of the L X X a v a i l a b l e to h i m , but w h i c h he r e g a r d e d as
2 6
falsified b e c a u s e of the a b s e n c e of .
T r y p h o c a u t i o u s l y rejects the c h a r g e that the J e w i s h leadership had
falsified the text (Dial 7 3 : 5 ) . F o r Justin it is a sin m o r e h o r r e n d o u s than
the erection of the g o l d e n calf. H e is p r e p a r e d , h o w e v e r , to a c k n o w l e d g e
the possibility of his o w n i g n o r a n c e and, furthermore, with the e x c e p t i o n
of I s a i a h 7 : 1 4 , to c o n t i n u e t h e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e b a s i s of t h e text
r e c o g n i z e d by b o t h sides.

e) T h e ' G e n e r o u s ' T r e a t m e n t of M i n o r V a r i a n t s

At three m o r e points in the last q u a r t e r of the Dialogue Justin takes up


three p u r p o r t e d differences b e t w e e n the text of the a u t h e n t i c L X X and
that p u r p o r t e d l y falsified by the J e w s . In these c a s e s h e d o e s not insist on
' h i s ' r e a d i n g b e c a u s e the differences c o n c e r n m o r e peripheral points in
his a r g u m e n t . T h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l significance of t h e s e t r e a t m e n t s m a y
lie in the fact that he w i s h e s to d e m o n s t r a t e to his r e a d e r s that Christian
e x e g e s i s is m o r e precise than J e w i s h e x e g e s i s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , need
not fear any o b j e c t i o n s .
T h e first variant c o n c e r n s J a c o b ' s blessing of J u d a h ( G e n . 4 9 : 1 0 ) cited
in Dialogue 1 2 0 : 3 - 4 in t w o d i v e r g e n t f o r m s . T h i s c a s e , h o w e v e r ,
i n v o l v e s a p r e - C h r i s t i a n d i v e r g e n c e in the L X X tradition. B o t h variants
27
attempt an interpretive translation of the H e b r e w t e x t .
T h e s e c o n d p a s s a g e (Dial 1 2 4 : 2 - 3 ) is P s a l m 8 1 : 6 - 7 ( M T 8 2 : 6 - 7 ) .
28
T h e only d i f f e r e n c e c o n c e r n s w h e t h e r in v. 7 stands in the
singular or the plural. B e c a u s e h e relates the p a s s a g e to A d a m and E v e ,
Justin a r g u e s for the plural as the authentic L X X r e a d i n g , a position
29
s u p p o r t e d by k n o w n m a n u s c r i p t s . T h e difference is not particularly
s i g n i f i c a n t . H e is c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h d e m o n s t r a t i n g h i s s u p e r i o r
k n o w l e d g e of the v a r i o u s r e c e n s i o n s of the text. T h e s a m e is true of the
last p a s s a g e from Isaiah 3:10, w h i c h he cites four t i m e s in all, twice in
30
the version h e finally r e j e c t s , o n c e in the form h e d e f e n d s as the L X X
r e a d i n g i n w h i c h the w e a k e r 'let us bind the r i g h t e o u s ' is replaced by
the stronger 'let us d o a w a y with the r i g h t e o u s ' (' ,
. . . ; Dial 1 3 6 : 2 ) a n d finally both r e a d i n g s in s u c c e s s i o n in Dial
137:3, w h e r e h e explains to his readers the p e d a g o g i c a l rationale for these

b
- S k a r s a u n e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 8 n. 9 ) , 3 8 - 9 .
1 1
Cf. H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 61 and nn. 8 2 - 3 . Justin rejects the r e a d i n g o f the better attested
text.
2 8
D i s r e g a r d i n g the instead o f , c l a i m e d b y Justin as the L X X reading,
s i n c e it is not pertinent to the d i s c u s s i o n . M o s t L X X m a n u s c r i p t s after J e r o m e support the
text rejected b y Justin, h o w e v e r .
2 y
Cf. H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 6 3 n. 9 3 .
M>
Dial 17:2; 1 3 3 : 2 : , .
d i v e r g e n t m o d e s of his citation. H e m e n t i o n e d the ' f a l s e ' r e a d i n g t w i c e
in o r d e r to test t h e m ; h o w e v e r , they m a y well h a v e been inattentive (or
t h o u g h t l e s s ) . B u t h e r e t o o , w h a t Justin d e f e n d s as the L X X r e a d i n g
actually r e p r e s e n t s a variant p r o b a b l y influenced by p a s s a g e s from the
31
p a s s i o n narratives of the g o s p e l s , w h i l e is o r i g i n a l .

f) J u s t i n ' s A p p e a l to the S e v e n t y in his


D i s c u s s i o n with J e w s in R o m e

J u s t i n ' s t r e a t m e n t of the L X X is the result of the e x p e r i e n c e of o v e r thirty


y e a r s of Christian instruction and of the d i s c u s s i o n with J e w i s h p a r t n e r s .
H i s k n o w l e d g e of the L X X a n d the treasury of citations he a s s e m b l e d in
the Apologia, as well as in t h e Dialogue, certainly s t e m s , in part, from
florilegium collections, but also from his o w n w o r k with the text of the
G r e e k O l d T e s t a m e n t : J u s t i n p r o b a b l y h a d a c c e s s to a L X X w i t h o u t
r e c e n s i o n a l influences. T h e fact that h e h a d at least a d a w n i n g a w a r e n e s s
of the p r o b l e m s with this t r a n s l a t i o n is e v i d e n t in his c o n c e r n for an
i m p r o v e d form of the text, as c a n b e d i s c e r n e d in his citations from the
32
M i n o r P r o p h e t s that a p p r o x i m a t e those in the N a h a l H e v e r s c r o l l . T h e
first slight trace of a scientific interest that will reach its a p o g e e in O r i g e n ' s
H e x a p l a is evident here. But his astonishingly g o o d k n o w l e d g e of J u d a i s m
is also n o t e w o r t h y and d e m o n s t r a t e s that Justin w a s in a kind of a c a d e m i c
d i a l o g u e w i t h the large J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y in R o m e , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to
r a b b i n i c a l r e p o r t s , h a d its o w n s c h o o l . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n w o u l d h a v e ,
h o w e v e r , repeatedly m a d e h i m a w a r e of the w e a k n e s s e s of his translation.
F o r this r e a s o n , it b e c a m e essential for h i m to e m p h a s i z e the authority of
the S e v e n t y elders a n d of the w o r k they translated. By j u x t a p o s i n g h i s
text ( w i t h its C h r i s t i a n e x p a n s i o n s ) w i t h the p u r p o r t e d l y a b b r e v i a t e d
J e w i s h text, he g a v e n e w v o i c e , relatively i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the o l d e r
J e w i s h translation l e g e n d (see b e l o w , p p . 7 5 - 9 1 ) , to the p r o b l e m of an
authorized form of the text. T h i s c o m p a r i s o n finally led to the fact that
the L X X gradually b e c a m e the authoritative Christian Old T e s t a m e n t a n d
A q u i l a ' s translation after a l o n g e r d e v e l o p m e n t gave the J e w i s h
c o m m u n i t y a n e w authoritative G r e e k text. In order, h o w e v e r , to lend
dignity and authority to the G r e e k translation a p p r o p r i a t e d in this m a n n e r ,
the Christian apologist associated it e m p h a t i c a l l y with the Seventy elders,
r e g a r d l e s s of the fact that they w e r e the l e g e n d a r y translators only of the
Pentateuch. At the s a m e time, h o w e v e r , it should be pointed out that Justin
still a b s t a i n e d from all m a n n e r of o r n a m e n t a t i o n and h y p e r b o l e , such as
the inspiration miracle, in his use of the legend. Justin m a y h a v e a l r e a d y
h a d a p r e d e c e s s o r for t h i s a r g u m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e S e v e n t y in t h e
Dialogue of Jason and Papiscus from the p e n of A r i s t o n of Pella, a

" Cf. L u k e 2 3 : 1 8 ; A c t s 7 : 5 2 ; W i s d o m 2 : 1 2 ; J o h n 1 9 : 1 5 , and H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 6 4


n. 100.
, 2
S e e a b o v e , p. 2 9 n. 13.
c o n t e m p o r a r y of the B a r - K o c h b a r e b e l l i o n . S i n c e this w o r k , p e r h a p s
s o m e w h a t o l d e r than the Dialogus cum Tryphone, is n o w lost, w e can
only conjecture. Notably, nonetheless, the L X X p r o b l e m arose in dialogue
with the J e w s and Isaiah 7:14 p l a y e d a d o m i n a n t role.

3. The Seventy in Later 'Dialogues'


T w o later C h r i s t i a n - J e w i s h D i a l o g u e s from the fifth a n d sixth centuries
r e s p e c t i v e l y e m p h a s i z e , m u c h as d i d J u s t i n , t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the
translation of the Seventy for the c h u r c h and for its differentiation from
a n d d i s c u s s i o n with the s y n a g o g u e . In contrast, in the other D i a l o g u e s
o r i e n t e d literarily t o w a r d J u s t i n ' s m o d e l , a n d a l s o in t h e A d v e r s u s -
33
J u d a e o s l i t e r a t u r e , interest in the q u e s t i o n of the L X X a n d its text
r e c e d e d significantly. T h i s d i m i n i s h e d interest indicates o n c e again that
J u s t i n ' s s t a t e m e n t s are b o u n d u p with his o w n e x p e r i e n c e s and d o not
represent m e r e literary c o n v e n t i o n .
u
In the fifth or sixth c e n t u r y Dialogue of a Christian and a Jew,
b e t w e e n the C h r i s t i a n T i m o t h e u s and the J e w w i t h the significant n a m e
Aquila, the latter objects that C h r i s t i a n s a d d u c e texts that d o not exist in
H e b r e w a n d t h u s falsify the S c r i p t u r e s . T h e Christian r e s p o n d s with an
e x t e n s i v e report of the translation by the s e v e n t y - t w o elders, w h o w e r e
inspired by the H o l y Spirit, w h i l e the J e w s , for their part, are said to
p o s s e s s a falsified text in the A q u i l a translation. H e r e , in contrast to
J u s t i n ' s situation, the L X X has b e c o m e an u n e q u i v o c a l l y Christian b o o k ,
w h i l e A q u i l a ' s translation h a d a c h i e v e d sole s u p r e m a c y in the s y n a
g o g u e s . T h i s is e v e n clearer in the s o m e w h a t later d i s p u t a t i o n b e t w e e n
3 5
B i s h o p G r e g e n t i u s of T a f r a in Y e m e n a n d t h e J e w H e r b a n who
confesses at the outset: O u r fathers w r o n g l y and c a p r i c i o u s l y translated
the (holy) b o o k s of Israel into G r e e k so that you c o u l d t a k e p o s s e s s i o n of
the s a m e and silence u s . ' T h e J e w s ' final r e p u d i a t i o n of the L X X m a d e it
henceforth e x c l u s i v e l y the c h u r c h ' s b o o k .
A P a s s o v e r h o m i l y falsely attributed to C h r y s o s t o m raises the objec
tion that the J e w s p e r m i t t e d t h e m s e l v e s to be d e c e i v e d ' b y a certain
p r o s e l y t e ' ( A q u i l a ) into rejecting the translation of their best and wisest
m e n , a l t h o u g h 'all H e b r e w s ' w e r e o n c e t h r e a t e n e d with curses if they
altered it (Arist 311 ). C o n s e q u e n t l y , Christians are M o s e s ' true followers

1 1
Cf. H. S c h r e c k e n b e r g , Die christlichen Adversus-Judaeos-Texte und ihr literarisches
und historisches Umfeld <l.-11. Jh.) (Frankfurt a m M a i n und B e r n , 1 9 8 2 ) . O n the c h a r g e
o f falsification, s e e 186, 197.
u
F. C . C o n y b e a r e , e d . , The Dialogues of Athanasius and Zacchaeus and of Timothy
and Aquila ( A n e c d o t a O x o n i e n s i a , C l a s s i c a l S e r i e s 8; O x f o r d , 1 8 9 8 ) , 6 6 - 1 0 4 . S e e a l s o
J e l l i c o e , 7 8 . T h e form o f the l e g e n d is d e p e n d e n t on E p i p h a n i u s , s e e b e l o w , p. 3 7 n. 4 2 .
, 5
PG 8 6 / 1 , 6 2 2 - 7 8 3 . T h e d i s p u t a t i o n is s u p p o s e d to h a v e t a k e n p l a c e in 5 3 5 . T h e
l e g e n d a r y report s t e m s f r o m a life o f G r e g e n t i u s and is s u b s t a n t i a l l y later. S e e a l s o
S c h r e c k e n b e r g ( s e e a b o v e , n. 3 3 ) , 3 9 7 - 4 0 0 , 6 3 2 . For the rabbinic p a r a l l e l s , cf. H e n g e l ,
D u r h a m , 6 9 n. 118.
since they a c c e p t e d their t r a n s l a t i o n ' n o t j u s t b e c a u s e of t w o ( D e u t .
3 6
1 0 : 1 5 ) , b u t on t h e b a s i s of s e v e n t y - t w o w i t n e s s e s ' . T h e p e c u l i a r
transformation in Ps-Clem Horn 3 : 4 7 - 4 9 p r o b a b l y g o e s b a c k to a J u d a e o -
C h r i s t i a n l e g e n d and a conflict about the validity of the w h o l e L a w :
M o s e s t r a n s m i t t e d the T o r a h to the seventy elders on Sinai only in oral
f o r m ( c o n t r a s t mAv 1:1). L a t e r , s o m e o n e w r o t e t h e m d o w n f r o m
m e m o r y . F o r this r e a s o n , truth and lies are i n t e r m i x e d in the T o r a h .
T h i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t e d all J e w i s h c o n c e p t s of the T o r a h .

4 . The Translation Legend in the Early Fathers after Justin


a) Persistent P r o b l e m s

T e a c h e r s of the c h u r c h after Justin faced a n u m b e r of o p e n p r o b l e m s


f u n d a m e n t a l l y b e y o n d solution: the c l a i m of the authority of the S e v e n t y
for the w h o l e Christian O l d T e s t a m e n t , w h o s e c o n t e n t s still varied; the
fact that the G r e e k collection of b o o k s itself c o n t a i n e d p o r t i o n s of texts
a n d w h o l e b o o k s t h a t d o n o t a p p e a r in t h e J e w i s h c a n o n a n d
t h u s w e r e n o t c o v e r e d by t h e t r a n s l a t i o n l e g e n d at all, w h i l e o t h e r
w o r k s a p p e a r to b e a b b r e v i a t e d in c o m p a r i s o n to the H e b r e w original
(see b e l o w p p . 8 3 - 9 6 ) ; and, finally, the e x i s t e n c e of c o m p e t i n g G r e e k
text t r a d i t i o n s w h o s e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s c o u l d o n l y b e m a s k e d , b u t not
r e m o v e d , by the c h a r g e of falsification.
37
C o n s e q u e n t l y , O r i g e n c r e a t e d the H e x a p l a to obtain an o v e r v i e w of
the c o n f u s i n g c h a o s . B u t h e too d e f e n d e d the L X X text as a p p r o v e d
by the c h u r c h since it r e p r e s e n t e d the translation that h a d c o m e into
e x i s t e n c e b y G o d ' s p r o v i d e n c e a n d w a s b i n d i n g in t h e c h u r c h e s .
N e v e r t h e l e s s , h e n e v e r m e n t i o n s the translation or e v e n the inspiration
legend. For h i m , the H e b r e w original gained a certain i m p o r t a n c e o n c e
again. I n d e e d , the first t w o c o l u m n s of his m a g n u m o p u s w e r e d e v o t e d
to it. T h e r e b y the c h u r c h w a s continually r e m i n d e d that the L X X is only
a translation that can n e v e r e x c e e d the H e b r e w original in dignity, but
m u s t , rather, a l w a y s s u c c e e d it. T h i s w a s also t r u e c u m grano salis
for the q u e s t i o n of the true s c o p e of the H o l y S c r i p t u r e s . At least a few
38
Christian intellectuals w e r e s o m e w h a t sensitive to this i s s u e .

,f>
For the q u o t a t i o n s from the d i s p u t a t i o n s , s e e PG 8 6 / 1 , 6 2 4 . For P s e u d o - C h r y s o s t o m ,
s e e PG 5 9 , 7 4 7 and P. W e n d l a n d ( s e e b e l o w , p. 3 7 n. 3 9 ) , 1 6 5 - 6 .
1 7
C . P. B a m m e l , ' D i e H e x a p l a d e s O r i g e n e s : D i e H e b r a i c a V e r i t a s i m Streit der
M e i n u n g e n ' , Augustinianum 2 8 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 1 2 5 - 4 9 . S e e a l s o the c o l l e c t i o n o f e s s a y s in
A . S a l v e s e n ( e d . ) , Origen's Hexapla and Fragments: Papers presented at the Rich
Seminar on the Hexapla. Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies 25th July3rd
August 1994 ( T S A J 5 8 : T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 8 ) . w i t h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y , pp. 4 5 3 -
74.'
, N
Cf. the letter o f Julius A f r i c a n u s to O r i g e n ( N . d e L a n g e , e d . . in S C 301 [Paris, 1 9 8 3 ] ,
5 1 4 - 2 1 ) and P. N a u t i n , Origne: Sa vie et son oeuvre (Paris. 1 9 7 7 ) , 3 0 3 - 6 1 ; s e e b e l o w ,
pp. 4 7 - 9 . Later this w a s true e s p e c i a l l y o f J e r o m e , s e e b e l o w , p p . 4 9 - 5 0 . E v e n A u g u s t i n e
c o u l d not e n t i r e l y a v o i d the critical a r g u m e n t s , s e e b e l o w , pp. 5 0 - 4 . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e is
b) P s e u d o - J u s t i n ' s Cohortatio ad Graecos

N e v e r t h e l e s s , the m a j o r i t y of C h r i s t i a n s s o u g h t a w a y a r o u n d this
difficulty by a p p e a l i n g to the translation legend, n o w b y far surpassing
J u s t i n h i g h l y e n r i c h e d with inspiration m i r a c l e motifs b o r r o w e d from
39
Philo, coloured ever more fantastically.
T h e s e r e a c h e d t h e i r p e a k in t h e Cohortatio ad Graecos, falsely
attributed to Justin, w h i c h p r o b a b l y originated in the s e c o n d half of the
40
third c e n t u r y . F o r the first t i m e , this w o r k expressly m a i n t a i n s that the
S e v e n t y e l d e r s , isolated in separate q u a r t e r s , i n d e p e n d e n t l y translated
' t h e story of M o s e s and the other prophets'. A c c o r d i n g to h i m , the
f o u n d a t i o n s of the cells are s u p p o s e d l y still v i s i b l e on t h e island of
P h a r o s . A c c o r d i n g to this report, e a c h of the S e v e n t y p r e p a r e d his o w n
translation a n d w h e n K i n g P t o l e m y c o m p a r e d t h e m they w e r e in e x a c t
41
verbal a g r e e m e n t . T h e j o i n t w o r k of the translators, w h o d i s c u s s e d their
text with o n e another, as p r e s u m e d in the Letter of Aristeas ( 3 0 2 ; and still
in I r e n a e u s , see b e l o w , p p . 3 8 - 4 0 ) , has fallen p r e y to t h e m i r a c l e . T h i s
transformation into a m i r a c l e p r o b a b l y reflects the influence of P h i l o ' s
report w h i c h , a l t h o u g h m u c h m o r e c a u t i o u s , can b e interpreted in a c c o r d
w i t h t h e Cohortatio. P o s s e s s i o n of t h e L X X m a d e it p o s s i b l e for
C h r i s t i a n s , so the a u t h o r c l a i m s , to p r o d u c e the proof of their religion for
J e w s and p a g a n s without appeal to their o w n g e n u i n e texts (the N e w
T e s t a m e n t ) since the L X X c o u l d b e found in the s y n a g o g u e e v e n in his
day.
42
T h e l e g e n d r e c e i v e s further novelistic flavour only from E p i p h a n i u s ,
w h i l e his c o n t e m p o r a r y J e r o m e rejected the w h o l e a c c o u n t as a lie, on
the basis of his t h o r o u g h familiarity with the s o u r c e s :

L u c i a n o f A n t i o c h , martyr in the t i m e o f M a x i m i n i u s D a z a , 3 1 2 ( E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl


8 : 1 3 : 2 . cf. 9 : 6 : 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o P h i l o s t o r g i u s , Kirchengeschichte, J. B i d e z a n d
F. W i n k e l m a n n , e d s . ( G C S ; B e r l i n , 1981 '), 187, he c o r r e c t e d the corrupt L X X text a c c o r d
ing to 'the H e b r e w l a n g u a g e , w h i c h he m a s t e r e d p e r f e c t l y ' ; cf. G. Z u n t z , ' L u k i a n v o n
A n t i o c h i e n und der T e x t der E v a n g e l i e n ' , A H A W . P H ( 1 9 9 5 ) , 2, 9 - 1 7 .
v >
P. W e n d l a n d , e d . , Aristeae ad Philocratem epistula cum ceteris de origine versionis
LXX interpretum testimoniis (Leipzig, 1900), 8 7 - 1 6 6 , 2 2 8 - 9 , counts over seventy
r e f e r e n c e s by C h r i s t i a n authors a p p e a l i n g to the l e g e n d . A c o m p l e t e b i b l i o g r a p h y o n the
l e g e n d ' w h i c h p r o b a b l y r e p r e s e n t s the m o s t w i d e l y distributed a c c o u n t in antiquity c o n
c e r n i n g the translation o f a sacred text' ( I ) in J e w i s h , C h r i s t i a n , I s l a m i c , Samaritan and
Karaitic s o u r c e s c a n be found in Veltri ( s e e above', p. 2 6 n. 2 ) , 1-2 n. 2 . S e e a l s o ' L e g e n d e
der L X X ' .
4(1
P s e u d o - I u s t i n u s , ' C o h o r t a t i o ad G r a e c o s ' , M . M a r c o v i c h , e d . , PTS 3 2 ( B e r l i n and
N e w Y o r k , 1 9 9 0 ) . 1 - 7 8 . S e e pp. 4 - 6 for the dating and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the u n k n o w n
author. T h e thirteenth chapter d e a l s w i t h the L X X . S e e a l s o J e l l i c o e , 4 4 .
41
13:3 ( M a r c o v i c h , e d . , 4 0 - 1 ):
, ,
. . .
4 :
De Mensuris et Ponderihus, c h a p s 5 and 6; cf. M. H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 7 4 n. 143 and
Jellicoe, 4 5 - 7 .
Nor do I know who was the first author to erect the seventy cells through his
lies, since Aristeas, the bodyguard of the same Ptolemy, and much later
Josephus, reported nothing of the kind. Instead, they wrote that those
assembled in the hall had compared among themselves and not prophesied.
It is one thing to be a prophet, and something else to be a translator (sed in
una basilica congregatos contulisse scribant, non prophetasse. Aliud est
en'tm vatem, aliud esse Interpretern)... I do not condemn the Seventy, I raise
no objection against them, but, with complete respect, I prefer the Apostles
43
to them all.

c) I r e n a e u s

F o r the history of interpretation, the m o s t significant interpretation of the


l e g e n d of the origin of the L X X , h o w e v e r , is that of I r e n a e u s (barely a
c e n t u r y before the Cohortatio), w h o influenced C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a
and the w h o l e c h u r c h tradition after h i m .
H e r e , too, it is the p r o b l e m of J e s u s ' incarnation and the p r o p h e c y of
the V i r g i n Birth in Isaiah 7:14 w h i c h o c c a s i o n s the d i s c u s s i o n of the
L X X p r o b l e m . I r e n a e u s e m p h a s i z e s the antiquity of b o t h the H e b r e w
p r o p h e c y a n d the G r e e k translation in o r d e r to forestall any c h a r g e of
Christian falsification. H i s v e r s i o n of the translation l e g e n d follows in its
entirety:

Before the Romans established their dominion and the Macedonians still
ruled Asia, Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, . . . eager to supply the library in
Alexandria he had built with the most important writings of all humanity,
communicated to the Jerusalemites his wish to possess their writings in the
Greek language. They . . . sent Ptolemy seventy elders, especially learned
among them in scriptural exegesis and in both languages, so that they might
44
fulfil his wish. Since Ptolemy, fearing that they could obscure the true
content of the writings by agreement, wanted to test each one, however, he
separated them from one another and commanded that all should translate
45
the same work; he did this for all the books. But when they assembled
before Ptolemy and compared their translations to one another, glory be to

4 3
' P r o l o g u s in P e n t a t e u c h o ' , c i t e d in Biblia Sacra iuxta Vulgatam versionem,
B . F i s c h e r O S B and others, e d . (3rd e d n ; Stuttgart, 1 9 8 3 ) , 3 - 4 ; s o a l s o in the Apologia adv
Rufinum 2 : 2 5 ( C C h r . S L 7 9 : H i e r o n y m u s I I I / 2 , P. L a r d e t , e d . [TurnTiout, 1 9 8 2 ] ,
62-3).
4 4
In h i s citation from Irenaeus, E u s e b i u s (Hist Eccl 5 : 8 : 1 2 ) has
for facturos hoc quod ipse voluisset. A t i s s u e is a significant, s e c o n d a r y
t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . T h i s m a y be an e x a m p l e o f the i n f l u e n c e o f C l e m e n t o f
A l e x a n d r i a (Strom 1:149:2): u p o n E u s e b i u s .
4 5
H e r e , t o o , E u s e b i u s ( 5 : 8 : 1 3 ) has an interpretive c h a n g e : i n s t e a d o f iussit omnes
eandern interpretari Scripturam, he reads
. T h e d e m a n d for the s a m e b a s i s for the translation b e c o m e s a d e m a n d for an
identical written translation.
God, the writings were proven to be truly divine. For all had rendered the
same texts with the same words and the same meanings . . . so that even the
pagans present acknowledged that the books had been translated by divine
5 ib
inspiration ( = per aspirationem Dei).

T h e c o m p l e t e isolation of the translators is a d d u c e d h e r e for the first


t i m e as e v i d e n c e of the inspiration of this translation. In a certain sense,
it c a n thus e v e n be r e g a r d e d as s u p e r i o r to the H e b r e w text since any
variations or i n s t a n c e s of greater precision in relation to the original that
m a y a p p e a r in the G r e e k version c a n b e r e g a r d e d as divinely legitimized
t h r o u g h t h e a g r e e m e n t of the S e v e n t y . A s e v i d e n c e of the credibility of
the m i r a c u l o u s inspiration, I r e n a e u s refers to a s e c o n d similar m i r a c l e
i n v o l v i n g E z r a , w h o m G o d e n a b l e d by inspiration to r e c o r d a n e w the
47
H e b r e w S c r i p t u r e s of pre-exilic t i m e s w h i c h had p r e v i o u s l y b e e n l o s t .
T h i s m e a n s that e v e n the p r e s e r v a t i o n of the H e b r e w text following the
first destruction of J e r u s a l e m by N e b u c h a d n e z z a r d e p e n d s on a special
m i r a c u l o u s inspiration, and the translation of the S e v e n t y only c o n t i n u e s
in h e i g h t e n e d fashion w h a t had already taken p l a c e . T h u s , the e x t r e m e
antiquity and t h e d i v i n e confirmation of the L X X are, for I r e n a e u s , the
definitive b a s i s of his appeal to the L X X version of Isaiah 7:14:

The faith of the Christians is 'not fabricated, but alone is true', because he
has his Obvious evidence in those scriptures that were translated in the
manner narrated above; even so the preaching of the church is free of
falsification (sine interpolationeY. The apostles, who are older than the new
translators Theodotion and Aquila, and also their followers, 'preached the
words of the prophets just as they are contained in the translation of the elders
(quemadmodum seniorum interpretatio continetf. Thus, it is the same Spirit
of God who spoke through the prophets of the coming of the Lord, 'who
properly translated through the elders what was really prophesied (in
senioribus autem interpretatus est bene quae bene prophetata fuerant), and
48
who preached the fulfilment of the promise through the apostles.

T h u s , the inspired L X X constitutes the bridge b e t w e e n the ' p r o p h e t s '


a n d the a p o s t l e s . A t the s a m e t i m e , the s e v e n t y t r a n s l a t o r s a n d the
a p o s t l e s w h o d e p e n d u p o n t h e m a p p e a r as t h e t r u e t r a d e n t s a n d
g u a r a n t o r s of the divine w o r d , b e i n g inspired, like the p r o p h e t s t h e m
selves, in contrast to the n e w ' t r a n s l a t i o n s ' of T h e o d o t i o n and A q u i l a
w h i c h w e r e a p p a r e n t l y at least s o m e w h a t p r e f e r r e d by the J e w s in

4,1
Adv Haer 3 : 2 1 : 2 = E u s e b i u s , Hist Ecct 5 : 8 : 1 1 - 1 4 . Irenaeus attributes the translation
to P t o l e m y I in contrast to the other s o u r c e s . T h i s c h r o n o l o g y m a y b e related to the fact
that the D e m e t r i u s o f P h a l e r o n w h o p l a y s a d e c i s i v e role in the Letter of Aristeas was
c o u n s e l l o r to P t o l e m y I and not P t o l e m y II. S e e a l s o a b o v e , p. 2 0 n. 3 .
4 7
I r e n a e u s , Adv Haer 3 : 2 1 : 3 = E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 5 : 8 : 1 5 . T h e b a s i s is the J e w i s h Ezra
l e g e n d present a l s o in 4 Ezra 1 4 : 3 7 - 4 6 . O n this s e e b e l o w , pp. 5 4 and 7 2 - 3 .
4S
Adv Haer 3 : 2 1 : 2 - 3 . For A u g u s t i n e s e e b e l o w , p p . 5 0 - 3 .
I r e n a e u s ' d a y ; the novelty of t h e s e translations s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e x p r e s s e s
their inferiority. In I r e n a e u s , t o w a r d the e n d of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y ,
C h r i s t i a n s s e e m to h a v e a l r e a d y largely a p p r o p r i a t e d the L X X for t h e m
selves.

d) C l e m e n t and Tertullian

A little later I r e n a e u s ' version of the translation l e g e n d w a s also a d a p t e d


in slightly altered form by C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a , a l t h o u g h he k n e w the
reports of b o t h Philo and J o s e p h u s ; i.e. I r e n a e u s ' version m u s t h a v e very
m u c h i m p r e s s e d this m o s t learned Christian a u t h o r of his t i m e . H e , t o o ,
e m p h a s i z e s the inspired a g r e e m e n t as a u n i q u e characteristic w h i c h h e
u n d e r s t a n d s as a divinely p r o d u c e d ' p r o p h e c y in the G r e e k l a n g u a g e '
4 9
( ) .
In C a r t h a g e Tertullian, w h o h a d read b o t h Justin a n d I r e n a e u s , w a s , in
c o n t r a s t to t h e m , the first C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r to a p p e a l to the Letter of
50
Aristeas w h e n , in the Apologeticum, h e informs his p a g a n and Christian
r e a d e r s c o n c e r n i n g the d o c u m e n t s of h i s o w n faith. H e e s p e c i a l l y
e m p h a s i z e s the role of P t o l e m y in the translation enterprise, w h i c h h e
e x t e n d e d w i t h equal care to the p r o p h e t i c literature, by s p e a k i n g not of
the law, b u t by m a i n t a i n i n g that ' t h e p r o p h e t s h a d a l w a y s s p o k e n ' to the
J e w s . T e r t u l l i a n ' s e m p h a s i s on the p h i l o s o p h e r M e n e d e m u s , a m e m b e r
of the P t o l e m a i c court, m e n t i o n e d o n c e in the Letter of Aristeas as a
d e f e n d e r of d i v i n e p r o v i d e n c e , is so a r r a n g e d that an allusion to the total
51
a g r e e m e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s l a t o r s c a n also b e h e a r d in it. T h e
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y m o r e c a u t i o u s use of the t r a n s l a t i o n l e g e n d h e r e ,
t a n t a m o u n t a l m o s t to neglect, is s y m p t o m a t i c of d e v e l o p m e n t s in the
W e s t w h e r e the d i s p u t e w i t h J e w s a n d J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s w a s a p p a r e n t l y
less u r g e n t or at least less b o u n d to the c a n o n than in the East, w h i c h w a s
influenced by A l e x a n d r i a . T h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e m a y also b e the basis for
the fact that the W e s t c o u l d p e r m i t greater f r e e d o m in relation to the
S c r i p t u r e s p r e s e n t in n e i t h e r t h e H e b r e w n o r t h e L X X c a n o n s . F o r
Tertullian this w a s true in particular of the Book of Enoch (see b e l o w , p p .
5 4 - 6 ) . F r o m the b e g i n n i n g of the third century the W e s t e r n fathers also
increasingly used the O l d Latin translation b a s e d only u p o n the G r e e k
S e p t u a g i n t . T h e distance from the H e b r e w original b e c a m e therefore still
larger.

e) S u m m a r y

T h e w i t n e s s e s a s s e m b l e d here m a k e it clear that the l e g e n d of the s e v e n t y


t r a n s l a t o r s , e x t e n d e d to the w h o l e O l d T e s t a m e n t u n d e r s t o o d in its

w
Strom 1 : 1 4 9 : 3 .
511
Apologeticum 1 9 : 5 - 9 c o n t e n d s that the original b o o k s c a n still be s e e n in A l e x a n d r i a .
S l
S e e C . B e c k e r , e d . , Tertullian Apologeticum: Lateinisch und deutsch ( M u n i c h , 1961 ).
3 0 3 . and M. H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 8 0 - 1 nn. 1 6 4 - 5 .
entirety as a collection of p r o p h e t i c literature, fulfilled a h e r m e n e u t i c a l
function i n t e n d e d to justify the e x c l u s i v e use of the G r e e k translation.
T h e m o r e logical r e c o u r s e to the H e b r e w c a n o n or e v e n to the original
text w a s n o t p o s s i b l e y e t ; O r i g e n a n d J e r o m e r e m a i n t h e few, but
significant, e x c e p t i o n s . At the s a m e t i m e , the fact m u s t b e e m p h a s i z e d
that only the C h r i s t i a n i z e d L X X p e r m i t t e d the c h u r c h to a d h e r e to the
O l d T e s t a m e n t . T h e alternative w o u l d h a v e b e e n its total rejection, as
Marcion and some Gnostics had done. Finally, the hermeneutical
function of the C h r i s t i a n i z e d translation l e g e n d is also e v i d e n t in the fact
that a l m o s t all the t w e n t y - p l u s Aristeas m a n u s c r i p t s i n t r o d u c e a c a t e n a
52
to the O c t o t e u c h ( G e n e s i s - R u t h ) .
O n e c o u l d say that it served as a justification for the u s e of the G r e e k
translation of the Old T e s t a m e n t in the c h u r c h .

5. The Form of the Christian LXX

T h e t h o r o u g h C h r i s t i a n a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the L X X also manifests itself in


the e x t e r n a l f o r m of the d o c u m e n t s . L o n g b e f o r e t h e r e w a s a ' N e w
T e s t a m e n t ' , the Christian L X X w a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the use of the codex
rather than the J e w i s h scroll. Further, the t e t r a g r a m m a t o n , as a rule c o n
tinued in use in G r e e k scrolls of J e w i s h p r o v e n a n c e , but in the Christian
c o d i c e s it w a s r e p l a c e d by , w h i c h w a s n o w written, like
and other nomina sacra, for e m p h a s i s with only the initial and final letters
53
and a line a b o v e ( , , e t c . ) . T h i s distinction m u s t reach b a c k into
the first c e n t u r y a n d thus m a k e s it p o s s i b l e to distinguish b e t w e e n J e w i s h
and C h r i s t i a n m a n u s c r i p t s practically from the very b e g i n n i n g . It also
points e x t e r n a l l y to a n e w b e g i n n i n g intended to distinguish b e t w e e n
the use of Scriptures in ' e k k l e s i a ' a n d ' s y n a g o g u e ' . W e p o s s e s s only nine
f r a g m e n t s of J e w i s h biblical scrolls in the G r e e k l a n g u a g e d a t i n g to
b e t w e e n the s e c o n d c e n t u r y BCE a n d the first c e n t u r y CE from Egypt,
d e s p i t e its s i z e a b l e J e w i s h p o p u l a t i o n , Q u m r a n , a n d t h e J u d a e a n
54
w i l d e r n e s s . Y e t in E g y p t at least fourteen Christian c o d e x f r a g m e n t s of

S 2
W e n d l a n d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 7 n. 3 9 ) , v i i - v i i i ; Pelletier ( s e e a b o v e , p. 19 n. 2 ) , 9 - 1 0 .
5 1
Cf. K e n y o n and A d a m s , 17; K. A l a n d , ' R e p e r t o r i u m der g r i e c h i s c h e n c h r i s t l i c h e n
Papyri I: B y b l i s c h e P a p y r i ' , PTS 18 ( B e r l i n and N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 6 ) , 3 : '. . . p r e s e n c e in a
c o d e x s i g n i f i e s from the outset a certain i n d i c a t i o n o f Christian o r i g i n ' . C o n v e r s e l y , it is
not true that all L X X s c r o l l s are o f J e w i s h o r i g i n ; c o m p a r e , for e x a m p l e , O x y 1 1 6 6 ( A T
9 in A l a n d , n o . 9 4 4 in R a h l f s ) . A n i n d e x o f the nomina sacra c a n a l s o be f o u n d in A l a n d ,
4 2 0 - 8 . A b o u t this p r o b l e m s e e a l s o M. H e n g e l , The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of
Jesus Christ ( L o n d o n , 2 0 0 0 ) .
, 4 + b
P R y l 4 5 8 ; 4 Q L X X L e v * ; 4 Q L X X N u m ; 7 Q l L X X E x ; 7 Q 2 E p i s e r ; P F o u a d inv. 2 6 6 ;
8 H e v X l l g r ; cf. J. V a n H a e l s t , Catalogue des Papyrus Littraires Juifs et Chrtiens
(Paris, 1 9 7 6 ) , 4 0 9 . T o this m a y n o w be a d d e d 4 Q L X X D e u t ; cf. E. U l r i c h , 'The G r e e k
M a n u s c r i p t s o f the P e n t a t e u c h from Q u m r n , i n c l u d i n g N e w l y - I d e n t i f i e d F r a g m e n t s o f
D e u t e r o n o m y ( 4 Q L X X D e u t ) ' . in A . P i e t e r s m a and C . C o x , e d s . De Septuaginta, FS
J. W . W e v e r s ( M i s s i s a u g a , O n t a r i o , 1 9 8 4 ) , 7 1 - 8 2 ; cf. a l s o idem, G r e e k Paraphrase o f
the O l d T e s t a m e n t and o n e scroll f r a g m e n t from P s a l m 77 d a t i n g to
b e t w e e n the e n d of the first a n d the b e g i n n i n g of the third centuries h a v e
b e e n p r e s e r v e d . I n c l u d e d are five v e r s e - P s a l m m a n u s c r i p t s (i.e. t h e
P s a l m s w e r e sung as Christian h y m n s ) , five different T o r a h f r a g m e n t s ,
o n e e a c h of 2 C h r o n i c l e s a n d J e r e m i a h , an a d d i t i o n a l c o p y e a c h of
E z e k i e l , D a n i e l a n d E s t h e r in one c o d e x a n d in t h e A l e x a n d r i a n
55
s e q u e n c e . T h i s frequency of Psalter m a n u s c r i p t s is n o accident. In t e r m s
of frequency in citations in the early Christian literature up to Justin, the
P s a l m s rival a n d e v e n e x c e e d Isaiah. W i t h a v i e w to use in w o r s h i p , the
P s a l t e r as a ' C h r i s t i a n h y m n b o o k ' w a s p r o b a b l y the m o s t i m p o r t a n t
'prophetic' document.
T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e C h r i s t i a n L X X in E g p y t c o n t r a d i c t s t h e
p o p u l a r theory t h a t o t h e r w i s e u n k n o w n e a r l y E g y p t i a n Christianity
w a s t h o r o u g h l y G n o s t i c . T h r e e of t h e s e p a p y r u s c o d i c e s ( N u m . a n d
Deut.; Jer.; E z e k . - E s t h e r ) c a m e from the great library of the C h e s t e r
Beatty find w h i c h also c o n t a i n e d a large fragment of Enoch from the
56
third/fourth c e n t u r y , as well as v a l u a b l e N e w T e s t a m e n t t e x t s . In the
period mentioned, only about eleven New Testament fragments
a c c o m p a n y the thirteen C h r i s t i a n L X X f r a g m e n t s . T h e Christian c o d e x ,
in c o n t r a s t to the scroll, m a d e it p o s s i b l e to a s s e m b l e v a r i o u s l a r g e r
d o c u m e n t s in a fixed s e q u e n c e . T h e D a n i e l text of the C h e s t e r B e a t t y
P a p y r u s ( n o . 9 6 7 ) c o n t a i n s all the e x p a n s i o n s , but the text d o e s not
c o r r e s p o n d to the r e c e n s i o n of ' ( P r o t o - ) T h e o d o t i o n ' that d o m i n a t e s

E x o d u s o n P a p y r u s from Q u m r a n C a v e 4 ' , in D . F r a e n k e l , U . Q u a s t and J. W . W e v e r s ,


e d s , Studien zur Septuaginta: Robert Hanhart zu Ehren ( M S U 2 0 ; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 9 0 ) , 2 8 7 -
9 8 . A s far as c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d g i v e n their v e r y f r a g m e n t a r y c o n d i t i o n , t h e e i g h t y
f r a g m e n t s o f 4 Q 1 2 7 represent a free G r e e k rendition o f E x o d u s . T h e L X X f r a g m e n t s
f r o m Q u m r a n h a v e n o w b e e n c o l l e c t e d in P. W . S h e k a n , E . U l r i c h and J. E. S a n d e r s o n ,
Qumran Cave IV: Palaeo-Hebrew and Greek Biblical Manuscripts ( D J D 9; Oxford,
1 9 9 2 ) , 1 6 1 - 9 2 , 2 1 7 - 4 2 . A list o f the J e w i s h w i t n e s s e s to the L X X can be f o u n d in P . - M .
B o g a e r t , ' L e s t u d e s sur la S e p t a n t e : B i l a n et p e r s p e c t i v e s ' , RTL 16 ( 1 9 8 5 ) , 1 7 4 - 2 0 0
( 1 9 8 - 2 0 0 ) ; s e e a l s o E i s s f e l d t , 9 5 9 f . , and the s u m m a r y b y E . C . U l r i c h , ' T h e S e p t u a g i n t
M a n u s c r i p t s from Q u m r a n : A R e a p p r a i s a l ' , in B r o o k e and L i n d a r s , 4 9 - 8 0 ; and . ,
' T h e C o n t r i b u t i o n o f the Q u m r a n S c r o l l s to the U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the L X X ' , in B r o o k e
and Lindars = idem. The Greek and the Hebrew Bible ( V T . S 7 2 ; L e i d e n , e t c . 1 9 9 9 ) , 2 8 5 -
3 0 0 . T h e earliest G r e e k fragment o f Esther 1 6 - 9 . 3 (later first or early s e c o n d c e n t u r y )
u p o n a scroll p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t i n g J e w i s h p r o v e n a n c e , has b e e n p u b l i s h e d by K. L u c h n e r ,
P O x y 65 ( 1 9 9 8 ) , 4 - 8 no. 4 4 4 3 , 1 1 - 4 7 .
5 5
Cf. V a n H a e l s t ( s e e a b o v e , p. 41 n. 5 4 ) , I n d e x , p p . 4 0 9 - 1 0 . F o r the c o d e x m e n t i o n e d
last, cf. n. 1 1 8 = p. 6 2 7 ; A l a n d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 41 n. 5 3 ) . 3 0 - 3 ( n o . 1 0 1 . R a h l f s n o . 9 6 7 ) .
S e e a l s o E x o d u s 2 0 : 1 0 - 1 1 , 1 8 - 2 2 , e d . D . C o l o m a , O x y 6 5 ( 1 9 9 8 ) , 1 - 4 no. 4 4 4 2 e a r l y
third c e n t u r y u p o n a c o d e x . O n the P s a l m scroll s e e H a e l s t n. 174; A l a n d A T 7 7 . It is
Christian ( n o m i n a sacra) but has r e c t o p a y m e n t orders.
5 6
Cf. the c a t a l o g u e in A l a n d , 4 5 9 and O x y 6 4 ( 1 9 9 7 ) , 5 - 1 1 n o . 4 4 0 3 - 5 .
5 7
S e e a b o v e , n. 5 5 . T h e t e x t is a v a i l a b l e in W . H a m m , Der Septuagintatext des
Buches Daniel Kap. 1-2 nach dem Klner Teil des Papyrus 967 ( P T A 2 1 : B o n n , 1 9 6 9 ) ;
idem. Der Septuagintatext des Buches Daniel Kap. nach dem Klner Teil des Papyrus
57
the t r a n s m i s s i o n of D a n i e l , but to the original ' L X X ' v e r s i o n that
s o m e t i m e s m o r e r e s e m b l e s a relatively free p a r a p h r a s e than an exact
translation. T h i s p h e n o m e n o n e x p l a i n s the p r o m p t n e w translation and
the suppression of this version in favour of ' ( P r o t o - ) T h e o d o t i o n ' .

6 . The Jewish Reaction


T h e consistent a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the G r e e k B i b l e o n e c o u l d also speak
of its ' C h r i s t i a n i z a t i o n ' d i d not take p l a c e , to be sure, w i t h o u t resist
a n c e . A l r e a d y in t h e p r e - C h r i s t i a n p e r i o d efforts w e r e a p p a r e n t in
Palestine to gain c u r r e n c y for forms of the text p r o m i n e n t there also
a m o n g the G r e e k - s p e a k i n g D i a s p o r a . T h i s m a y b e related to the g r o w t h
of Pharisaic influence in the first c e n t u r y BCE, a g r o w t h also e v i d e n t in
n u m e r o u s other p h e n o m e n a . S u c h an interest led to revisions of the text
i n t e n d e d to correct the older, freer, translations of the p r o p h e t i c b o o k s ,
for e x a m p l e , as well as to n e w translations, a t e n d e n c y that intensified
after 7 0 CE and, especially in the s e c o n d century, n o w with a certain anti-
58
Christian c h a r a c t e r . T h e e n i g m a t i c , almost legendary, and controversial
J e w i s h r e c e n s i o n i s t s or t r a n s l a t o r s T h e o d o t i o n a n d A q u i l a , and the
59 60
J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n S y m m a c h u s , as well as other u n k n o w n e d i t o r s , w e r e
active d u r i n g the s e c o n d century. T h e protest of the J e w T r y p h o against

967 ( P T A 2 1 , B o n n , 1 9 7 7 ) . A . G e i s s e n , Der Septuagintatext des Buches Daniel Kap.


5-12, zusammen mit Susanna, Bei et Draco, sowie Esther Kap. l,la-2,15 nach dem
Klner Teil des Papyrus 967 ( B o n n , 1 9 6 8 ) ; a n e w e d i t i o n o f the L X X - t e x t w a s e d i t e d b y
O. M u n n i c h and J. Z i e g l e r , Septuaginta gottingensis XVI,2, S u s a n n a D a n i e l M e l et D r a c o ,
2
1 9 9 9 ; cf. a l s o R. A l b e r t z , Der Gott des Daniel: Untersuchungen zu Daniel 4-6 in der
Septuagintafassung sowie zu Komposition und Theologie des aramischen Danielbuches
( S B S 1 3 1 ; S t u t t g a r t , 1 9 8 8 ) . In c o n t r a s t , J u s t i n ' s D a n i e l t e x t p r o b a b l y f o l l o w s
' ( P r o t o - ) T h e o d o t i o n ' . S e e S k a r s a u n e , 8 8 - 9 0 , as w e l l as the c i t a t i o n o f D a n i e l w h i c h
already appears in the S h e p h e r d o f H e r m a s ( s e e b e l o w , p. 113 n. 2 7 ) .
5 8
Harl, D o r i v a l a n d M u n n i c h , 1 1 9 - 2 5 . C o n c e r n i n g the Pharisaic i n f l u e n c e b e g i n n i n g
in t h e m i d d l e o f t h e first c e n t u r y B C E . s e e R. D e i n e s , Jdische Steingefsse und
pharisische Frmmigkeit ( W U N T 11/52; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 3 ) , e s p . 1 5 - 1 7 , cf. idem, Die
Phariser ( W U N T 101; Tbingen, 1997), 5 3 4 - 5 5 .
? 9
Cf. Irenaeus, Adv Ftaer 3:21:1 (= E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 5 : 8 : 1 0 ) ; E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl
6 : 1 4 - 1 5 ; E p i p h a n i u s , De Mensuris et Ponderibus, 1 4 - 1 5 ; S w e t e , 2 9 - 5 8 ; K e n y o n and
A d a m s , 2 7 - 9 ; J e l l i c o e , 7 4 - 9 9 ; Schrer (rev.) I I I / 1 , 4 9 3 = 5 0 3 ; Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h ,
1 4 2 - 6 1 . On A q u i l a , cf. a l s o K. H y r v r i n e n , Die bersetzung von Aquila ( U p p s a l a , 1 9 7 7 ) .
T h e c h r o n i c l e o f J e r a c h m e e l b. S o l o m o n f r o m the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y a d o p t s the Christian
reports c o n c e r n i n g the L X X r e c e n s i o n i s t T h e o d o t i o n ( T h o d o s , p e r h a p s identical w i t h the
l e g e n d a r y T h e u d a s in R o m e , s e e B i l l . 111:23), A q u i l a , i d e n t i f i e d w i t h O n k e l o s and
S y m m a c h u s (COC'W) in the t i m e o f H a d r i a n , s e e R. M e d i n a - L e c h t e n b e r g and P.-R. B r e g e r ,
' E i n e spte T h e o d o t i o n - T r a d i t i o n v o m D a n i e l b u c h ? ' in: Begegnungen zwischen Christen
und Juden in Antike und Mittelalter (FS H. S c h r e c k e n b e r g ) , D . A. K o c h and
H. L i c h t e n b e r g e r , e d s ( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 9 3 ) , 3 0 3 - 1 1 ( - 3 0 9 ) . T h e s e v e n t y are dated here to
the t i m e o f A n t i o c h u s IV.
W )
S u c h as B e n L a ' a n a and B e n T i l g a . Cf. S. Krauss, ' T w o H i t h e r t o U n k n o w n B i b l e
V e r s i o n s in G r e e k ' , BJRL 2 7 ( 1 9 4 2 - 3 ) , 9 7 - 1 0 5 . n o w in Studies, 2 6 1 - 9 .
J u s t i n ' s c a p r i c i o u s use of the L X X s e e m s m o d e r a t e in c o m p a r i s o n to the
m u c h later rabbinic tradition that the day the s e v e n t y elders translated
the T o r a h into G r e e k for king P t o l e m y ' w a s as b a d for Israel as the d a y
61
they m a d e the g o l d e n calf'. Justin c o n t e n d e d , on the other h a n d , that
the J e w i s h r e m o v a l of offensive p a s s a g e s in the text is w o r s e than that
62
a p o s t a s y . A very late addition to the Fast Scroll m a i n t a i n s that after
' t h e T o r a h w a s written in G r e e k in the d a y s of king T a l m a i , d a r k n e s s
6 3
c o v e r e d the w o r l d for t h r e e d a y s ' . T h e d a y of its t r a n s l a t i o n m u s t
therefore b e a fast. In addition, w e also find in the l e g e n d of the m i r a c l e
6 4
in t h e o l d e r P h i l o n i c v e r s i o n , a d m i t t e d l y w i t h t h e s u r e l y a n t i -
C h r i s t i a n a d d i t i o n of R. Y e h u d a (c. 150), that p e r m i s s i o n to write the
H o l y S c r i p t u r e s in G r e e k is l i m i t e d to the T o r a h , i.e. the P e n t a t e u c h
65
a l o n e . In o t h e r w o r d s , the C h r i s t i a n c l a i m c o n c e r n i n g the translation of
all t h e p r o p h e t i c l i t e r a t u r e c o n t r a d i c t s t h e t r u t h ; it is f u n d a m e n t a l l y
i m p i o u s . I n d e e d , w e d o not k n o w h o w long the L X X w a s in use in J e w i s h
s y n a g o g u e s in the D i a s p o r a . T h e Cohortatio ad Graecos (after 2 6 0 )
p r e s u p p o s e s such use to a d e g r e e (see a b o v e p . 37). In contrast, o n l y
f r a g m e n t s of A q u i l a w e r e found in the C a i r o G e n i z a . T h e s u p p r e s s i o n
will h a v e taken the form of a g r a d u a l d e v e l o p m e n t , p r o b a b l y paralleling
t h e g r o w i n g influence of r a b b i n i c a l s c h o l a r s f r o m P a l e s t i n e on t h e
w o r s h i p of the D i a s p o r a s y n a g o g u e s .
E v e n the final c l o s i n g of the H e b r e w c a n o n by the Pharisaic t e a c h e r s ,
constituting t h e m s e l v e s as r a b b i n a t e t o w a r d the e n d of the first c e n t u r y
a p r o c e s s that lasted into the m i d d l e of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y with r e s p e c t to
i n d i v i d u a l b o o k s a n d that p r e s u p p o s e s a l o n g p e r i o d of p r e p a r a t i o n
r e a c h i n g b a c k into p r e - C h r i s t i a n t i m e s m u s t b e c a t e g o r i z e d in the final
analysis as ' a n t i - h e r e t i c a l ' , i n d e e d anti-Christian. E x p a n d i n g u p o n the
rabbinical d i s c u s s i o n in M i s h n a h Yadayim ( 3 : 5 ; cf. 4:6) c o n c e r n i n g the
' p o l l u t i o n of the h a n d s ' , the Tosefta (2:13) e m p h a s i z e s that 'the G o s p e l s
(hag-gilynm, literally "the b o o k m a r g i n s " , in m y o p i n i o n p r o b a b l y a
p h o n e t i c allusion to ) a n d the b o o k s of the heretics (mnm)

ftl
Sefer Torah 1:6; Tractate Soferim 1:7 ( = Sof). Cf. V e l t r i , 1 1 4 - 2 8 . T h e rationale is
that the T o r a h c a n n o t be a d e q u a t e l y translated.
6 2
S e e a b o v e , p p . 33-4 and Justin, Dial 7 3 : 6 .

M e g T a a n 13 (text in . Z. Lurie, Megillath Taanit [ J e r u s a l e m , 1 9 6 4 ] , 2 0 0 - 1 ; as c i t e d
in B i l l . I V : 4 1 4 ) ; cf. Veltri, 2, 1 6 - 1 7 ; idem, ' D e r Fasttag zur E r i n n e r u n g an die E n t s t e h u n g
der S e p t u a g i n t a und d i e M e g i l l a t Ta'anit B a t r a ' , Frankfurter judaistische Beitrge 19
(1991), 6 3 - 7 1 .
h4
BMeg 9 a - b (as c i t e d in B i l l . I V : 4 1 4 ) ; cf. V e l t r i , 1 5 7 - 6 2 , w h o a l s o e x a m i n e s the
parallels to the p s e u d o - J u s t i n i a n Cohortatio.
6 5
Cf. S o f 1:8.
hfi
Cf. D . B a r t h l m y , 'L'tat d e la b i b l e j u i v e d e p u i s le d b u t de notre re j u s q u ' la
d e u x i m e r v o l t e contre R o m e ( 1 3 1 - 1 3 5 ) ' , in Kaestli and W e r m e l i n g e r , 9 - 4 5 (304);
H . - P . R g e r , ' D a s W e r d e n d e s c h r i s t l i c h e n A l t e n T e s t a m e n t s ' , JBTh 3 ( 1 9 8 8 ) , 1 7 5 - 8 9
( 1 8 1 - 2 ) ; but contrast G. S t e m b e r g e r ('Jabne und der K a n o n ' , JBTh 3 [ 1 9 8 8 ] , 1 6 3 - 7 4 ) ,
w h o c i t e s . G. K u h n ( ' G i l j o n i m u n d sifre m i n i m " , in W . E l t e s t e r , e d . , Judentum-
d o not pollute the h a n d s . T h e b o o k s of B e n Sirach a n d all b o o k s written
6 6
from that point onward d o not p o l l u t e the h a n d s ' . In other w o r d s , this
s t a t e m e n t also i n t r o d u c e s a c h r o n o l o g i c a l b o u n d a r y . Ezra, N e h e m i a h ,
H a g g a i , Z e c h a r i a h and M a l a c h i w e r e c o n s i d e r e d the last p r o p h e t i c a l l y
67
inspired w r i t e r s . W i t h these writers, the Scriptures inspired by G o d ' s
Spirit c a m e to an end. Tosefta Shabbat 13:5 a d d s that O n e d o e s not k e e p
the Gilyonim a n d the b o o k s of the heretics, but has t h e m and the d i v i n e
n a m e c o n t a i n e d in t h e m b u r n e d on the s p o t ' . R. N a h u m a d d s (bGit 4 5 b ) :
' W e h a d b e e n taught that a T o r a h b o o k written by a heretic should be
b u r n e d . . . .' All biblical m a n u s c r i p t s of the ' h e r e t i c s ' fell u n d e r this
verdict. J u d g i n g from the context, J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s e s p e c i a l l y w e r e in
v i e w . B e n Sirach, k n o w n to h a v e b e e n read by C h r i s t i a n s , and the ' b o o k s
written after h i m ' , also bring into v i e w the so-called A p o c r y p h a , also

Urchristentum-Kirche [FS J. J e r e m i a s ; B Z N W 2 6 ; B e r l i n , 1 9 6 4 ] , 2 4 - 6 1 ) and c o n t e s t s


both the identification o f the G i l y o n i m w i t h the G o s p e l s and a l s o the a s s o c i a t i o n o f the
minim with J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n w r i t i n g s . In h i s o p i n i o n , tYad 2 : 1 3 d e a l s ' w i t h irregular T o r a h
e x e m p l a r s and t h o s e written by minim or in their p o s s e s s i o n , but not w i t h heretical, n o n -
biblical literature, w h i c h s i m p l y c a n n o t " p o l l u t e the hands". Minim h e r e , as e l s e w h e r e in
rabbinical literature, are not s i m p l y J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s or any C h r i s t i a n s , but all J e w s w h o
d i v e r g e from the m a i n line of J e w i s h life' ( 1 6 8 ) . S o a l s o S u n d b e r g , 1 2 1 - 4 . But
this p a s s a g e m u s t deal w i t h b o o k s stored in the ( m e e t i n g ) h o u s e s o f the minim and the
q u e s t i o n is h o w this unusual e u p h e m i s m for 'irregular T o r a h e x e m p l a r s ' c o m e s to be. T h e
d i s c u s s i o n in bShah 1 1 6 a / b , w h i c h refers to J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s not o n l y t h r o u g h 'awn-
gilyn - E v a n g e l i u m , but p r o b a b l y a l s o t h r o u g h the l o a d e d r e f e r e n c e to the ' h o u s e s ' o f
the ' E b i o n i t e s ' and o f the ' N o s r m ' , d e m o n s t r a t e s that at least the A m o r a i m e s t a b l i s h e d a
r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n gilyonim and the G o s p e l o f the J e w i s h - C h r i s t i a n s . T h e J e w i s h
Christians ( i n c l u d i n g G n o s t i c g r o u p s ) w e r e the m o s t significant c o m p o n e n t o f the minim.
Gilyonim and ' b o o k s o f the h e r e t i c s ' b e l o n g t o g e t h e r in s u b s t a n c e and are not e n t i r e l y
different matters.
6 7
Cf. J o s e p h u s , Ap 1 : 4 0 - 1 ; 4 Ezra 1 4 : 1 8 - 2 0 ; S i r a c h 4 9 : 1 3 - 1 5 (the c o n c l u s i o n o f the
Praise o f the F a t h e r s ) , s e e b e l o w p p . 9 9 - 1 0 3 and bBB 14b (citation in B i l l . I V : 4 2 4 - 5 ) .
T h e o l d e s t prior r e f e r e n c e is I M a c e . 9 : 2 7 (cf. 4 : 4 6 ; 1 4 : 4 1 ) . Cf. n o w e s p e c i a l l y p a s s a g e s
referring to the c o m m o n ' c a n o n ' o f r e c o g n i z e d Scriptures in the h a l a k i c letter from the
T e a c h e r o f R i g h t e o u s n e s s to the h i g h p r i e s t s in J e r u s a l e m ( 4 Q M M T C 1 0 - 1 1 ) : ' s o that
y o u m a y u n d e r s t a n d the b o o k o f M o s e s [and the w o r d s o f the p r o j p h e t s and o f D a v i [ d
t o g e t h e r w i t h the w o r d s o f the d a y s ] o f that g e n e r a t i o n ' , i.e. the b o o k s o f C h r o n i c l e s
( p r o b a b l y i n c l u d i n g E z r a / N e h e m i a h ) at the e n d ; s e e A . M . S c h w e m e r , Studien zu den
frhjdischen Prophetenlegenden: Vitae Prophetarum / / ( T S A J 5 0 ; 1 9 9 6 ) , 188 n. 5 8 about
the introduction f o r m u l a s . T h i s c o n c e p t f o u n d its c o n c l u s i o n , h o w e v e r , o n l y in the s e c o n d
p o s t - C h r i s t i a n c e n t u r y : cf. P. S c h f e r , Die Vorstellung vom Heiligen Geist in der
rabbinischen Literatur ( S t A N T 2 8 ; M u n i c h , 1 9 8 2 ) , 9 4 - 6 , cf. a l s o 9 8 - 9 : 'the c e s s a t i o n o f
the H o l y Spirit s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f G r e e k d o m i n i o n ' . O n the o t h e r hand, s o m e texts
a s s o c i a t e the c e s s a t i o n o f the H o l y Spirit w i t h the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the first t e m p l e , cf.
S c h f e r , 1 0 0 - 1 and 1 4 3 - 6 ; B e c k w i t h , 3 6 9 - 7 6 ; B a r t h l m y , 2 2 - 5 . O n the c l o s i n g o f the
p r o p h e t i c c a n o n f r o m an O l d T e s t a m e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , c o m p a r e n o w , H. S t e c k , Der
Abschluss der Prophtie im Alten Testament: Ein Versuch zur Frage der Vorgeschichte
des Kanons ( B T h S t 17; N e u k i r c h e n , 1 9 9 1 ) , w h o s e dating o f the c l o s i n g around c. 2 0 0 BCE
is s o m e w h a t t o o late, h o w e v e r . S e e M . H e n g e l . ' S c h r i f t a u s l e g u n g und S c h r i f t w e r d u n g in
der Zeit d e s 2. T e m p e l s ' , in Schriftauslegung im antiken Judentum und Urchristentum.
M. H e n g e l and H. L o h r , e d s ( W U N T 7 3 ; 1 9 9 4 ) , 2 7 , n. 9 4 = Kleine Schriften II. 2 7 n. 9 4 .
w i d e s p r e a d a m o n g C h r i s t i a n s . R. A q i b a i n c l u d e s a m o n g t h o s e w h o
' p o s s e s s n o portion in the c o m i n g w o r l d ' t h o s e ' w h o read in the e x c l u d e d
6 8
(c-jis-nn c n s c n ) b o o k s ' (mSanh 1 0 : l ) . Strict p r o h i b i t i o n s m i s l e a d ,
h o w e v e r . A q i b a ' s r i g o r o u s d i c t u m d i d n o t p r e v e n t such ' a p o c r y p h a l '
b o o k s from being read a n d treasured in J u d a i s m , n o n e t h e l e s s . O n the
69
contrary, O r i g e n a n d J e r o m e attest a H e b r e w b o o k of M a c c a b e e s , a n d
70
J e r o m e , contra O r i g e n , A r a m a i c v e r s i o n s of T o b i t a n d J u d i t h . T h e
B a b y l o n i a n T a l m u d (bSan 100b) cites Sirach e x t e n s i v e l y . F i v e H e b r e w
m a n u s c r i p t s w e r e found in the C a i r o G e n i z a a n d fragments of T o b i t ( o n e
in H e b r e w a n d four in A r a m a i c ) a n d Sirach r o u g h l y 1000 years o l d e r
71
w e r e f o u n d at Q u m r a n a n d M a s a d a r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e J e w s , t o o
despite their r i g o r o u s a t t i t u d e h a d a c o n t i n u i n g ' a p o c r y p h a p r o b l e m ' .
S o m e Christian ' a p o c r y p h a ' w e r e also re-translated o r freely p a r a p h r a s e d
in a b b r e v i a t e d form in A r a m a i c or H e b r e w , as w a s the case w i t h t h e
A r a m a i c T o b i t a n d Judith, or t h e originally A r a m a i c Megillat Antiochus
72
later translated into H e b r e w .
In a d d i t i o n , t h e H e b r e w c a n o n i n v o l v e d t h e p r o b l e m t h a t t h e
individual d o c u m e n t s found highly diverse u s a g e in t e m p l e or s y n a g o g u e
w o r s h i p a n d that m a n y b o o k s h e l d n o firm p l a c e w h a t s o e v e r in t h e
liturgy. O n l y the T o r a h a n d t h e p r o p h e t s w e r e regularly read, the latter in
n o fixed order, h o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h Isaiah a n d the m i n o r p r o p h e t s s e e m to
h a v e b e e n preferred. O n e of the five M e g i l l o t h (Ruth, L a m e n t a t i o n s ,
Esther, C a n t i c l e s , Q o h e l e t h ) w e r e read o n the v a r i o u s festivals, b u t , with

x
" Contrast S t e m b e r g e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ) , 172f. B u t e v e n if o n e d o e s n o t identify
in this s t a t e m e n t a n y ' s p e c i f i c a l l y anti-Christian p o i n t ' , o n e c a n n o t o v e r l o o k the fact that
it forbids literature that f o u n d particular interest a m o n g t h e C h r i s t i a n s f r o m the s e c o n d t o
the fifth c e n t u r y ( i n c l u d i n g C h r i s t i a n - G n o s t i c g r o u p s ) a n d that w a s p r e s e r v e d at least
partially for us o n l y b y t h e s e g r o u p s . E v e n S t e m b e r g e r a d m i t s that it i n v o l v e s e x c l u d e d
' r e l i g i o u s scriptures' (in contrast t o p a g a n w r i t i n g s ) . It is o f little h e l p , t o o , t o p r o b l e m a t i z e
the c o n c e p t o f c a n o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o the H e b r e w B i b l e ; this c a n b e d o n e w i t h greater
justification for t h e early c h u r c h . T h e matter w a s u n e q u i v o c a l : a c o r p u s o f H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ,
c l e a r l y d e f i n e d s i n c e at least the s e c o n d c e n t u r y . T h e C h r i s t i a n s in the s e c o n d a n d third
c e n t u r i e s h a d n o t y e t d o n e this in s u c h a firmly e s t a b l i s h e d m a n n e r . T h e term ' c a n o n ' for
an o f f i c i a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d c o l l e c t i o n o f b o o k s appears o n l y in t h e fourth c e n t u r y .
M
S c h r e r ( r e v . ) , III/1. 1 8 2 .
7 0
Cf. O r i g e n , Epistola ad Africanum ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 6 n. 3 8 ) , 13; J e r o m e , Prologus
Tobiae, 6 7 6 ; Prologus ludith, 6 9 1 ( n . 4 3 a b o v e ) .
71
A c o l l e c t i o n o f all f r a g m e n t s a n d e d i t i o n s o f the text a p p e a r s in A . S. v a n der W o u d e ,
' F n f z e h n Jahre Q u m r a n f o r s c h u n g ' , ThR 5 5 ( 1 9 9 0 ) , 3 0 3 . For S i r a c h , cf. a l s o E i s s f e l d t .
8 1 1 - 1 2 ; Schrer (rev.) HI/1, 2 0 2 - 4 ; and n o w . , 'The Unpublished Qumran T e x t s
from C a v e 4 a n d 1 1 ' , in BA 5 5 / 2 ( 1 9 9 2 ) , 9 4 - 1 0 3 ( e s p . 9 7 ) .
7 2
For t h e Megillat Antiochus, cf. H . L. Strack a n d G. S t e m b e r g e r , Einleitung in Talmud
und Midrasch ( 7 t h e d n ; M u n i c h , 1 9 8 2 ) , 3 0 2 - 3 = Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash
( E d i n b u r g h , 1 9 9 2 ) , 3 6 4 - 6 ; T e x t s in A . J e l l i n e k , Bet ha-Midrasch I ( o r i g i n a l l y in s i x parts,
1 8 5 3 - 7 7 ; 4 t h e d n , J e r u s a l e m , 1 9 8 2 ) , 1 4 2 - 6 ( H e b r . ) , c o m p a r e the i n t r o d u c t i o n , x x v ;
c o n c e r n i n g the original A r a m a i c v e r s i o n s e e V I , 4 - 8 (and the i n t r o d u c t i o n , v i i - i x ) . For
T o b i t , s e e S c h r e r (rev.) III/1, 2 2 4 , 2 3 0 and for Judith, 2 1 9 - 2 0 a n d Jellinek I, 1 3 0 - 1 (cf.
the i n t r o d u c t i o n , x x i i - x x i i i ) .
the e x c e p t i o n of E s t h e r , this p r a c t i c e is attested o n l y v e r y late. T h e
neglect of certain texts in w o r s h i p also indicates a certain ' s e c o n d a r i n e s s '
confirmed by the T a r g u m s , m u c h o v e r l o o k e d , to the H a g i o g r a p h a k n o w n
to us o n l y in v e r y late v e r s i o n s . O n the o t h e r h a n d , an a b b r e v i a t e d
A r a m a i c translation of J o b w a s d i s c o v e r e d in C a v e 11 at Q u m r a n and
R a b b i G a m a l i e l I, P a u l ' s teacher, is s u p p o s e d to h a v e already r e m o v e d a
J o b T a r g u m from circulation. Special interest in this c o n n e c t i o n attaches
to the P s a l m s , s o m e of w h i c h at least p l a y e d an o u t s t a n d i n g role in the
t e m p l e cult, a l t h o u g h , apart from the Hallel, they h a d n o fixed place in
s y n a g o g u e w o r s h i p . S o m e t h i n g a p p r o a c h i n g a d e v a l u a t i o n took p l a c e . Is
this related to t h e fact that in the early Christian c o m m u n i t i e s the P s a l m s
p l a y e d an essential role as inspired s o n g s and w e r e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t
73
biblical texts a b o v e a l l ?

7. The Question of the Hebrew Originals'

A s I h a v e a l r e a d y said, the C h r i s t i a n s ' appeal to the inspired and thus


infallible t r a n s l a t i o n of all s a c r e d H e b r e w S c r i p t u r e s by the S e v e n t y
resulted, n o n e t h e l e s s , in several e n d u r i n g c o m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e t r a n s m i s -
sion of the L X X text w a s t h o r o u g h l y confused u n d e r the influence of the
J e w i s h r e v i s i o n s and Christian t e s t i m o n i a c o l l e c t i o n s , as m a y already be
seen in Justin. N o t only this, but since in d i s p u t e d q u e s t i o n s it w a s n e c e s -
sary to c h e c k doubtful c a s e s against the original text, the d e p e n d e n c e of
the C h r i s t i a n L X X on the older H e b r e w p r o t o t y p e s w a s also essentially
confirmed in c a s e after c a s e . W h a t w a s o n e to d o if the H e b r e w and the
various G r e e k texts differed substantially or if the J e w s m a i n t a i n e d that
for certain additional texts and d o c u m e n t s utilized by C h r i s t i a n s there
w a s n o o r i g i n a l ? C o u l d o n e a l w a y s simply a c c u s e t h e m of a b b r e v i a t i n g
or falsifying as Justin h a d already d o n e , or, s u b s e q u e n t l y , H i p p o l y t u s in
his t r e a t m e n t of the story of S u s a n n a and the E l d e r s in his c o m m e n t a r y
74
on D a n i e l , and w i t h h i m m a n y other F a t h e r s ? A n d w h a t if o n e w e r e to
a c k n o w l e d g e , as did the highly e d u c a t e d Julius A f r i c a n u s , the librarian
of the E m p e r o r S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r , that the style a n d c o n t e n t of the
S u s a n n a story m a r k s it as a ' c o u n t e r f e i t ' and not a translation from the
H e b r e w , casting d o u b t on w h e t h e r it b e l o n g s to the O l d T e s t a m e n t ? His

7 1
Cf. Strack and S t e m b e r g e r . 2 2 8 - 3 0 . For the Job T a r g u m , s e e bShah 115a; J. P. M.
van der P l o e g and A . S. van der W o u d e , e d s , Le Targum de Job de la Grotte XI de Qumran
( L e i d e n , 1 9 7 1 ) . For the s i n g i n g o f p s a l m s in the t e m p l e and the d e v e l o p m e n t o f early
Christian h y m n s , s e e M . H e n g e l , 'The S o n g about Christ in Earliest W o r s h i p ' , in idem.
Studies in Early Christology (Edinburgh, 1995). 2 2 7 - 9 2 .
7 4
In the e x e g e s i s o f D a n . 1:14 (in the P s . - T h e o d o t i o n v e r s i o n , S u s a n n a c o n s t i t u t e s
the first c h a p t e r o f D a n i e l ) ; on the text, s e e H i p p o l y t u s , Commentaire sur Daniel, SC
14, M . L e f v r e and G. B a r d y , e d s (Paris, 1 9 4 7 ) , 4 0 and GCS Hippolytus 1, G. B o n w e t s c h
and H. A c h e l i s , e d s ( L e i p z i g , 1 8 9 7 ) , 1 - 3 4 0 , e s p . 2 3 ; s e e a l s o S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / 2 ,
725-7.
critical letter to O r i g e n is f o r m u l a t e d with a s t o n i s h i n g acerbity. In his
r e s p o n s e to the scholar, O r i g e n w a s able to c o u n t e r these d o u b t s only
w i t h g r e a t difficulty a n d v e r y u n c o n v i n c i n g l y b y e m p h a s i z i n g e a r l y
75
church practice.
T h u s the greatest philologist a n d theologian of the early c h u r c h found
it difficult to maintain the b a l a n c e here b e t w e e n p h i l o l o g i c o - h i s t o r i c a l
truth a n d c h u r c h tradition. H e basically a t t e m p t e d to take a wise m i d d l e
w a y w h i c h , h o w e v e r , often e n c o u n t e r e d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , since there
w e r e m a n y uncritical a d h e r e n t s to the anti-Jewish counterfeit theory, w h o
g a v e n o c o n s i d e r a t i o n to t h e d u b i o u s state of the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the
S e p t u a g i n t , a n d t h e y w e r e u n w i l l i n g to c o n f r o n t t h e u n c o m f o r t a b l e
truth. O r i g e n ' s H e x a p l a , the e n d e a v o u r to regain the ' p u r e ' text t h r o u g h
c o m p a r i n g the H e b r e w original a n d the v a r i o u s versions of the G r e e k
translation, is a r e m a r k a b l e a t t e m p t to resolve the difficulties and to p l a c e
on a scientific basis the d i a l o g u e with the J e w s about the correct text.
J e r o m e p u r s u e d an e v e n m o r e c o n s i s t e n t path w i t h his appeal to give
p r e f e r e n c e to the a s s u r e d H e b r e w tradition. W h i l e O r i g e n s i m p l y p a s s e d
o v e r t h e l e g e n d of the t r a n s l a t i o n by the S e v e n t y in s i l e n c e , J e r o m e
e n e r g e t i c a l l y rejected as a lie the Christian l e g e n d , lovingly d e p i c t e d by
his friend and c o n t e m p o r a r y E p i p h a n i u s , w h o spoke about 2 36
76
translators in their c e l l s .
C o n s e q u e n t l y , a c c o r d i n g to J e r o m e , the a d d i t i o n s of the translators of
the H e b r e w text to the b o o k s of C h r o n i c l e s c o u l d h a v e resulted 'vel o b
d e c o r i s g r a t i a m , vel o b Spiritus Sancti a u c t o r i t a t e m ' (from c o n s i d e r
ations of style or t h r o u g h the c o u n s e l of the H o l y Spirit): they m u s t not

7 5
Julius A f r i c a n u s w a s the o n l y early c h u r c h father to d i s p u t e the c a n o n i c i t y o f the
a d d i t i o n s to D a n i e l ; c o m p a r e his Epistola ad Origenem ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 6 n. 3 8 ) and
O r i g e n ' s r e s p o n s e Epistola ad Africanum. Julius Africanus designated Susanna
. Cf. . E n g e l , Die Susanna-Erzhlung:
Einleitung, bersetzung und Kommentar zum Septuaginta-Text und zur Theodotion-
Bearbeitung ( O B O 61 ; Freiburg, S w i t z e r l a n d and G t t i n g e n , 1 9 8 5 ) , 6 8 - 7 0 ; N a u t i n , 1 7 6 -
8 2 . T o b e sure, the q u e s t i o n o f a H e b r e w or A r a m a i c o r i g i n a l o f the a d d i t i o n s m u s t r e m a i n
o p e n , cf. S c h r e r (rev.) III/2, 7 2 4 : 'It c a n n o t be stated as certain w h e t h e r a n y or n o n e o f
the a d d i t i o n s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y c o m p o s e d in either H e b r e w or A r a m a i c before b e i n g trans
lated i n t o G r e e k ' (in the n e w S c h r e r this p a s s a g e a p p e a r s in paragraph 3 3 B : ' J e w i s h
Literature o f w h i c h the o r i g i n a l l a n g u a g e is u n c e r t a i n ' ) , but I prefer to a s s u m e w i t h
A f r i c a n u s that the G r e e k is the o r i g i n a l , w h i c h d o e s not p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y that
i n d i v i d u a l p o r t i o n s w e r e a l s o in c i r c u l a t i o n as A r a m a i c s t o r i e s : cf. M . H e n g e l , ' D e r
alte u n d der n e u e " S c h r e r ' " , 7 5 5 3 5 ( 1 9 9 0 ) : 1 9 - 6 4 , e s p . 61 ( = Kleine Schriften II,
1 2 7 - 9 9 [ 1 9 0 ] ) . J. T. M i l i k ' s attempt to identify the S u s a n n a story at Q u m r a n ( ' D a n i e l
et S u s a n n e Q u m r a n ? ' in M . Carrez, J. D o r and P. G r e l o t , e d s , De la Trah au Messie
[ F S H. C a z e l l e s ; Paris, 1 9 8 1 ] , 3 3 7 - 5 9 ) is p l u c k e d f r o m thin air; cf. van d e r W o u d e ,
303-4.
7 6
S e e a b o v e , pp. 3 7 - 8 . Cf. . W e r m e l i n g e r , 'Le C a n o n d e s Latins au T e m p s d e J r m e
et d ' A u g u s t i n ' , in K a e s t l i and W e r m e l i n g e r , 1 5 3 - 9 6 , e s p . 1 8 7 - 9 3 . F o r O r i g e n s e e
. N e u s c h f e r , Origenes als Philologe (Schweizer Beitrge zur Altertumswissenschaft)
18/1 u. 2 ( B a s e l , 1 9 8 7 ) . F o r J e r o m e , cf. . W e r m e l i n g e r a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f
Chr. M a r k s c h i e s , Hieronymus ( s e e b e l o w , p. 51 n. 8 3 ) .
n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e b e e n ' i n s p i r e d ' , a l t h o u g h h e still r e f e r s p o s i t i v e l y
h e r e to the translators ' w h o translated filled with the H o l y Spirit, for
7 7
that they certainly w e r e ' . Later h e is m u c h m o r e r e s e r v e d on this point.
A s far as I c a n tell, J e r o m e is also the o n l y a u t h o r in the early c h u r c h w h o
repeatedly e m p h a s i z e s that the S e v e n t y did not translate all the H e b r e w
7 8
Scriptures of the p r o p h e t s , but o n l y the five b o o k s of M o s e s . His o n e -
t i m e friend and later o p p o n e n t , Rufinus, energetically o p p o s e d h i m on
this point, a p p e a l i n g to O r i g e n ' s m o r e c a u t i o u s o p i n i o n a n d to the trans-
lation m i r a c l e of the S e v e n t y . T h e A p o s t l e s of the c h u r c h t r a n s m i t t e d the
L X X w h i c h w a s inspired by the H o l y Spirit. H a d it b e e n e r r o n e o u s , they
79
w o u l d h a v e c o r r e c t e d i t . In the E a s t the (traditional) position of Rufinus
p r e v a i l e d in e s s e n c e , e v e n w h e n O r i g e n ' s H e x a p l a w a s u t i l i z e d
appreciatively, a l t h o u g h less for c o r r e c t i o n than for c o m p a r i s o n . T h e fact
that P o p e D a m a s u s officially a c c e p t e d J e r o m e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n m a y b e
c h a r a c t e r i z e d as a m i n o r m i r a c l e . A u g u s t i n e still d e f e n d e d the L X X
against J e r o m e ' s Hebraitas. J e r o m e himself, w h o w a s not o n l y a great
and c o m b a t i v e scholar but also a s m o o t h d i p l o m a t , largely a b a n d o n e d

7 7
'. . . qui Spiritu S a n c t o pleni, e a q u a e vera fuerant, transtulerunt', Praefatio in Librum
Paralipomenon juxta LXX interprtes P L 2 9 , 4 2 4 , 4 2 6 . In later p r e f a c e s to translations o f
p o r t i o n s o f the B i b l e , h o w e v e r , J e r o m e c o m p l e t e l y a b a n d o n e d the t h e s i s o f an inspired
L X X ; cf. W e r m e l i n g e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 8 n. 7 6 ) , 1 8 7 - 9 , and M . E. S c h i l d , ' A b e n d l n d i s c h e
B i b e l v o r r e d e n b i s z u r L u t h e r b i b e l ' (QFRG 39; Gtersloh, 1970), 1 9 - 2 3 : 'The
" h e x a p l a r i c " p r e f a c e to the b o o k s o f C h r o n i c l e s is the o n l y o n e that s p e a k s s o p o s i t i v e l y
o f the L X X ' ( 2 3 ) .
7 8
T h u s in the introduction o f Hebraica Quaestiones in Libro Geneseos: Hieronymus
1/1, CChr. S L 7 2 , P. d e L a g a r d e , G. M o r i n and M . A d r i a e n , e d s ( T u r n h o u t , 1 9 5 9 ) , 2: '. . .
I o s e p h u s , qui L X X interpretum p r o p o n i t h i s t o r i a m , q u i n q u e tantum a b e i s libros M o y s i
translatos r e f e r t . . . ' ; Commentatorium in Hiezechielem, Buch 2 zu Hes 5, 12: Hieronymus
1/4, C C h r . S L 7 5 , F. G l o r i e , e d . (Turnhout, 1 9 6 5 ) , 6 0 : ' . . . s e d per multa s a e c u l a scriptorum
atque l e c t o r u m u i t i o d e p r a u a t u m , q u a m q u a m et A r i s t a e u s et J o s e p h u s et o m n i s s c h o l a
Iudaeorum quinque tantum libros M o y s i Septuaginta translatos asserant';
Commentariorum in Michaeam Prophetam, Buch 1, zu Mi 2,9f.: Hieronymus 1/6, C C h r . S L
7 6 , M . A d r i a e n , e d . ( T u r n h o u t , 1 9 7 0 ) , 4 4 6 - 7 : ' l n t e r p r e t a t i o S e p t u a g i n t a s i tarnen
S e p t u a g i n t a est: I o s e p h u s e n i m scribit, et H e b r a e i tradunt, q u i n q u e tantum libros l e g i s
M o y s i translatos ab e i s , et P t o l e m a e o regi t r a d i t o s . . .', s e e W e n d l a n d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 7
. 3 9 ) , 164; P e l l e t i e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 19 n. 2 ) , 9 0 . O n the critique o f the translation l e g e n d ,
see also Schild, 3 6 - 7 .
1 9
Apologia contra Hieronymum, R u t i n , C C h r . S L 2 0 , M . S i m m o n e t t i , e d . (Turnhout,
1 9 6 1 ) , 1 1 1 - 1 6 : s e e B a m m e l ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 6 n. 3 7 ) , 137. On R u f i n u s , cf. W e r m e l i n g e r ,
1 6 0 - 6 . O n e o f J e r o m e ' s m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r g u m e n t s a g a i n s t R u f i n u s and o t h e r s w a s
p r e c i s e l y his o b s e r v a t i o n that m a n y O l d T e s t a m e n t q u o t a t i o n s in the N e w T e s t a m e n t
authors did not c o r r e s p o n d to the L X X t e x t s a n c t i o n e d by the c h u r c h , but represent a
G r e e k translation i m p r o v e d through c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the H e b r e w text, for w h i c h r e a s o n
the r e c l a m a t i o n o f the hebraica Veritas carried a p o s t o l i c s a n c t i o n ; at the s a m e t i m e , he
e m p h a s i z e d that the H e b r e w text e v e n had a c h r i s t o l o g i c a l a d v a n t a g e o v e r the L X X , cf.
W e r m e l i n g e r , 1 9 2 ; S c h i l d ( s e e a b o v e , n. 7 7 ) , 3 3 - 5 . It is r e m a r k a b l e that R u f i n u s , the
translator and d i s c i p l e o f O r i g e n , u n d e r s t o o d s o little o f the p h i l o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s o f
J e r o m e , w h o b e c a m e a critic o f O r i g e n d u e to t h e o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s a l t h o u g h he f o l l o w e d in
h i s f o o t s t e p s as a biblical t h e o l o g i a n .
any effort to defend the H e b r e w original in the A p o c r y p h a q u e s t i o n . In
the p r o l o g u e to T o b i t h e w r i t e s : ' S e d m e l i u s e s s e i u d i c a n s P h a r i s a e o r u m
80
displicere iudicio et e p i s c o p o r u m i u s s i o n i b u s d e s e r v i r e . '
F o r the m o s t part, the d e v e l o p m e n t c o n t i n u e d despite the protests of
the s c h o l a r s . A final e x a m p l e : in the E m p e r o r J u s t i n i a n ' s n o t o r i o u s
N o v e l l a 146 De Hebraeis, c a p . 1 ( p u b l i s h e d 8 F e b r u a r y 5 5 3 ) , in w h i c h
h e p r o h i b i t e d the r e a d i n g of the H e b r e w B i b l e in the s y n a g o g u e s , he
r e c o m m e n d e d the L X X to the J e w s since the S e v e n t y , although d i v i d e d
into pairs (this follows E p i p h a n i u s ' a c c o u n t ) , 'all p r o d u c e d one v e r s i o n '
( ) . T h e S e v e n t y are to be a d m i r e d
b e c a u s e , long before the a p p e a r a n c e of Christ, ' l i k e those (fore-)seeing
the future, they u n d e r t o o k the t r a n s m i s s i o n of the Holy Scriptures as
81
t h o u g h p r o p h e t i c g r a c e s t r e a m e d a r o u n d t h e m ' . In the end, then, the
vates a n d his prophetare t r i u m p h e d o v e r t h e interpres and the m e r e
conferre of J e r o m e (see a b o v e , p p . 3 7 - 8 ) . S o that the J e w s need not break
entirely with their trusted tradition, J u s t i n i a n p e r m i t t e d t h e m to read
A q u i l a ' s version despite its m i s l e a d i n g variants. T h e Christian e m p e r o r
m a g n a n i m o u s l y refrained, therefore, from i m p o s i n g the true, inspired,
Holy S c r i p t u r e s that ' a l m o s t all use (
) ' on the u n b e l i e v i n g J e w s . T h e u s u r p a t i o n of the L X X by the
n o w ruling C h r i s t i a n s thus itself entered into the l a w of the state; the
G r e e k B i b l e a p p e a r e d to h a v e d i s p l a c e d t h e H e b r e w . B u t e v e n this
i m p e r i a l u s e of force w a s o n l y a late e p i s o d e in an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y
82
c o m p l i c a t e d and c o m p l e x d e v e l o p m e n t and w a s by n o m e a n s the last
w o r d on the matter.

80
Biblia zacra . . . ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 8 n. 4 3 ) , 6 7 6 . It s h o u l d be n o t e d that J e r o m e w a s the
first to e m p l o y the term ' a p o c r y p h a ' for the d e u t e r o c a n o n i c a l w r i t i n g s (in the Prologus in
libro regum, 3 6 5 ) . H e i n d i c a t e d ' t h o s e w r i t i n g s ' in the o l d e r c a n o n lists and b o o k c a t a
l o g u e s 'unattested, u n m e n t i o n e d b y the Fathers . . . but in u s a g e a m o n g the h e r e t i c s
' J e r o m e ' s i n n o v a t i o n c o n s i s t s in t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n " a p o c r y p h a " t o the
marginal b o o k s , n o n - c a n o n i z e d ( A t h a n a s i u s ' t e r m ) , c o n t e s t e d ( C y r i l ' s ) , or e c c l e s i a s t i c a l
( R u f i n u s ' ) , but r e c o m m e n d e d for r e a d i n g and u s e in c a t e c h i s m ' , s o W e r m e l i n g e r ( s e e
a b o v e , p. 4 8 n. 7 6 ) , 190. W i s d o m , S i r a c h , Judith, T o b i t and the a d d i t i o n s to D a n i e l are
s a n c t i o n e d by l o n g u s e in the c h u r c h ; he attributes to t h e m a chaldaica Veritas, i.e. a kind
o f s e c o n d a r y ' A r a m a i c ' truth; cf. S c h i l d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 9 n. 7 7 ) , 2 9 - 3 0 ; o n his d e f e n c e o f
the hebraica Veritas, s e e 3 1 - 4 1 . T h e history o f the i m p a c t o f J e r o m e ' s p r o l o g u e s is related
to the fact that e v e r y V u l g a t e m a n u s c r i p t and a l s o , from 1 4 5 5 , m a n y printed e d i t i o n s ,
i n c l u d e d t h e m , s o that the Latin c h u r c h a l w a y s r e m a i n e d a w a r e o f the q u e s t i o n o f the
H e b r e w o r i g i n a l as w e l l as the p r o b l e m o f the A p o c r y p h a , e v e n t h o u g h it had d e c i d e d the
c a n o n q u e s t i o n m o r e u n e q u i v o c a l l y than the G r e e k c h u r c h ; cf. . . S c h i l d ( s e e a b o v e , p.
4 9 n. 7 7 ) , 29f., and s e e b e l o w , pp. 5 6 and 7 0 - 4 . Cf. a l s o D . B a r t h l m y , 'La p l a c e d e la
S e p t a n t e d a n s l ' E g l i s e ' , in idem, 1 1 1 - 2 6 ( o r i g i n a l l y in Recherches Bibliques 8 fParis,
1967J, 1 3 - 2 8 ) . S e e a l s o b e l o w , p. 6 6 n. 2 2 . J e r o m e w a s a c o n s t a n t s t i m u l u s to the
h u m a n i s t s o f the fifteenth and s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s .
81
Cf. already Irenaeus, Adv Haer 3 : 2 1 : 2 ( s e e a b o v e , p p . 3 8 - 4 0 ) . S e e a l s o Veltri ( s e e
a b o v e , p. 2 6 n. 2 ) .
8 2
T e x t in. Corpus Iuris Civilis III, R. S c h o e l l and W . Kroll, e d s ( B e r l i n , 1 9 5 4 ) , 7 1 5 .
S e e a l s o S c h r e c k e n b e r g ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 5 n. 3 3 ) , 4 1 3 - 1 4 .
8. Augustine's Attempt at Compromise

In his City of God A u g u s t i n e d e a l s e x t e n s i v e l y with the L X X and the


n e w situation c r e a t e d by J e r o m e . H e d e m o n s t r a t e s b o t h his c o n s e r v a t i v e
attitude and his a w a r e n e s s of the p r o b l e m so that, in the e n d , he can
suggest a c o m p r o m i s e . First, h o w e v e r , he w a n t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y to affirm
the authority of the c h u r c h ' s traditional text despite e v e r y difficulty. F o r
him too, the starting point a n d u n s h a k e a b l e basis is the translation legend
of the Letter of Aristeas in the m o r e d e v e l o p e d C h r i s t i a n version, as
a t t e s t e d s i n c e I r e n a e u s , c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o p h e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n of the
S e v e n t y a n d the resulting m i r a c u l o u s a g r e e m e n t of the translators w h o
translated the entire H e b r e w S c r i p t u r e s : ' T h e i r translation w a s so similar
as to h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d by one: i n d e e d , one translator w a s active in all
83
of t h e m . ' Precisely by this m e a n s their w o r k attains a level of ' a u t h o r i t y '
84
that pertains not to h u m a n , but only to ' d i v i n e w r i t i n g s ' . T h e w o r k of
the S e v e n t y differs in this w a y from that of all o t h e r translators of the
H e b r e w o r i g i n a l s u c h as A q u i l a , S y m m a c h u s , T h e o d o t i o n , o r t h e
u n k n o w n t r a n s l a t o r of the Q u i n t a . W i t h g o o d r e a s o n t h e c h u r c h has
8 5
a d o p t e d t h e i r t r a n s l a t i o n a s , so to s p e a k , ' u n i q u e ' , so t h a t G r e e k -
s p e a k i n g C h r i s t i a n s u s e it only, and as a rule d o not e v e n k n o w that there
are other translations. T h i s text of the S e v e n t y w a s also translated into
Latin a n d utilized by the c h u r c h e s of the W e s t . N o w , h o w e v e r , ' t h e
extraordinarily learned, trilingual presbyter Jerome has recently
translated, not from the G r e e k , b u t from the H e b r e w into Latin. But, as
philologically s o u n d as his c o n t r i b u t i o n m a y b e , a n d e v e n t h o u g h the
J e w s r e c o g n i z e it as r e l i a b l e , w h i l e t h e y m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e s e v e n t y
translators erred in m a n y c a s e s , the c h u r c h e s of Christ are c o n v i n c e d ,
n o n e t h e l e s s , that, with respect to authority, n o o n e is to be preferred to
86
the m a n y m e n c h o s e n by the high priest E l e a z a r . ' T h i s applied e v e n in
t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s a s t h e Letter of Aristeas reports
h a r m o n i z e d the text c o m p a r a t i v e l y ; in reality their a g r e e m e n t still c a m e

8 3
Civ Dei 1 8 : 4 2 (Augustinus X I V / 2 , C C h r . S L 4 8 , B . D o m b a r t and A . K a l b , e d s
[Turnhout, 19551, 6 3 8 ) . R e g a r d i n g A u g u s t i n e , s e e C. M a r k s c h i e s , ' H i e r o n y m u s und die
"Hebraica Veritas" in Die Septuaginta zwischen Judentum und Christentum, M. Hengel
and . . S c h w e m e r , e d s ( T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 4 ) , 1 6 3 - 9 .
8 4
L o c . cit: '. . . ut illarum s c i p t u r a r u m n o n t a m q u a m h u m a n a r u m , s e d , sicut erant,
t a m q u a m d i u i n a r u m e t i a m isto m o d o c o m m e n d a r e t u r a u c t o r i t a s ' .
s ?
1 8 : 4 3 : '. . . h a n c tarnen, q u a m S e p t u a g i n t a e s t . t a m q u a m s o l a e s s e t , sic recipit
ecclesia'.
M
L o c . c i t . 6 9 3 : 1 0 - 1 8 : '. . . q u a m v i s n o n d e f u e r i t t e m p o r i b u s n o s t r i s p r e s b y t e r
H i e r o n y m u s , h o m o d o c t i s s i m u s et o m n i u m trium l i n g u a r u m peritus, qui n o n e x G r a e c o ,
s e d e x H e b r a e o in L a t i n u m e l o q u i u m e a s d e m s c r i p t u r a s c o n v e r t e r i t . S e d e i u s tarn
litteratum l a b o r e m q u a m v i s Iudaei fateantur e s s e v e r a c e m , s e p t u a g i n t a v e r o interprtes in
m u l t i s errasse c o n t e n d a n t : tarnen e c c l e s i a e Christi tot h o m i n u m auctoritati ab E l e a z a r o
tunc p o n t i f i c e ad h o c t a n t u m o p u s e l e c t o r u m n e m i n e m i u d i c a n t p r a e f e r e n d u m . ' Cf.
M a r k s c h i e s ( s e e a b o v e , n. 8 3 ) , 1 6 8 - 9 .
a b o u t t h r o u g h the m i r a c u l o u s w o r k of the Spirit. In other w o r d s , from
the outset the Seventy h a v e g r e a t e r w e i g h t than a single translator like
J e r o m e . A u g u s t i n e thereby rejects J e r o m e ' s critique of the S e v e n t y a n d
w o u l d prefer to d e n y his n e w translation r e c o g n i t i o n by the c h u r c h by
a p p e a l i n g to the seventy w i t n e s s e s (see a b o v e , p . 36). But h e is u n a b l e to
e s c a p e the a r g u m e n t that significant differences exist b e t w e e n the w o r k
of the S e v e n t y a n d t h e H e b r e w text. H e r e s o l v e s the difficult p o i n t
(aporia) by p o s t u l a t i n g a d u a l p r o p h e t i c r e v e l a t i o n : ' S i n c e , h o w e v e r ,
such a magnificent d i v i n e m i r a c l e took p l a c e t h r o u g h t h e m , e v e r y o t h e r
r e l i a b l e t r a n s l a t o r from the H e b r e w , r e g a r d l e s s of the l a n g u a g e i n t o
w h i c h h e translates, " m u s t e i t h e r agree with the s e v e n t y translators or,
if h e differs, believe that a d e e p e r p r o p h e t i c s e n s e is p r e s e n t in t h e m
(altitudo ibi prophetica esse credenda est)" '. F o r the very s a m e Spirit
w a s at w o r k in the S e v e n t y as in the p r o p h e t s . V a r i o u s possibilities result
from this c o n t e n t i o n :

1. The Spirit could, with divine authority, say something new through the
Seventy, just as he could speak twice in succession through the same
prophet and thus reveal different messagesin this case the LXX attains
the quality of additional revelation;
2. It could be that, even where variant wordings occur in the prophets and in
the Seventy, the same meaning is nonetheless present if only the text is
correctly interpreted;
3. The Spirit couldin contrast to human copyists and translators (see
below, pp. 76-7)also add or subtract, thus demonstrating that, in the
translation of the Seventy, 'the intellect of the translator was filled and
guided' not by 'human, slavish literality, but by divine might'.

T h e B i s h o p of H i p p o paid little attention to the historical o b j e c t i o n s


of the s c h o l a r from B e t h l e h e m , i.e. that the S e v e n t y translated only the
P e n t a t e u c h and not all the S c r i p t u r e s , or that they w e r e only translators
a n d not inspired p r o p h e t s . F o r h i m , both the p r o p h e t s a n d the s e v e n t y
t r a n s l a t o r s w e r e e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t , spirit-filled m e d i a t o r s of d i v i n e
r e v e l a t i o n . T h e G r e e k text w o n d r o u s l y p r o d u c e d by the latter g r o u p
r e m a i n e d authoritative for c h u r c h and w o r s h i p .
A n d yet the g r e a t e s t t h e o l o g i a n of t h e L a t i n c h u r c h m u s t s e e k a
c o m p r o m i s e , for O r i g e n ' s H e x a p l a h a d led to r e v i s i o n s of the text in the
a t t e m p t ' t o i m p r o v e the G r e e k text in light of the H e b r e w m a n u s c r i p t s '
and e v e n m a n y Latin B i b l e m a n u s c r i p t s h a d b e e n influenced by these
efforts. T o b e sure, the revisers did not r e m o v e L X X p a s s a g e s u n r e p r e
sented in the H e b r e w text, b u t only indicated t h e m with a ' h o r i z o n t a l '
m a r k (iacentis virgules)the o b e l o s . T h e y e x p a n d e d the L X X text with
w h a t they c o n s i d e r e d a d d i t i o n s in the H e b r e w text and m a r k e d these
e x p a n s i o n s with an asterisk.
T h e difficult p r o b l e m of the r e v e a l e d text c a n b e r e s o l v e d by m a k i n g
G o d ' s S p i r i t a l o n e r e s p o n s i b l e for all t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , w h e t h e r
m a r k e d a d d i t i o n s a n d o m i s s i o n s o r v a r i a n t s in w o r d i n g e s t a b l i s h e d
t h r o u g h c o m p a r i s o n : ' T h a t w h i c h a p p e a r s in the H e b r e w c o d i c e s but
n o t in the s e v e n t y t r a n s l a t o r s , G o d did not w a n t to say t h r o u g h the
S e v e n t y b u t t h r o u g h the p r o p h e t s t h e m s e l v e s ' ; c o n v e r s e l y , ' I n this
8 7
m a n n e r h e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t both w e r e p r o p h e t s . ' B a s i c a l l y , t h e
only difference b e t w e e n p r o p h e t s a n d translators c o n s i s t s in the fact
that the f o r m e r p r o p h e s i e d earlier: 'for j u s t as the o n e Spirit of p e a c e
w a s in t h e t r u e a n d c o n s i s t e n t w i t n e s s of the f o r m e r , so the s a m e
Spirit w a s e v i d e n t l y active in the latter w h o did not c o n v e r s e with o n e
a n o t h e r a n d n o n e t h e l e s s t r a n s l a t e d e v e r y t h i n g in a g r e e m e n t ' . T h e
p r o b l e m that h a d c o n c e r n e d O r i g e n , and, in a different w a y , J e r o m e ,
s e e m e d to h a v e b e e n r e s o l v e d in t h e m o s t e l e g a n t a n d h a r m o n i o u s
m a n n e r : b o t h t h e H e b r e w o r i g i n a l a n d the G r e e k t r a n s l a t i o n of the
S e v e n t y are correct; both texts are similarly inspired a n d to b e taken
seriously in the c h u r c h .
A n d yet A u g u s t i n e ' s s u g g e s t e d c o m p r o m i s e implicitly c o n t a i n s the
i m p e t u s for i n d i v i d u a l thinkers to c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s ultimately with
the H e b r e w original and not to b e satisfied with the p r o p h e t i c gifts of the
S e v e n t y . O n the b a s i s of O r i g e n ' s c o m p a r a t i v e w o r k a n d the m a n u
s c r i p t s i n f l u e n c e d b y it, h e m u s t a d m i t t h e e x i s t e n c e of s u b s t a n t i a l
variations from the H e b r e w text w h i c h are not the result of intentional
falsification and, thus, the justification and necessity of textual c o m p a r i
son. T h e r e f o r e , o n e or a n o t h e r scholar c o u l d be e m b o l d e n e d to investi
gate the original, himself. T h i s c o n c e p t , t o g e t h e r with J e r o m e ' s sharp
'historical-philological critique' must gradually awaken scholarly
curiosity. T h e thorn w a s not r e m o v e d ; i n s t e a d it c o n t i n u e d to w o r k .
P r e - R e f o r m a t i o n h u m a n i s m , as exemplified in, say, R e u c h l i n , already
p i c k e d up o n this indication. At the s a m e t i m e , it b e c o m e s clear h o w
fortunate it w a s that J e r o m e ' s n e w Latin translation found a c c e p t a n c e
in the c h u r c h despite A u g u s t i n e ' s protest.
A u g u s t i n e h i m s e l f offers an e x a m p l e of such textual c o m p a r i s o n in
the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h ( 1 8 : 4 4 ) . In J o n a h 3:4, N i n e v e h ' s p e r i o d of
contrition prior to the t h r e a t e n e d d i v i n e j u d g e m e n t lasted three d a y s
a c c o r d i n g to the L X X and forty a c c o r d i n g to the H e b r e w text and the
later r e c e n s i o n s of A q u i l a , S y m m a c h u s and T h e o d o t i o n . D e s p i t e his
previous ' p r o t e s t a t i o n s ' , A u g u s t i n e prefers as the original p r o p h e t i c text
the ' h i s t o r i c a l l y ' m o r e plausible forty d a y s of the H e b r e w text and the
later J e w i s h revisions. Yet the three d a y s in the translation of the Seventy
also refer to the s a m e m a t t e r and the s a m e m e a n i n g , a l t h o u g h t h r o u g h a
88
different i m a g e . T h e r e a d e r is w a r n e d in this m a n n e r ' n o t to disregard
either of the t w o authorities, but instead, b e g i n n i n g w i t h the historical

8 7
L o c . cit. 6 4 0 : 5 7 : . . sic o s t e n d e n s u t r o s q u e f u i s s e prophetas".
Civ Dei 1 8 : 4 4 ( l o c . c i t . , 6 4 0 : 1 0 - 1 2 ) : '. . . t a m e n ad r e m p e r t i n e r e t et in u n u m
e u n d e m q u e s e n s u m , q u a m v i s s u b altera s i g n i f i c a t i o n e ' .
report, to rise a b o v e it a n d to investigate w h a t it a n d its c o p y actually
m e a n ' . In fact, these real details h a v e a d e e p christological significance,
w h i c h b e c o m e s a p p a r e n t in J o n a h ' s three d a y s in the belly of the fish
( 2 : 1 0 ) , i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f e r r i n g to C h r i s t ' s t h r e e d a y s in t h e g r a v e
( M a t t . 1 2 : 4 0 ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the forty d a y s a l s o s u p p o r t this d e e p e r
c h r i s t o l o g i c a l interpretation on the basis of A c t s 1:3.
' T h e s e v e n t y translators, w h o are also p r o p h e t s , desire . . . n o t h i n g
o t h e r than to r o u s e from sleep the r e a d e r w h o w a n t s to attend o n l y to the
h i s t o r i c a l d e t a i l s , to s e e k t h e d e e p e r s e n s e of t h e p r o p h e c y . ' T h i s
h a r m o n i z i n g a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c a n e f f o r t l e s s l y r e s o l v e all
difficulties. A u g u s t i n e c a n a p p e a l to the a p o s t l e s since e v e n they already
'cited p r o p h e t i c w i t n e s s e s from b o t h texts, from t h e H e b r e w a n d from
t h e S e v e n t y ' . T h e c h u r c h w a s satisfied w i t h h i s truly ' S o l o m o n i c '
solution for a long t i m e t o o long.

9. The Problem of the B o o k of E n o c h


T h e direction taken by T e r t u l l i a n , w o r k i n g a l m o s t 2 0 0 y e a r s earlier, w a s
e n t i r e l y different from J e r o m e ' s defining efforts. L i k e m a n y of h i s
89
c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , h e c o n s i d e r e d 1 Enoch a biblical, inspired t e x t . H e
k n e w of C h r i s t i a n s , to b e sure, w h o did not a c c e p t it ' b e c a u s e it w a s not
p e r m i t t e d entry into the J e w i s h T o r a h shrine (non recipi a quibusdam,
quia nec in armarium ludaicum admittiturY. In addition, there w a s the
historical a r g u m e n t that it c o u l d not h a v e s u r v i v e d the F l o o d . Tertullian
c o u n t e r e d w i t h the e x p l a n a t i o n that N o a h e i t h e r r e c e i v e d t h e E n o c h
tradition orally o r a s did E z r a l a t e r r e c o n s t r u c t e d it in the Spirit. T h e
d e t e r m i n a t i v e a r g u m e n t , h o w e v e r , is: ' S i n c e E n o c h too s p o k e from the
Lord that w h i c h pertains to u s m a y in n o w a y b e rejected.' I b e l i e v e that
T e r t u l l i a n r e f e r s to t h e figure of t h e S o n of M a n in t h e b o o k of
Similitudes, i m p l y i n g that he k n e w Enoch already in the form transmitted
to us in the Ethiopie text. In Enoch too, H o l y Scripture is that w h i c h
' u r g e s C h r i s t ' (Martin Luther, W A . D B 7, 3 8 4 : O b sie C h r i s t u m t r e i b e t ' ) .
In addition, a c c o r d i n g to Tertullian, the epistle of J u d e cites 1 Enoch.
T h e J e w s , b y c o n t r a s t , l a t e r r e j e c t e d t h e w o r k p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e it
d e a l s w i t h C h r i s t . 'It is n o w o n d e r t h a t t h e y d i d not a c c e p t a f e w
d o c u m e n t s that s p e a k of h i m since they did not r e c o g n i z e h i m h i m
90
self, w h e n h e s p o k e to t h e m in p e r s o n . ' N a t u r a l l y , the d e c i s i v e w e a k
ness in T e r t u l l i a n ' s a r g u m e n t is that he cites n o e v i d e n c e that Enoch w a s
e v e r part of a J e w i s h ' c a n o n ' from w h i c h it c o u l d h a v e been r e m o v e d .

m
De Idololatria 4 : 2 ; 15:6. S e e J. H. W a s z i n k and J. C . M. van W i n d e n , Tertullianus
De Idololatria: Critical Text, Translation and Commentary ( V i g C h r S u p p l . 1; L e i d e n ,
1 9 8 7 ) , 113f., and J. T. M i l i k , The Books of Enoch: Aramaic Fragments of Qumran Cave
4 (Oxford, 1976), 7 8 - 8 0 ; M. Hengel. Durham, 8 1 - 3 .
9 0
De Cultu Feminarum 3 : 1 - 3 . T h e t e x t s are a s s e m b l e d in S c h r e r (rev.) III/1, 2 6 2 .
t o g e t h e r w i t h the other s t a t e m e n t s o f the fathers c o n c e r n i n g Enoch ( 2 6 1 - 4 ) . Cf. a l s o
T h . Z a h n , Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons 1 (Erlangen, 1888), 1 2 0 - 2 .
A d m i t t e d l y , the A r a m a i c Enoch m a n u s c r i p t s (apart from the similitudes
of 1 En. 3 7 - 7 1 w h i c h h a v e not yet b e e n found there) play a significant
role at Q u m r a n , but the e x i s t e n c e there of a fixed, c l o s e d ' c a n o n ' of
91
sectarian d o c u m e n t s c a n n o t yet be d e m o n s t r a t e d . O n the o t h e r h a n d , its
citation as a p r o p h e t i c w o r k in J u d e , about 100 y e a r s before Tertullian,
s h o w s that the w o r k w a s already r e g a r d e d by m a n y C h r i s t i a n s at the t i m e
as ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e ' a n d w a s f a v o u r e d r e a d i n g b e c a u s e of its special
92
' p r o t o l o g i c a l ' a n d christological r e v e l a t i o n s .
But the o n l y t w o G r e e k p a p y r u s fragments of Enoch from the fourth
century d o not c o m e from c o d i c e s c o n t a i n i n g O l d T e s t a m e n t Scriptures.
In a d d i t i o n to Enoch 9 7 : 6 - 1 0 7 : 3 , t h e C h e s t e r - B e a t t y P a p y r u s X I I
includes the P a s s o v e r h o m i l y of M e l i t o of Sardis a n d m i n u t e portions of
93
an Ezekiel a p o c r y p h o n , w h i l e the five fragments of O x y 2 0 6 9 contain
9 4
o n l y a p o r t i o n of Enoch 7 5 - 8 7 . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s o - c a l l e d G i z e h
fragment ( C o d e x P a n o p o l i t a n u s , or A k h m i m i c f r a g m e n t s ) , a p a r c h m e n t
c o d e x from the fifth or sixth c e n t u r y , c o n t a i n i n g , a l o n g with Enoch 1 : 1 -
3 2 : 6 ; 1 9 : 3 - 2 1 : 9 , p o r t i o n s of the Gospel of Peter and the Apocalypse
95
of Peter. T h e u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e
' S c r i p t u r e s of the O l d C o v e n a n t ' ( M e l i t o , see b e l o w , p p . 6 0 - 1 ) w h i c h is
p e r c e p t i b l e t h r o u g h o u t the s e c o n d century m a y b e related to the fact that
Christian t h e o l o g i a n s (including the G n o s t i c s ) in this p e r i o d a t t e m p t e d
for the first t i m e to w o r k carefully t h r o u g h the rich J e w i s h literature
w h i c h w a s originally G r e e k or h a d b e e n translated into G r e e k a n d to
investigate its usefulness for c h u r c h doctrine and practice and theological
speculation. T h e s i m u l t a n e o u s i n c r e a s e in literary e d u c a t i o n and related
i n t e r e s t s o n e c o u l d e v e n s p e a k of c u r i o s i t y l e d not only to a g r o w i n g
adoption of G r e e k p h i l o s o p h i c a l e s p e c i a l l y P l a t o n i c p e r s p e c t i v e s , but

9 1
( ' U n p u b l i s h e d Q u m r a n T e x t s ' , 9 7 ) c a t a l o g u e s t w e l v e m a n u s c r i p t s o f the v a r i o u s
p o r t i o n s o f the Enoch literature w h i c h d o not y e t c o n s t i t u t e a unit. I n c l u d e d is the ' B o o k
o f G i a n t s ' w h i c h d o e s not appear in / Enoch but p l a y s a role a m o n g the M a n i c h e a n s . S e e
a l s o M i l i k , a b o v e , p. 5 4 n. 8 9 ) , The Books of Enoch, and n o w L. T. S t u c k e n b r u c k , The
Book of Giants from Qumran ( T S A J 6 3 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 7 ) , w h o d e m o n s t r a t e s against M i l i k
that the ' B o o k o f G i a n t s ' w a s i n d e p e n d e n t o f the Enoch c o l l e c t i o n .
9 2
C f . J u d e \4w\thEthEn 1:9; s e e a l s o Jude 6 = En. 10:6; 1 2 : 4 ; J u d e U = En. 18:5; e t c .
S e e a l s o b e l o w , p p . 6 6 - 9 . N o t a b l y , 2 Peter o m i t s the Enoch c i t a t i o n .
w
W e a l s o find four m a n u s c r i p t f r a g m e n t s o f E z e k i e l a p o c r y p h a at Q u m r a n . S e e ,
' U n p u b l i s h e d Q u m r a n T e x t s ' , 100. A c c o r d i n g to J o s e p h u s , Ant 1 0 : 7 9 , E z e k i e l is s u p p o s e d
to h a v e left t w o b o o k s .
9 4
Cf. A l a n d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 41 n. 5 3 ) , 5 7 - 6 0 , 3 6 6 ( n o . 0 2 0 4 ) . 3 9 0 ( n o . A p 2 9 ) ; van
H a e l s t ( s e e a b o v e , p. 41 n. 5 4 ) , 2 0 2 - 4 ( n o . 5 7 6 - 7 = A l a n d n o . A p 2 9 ) , 2 0 4 ( n o . 5 7 8 =
A l a n d n o . 0 2 0 4 ) . O n O x y 2 0 6 9 , c o m p a r e a l s o J. T. M i l i k , ' F r a g m e n t s g r e c s du livre
d ' H n o c h ( O x y X V I I 2 0 6 9 ) ' , Chronique a" Egypte 4 6 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 3 2 1 - 4 3 . E v e n in his
Verzeichnis der griechischen Handschriften des Alten Testaments, p r e p a r e d for the
S e p t u a g i n t project (MSU 2; B e r l i n , 1 9 1 4 ) , A . R a h l f s o m i t t e d Enoch s i n c e it d o e s not
o c c u r 'in an actual B i b l e m a n u s c r i p t ' ( x i ) .
9 5
V a n H a e l s t ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 1 n. 5 4 , 2 0 1 - 4 ( n o . 5 7 5 - 7 ) . H e n o t e s a t t e m p t s at dating
that range from the fourth century to the t w e l f t h . Introduction and text in M . B l a c k , e d . ,
Apokalypsis Henochi Graece ( P V T G 3 ; L e i d e n , 1 9 7 0 ) , 7 - 9 , 1 9 - 3 7 .
also to an intensive reception of J e w i s h w r i t i n g s in the G r e e k l a n g u a g e .
T h i s i n c l u d e s the great G n o s t i c - C h r i s t i a n t e a c h e r s of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y .
T h e best majority c h u r c h e x a m p l e is C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a . R e a c t i o n s
to this from the third c e n t u r y o n w a r d i n v o l v e on the o n e h a n d the L X X
legend a n d on the other a return to the H e b r e w c a n o n , in the a t t e m p t to
establish the collection of S c r i p t u r e s b r o a d e n e d by this interest in the
c h u r c h e s . H e r e , a few l e a d i n g c h u r c h e s such as R o m e (first) a n d (later
also) A l e x a n d r i a m a y h a v e p l a y e d d e t e r m i n a t i v e roles. T h e preference
96
of a few heretics for a p o c r y p h a l s c r i p t u r e s s u p p o r t e d this t e n d e n c y . In
addition, d u r i n g this t i m e individual d o c u m e n t s still existed as single
c o d i c e s or scrolls. T h u s , Tertullian m i g h t well h a v e b e l i e v e d that Enoch
b e l o n g e d a m o n g the b o o k s translated for P t o l e m y .
T h e s e e x a m p l e s , w h i c h c o u l d be multiplied, d e m o n s t r a t e the p r o b l e m
a n d a s s o c i a t e d struggles resulting from the c h u r c h ' s c l a i m to the L X X
as a significantly e x p a n d e d (in c o m p a r i s o n to the H e b r e w Bible) Christian
S c r i p t u r e collection, a collection a d m i t t e d l y not yet strictly defined n o r
universally a c c e p t e d at the b e g i n n i n g of the third c e n t u r y . In the d i s p u t e
b o t h w i t h J e w i s h o p p o n e n t s a n d w i t h the n e w r e c e n s i o n s of the G r e e k
B i b l e , as well as in w i t h s t a n d i n g the unrestricted p r o d u c t i o n of n e w d o c u
m e n t s b y ' b i b l i c a l ' a u t h o r s a n d u n l i m i t e d interpretations by the G n o s t i c
and other 'heretics', a certain clearer, permanent delimitation was
unavoidable.

9 6
T h e m e a n i n g o f ' a p o c r y p h a l ' or ' A p o c r y p h a ' has v a r i e d w i d e l y . A s a d e s i g n a t i o n for
the d e u t e r o - c a n o n i c a l S c r i p t u r e s , i.e. Scriptures c o n t a i n e d in the Christian O l d T e s t a m e n t
not p r e s e n t in the H e b r e w c a n o n , the term w a s u s e d first b y J e r o m e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 5 0 n.
8 0 ) and t h e n c e p a s s e d into c o m m o n u s a g e . For A t h a n a s i u s , in his thirty-ninth Festal Letter,
in contrast, ' A p o c r y p h a ' d e s i g n a t e s a third g r o u p after the c a n o n i c a l b o o k s and t h o s e
s u i t a b l e for p u b l i c reading ( = d e u t e r o - c a n o n i c a l S c r i p t u r e s ) : ' . . . B e l o v e d , a l t h o u g h t h o s e
are c a n o n i z e d and t h e s e are s u i t a b l e for p u b l i c r e a d i n g , n o m e n t i o n o f the A p o c r y p h a c a n
be f o u n d ( ) . T h e s e are, rather, a matter for the h e r e t i c s
w h o w r o t e t h e m w h e n they c h o s e and d a t e d t h e m as they w i s h e d in order to b e a b l e to
p a s s t h e m o f f as o l d and s o h a v e a p r e t e n c e for d e c e i v i n g the s i m p l e w i t h t h e m ' (trans,
f o l l o w i n g H . - P . R g e r , ' A p o k r y p h e n , in TREIII [ 1 9 7 8 ] , 2 8 9 - 3 1 6 [ e s p . 2 9 2 ] , s e e b e l o w ,
p. 6 4 n. 17). T h e y are the ' e x c l u d e d ' b o o k s and s h o u l d not b e read in c h u r c h . T h e y i n c l u d e
b o o k s d e s i g n a t e d p s e u d e p i g r a p h a t o d a y . T h e origin o f this term in patriarchal literature is
quite u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h the d e b a t e about the c a n o n , but arises from d i s p u t e s w i t h f a l s e
t e a c h e r s w h o a p p e a l e d to their secret d o c u m e n t s ; cf. I r e n a e u s , Adv Haer 1:20:1, w h o
refers to the a p o c r y p h a l b o o k s o f Z o r o a s t e r o n w h i c h the G n o s t i c P r o d i k o s relied (cf. a l s o
C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a , Strom 3 : 4 : 2 9 ) . For a brief p e r i o d , t h e n , the c h u r c h itself a t t e m p t e d
to r e s p o n d to this p h e n o m e n o n t h r o u g h appeal to its o w n secret d o c u m e n t s , but very s o o n
a b a n d o n e d this effort. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a parallel u s a g e p e r s i s t e d , a s s o c i a t e d e s p e c i a l l y w i t h
the e x e g e s i s o f t h o s e 'scripture c i t a t i o n s ' that c a n n o t be l o c a t e d in the O l d T e s t a m e n t and
that, therefore, must d e r i v e from ' h i d d e n ' , but c o m p l e t e l y l e g i t i m a t e t e x t s . H e r e , the u s a g e
a p p r o a c h e s that o f the rabbis ( s e e b e l o w , p. 91 n. 4 6 ) . Cf. A . O e p k e , '
i m C h r i s t e n t u m ' , in the a d d e n d u m ' K a n o n i s c h u n d a p o k r y p h ' , to the article '
' , ThWNTUl (Stuttgart, 1 9 3 8 ) , 9 7 9 - 9 9 ( 9 8 7 - 9 , e s p . 9 9 6 - 8 ) = 7 > I I I . 9 8 7 - 1 0 0 0 :
G. W . H . L a m p e , A Patristic Greek Lexicon ( O x f o r d , 1 9 6 1 ) . 1 9 8 - 9 , s.v. .
T h e term ' p s e u d e p i g r a p h a l ' w e find first in the p o l e m i c o f S e r a p i o n o f A n t i o c h a g a i n s t the
g o s p e l o f Peter in E u s e b i u s Hist. E c c l . 6, 12, 3 .

THE LATER CONSOLIDATION OF THE


CHRISTIAN 'SEPTUAGINT CANON'

1. The First Codices: The Writings Contained


in Them and Their Order

In the W e s t , at the S y n o d of C a r t h a g e in 3 9 7 , a relatively but by no m e a n s


definitively c l o s e d S c r i p t u r e c o l l e c t i o n w a s gradually nearing more
definite d e l i m i t a t i o n , c u l m i n a t i n g in the final decision taken at the fourth
session of the C o u n c i l of T r e n t in 1546.' At this p o i n t w e e n c o u n t e r the
G r e e k O l d T e s t a m e n t in the three great c o d i c e s of the fourth and fifth
c e n t u r i e s : V a t i c a n u s , Sinaiticus a n d A l e x a n d r i n u s . B u t e v e n there the
data exhibit such significant differences that o n e can not yet s p e a k of a
2
truly fixed c a n o n e v e n in this p e r i o d . All e x c e e d e d the s c o p e of the
H e b r e w Bible by i n c l u d i n g J u d i t h , Tobit, Sirach and W i s d o m , as well
as the e x p a n d e d b o o k s of D a n i e l , E s t h e r a n d P s a l m 1 5 1 . In V a t i c a n u s ,
h o w e v e r , all f o u r of t h e b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s a r e m i s s i n g a n d in
Sinaiticus, 2 a n d 3 M a c c a b e e s , as well as 1 Ezra, B a r u c h and Letter of
Jeremiahpresumably o n l y the result of l a c u n a e in the text. C o d e x

1
T h e text o f the b i b l i c a l c a n o n at the S y n o d o f C a r t h a g e a p p e a r s in E. P r e u s c h e n , 'Zur
K a n o n s g e s c h i c h t e ' , Analecta ( S Q S 8 / 2 ; 2 n d e d n ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 1 0 = repr. Frankfurt,
1 9 6 8 ) , 7 2 - 3 . It n a m e s the f o l l o w i n g O l d T e s t a m e n t c a n o n i c a l S c r i p t u r e s (canonicae
scriptarae) that m a y be read as H o l y Scripture in the c h u r c h : the P e n t a t e u c h , J o s h u a ,
J u d g e s , Ruth, 1 - 2 S a m u e l , 1 - 2 K i n g s , 1 - 2 C h r o n i c l e s , J o b , P s a l m s , five b o o k s o f S o l o m o n
(including Sirach), t w e l v e Minor Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Tobit,
Judith, Esther, t w o b o o k s of Ezra, and t w o b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s . For Trent, see
G. B e d o u e l l e , ' L e C a n o n de l ' A n c i e n T e s t a m e n t d a n s la P e r s p e c t i v e d u C o n c i l e de
T r e n t e ' , in K a e s t l i and W e r m e l i n g e r , 2 5 3 - 7 4 and an a p p e n d i x o f the m o s t important
textual s o u r c e s , 2 7 5 - 8 2 . T h e f o l l o w i n g w e r e c a n o n i z e d ( v a r i a t i o n s f r o m the p r e v i o u s list
are i t a l i c i z e d ) : t h e P e n t a t e u c h , J o s h u a , J u d g e s , R u t h , 1 - 2 S a m u e l , 1 - 2 K i n g s , 1 - 2
C h r o n i c l e s , / Ezra and Nehemiah, T o b i t , Judith, Esther, Job, P s a l m s , Proverbs, Qoheleth,
Song, Wisdom, Sirach, Isaiah, J e r e m i a h with Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel, twelve Minor
P r o p h e t s , and t w o b o o k s o f M a c c a b e e s , the first and the second.
2
T h e order o f the b o o k s in the three c o d i c e s appears in K a e s t l i and W e r m e l i n g e r , 1 5 1 .
C o m p a r e S w e t e , 2 0 1 - 1 4 , w h o a l s o a s s e m b l e s the o t h e r b o o k lists f r o m the patristic
literature in a d d i t i o n to the c o d i c e s . B u t a l s o c o m p a r e . E. E l l i s , The Old Testament in
Early Christianity ( W U N T 1/54; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 1 ) , 3 4 - 5 , w h o w a r n s a g a i n s t d r a w i n g
c o n c l u s i o n s about the c a n o n from the c o n t e n t o f the c o d i c e s : ' N o t w o S e p t u a g i n t c o d i c e s
c o n t a i n the s a m e a p o c r y p h a , and n o u n i f o r m S e p t u a g i n t " B i b l e " w a s e v e r the subject o f
d i s c u s s i o n in the patristic c h u r c h . In v i e w o f t h e s e facts the S e p t u a g i n t c o d i c e s appear to
h a v e b e e n o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d m o r e as s e r v i c e b o o k s than as a d e f i n e d and n o r m a t i v e
c a n o n o f scripture. '
A l e x a n d r i n u s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e century y o u n g e r , is, in contrast, m u c h
m o r e e x t e n s i v e ; it i n c l u d e s the L X X as w e k n o w it in R a h l f s ' edition,
with all four b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s and the fourteen Odes a p p e n d e d to
P s a l m s . T h e O d e s also i n c l u d e t h e Prayer of Manasseh, previously
attested only in the Syriac Didaskalia and the Apostolic Constitutions.
T h i s form, usually w i t h o u t 4 Maccabees, then b e c a m e the rule in the
East. A peculiarity of C o d e x A l e x a n d r i n u s is that its table of c o n t e n t s
m e n t i o n s the Psalms of Solomon after the b o o k s of the Old and N e w
T e s t a m e n t s in a sort of a p p e n d i x ( w h i c h also i n c l u d e s the t w o letters of
C l e m e n t ) and further s e p a r a t e d from the ' c a n o n i c a l ' b o o k s by a n u m b e r
3
of b l a n k l i n e s . M o r e o v e r , their text is not to b e found in the c o d e x as it
h a s b e e n p r e s e r v e d for u s . T h e y m a y h a v e b e e n lost t o g e t h e r w i t h a
p o r t i o n of 2 Clement, a d o c u m e n t that i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e d t h e m in the
list. J. R e n d e l H a r r i s suspects that in C o d e x Sinaiticus, w h e r e six leaves
are m i s s i n g , they w e r e to b e found b e t w e e n Barnabas and Hermas. T h i s
r e m a i n s , h o w e v e r , c o m p l e t e l y uncertain. In a d d i t i o n , they w e r e listed in
later c a n o n c a t a l o g u e s a m o n g the , or d i s p u t e d b o o k s .
T h u s , for e x a m p l e , in the s t i c h o m e t r y of N i c e p h o r u s b e t w e e n Sirach and
Esther, a n d in the Synopsis scripturarum sacrarum of P s - A t h a n a s i u s
b e t w e e n the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s and S u s a n n a . T h e text itself is p r e s e r v e d
4
in private m a n u s c r i p t s from the tenth to sixteenth c e n t u r i e s .

1
S. H o l m - N i e l s e n {Die Psalmen Salomes [JSHRZ I V / 2 ; Gtersloh, 1977], 52) writing
about the order in C o d e x A l e x a n d r i n u s : 'It s e e m s , t h e n , that the P s S a l did not, in fact,
b e l o n g t o the c a n o n , but w a s n e v e r t h e l e s s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h it.' In m y o p i n i o n , this
s t a t e m e n t g o e s t o o far. T h e Psalms of Solomon did not b e l o n g a s i n d i c a t e d b y the order
o f their a p p e a r a n c e t o the c o r p u s o f a c k n o w l e d g e d H o l y S c r i p t u r e s . O n e m a y not e v e n
s p e a k o f a ' c a n o n ' in the strict s e n s e . It is a d o c u m e n t at the e x t r e m e b o u n d a r i e s o f the
L X X . E s s e n t i a l l y , PsSol d o e s not b e l o n g in the L X X .
4
Cf. S w e t e , 2 9 3 , s e e a l s o 2 0 2 , 2 0 6 - 8 ; S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / 1 , 1 9 5 - 6 (read A l e x a n d r i n u s
i n s t e a d o f V a t i c a n u s ! ) ; A . R a h l f s , Septuaginta: Editio minor (Stuttgart, 1 9 3 5 = 1 9 7 9 ) II,
4 7 1 ( i n t r o d u c t i o n to PsSal); R. R. H a n n , ' T h e M a n u s c r i p t H i s t o r y o f the P s a l m s o f
S o l o m o n ' , Septuagint and Cognate Studies 13 ( C h i c o , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 8 2 ) , 3 - 6 . In all,
e l e v e n G r e e k and four S y r i a c m a n u s c r i p t s are extant, the o l d e r G r e e k from the tenth/
e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y ( R a h l f s n o . 2 6 0 ; the m a n u s c r i p t w a s a l r e a d y c o p i e d e x a c t l y in the
e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y = n o . 2 5 3 ) . It c o n t a i n s a c a t e n a o f J o b and P r o v e r b s , marginal g l o s s e s to
Q o h e l e t h and S o n g , and W i s d o m and S i r a c h ; in a m a n u s c r i p t f r o m the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y .
( R a h l f s n o . 1 4 9 ; cf. idem, Verzeichnis, 2 4 9 ) , which contains Job, Proverbs, Qoheleth,
S o n g , W i s d o m , PsSol and S i r a c h in i m m e d i a t e s u c c e s s i o n ; the last three b o o k s are
d e s c r i b e d in the p r o l o g u e to W i s d o m as ( ' e x t r a - t e s t a m e n t a l ' ) . T h e s a m e b o o k s
a p p e a r in the i d e n t i c a l s e q u e n c e in R a h l f s no. 3 3 6 f r o m A t h o s ( f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ) ,
w h e r e the b i b l i c a l t e x t s are f o l l o w e d by s c h o l i a to Q o h e l e t h , S o n g and P r o v e r b s . E l s e
w h e r e , t o o , the PsSol c a n be f o u n d b e t w e e n c a t e n a and s c h o l i a to the c a n o n i c a l w i s d o m
b o o k s , w i t h o u t , h o w e v e r , e v e r b e i n g c o m m e n t e d o n itself: no. 4 7 1 (thirteenth-fourteenth
c e n t u r y ) : c a t e n a e o n Job and P r o v e r b s , m a r g i n a l i a o n Q o h e l e t h and S o n g , f o l l o w e d by
W i s d o m , PsSol and S i r a c h (cf. n o s 2 5 3 and 2 6 0 ) ; n o . 6 2 9 (thirteenth c e n t u r y ) : after a
c a t e n a o n the Psalms and Odes, f o l l o w e d by a later G o s p e l c o m m e n t a r y ; n o . 7 6 9 (four
teenth c e n t u r y ? ) : PsSol f o l l o w s a P s a l m c o m m e n t a r y and the Odes, and is f o l l o w e d b y a
S o n g c o m m e n t a r y . F i n a l l y , R a h l f s n o . 6 0 6 ( f r o m the y e a r 1 4 1 9 ) c o n t a i n s W i s d o m , PsSol
and S i r a c h . N o s . 6 5 5 and 6 5 9 are t w o m a n u s c r i p t s from the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , written by
It s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , further, that the Odes ( s o m e t i m e s varied in
n u m b e r ) , attested from the fifth c e n t u r y in all G r e e k P s a l m m a n u s c r i p t s ,
contain three N e w T e s t a m e n t ' p s a l m s ' : the Magnificat, the B e n e d i c t u s ,
the N u n c D i m i t t i s from L u k e ' s birth narrative, a n d the c o n c l u s i o n of the
h y m n that b e g i n s with the ' G l o r i a in E x c e l s i s ' . T h i s u n d e r l i n e s the fact
that the L X X , a l t h o u g h , itself c o n s i s t i n g of a c o l l e c t i o n of J e w i s h
5
d o c u m e n t s , w i s h e s to be a Christian b o o k . T h e relative o p e n n e s s of
the O l d T e s t a m e n t portion of these oldest c o d i c e s also c o r r e s p o n d s to
that of its ' N e w T e s t a m e n t ' : Sinaiticus c o n t a i n s Barnabas a n d Hermas,
A l e x a n d r i n u s / a n d 2 Clement.
In c o n t r a s t to the r e l a t i v e l y fixed o r d e r of t h e H e b r e w B i b l e , the
s e q u e n c e of the d o c u m e n t s in these early c o d i c e s also differs w i d e l y at
p o i n t s . It w a s truly clear only for the 'historical b o o k s ' w h i c h up to and
i n c l u d i n g C h r o n i c l e s follow a t e m p o r a l s e q u e n c e . A l e x a n d r i n u s follows
t h e m with the p r o p h e t s , b e g i n n i n g with the M i n o r P r o p h e t s and e n d i n g
with D a n i e l , then the ' l e s s e r historical w o r k s ' of E s t h e r to 4 Maccabees.
Finally c o m e the p o e t i c o - w i s d o m d o c u m e n t s from the ' P s a l t e r i o n ' to
Sirach ( c o m p a r e the reference to the Psalms of Solomon in the table of
c o n t e n t s ) . In V a t i c a n u s the historical b o o k s c o n c l u d e with 1 and 2 Ezra,
f o l l o w e d b y t h e P s a l m s a n d the w i s d o m b o o k s t h r o u g h S i r a c h , then
E s t h e r , J u d i t h a n d T o b i t . L a s t a s in the R a h l f s e d i t i o n s t a n d t h e
p r o p h e t s with D a n i e l as the last b o o k in the O l d T e s t a m e n t . Sinaiticus
has the p r o p h e t s after 4 Maccabees, b e g i n n i n g , like the M a s o r e t i c Text,
with Isaiah and concluding with the T w e l v e . T h e w i s d o m books,
b e g i n n i n g with the 151 P s a l m s of D a v i d and c o n c l u d i n g with J o b , stand
at the e n d of t h e c o d e x . E v e n in the late, e i g h t h / n i n t h century d o u b l e
codex, Basiliano-Venetus, containing the L X X only, the historical
b o o k s are s e p a r a t e d . T h e m a i n g r o u p at the b e g i n n i n g c o n c l u d e s with
2 Ezra and Esther (the H e b r e w canon m a y have exerted influence
here), followed by the poetic and p r o p h e t i c writings, a n d e n d s with Tobit,
Judith and 1-4 M a c c a b e e s . A peculiarity is a s e c o n d entirely u n i q u e form
of the text of the C a n t i c l e of H a b a k k u k ( H a b . 3) in s o m e m a n u s c r i p t s
(V. 6 2 . 8 6 . 1 4 7 . 4 0 7 ) , c o n t a i n i n g a translation of u n k n o w n origins. It had
already c a u g h t the attention of the scribe of c o d e x 8 6 ( R o m e , ninth/tenth
c e n t u r y ) w h o c o m m e n t e d that it did not a g r e e w i t h either the L X X ,

o n e c o p y i s t , and n o . 3 0 0 4 is o n l y a f r a g m e n t a r i l y p r e s e r v e d c o d e x ( t w e l f t h / s i x t e e n t h
c e n t u r y ) w h e r e PsSol f o l l o w s a S o n g c o m m e n t a r y . N o t a b l y , in a r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d n u m b e r
o f m a n u s c r i p t s the triplet W i s d o m , PsSol and Sirach as a nearly fixed c o m p o n e n t f o l l o w
the other ' c a n o n i c a l ' texts as an a p p e n d i x , but w e r e n e v e r s u p p l i e d w i t h s c h o l i a , c a t e n a e
or m a r g i n a l i a .
5
S e e R a h l f s , salmi cum Odis, 7 8 - 8 0 . ' O f the Greek M S S . , and S, from the fourth
c e n t u r y , d o not y e t h a v e this a p p e n d i x . B u t from the fifth c e n t u r y o n w a r d , all G r e e k
m a n u s c r i p t s h a v e it' ( 7 8 ) . S e e a l s o H a r l , D o r i v a l a n d M u n n i c h , 3 0 1 - 2 , 3 2 5 :
H. S c h n e i d e r , ' D i e b i b l i s c h e n O d e m in c h r i s t l i c h e n A l t e r t u m ' , Bib 2 0 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , 2 8 , 6 5 .
6
A q u i l a , T h e o d o t i o n or S y m m a c h u s . In the early N e w T e s t a m e n t c o d i c e s
the o r d e r of the b o o k s is as a rule m u c h m o r e uniform.
In reference to the highly v a r i a b l e order, o n e c a n speak, g e n e r a l l y , of
four b l o c k s : ' m a j o r ' and ' m i n o r ' historical b o o k s (the latter often at the
e n d ) , p r o p h e t s and p o e t i c o - w i s d o m d o c u m e n t s . B u t e v e n within t h e s e
b l o c k s n o fixed s c h e m e d o m i n a t e s , with the e x c e p t i o n of the first g r o u p ,
w h i c h follows the historical o r d e r of the H e b r e w Bible. E v e r y t h i n g is
still in flux. T h i s is also partly true e v e n of the late B y z a n t i n e m a n u
scripts. N o t a b l y , in c o n t r a s t to the H e b r e w c a n o n , D a n i e l e s s e n t i a l l y
b e l o n g s to the prophetic b o o k s , as a rule following Ezekiel, and the M i n o r
P r o p h e t s are generally p l a c e d (except in Sinaiticus), before Isaiah. T h i s
o r d e r s e e m s to b e very old.
It is i m p o r t a n t to add that as long as the individual b o o k s w e r e written
in s c r o l l s a n d s t o r e d in a scroll c a b i n e t it w a s r e l a t i v e l y difficult to
m a i n t a i n a fixed order. T h i s w a s e s p e c i a l l y true for the J e w i s h p r e
liminary of the L X X , w h e r e the s e q u e n c e of the scrolls in the ark of the
T o r a h b e c a m e definitive. Only the c o d e x with several scriptures
facilitated a fixed order. B u t a c o m p a r i s o n of the s e q u e n c e of the b o o k s
in early c h u r c h L X X c o d i c e s s h o w s that a totally fixed s e q u e n c e w a s
basically n e v e r truly attained. In fact, significant variations c a n b e found.
T h e r e w a s an a s t o n i s h i n g multiplicity, especially at the m a r g i n of the
c a n o n . In t h e first c e n t u r i e s of t h e C h u r c h o n l y few large a n d rich
c o m m u n i t i e s p o s s e s s e d the w h o l e B i b l e .

1
2. The Earliest Canon Lists
If w e e x a m i n e the earliest c a n o n lists w e find a substantially different
picture from w h a t a p p e a r s in the c o d i c e s . T h e n u m b e r of u n e q u i v o c a l l y
a c k n o w l e d g e d b o o k s is m u c h smaller. T o a certain extent, a second g r o u p
of lesser i m p o r t a n c e , also p e r m i t t e d for c h u r c h use, j o i n s the b o o k s w h i c h
are ' c a n o n i c a l ' in the full s e n s e .
M e l i t o of Sardis (c. 170) sent a fellow C h r i s t i a n , O n e s i m u s , ' e x c e r p t s
from the law and the p r o p h e t s ' currently p o p u l a r a m o n g C h r i s t i a n s and,
since O n e s i m u s w a n t e d to k n o w ' t h e e x a c t n u m b e r and o r d e r of the
a n c i e n t S c r i p t u r e s ' , a list of the ' b o o k s of the O l d C o v e n a n t ' (
) : here the t e r m ' O l d T e s t a m e n t ' a p p e a r s for
the first t i m e . M e l i t o h a d p r o b a b l y learned this from J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n s or

h
For B a s i l i a n o - V e n e t u s , s e e K e n y o n and A d a m s , 4 6 . F o r H a b 3 , s e e J. Z i e g l e r ,
Duodecim Prophetae, S e p t u a g i n t a : V e t u s T e s t a m e n t u m G r a e c u m XIII ( 2 n d e d n ;
G t t i n g e n , 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 3 7 - 8 , 2 7 3 - 5 . For the order o f the G o s p e l s s e e M . H e n g e l , The Four
Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ ( L o n d o n , 2 0 0 0 ) .
7
T e x t s in P r e u s c h e n , 2 7 - 9 ; cf. a l s o S u n d b e r g , 5 8 - 9 ; . J u n o d . 'La f o r m a t i o n et la
c o m p o s i t i o n de l ' A n c i e n T e s t a m e n t d a n s l ' g l i s e g r e c q u e d e s quatre p r e m i e r s s i c l e s ' , in
Kaestli and W e r m e l i n g e r , 1 0 5 - 3 4 ( e s p . 1 0 7 - 8 ) . All o f the total o f t w e l v e lists are printed
in the a p p e n d i x (pp. 1 3 5 - 5 1 ) .
8
J e w s d u r i n g a j o u r n e y to the H o l y L a n d . A c o n s e q u e n c e of the second-
c e n t u r y c h u r c h ' s total a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the L X X , c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s with
the d i s p u t e with M a r c i o n , w a s that it d i s t i n g u i s h e d for the first t i m e
b e t w e e n its n e w Scriptures a n d t h e traditional S c r i p t u r e s of ' t h e O l d
C o v e n a n t ' . B o t h w e r e read a n d interpreted alike in w o r s h i p . A c c o r d i n g
to J u s t i n ' s Apologia 1:67:3, ' t h e r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f t h e a p o s t l e s
( ) or the scriptures of the p r o p h e t s
9
w e r e read, followed by the s e r m o n , before the E u c h a r i s t ' . M e l i t o ' s term
' O l d C o v e n a n t ' for t h e H o l y S c r i p t u r e s of t h e J e w s s u g g e s t s t h e
h y p o t h e s i s that the g r o w i n g b o d y of Christian S c r i p t u r e s r e g a r d e d as
' a p o s t o l i c ' w e r e already s o m e t i m e s d e s i g n a t e d as the ' N e w C o v e n a n t ' .
W e m e e t this still s o m e w h a t u n c l e a r t e r m i n o l o g y n o t y e t found in
I r e n a e u s , a g e n e r a t i o n after M e l i t o i n C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a a n d
10
T e r t u l l i a n . In addition, M e l i t o is the first Christian p i l g r i m to Palestine
k n o w n t o u s . A p a r t i c u l a r b i b l i c a l i n t e r e s t s u r e l y s t o o d b e h i n d this
j o u r n e y . T h e c a t a l o g u e h e sent a d m i t t e d l y n a m e s only the b o o k s of the
H e b r e w c a n o n , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e b o o k of E s t h e r , itself still
s o m e w h a t controversial in s e c o n d - c e n t u r y J e w i s h circles. A s transmitted
to u s , the list c o n t a i n s t w e n t y - o n e titles; with Esther, o r with a division
of the four b o o k s of K i n g s into t w o d o c u m e n t s as in t h e H e b r e w c a n o n ,
it w o u l d h a v e b e e n t w e n t y - t w o b o o k s , similar to J o s e p h u s ' list in Ap
1:38-41 (see b e l o w , p p . 9 9 - 1 0 0 ) . "
S i n c e the H e b r e w a l p h a b e t h a s t w e n t y - t w o letters, t w e n t y - t w o later
b e c a m e a l m o s t a ' h o l y n u m b e r ' a m o n g C h r i s t i a n s , especially for O r i g e n
and J e r o m e , as d e t e r m i n i n g the n u m b e r of c a n o n i c a l b o o k s , e v e n t h o u g h

8
E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 4 : 2 6 : 1 3 - 1 4 . H e r e D a n i e l a p p e a r s after J e r e m i a h a n d b e f o r e
E z e k i e l , s o a l s o in O r i g e n ( s e e E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 6 : 5 2 : 2 ) .
9
S e e J. S a l z m a n n , Der frhchristliche Wortgottesdienst bis Origenes ( W U N T 11/59;
T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 4 ) . T h i s order f o l l o w s that o f the s y n a g o g u e . M . H e n g e l , The Four Gospels
and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ ( L o n d o n , 2 0 0 0 ) , 37f., 1 1 6 , 162f. It is important that
here the G o s p e l s are m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e the p r o p h e t s .
"'Cf. a l r e a d y t h e a n t i m o n t a n i s t a u t h o r E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 5 : 6 : 3 :
; further, Strom 1:28:1 ( G C S 5 2 : 1 7 : 3 7 ) ; 5 : 3 : 3
( 3 2 7 : 2 6 ) ; 5:58:1 ( 3 8 2 : 1 7 ) ; s e e a l s o the m o r e e x t e n s i v e c i t a t i o n s in Z a h n , 1 0 4 - 6 . Tertullian,
h o w e v e r , m o r e o f t e n e m p l o y s instrumentum rather than testamentum, s i n c e the legal term
p o s s e s s e d the s p e c i a l m e a n i n g o f ' e v i d e n c e ' or 'the d o c u m e n t to b e p r o d u c e d b e f o r e the
court' ( Z a h n , 1 0 6 ) .
" T h e order in M e l i t o is as f o l l o w s : P e n t a t e u c h ( w i t h N u m . b e f o r e L e v . ! ) , J o s h u a .
J u d g e s , R u t h , 1 - 2 S a m u e l , 1 - 2 K i n g s , 1 - 2 C h r o n i c l e s , P s a l m s , P r o v e r b s o f S o l o m o n or
Wisdom ( , i.e. M e l i t o preferred the title S a p i e n t i a
for the P r o v e r b s , cf. E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 4 : 2 2 : 9 ) , Q o h e l e t h , S o n g , J o b , Isaiah, J e r e m i a h ,
t w e l v e M i n o r P r o p h e t s , D a n i e l , E z e k i e l , Ezra. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , M e l i t o ' s friend a s k e d for
' e x c e r p t s f r o m the law and the prophets, i n s o f a r as they pertain to o u r R e d e e m e r a n d o u r
w h o l e faith', a n d h e w a n t e d to k n o w ' p r e c i s e l y the number and sequence o f the O l d
T e s t a m e n t b o o k s ' . M e l i t o r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h e list a b o v e a n d c o n c l u d e d : ' F r o m t h e s e
scriptures I g i v e e x c e r p t s from s i x b o o k s ' , that is, he u n d e r s t o o d ' l a w a n d p r o p h e t s ' as in
the N e w T e s t a m e n t ( s e e b e l o w , p. 105 n. 1) s e l f - e v i d e n t l y as a d e s i g n a t i o n for the entire
Old T e s t a m e n t , i n c l u d i n g the ' H a g i o g r a p h a ' .
a t t e m p t s to d o so e n c o u n t e r e d great difficulty with the Scriptures actually
used in w o r s h i p . N o t a b l y , h o w e v e r , b e g i n n i n g with 4 Ezra 14:45, all
J e w i s h s o u r c e s , except for J o s e p h u s , universally s p e a k of t w e n t y - f o u r
b o o k s . T h e rabbinic sources m e n t i o n the n u m b e r , h o w e v e r , only from
12
the b e g i n n i n g of the third c e n t u r y . A n early J e w i s h c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r
t h e e x t e n t of t h e H e b r e w c a n o n m a y b e c o n c e a l e d b e h i n d t h e t w o
c o m p e t i n g n u m b e r s t w e n t y - t w o a n d t w e n t y - f o u r , since C a n t i c l e s a n d
Q o h e l e t h w e r e d e b a t e d in t h a t p e r i o d . M o r e l i k e l y , h o w e v e r , is a
difference a m o n g the J e w s c o n c e r n i n g h o w the b o o k s should be c o u n t e d .
A s J e r o m e r e p o r t s , s o m e c o u n t e d R u t h and L a m e n t a t i o n s a m o n g the
1 3
H a g i o g r a p h a a n d t h u s a r r i v e d at t w e n t y - f o u r b o o k s . In a n y c a s e ,
Christian uncertainty a b o u t c l a i m i n g s u p p o r t from the G r e e k L X X in

12
C i t a t i o n s in Bill. I V : 4 1 9 - 2 0 . Cf. a l s o S c h r e r (rev.) 1 1 : 3 1 4 - 2 1 . N o t a b l y , n o n e t h e l e s s ,
n e i t h e r O r i g e n n o r J e r o m e m a i n t a i n s that the a n a l o g y ( t w e n t y - t w o H e b r e w l e t t e r s
c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the t w e n t y - t w o b i b l i c a l b o o k s ) w a s o f J e w i s h o r i g i n . ( T h e c i t a t i o n o f
O r i g e n in E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 6:25:1 ['It s h o u l d be n o t e d that a c c o r d i n g to the tradition o f
the H e b r e w s there are t w e n t y - t w o biblical b o o k s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the n u m b e r o f H e b r e w
letters' | d o e s not contradict this, s i n c e the 'tradition o f the H e b r e w s ' refers primarily o n l y
to the first part o f the s e n t e n c e . P r e s u m a b l y , J o s e p h u s ' r e f e r e n c e to t w e n t y - t w o b o o k s
inspired the Christian t h e o l o g i a n , w h o g e n e r a l l y preferred n u m e r o l o g i c a l s y m b o l i s m to
this c o m p a r i s o n : c o m p a r e O r i g e n ' s e x e g e s i s o f J o h n 2 : 6 and s e e A . S m i t m a n s , ' D a s
W e i n w u n d e r v o n K a n a ' , BGBE 6 [ T b i n g e n . 1 9 6 6 J , 6 5 - 6 , 1 3 0 - 1 ; cf. p. 4 6 . 6 8 ) .
J o s e p h u s h i m s e l f n o w h e r e m e n t i o n s in his report that t e x t s in the H e b r e w l a n g u a g e are
i n v o l v e d ; the a n a l o g y w a s a p p a r e n t l y not significant to h i m . B e c k w i t h , 2 3 5 f f . , s e e s the
o l d e s t s o u r c e for the t w e n t y - t w o b o o k s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the H e b r e w alphabet a l r e a d y in
Jub. 2 : 2 2 - 3 , w h e r e , a c c o r d i n g to R. H. C h a r l e s , a l a c u n a o c c u r s after 2 : 2 2 that he s u p p l i e s
w i t h the h e l p o f later c i t a t i o n s . A d m i t t e d l y , the e x t a n t text s p e a k s o n l y o f the t w e n t y - t w o
f o u n d i n g fathers f r o m A d a m to J a c o b and o f the t w e n t y - t w o w o r k s created o n the s e v e n t h
d a y ; s e e K. B e r g e r (Das Buch der Jubilen [ J S H R Z I I / 3 ; G t e r s l o h , 1981 J, 3 3 0 ) w h o
refers to a d d i t i o n a l parallels in O r i g e n , a m o n g others.
" Cf. B e c k w i t h , 2 3 5 - 7 3 : 'It is thus c l e a r that the t w o rival c o u n t s d o not i m p l y different
c a n o n s . T h e t w o b o o k s o n w h i c h the d i f f e r e n c e d e p e n d s are not a m o n g the five d i s p u t e d
b o o k s . T h e n u m e r a t i o n o f t w e n t y - t w o a r o s e not from a s m a l l e r c a n o n but from the n u m b e r
o f letters in the H e b r e w a l p h a b e t ' ( 2 5 6 ) . J e r o m e then c o m p a r e s the t w e n t y - f o u r o l d b o o k s
w i t h the t w e n t y - f o u r e l d e r s in the A p o c a l y p s e o f John: the latter represent the f o r m e r (cf.
Prologus in Libra Regum [= Prologus Galeatus] ( s e e a b o v e , p. 3 8 n. 4 3 ) , 3 6 4 - 6 , c i t a t i o n ,
p. 3 6 5 ) . T h i s c o m p a r i s o n is. h o w e v e r , attested prior to J e r o m e . T h e o l d e s t e v i d e n c e for it
m a y c o m e from the Gospel of Thomas, dating back to the s e c o n d c e n t u r y CE ( s a y i n g , 5 2 :
' T w e n t y - f o u r p r o p h e t s s p o k e in Israel, and they h a v e all s p o k e n o f y o u ' , NTApo I [5th
e d n j , 1 0 7 ) ; the o t h e r c i t a t i o n s are in V i c t o r i n u s o f P e t t a u (d. 3 0 4 , Commentarii in
Apocalypsin 4 : 3 , 5 [text in C S E L 4 9 , J. H a u s s l e i t e r , e d . ( V i e n n a , 1 9 1 6 ) , 5 0 , 5 6 | ) w h o
m e n t i o n s t h e l o s t E p i t o m e o f T h e o d o r u s a s h i s s o u r c e ; P s - T e r t u l l i a n , Carmen Adv
Marcionem 4 : 1 9 8 - 2 1 0 (fourth c e n t u r y , text in Tertullian 2, C C h r . S L 2 , R. W i l l e m s , e d .
[Turnhout, 1 9 5 4 ] , 1 4 1 7 - 5 4 ) : ' A l a r u m n u m e r u s antiqua v o l u m i n a signt. / E s s e satis certa
v i g i n t a quattuor ista . . .' ( 1 9 8 - 9 ) ; Hilary o f Poitiers (d. 3 6 7 ) m e n t i o n s the t w e n t y - t w o
b o o k s in a c c o r d a n c e with the H e b r e w a l p h a b e t and then a d d s Judith and T o b i t b e c a u s e the
G r e e k a l p h a b e t has t w e n t y - f o u r letters: c o m p a r e his p r e f a c e to his c o m m e n t a r y o n the
P s a l m s , Instructio Psalmorum 15 (text in C S E L 2 2 . A . Z i n g e r l e , e d . [ V i e n n a . 1 8 9 1 1 , 13)
and the M o m m s e n i a n list (text in P r e u s c h e n , 3 6 ^ 0 ) ; cf. a l s o B e c k w i t h , 2 7 1 n. 7 0 and 2 7 3
n. 8 6 .
contrast to the n e g l e c t e d i n d e e d c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d o r i g i n a l text is
apparent in M e l i t o ' s list. T h e o n g o i n g d i a l o g u e with J e w i s h o p p o n e n t s
and their reference to the (as h a d to be a c k n o w l e d g e d , m o r e original)
H e b r e w c a n o n k e p t this uncertainty alive and, in the third and fourth
c e n t u r i e s , intensified it o n c e again. It w a s n e c e s s a r y c o n s t a n t l y to submit
willy-nilly to criticism from that p e r s p e c t i v e .
E v e n the lists of b o o k s a s s e m b l e d by O r i g e n 'in t h e e x e g e s i s of the
1 4
first P s a l m ' are limited to t w e n t y - t w o 'biblical b o o k s as transmitted
by the H e b r e w s , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the n u m b e r of their l e t t e r s ' . R e m a r k
ably, the M i n o r P r o p h e t s are m i s s i n g , a l t h o u g h E s t h e r is m e n t i o n e d . It is
clear that this m u s t s i m p l y be an accidental o m i s s i o n since, w i t h o u t the
T w e l v e , the list c o n t a i n s only t w e n t y - o n e b o o k s . S o in Rufinus' trans
l a t i o n t h e T w e l v e are i n s e r t e d after C a n t i c l e s , as a l s o in t h e list of
Hilary of Poitiers, w h o o t h e r w i s e a g r e e s entirely w i t h the s e q u e n c e of
15
t h e A l e x a n d r i a n s c h o l a r . O r i g e n m e n t i o n s the G r e e k a n d H e b r e w
titles t o g e t h e r and a p p e n d s ' o u t s i d e the s e r i e s ' (' ) the
M a c c a b e a n h i s t o r i e s ( ) u n d e r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n
1 6
still e x t r e m e l y e n i g m a t i c o f ' S a r b e t h s a b a n a i e l ' . T o b e s u r e , this
learned list is not m e a n t s i m p l y to r e p r o d u c e the O l d T e s t a m e n t b o o k s
used in the c h u r c h ; O r i g e n w a s m u c h too a w a r e of tradition for this. B u t
E u s e b i u s , w h o k n e w the w o r k of this h o n o u r e d scholar a n d confessor
like n o other, follows the list i m m e d i a t e l y with O r i g e n ' s s t a t e m e n t s c o n
c e r n i n g the G o s p e l s and the N e w T e s t a m e n t Epistles. In the introduction,
he calls the list a 'list of the H o l y Scriptures of t h e O l d C o v e n a n t ' (
) . Origen
d e f e n d e d the authenticity of S u s a n n a (one of the a d d i t i o n s to Daniel) in
d i a l o g u e with Julius Africanus b y a p p e a l i n g , for e x a m p l e , to the J e w i s h
( p r o t o - ) T h e o d o t i o n version w h i c h h e , and after h i m a l m o s t all the other
F a t h e r s , u t i l i z e d e x c l u s i v e l y ; y e t h e u n l i k e J e r o m e s o u g h t not to
d e v a l u e L X X texts w h i c h h a d n o H e b r e w e q u i v a l e n t . A t the s a m e t i m e ,
as the greatest biblical philologist of the early c h u r c h , he w a s u n w i l l i n g
to d i s r e g a r d the c o n s e q u e n c e s of the t e x t - c o m p a r a t i v e w o r k d o c u m e n t e d
in his m o n u m e n t a l H e x a p l a . F o r o n e w h o t o o k s u c h p a i n s w i t h the
' o r i g i n a l ' and the i m p r o v e m e n t of the chaotic text tradition, the H e b r e w
B i b l e m u s t i n d e e d h a v e attained substantial i m p o r t a n c e . E v e n A u g u s t i n e
w a s forced, a l t h o u g h unwillingly, to take into a c c o u n t the results of the
philological textual c o m p a r i s o n i n a u g u r a t e d by O r i g e n (see a b o v e , p p .
50-3).

T h e f a m o u s thirty-ninth E a s t e r Letter of A t h a n a s i u s in 3 6 7 CE m a d e
it e v i d e n t that lists such as O r i g e n ' s later a s s u m e d a certain p r e s c r i p -

14
E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 6 : 2 5 - 6 ; S w e t e , 2 0 3 .
15
Cf. B e c k w i t h , 1 8 5 - 6 .
I h
, 'Prince o f the h o u s e o f the S o n o f G o d ' ( ? ) . Cf. a b o v e R. Hanhart
p. 11.
t i v e f u n c t i o n a n d t h a t t h e H e b r e w c a n o n c o n t i n u e d to m a i n t a i n its
' n o r m a t i v e ' ( o r p e r h a p s b e t t e r d i s r u p t i v e ? ) role. H e , too, a p p e a l s to
the ' m a g i c a l ' n u m b e r 2 2 attained by following the H e b r e w c a n o n , for
the m o s t part, a l t h o u g h h e c o n s i d e r s 1 and 2 K i n g s (= 1 and 2 S a m u e l ) ,
3(1) a n d 4(2) K i n g s , 1 a n d 2 C h r o n i c l e s , 1 a n d 2 Ezra, as well a s i n
a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o l d e r t r a d i t i o n (see b e l o w , p p . 1 1 3 - 1 4 ) J e r e m i a h ,
B a r u c h , L a m e n t a t i o n s , a n d the Epistle of J e r e m i a h as o n e b o o k e a c h .
In this m a n n e r , B a r u c h a n d the Epistle of J e r e m i a h , as well as 1 E z r a
and the additions to D a n i e l found shelter in the c a n o n lists a n d c o u l d
be integrated into the n u m b e r 2 2 (see b e l o w , p p . 1 0 1 - 2 ) . O n the other
h a n d , A t h a n a s i u s w i s h e d n o m o r e than did J e r o m e later to a b a n d o n
c o m p l e t e l y the ' o t h e r b o o k s ' distributed in the c h u r c h e s , b o o k s ' w h i c h
are to b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from these and are not c a n o n i c a l , but w h i c h the
fathers h a v e d e t e r m i n e d s h o u l d b e read to n e w c o n v e r t s to be instructed
in t h e w o r d of w i s d o m ' . S u c h b o o k s w e r e W i s d o m , S i r a c h , E s t h e r
(despite the H e b r e w c a n o n , still not yet fully r e c o g n i z e d in the G r e e k
c h u r c h ) , J u d i t h a n d T o b i t . A s in V a t i c a n u s , the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s
are o m i t t e d entirely from the E a s t e r Letter. T h i s o m i s s i o n m a y h a v e
b e e n in a c c o r d a n c e with c o n t e m p o r a r y A l e x a n d r i a n tradition. Of t h o s e
w o r k s n o w k n o w n as the ' A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s ' , h o w e v e r , the Didache
a n d t h e Shepherd of H e r m a s are i n c l u d e d in the N e w T e s t a m e n t . By
c o n t r a s t the ' h i d d e n ' ( a p o c r y p h a l ) b o o k s of M o s e s , Isaiah and E n o c h
h i g h l y r e g a r d e d well into t h e third c e n t u r y a r e rejected w i t h s h a r p
17
polemic.
H e r e w e find for the first t i m e a clear differentiation b e t w e e n three
c a t e g o r i e s : certain b o o k s h a v e b e e n canonized ( ) by t h e
fathers; others are only read publicly ( ) ; o t h e r s , the
' A p o c r y p h a ' , they w o u l d h a v e preferred not to m e n t i o n at all (
, ) t h e y are
to be rejected b e c a u s e they h a v e b e e n c o u n t e r f e i t e d by the h e r e t i c s .
T h e distinction, w h o s e d e v e l o p m e n t c a n b e p e r c e i v e d h e r e , p r e p a r e d
by c h u r c h p r a c t i c e a n d b a s e d on the d i s p u t e w i t h the J e w s o v e r the
true s c o p e of the H o l y S c r i p t u r e s as w e l l as on the c o n t a i n m e n t of
heretical influences, has its b e g i n n i n g s as far b a c k as the s e c o n d c e n t u r y .
Significantly, during the p r o c e s s an ' i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p ' w a s f o r m e d ,
s o m e w h e r e b e t w e e n the strictly ' c a n o n i c a l ' b o o k s and those that w e r e
to be rejected, an i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p that J e r o m e first d e s i g n a t e d with
the o n c e - a g a i n neutral term ' a p o c r y p h a ' (see a b o v e p . 4 9 n. 8 0 a n d p.
5 6 n. 9 6 ) a n d that w a s u s e d p r i m a r i l y for t h e ethical i n s t r u c t i o n of
catechumens.

17
, ,

(text in P r e u s c h e n , 4 2 - 5 , the C o p t i c f r a g m e n t s ,
4 5 - 5 2 ; cf. a l s o J u n o d , 1 2 4 - 3 0 . O n Enoch, s e e a b o v e , pp. 5 4 - 6 ) .
1 8
T h e ( p r o v i n c i a l ) S y n o d of L a o d i c e a (c. 3 6 0 ) a c t e d e v e n m o r e
rigorously in its C a n o n 6 0 ( a d m i t t e d l y of d i s p u t e d authenticity). T h i s
first p r o h i b i t s t h e r e c i t a t i o n of p r i v a t e ( i . e . n o n - b i b l i c a l ) p s a l m s ,
Christian h y m n s , a n d the r e a d i n g of ' n o n - c a n o n i c a l b o o k s ' in the c h u r c h
19
and then lists the t w e n t y - t w o b o o k s p e r m i t t e d for r e a d i n g ; the list, in
c o n t r a s t to that of A t h a n a s i u s , also i n c l u d e s E s t h e r . T o a c h i e v e the
n u m b e r 2 2 , R u t h is a p p e n d e d to J u d g e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , o n l y the 150
p s a l m s of the H e b r e w Bible, but not P s a l m 151 of the L X X , are admitted.
In other w o r d s , this s y n o d a d h e r e d e v e n m o r e closely to the ' H e b r e w
c a n o n ' and limited h y m n - s i n g i n g in w o r s h i p to the biblical Psalter.
T h i s c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t will n a t u r a l l y reflect t h e actual u s e of
Scripture d u r i n g the first three c e n t u r i e s of the c h u r c h in only a very
l i m i t e d w a y c o r r e s p o n d s to a l a r g e n u m b e r of c a t a l o g u e s from the
G r e e k c h u r c h from r o u g h l y the s a m e p e r i o d f o r e x a m p l e , the c o n t e m
poraries of E p i p h a n i u s , A m p h i l o c h u s of I c o n i u m , G r e g o r y of N a z i a n z u s
and Cyril of J e r u s a l e m (d. 386). In his fourth c a t e c h e s i s , after first relating
the Aristeas l e g e n d in the C h r i s t i a n form, already traditional, that e m p h a
sizes the inspiration of the s e p a r a t e d translators, Cyril lists the t w e n t y -
t w o H o l y S c r i p t u r e s : t w e l v e 'historical b o o k s ' from G e n e s i s to Esther,
five ' p o e t i c a l ' b o o k s written in stichoi, and, finally, five ' p r o p h e t i c ' b o o k s .
20
T h e r e is n o i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p ; h e expressly rejects the a p o c r y p h a . T h e
d e p e n d e n c e on the H e b r e w c a n o n is also n o t e w o r t h y h e r e . In Palestine,
t h e c o n s t a n t d i s p u t e w i t h J e w i s h i n h a b i t a n t s , w h o w e r e v e r y self-
confident and influential in the fourth c e n t u r y , m a y h a v e p l a y e d a role.
E v e n the patriarch N i c e p h o r o s of C o n s t a n t i n o p l e (c. 7 5 0 - 8 2 8 ) clearly
d i s t i n g u i s h e d the i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p from the t w e n t y - t w o b o o k s of the
Old T e s t a m e n t ; h e allocated nine titles to the i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p : three
b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s , W i s d o m , S i r a c h , t h e P s a l m s a n d Odes (!) of
Solomon, Esther, Judith, S u s a n n a and Tobit. T h e s e w e r e followed by
21
fourteen ' a p o c r y p h a ' to b e rejected, with Enoch at the h e a d .

IX
T h e p r e c i s e date o f this a s s e m b l y o f b i s h o p s is uncertain. Cf. . M . M e t z g e r (The
Canon of the New Testament [ O x f o r d 1 9 8 7 ] , 2 9 2 ) , w h o a c c e p t s the date 3 6 3 . In contrast
C. Nardi, Art. ' L a o d i c e a ( c o n c i l i ) ' , in A . D i B e r a r d i n o , e d . , Dizionario patristico e di
Antichit Christiane II ( C a s a l e M o n f e r r a t t o , 1 9 8 3 ) . 1 8 8 9 - 9 9 ( F r e n c h e d n , p. 1 4 0 7 ) s p e a k s
o n l y o f the t i m e o f T h e o d o s i u s ( 3 4 7 - 9 5 ) , but regards as p o s s i b l e an e v e n later date during
the t i m e o f T h e o d o r e t o f C y r u s ( 3 9 3 - 4 5 8 ) . For c a n o n l a w s e e Z a h n I I / 1 , 1 9 3 - 2 0 2 ; the text
is in P. P. J o a n n o u . Discipline gnrale antique 1/2 (Grottaferrata, 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 0 2 7 - 5 5 . I a m
grateful to D r Chr. M a r k s c h i e s for t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s .
19
c m ,
, (text in P r e u s c h e n
[ s e e a b o v e , p. 5 7 n. 1], 7 2 - 3 ) . O n the prohibition against r e c i t i n g private p s a l m s , s e e
M. H e n g e l , ' D a s C h r i s t u s l i e d i m frhesten G o t t e s d i e n s t ' , in Weisheit Gottes-Weisheitder
Welt I ( F S J. Card. R a t z i n g e r ) , W . B a i e r and V . Pfnr, e d s (St O t t i l i e n , 1 9 8 7 ) , 3 5 7 - 4 0 4 ,
e s p . 3 6 6 - 8 = i d e m , Studies in Early Christology, Edinburgh, 1995, 2 2 7 - 9 1 (275f.).
2 0
Catechesis I V , 3 3 - 6 . T e x t in P r e u s c h e n , 7 9 - 8 2 ; cf. a l s o J u n o d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 0 n. 7 ) .
129-30.
:
T e x t : P r e u s c h e n , 6 2 - 4 ; G e r m a n translation in I (5th e d n ) . 3 3 - 4 .
It is against this b a c k g r o u n d that w e m a y u n d e r s t a n d J e r o m e ' s battle
for the priority of the hebraica Veritas and the W e s t e r n c o u n t e r - r e a c t i o n
in the u n d i s c e r n i n g inclusion by the S y n o d of C a r t h a g e (397 CE) of the
b o o k s from the i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p not r e p r e s e n t e d in the H e b r e w B i b l e
but in c h u r c h use. T h e conflict o v e r the s c o p e of the O l d T e s t a m e n t in the
R e f o r m a t i o n p r o c e e d s from the p r o b l e m s already e v i d e n t quite s o o n in
the early c h u r c h and the u n r e s o l v e d d i s p u t e , b r o k e n off at that t i m e ,
22
c o n t i n u e s in a n e w f o r m .

3. The 'Second Class' Character of the Writings


Not Contained in the Hebrew Canon

T h e fact that o n e m a y s p e a k of the relatively ' s e c o n d c l a s s ' c h a r a c t e r of


the ' i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p ' n o t c o n t a i n e d in the H e b r e w c a n o n is also
e v i d e n t from a certain r e l u c t a n c e to cite t h e m or use t h e m as r e a d i n g s
in w o r s h i p . D e s p i t e its inclusion in the H e b r e w B i b l e , E s t h e r c o n t i n u e s
to b e n u m b e r e d a m o n g t h e s e only half-heartedly r e c o g n i z e d w r i t i n g s .
T h e A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s e x c e p t for C l e m e n t of R o m e (see b e l o w , p p .
1 2 1 - 2 ) a n d the A p o l o g i s t s , from J u s t i n to T h e o p h i l u s of A n t i o c h ,
i g n o r e d t h e s e d o c u m e n t s a l m o s t entirely. T h e s a m e is essentially true,
a l t h o u g h to a s o m e w h a t lesser d e g r e e , e v e n from I r e n a e u s to Tertullian,
with the e x c e p t i o n of C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a ' s use of Tobit, W i s d o m
and Sirach (see b e l o w , p p . 1 1 5 - 1 7 ) ; he utilized the latter w o r k especially
in the Paidagogos, a d d r e s s e d to e d u c a t e d c a t e c h u m e n s and C h r i s t i a n s .
H e r e the educational m o t i v e m e n t i o n e d by A t h a n a s i u s b e c o m e s apparent.
A t the s a m e t i m e , he also frequently e m p l o y e d p s e u d e p i g r a p h a , e v e n

: :
For the situation in North A f r i c a , cf. W e r m e l i n g e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 8 n. 7 6 ) , 1 7 0 ^ .
T h e text o f the biblical c a n o n o f the S y n o d o f C a r t h a g e is in P r e u s c h e n , 7 2 - 3 : ' I t e m
p l a c u i t , ut praeter scripturas c a n o n i c a s nihil in e c c l e s i a legatur s u b n o m i n e d i v i n a r u m
scripturarum, sunt a u t e m c a n o n i c a e scripturae h a e : . . . ' In a d d i t i o n to the usual c a n o n i c a l
b o o k s , the f o l l o w i n g are m e n t i o n e d : five b o o k s o f S o l o m o n ( P r o v . , Q o h . , C a n t . , W i s d . ,
S i r . ! ) , T o b i t , Judith, Esther, 1 and 2 M a c c a b e e s . For the R e f o r m a t i o n c o n t r o v e r s y , s e e H.
B o r n k a m m , Luther und das Alte Testament ( T b i n g e n , 1 9 4 8 ) , 1 5 8 - 9 and 2 3 4 . Luther
p r e a c h e d o n o n l y t w o p a s s a g e s f r o m S i r a c h , o t h e r w i s e there are n o c o m m e n t a r i e s or
s e r m o n s o n the A p o c r y p h a ; H. V o l z , 'Luthers S t e l l u n g z u den A p o k r y p h e n d e s A l t e n
T e s t a m e n t s ' , Lid 2 6 ( 1 9 5 9 ) : 9 3 - 1 0 8 ; K. D . Fricke, ' D e r A p o k r y p h e n t e i l der L u t h e r b i b e l ' ,
in Die Apokryphen/rage im kumenischen Horizont, S. M e u r e r , e d . (Stuttgart, 1 9 8 9 ) , 5 1 -
8 2 ; W . N e u s e r , ' C a l v i n s S t e l l u n g z u d e n A p o k r y p h e n d e s A l t e n T e s t a m e n t s ' , in, Text-
Wort-Glaube ( F S K. A l a n d ) , M . B r e c h t , e d . ( A K G 5 0 ; Berlin and N e w Y o r k , 1 9 8 0 ) , 2 9 8 -
3 2 3 ; idem, ' D i e R e f o r m i e r t e n und d i e A p o k r y p h e n d e s A l t e n T e s t a m e n t s ' , in M e u r e r , e d . ,
8 3 - 1 0 3 ; J. Q u a c k , Evangelische Bibelvorreden von der Reformation bis zur Aufklrung
( Q F R G 4 3 ; G t e r s l o h , 1 9 7 5 ) , 15, 4 0 - 6 , 4 8 , 6 7 - 8 , 8 0 , 1 1 5 , e t c . ; R g e r ( s e e p. 61 . 10),
2 9 4 - 6 ; . L o h s e , ' D i e E n t s c h e i d u n g der l u t h e r i s c h e n R e f o r m a t i o n ber d e n U m f a n g
d e s a l t t e s t a m e n t l i c h e n K a n o n s ' , in idem. Evangelium in der Geschichte. Studien zu
Luther und der Reformation ( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 8 8 ) . 2 1 1 - 3 6 , a l s o in Verbindliches Zeugnis I.
169-94.
w o r k s by heretical a n d p a g a n a u t h o r s . H e , the m o s t truly e d u c a t e d early
C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r b e f o r e O r i g e n , l o v e d to d i s p l a y h i s c o m p r e h e n s i v e
learning and is c o n s e q u e n t l y r a t h e r atypical. In v i e w of the g r a n d s c o p e
of the totality of his w o r k , e v e n O r i g e n m a d e r a t h e r l i m i t e d use of
writings such as Esther, Tobit, Judith, and the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s . T h i s
23
also applies to the later f a t h e r s .
It s e e m s to m e that in this early period w o r k s such as 1 Enoch (or
r e l a t e d w o r k s a t t r i b u t e d to E n o c h ) w e r e cited as often if not m o r e .
B e s i d e s the letter of J u d e (v. 14), the Letter of Barnabas refers to it t w i c e
2 4 25 26
as ; furthermore, T a t i a n and A t h e n a g o r a s m e n t i o n (or k n o w )
27 28
it; Justin, too, w h o d o e s not cite it, a p p a r e n t l y k n e w i t . I r e n a e u s refers
to it frequently, as d o e s Tertullian, w h o valued it especially a n d defended
it against rejection by the J e w s (see a b o v e p p . 5 4 - 5 ) . O t h e r s w h o k n e w it
i n c l u d e M i n u c i u s F e l i x , C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a , J u l i u s A f r i c a n u s ,
29
H i p p o l y t u s , C o m m o d i a n , C y p r i a n , e t c . Even O r i g e n k n e w that it w a s
not universally r e c o g n i z e d in the c h u r c h a n d was rejected by the J e w s .
H e vacillated, therefore, in his j u d g e m e n t , but n o n e t h e l e s s refers to it

2 !
C o m p a r e the i n d i c e s in Biblia Patristica, I: Des Origines Clment d'Alexandrie et
Tertullien (Paris, 1 9 7 5 ) : o f 172 p a g e s d e a l i n g w i t h the Old T e s t a m e n t , o n l y a m e r e 7 refer
to the b o o k s o f T o b i t , Judith, 1 and 2 M a c c a b e e s , W i s d o m , S i r a c h and B a r u c h ; / / ; Le
troisime sicle (Origne except) (Paris, 1 9 7 7 ) : 168 pp. Old T e s t a m e n t , o f w h i c h 9 p a g e s
T o b i t - B a r u c h ; / / / ; Origne (Paris, 1 9 8 0 ) : 187 pp. O l d T e s t a m e n t , o n l y 5 p a g e s T o b i t -
B a r u c h ; IV: Eusbe de Csare, Cyrille de Jrusalem, Epiphanie de Salamine (Paris,
1 9 8 7 ) : o f 1 7 4 O l d T e s t a m e n t p a g e s , o n l y 4 for T o b i t - B a r u c h .
2 4
4:3 s a y s : , .
A b o u t this, . W e n g s t remarks: ' T h e E n o c h literature k n o w n to d a t e o f f e r s n o r e f e r e n c e
to this; the r e m a i n i n g r e f e r e n c e s to Eth E n 8 9 : 1 6 - 6 4 and 9 0 : 1 7 - 1 8 are l a p s e s . T h i s m a y
be an error o n the a u t h o r ' s part' (Schriften des Urchristentums II [ D a r m s t a d t , 1 9 8 4 ] , 145
n. 3 6 ) . In a d d i t i o n , C o d e x L ( C o r b i e n s i s ) r e a d s i n s t e a d o f E n o c h and thus
interprets the ' c o m p l e t e s c a n d a l ' in the s e n s e o f the o f D a n i e l
9 : 2 7 ; 1 1 : 3 1 ; 12:11 (cf. W i s d . 14:11 w h e r e and stand in parallel
[see K. W e n g s t , l o c . cit., 197 n. 3 5 ] ) . T h e substitution o f D a n i e l is apparently an Orthodox"
c o r r e c t i o n c i t i n g a c a n o n i c a l b o o k in the p l a c e o f a 'heretical' o n e . In any c a s e , o n e m a y
a s s u m e that Barnabas k n e w ' E n o c h literature'. T h e s e c o n d i n s t a n c e in 16:5 d o e s not
m e n t i o n the s o u r c e o f the c i t a t i o n . It is m e r e l y i n t r o d u c e d w i t h and then
f o l l o w s a free, a b b r e v i a t e d rendition o f Eth En 9 1 : 1 3 . E v e n m o r e than the Dialogue of
Justin, the Letter of Barnabas is a l s o a s c h o l a s t i c d o c u m e n t c r e a t e d a l m o s t entirely from
t e s t i m o n i a c o l l e c t i o n s (cf. . W e n g s t , 1 2 3 - 5 ) .
25
Oratio ad Graecos 8:1 (an a l l u s i o n to En. 8:3) and 2 0 : 4 (cf. En. 6:6; 15:8). T e x t in
Corpus Apologeticum Christianorum V I , J. C . T h . O t t o , e d . (Jena, 1 8 5 1 ) , 3 4 , 8 8 .
2fi
Legatio Pro Christianis 24:1 (11. 4 - 5 ) , M . M a r c o v i c h , e d . ( P T S 31 ; Berlin and N e w
Y o r k , 1 9 9 0 ) , 8 2 . T h e s a m e a p p e a r s as Libellus pro Christianis ( . S c h w a r z [ T U 14;
L e i p z i g 1891 j), a n d Supplicatio (E. J. G o o d s p e e d , Die ltesten Apologeten [Gttingen,
1 9 1 4 = 1 9 8 4 ) , 3 1 5 - 1 7 ) . T h e variants result from differing translations o f .
2 7
S e e M . H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 4 9 n. 3 8 .
2
* Adv Haer 1:10:1 = 1 En. 1 0 : 1 3 - 1 4 ; 5 : 4 ; e t c . ; Adv Haer 1 : 1 5 : 6 = I En. 8 : 1 ; e t c . ; A d v
Haer 4 : 3 6 : 4 = / En. 9:8; 1 0 : 2 ; Adv Haer 5 : 2 8 : 2 = / En. 19:1 ; 9 9 : 7 .
2 9
A c o l l e c t i o n o f the c i t a t i o n s in C h a r l e s ( a b o v e n. 11. p. I x x x i - x c v ; cf. a l s o M i l i k . s e e
a b o v e , p. 5 4 n. 8 9 ) , 7 0 - 2 , 7 9 - 8 1 , and a b o v e , p p . 5 4 - 6 .
relatively often and favourably. In the d i s p u t e with C e l s u s , w h o a d d u c e d
a citation from Enoch in o r d e r to d e m o n s t r a t e Christian i n c o n s i s t e n c y ,
h o w e v e r , O r i g e n a c c u s e s h i m not only of b e i n g unfamiliar with the b o o k ,
but also of ' n o t s e e m i n g to k n o w that the literature attributed to E n o c h is
30
not e v e n r e g a r d e d as d i v i n e in the c h u r c h e s ' .
T h e m a n u s c r i p t e v i d e n c e for the b o o k s of this ' i n t e r m e d i a t e g r o u p '
and their u s e in the lectionaries is also substantially m o r e m o d e s t than
31
that for the other w r i t i n g s . It is especially n o t e w o r t h y that they w e r e
not c o m m e n t e d on or interpreted in a h o m i l y either in the East, or e v e n in
the W e s t w h e r e a few of t h e m attained a p p a r e n t equal status t h r o u g h the
32
S y n o d of C a r t h a g e ( 3 9 7 ) . In the W e s t , R h a b a n u s M a u r u s ( 7 8 0 - 8 5 6 )
w r o t e the first c o m m e n t a r y on W i s d o m , Sirach, J u d i t h and Esther. O n l y
T o b i t w a s e x c e p t e d . S i n c e h e w a s c o n s i d e r e d a p r o p h e t , already in the
33
fourth c e n t u r y A m b r o s e and later B e d e c o m m e n t e d on the b o o k .
In c o n t r a s t , t h e first c o m m e n t a r i e s o n t h e S o n g of S o n g s a n d
Q o h e l e t h w h o s e 'religious c o n t e n t ' , on the surface, s e e m s indeed hardly
greater than that of Sirach or W i s d o m w e r e already a p p e a r i n g in the
third a n d fourth c e n t u r i e s ( H i p p o l y t u s , O r i g e n , G r e g o r y T h a u m a t u r g u s ,
D i o n y s i u s of A l e x a n d r i a , D i d y m u s the Blind, etc.). T h i s early p r e f e r e n c e
for the S o n g is r e m a r k a b l e . T h e i m p u l s e t o w a r d allegorical interpreta
tion already perceptible earlier in J u d a i s m will h a v e p r o m p t e d the w r i t i n g

M>
Contra Celsum 5 : 5 4 ;
; s e e Harl, D o r i v a l a n d M u n n i c h . 3 2 3 . For the Enoch
c i t a t i o n s , s e e a l s o Schrer (rev. I I I / 1 , 2 6 1 - 4 ) . B e c k w i t h ( 3 9 1 - 2 , 3 9 7 - 4 0 5 ) e m p h a s i z e s
that the c a n o n i c i t y o f Jude b e c a m e a p r o b l e m b e c a u s e o f this c i t a t i o n and that 2 Peter
a l r e a d y c o r r e c t e d this p o i n t . In h i s o p i n i o n , J u d e d i d not e m p l o y Enoch as i n s p i r e d
S c r i p t u r e but as 'narrative h a g g a d a h e d i f y i n g , but not n e c e s s a r i l y h i s t o r i c a l ' ( 4 3 0 ) ;
c o m p a r e a l s o E l l i s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 5 7 n. 2 ) , 5: '. . . w h i l e c a n o n i c a l Scripture w a s regarded
as p r o p h e t i c , p r o p h e t i c w r i t i n g did not n e c e s s a r i l y b e c o m e c a n o n i c a l ' . It s h o u l d be n o t e d
that, at the t i m e w h e n Jude w a s written, there w a s still n o fixed 'Christian c a n o n ' and e v e n
t h e J e w i s h c a n o n w a s s t i l l p r o b l e m a t i c a l . B e c k w i t h ' s r e a s o n i n g o n t h i s p o i n t is
anachronistic.
" A . R a h l f s , Die alttestamentlichen Lektionen der griechischen Kirche ( M S U 1/5;
B e r l i n , 1 9 1 5 ) , 2 2 6 - 3 0 : J u d i t h , T o b i t a n d 1 M a c c a b e e s are t o t a l l y a b s e n t . S e e a l s o
G. Z u n t z , Prophetologium Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae Lectionaria I (Copenhagen.
1 9 7 0 ) , 6 0 3 - 5 , i n d e x l o c o r u m . O f the ' A p o c r y p h a ' , o n l y t w o W i s d o m and t w o B a r u c h
texts are u t i l i z e d ( 5 6 7 - 7 0 , 4 2 - 3 . 5 5 6 ) .
1 2
J u n o d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 0 n. 7 ) , 118.
v 1
For T o b i t as a prophet, s e e already the O p h i t i c prophet list in Irenaeus, Adv Haer
1 : 3 0 : 1 1 . T h e b o o k is often c i t e d in the A p o s t o l i c Fathers, C l e m e n t and O r i g e n (cf. the
c i t a t i o n s in S c h r e r (rev.) III/1, 2 2 7 ) . A m b r o s e , t o o , in his c o m m e n t a r y De Tobia ( C S E L
3 2 / 2 , C . S c h e n k l , ed. [ V i e n n a , 1 8 9 7 ] , 5 1 7 - 7 3 ) treats the w o r k as a p r o p h e t i c b o o k . T h e
c o m m e n t a r y b e g i n s w i t h the w o r d s : ' L e c t o p r o p h e t i c o l i b r o , qui i n s c r i b i t u r T o b i s ,
q u a m v i s p l e n e virtutes sancti p r o p h e t a e scriptura i n s i n u a v e r i n t , tarnen c o n p e n d i a r i o mihi
s e r m o n e de e i u s m e n t i s r e c e n s e n d i s et o p e r i b u s apud v o s u t e n d u m arbitrer, ut ea quae
scriptura h i s t o r i c o m o r e d i g e s s i t latius n o s strictius c o m p r e h e n d a m u s virtutem e i u s g e n e r a
velut q u o d a m breviario c o l l i g e n t e s . ' For B e d e and the other c o m m e n t a t o r s , see
J. G a m b e r o n i , Die Auslegung des Buches Tobias in der griechischlateinisch Kirche der
Antike und der Christenheit des Westens bis 1600 ( S t A N T 21 ; M u n i c h . 1 9 6 9 ) .
3 4
of c o m m e n t a r i e s , for w i t h o u t s u c h an i n t e r p r e t i v e s t r a t e g y it w a s
i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e as Holy Scripture. Byzantine c o m m e n t a r i e s on W i s d o m
(by M a t t h a e u s C a n t a c u z e n u s and M a l a c h i a s M o n a c h o s ) a p p e a r only late
in the fourteenth c e n t u r y ; the latter is s u p p o s e d to h a v e also c o m m e n t e d
on Sirach. T h e r e are n o c o m m e n t a r i e s w h a t s o e v e r on Esther, Judith, Tobit
35
and the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s from the G r e e k c h u r c h .
R e m a r k a b l y , 4 Maccabees, w h i c h w a s not r e c e i v e d in the W e s t ,
a p p e a r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e often in B y z a n t i n e m a n u s c r i p t s t h a n the
other b o o k s ; this is related to its particular m a r t y r i o l o g i c a l character.
T h e w o r k stands at the b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n ( d e u t e r o - ) c a n o n i c a l Scripture
36
and h a g i o g r a p h i c a l - l i t u r g i c a l n a r r a t i v e .
T h i s ' s e c o n d c l a s s ' c h a r a c t e r is certainly to be u n d e r s t o o d in the first
instance in t e r m s of the a b s e n c e of a p r o t o t y p e in the H e b r e w Bible, but
c a n n o t , h o w e v e r , be e x p l a i n e d solely in these t e r m s since this ' s e c o n d
c l a s s ' c h a r a c t e r is also substantially true for Esther. Q u i t e unlike E s t h e r
by c o n t r a s t , s i n c e the third c e n t u r y , the fathers h i g h l y t r e a s u r e d a n d
allegorically interpreted the b o o k s of C a n t i c l e s a n d Q o h e l e t h , w h o s e
' c a n o n i z a t i o n ' w a s also highly d e b a t e d by the r a b b i s .
E d u c a t e d users o b s e r v e d already long before J e r o m e , that W i s d o m
in itself q u i t e significant for C h r i s t o l o g y w a s o r i g i n a l l y written in
37
G r e e k a n d c o u l d not h a v e o r i g i n a t e d with S o l o m o n . In the p r o l o g u e to
his c o m m e n t a r y on Canticles, Origen m e n t i o n s only three b o o k s
attributable to S o l o m o n ( P r o v e r b s , C a n t i c l e s and Q o h e l e t h ) , a l t h o u g h h e
usually cites W i s d o m as S o l o m o n i c . T h e p a s s a g e in De Principiis IV

1 4
T h e S o n g o f S o n g s w a s p r e s u m a b l y a l r e a d y interpreted a l l e g o r i c a l l y at Q u m r a n
w h e r e w e find three m a n u s c r i p t f r a g m e n t s ( t w o o f Q o h e l e t h ) : , Unpublished Qumran
Texts, 9 6 . In m y o p i n i o n , 2 John already a l l u d e s to the S o n g t h r o u g h and
. S e e M . H e n g e l , Die johanneische Frage ( W U N T 1/67; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 3 ) , 136
and i d e m , D i e a u s e r w h l t e Herrin, d i e Brant & d i e G o t t e s s t a d t , in La Cit de Dieu/Die
Stadt Gottes, e d s . M . H e n g e l , S. M i t t m a n n and . M . S c h w e m e r ( W U N T 1 2 9 : T b i n g e n
2 0 0 0 ) , 2 4 5 - 8 5 . In the s e c o n d c e n t u r y , the V a l e n t i n i a n s w i t h their bridal m y s t i c i s m m a y
h a v e interpreted it a l l e g o r i c a l l y . S e e b e l o w , p p . 9 1 - 3 .
" C o m p a r e the b i b l i o g r a p h i e s o n the history o f e x e g e s i s c o m p i l e d by W . W e r b e c k at
the e n d o f the relevant articles in R G G (3rd e d . ) and R a h l f s , 3 8 5 . 4 2 0 - 2 (for c o m m e n t a r i e s
on W i s d o m and S i r a c h ) ; an a n o n y m o u s c o m m e n t a r y o n W i s d o m f r o m a s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y
m a n u s c r i p t s h o u l d a l s o be m e n t i o n e d (p. 4 2 4 ) .
,fl
R a h l f s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 5 5 n. 9 4 ) . 3 8 7 - 9 0 ; E u s e b i u s and J e r o m e c o u n t the b o o k a m o n g
the w r i t i n g s o f J o s e p h u s (Hist Feci 3 : 1 0 : 6 ; De Viris Illustribus 13; Contra Pelagianos
2:6); in the c a n o n lists, it n e v e r appears a m o n g the c a n o n i c a l b o o k s , but it is c o n t a i n e d in
c o d i c e s S i n a i t i c u s , A l e x a n d r i n u s and V e n e t u s ( e i g h t h / n i n t h c e n t u r y ) , as w e l l as in
J o s e p h u s m a n u s c r i p t s . N o c a t e n a e or c o m m e n t a r i e s e x i s t for any o f the four b o o k s o f
M a c c a b e e s . O n l y R h a b a n u s M a u r u s w r o t e a c o m m e n t a r y in the W e s t in the ninth c e n t u r y
( M P L 1 0 9 ) . It f o u n d a s u c c e s s o r , h o w e v e r , o n l y in the fifteenth c e n t u r y .
" Cf. Prologus in libris Salomonis ( 9 5 7 ) : ' S e c u n d u s apud H e b r a e o s n u s q u a m est, quin
et ipse stilus g r a e c a m e l o q u e n t i a m r e d o l e t ; et nonnulli scriptorum v e t e r u m hunc Iudaei
F i l o n i s adfirmant. S i c u t e r g o Iudith et T o b i et M a c c h a b e o r u m libros legit q u i d e m E c c l e s i a ,
sed inter c a n o n i c a s scripturas n o n recipit, sic et h a e c d u o v o l u m i n a legat ad a e d i f i c a t i o n e m
p l e b i s , n o n ad a u c t o r i t a t e m e c c l e s i a s t i c o r u m d o g m a t u m c o n f i r m a n d a m . '
3 8
4 : 6 , w h e r e h e r e f e r s to t h e d o c u m e n t as ' S a p i e n t i a quae dicitur
S a l o m o n i s ' and then points out that 'this b o o k is not r e c o g n i z e d by a l l ' ,
d e m o n s t r a t e s that he follows c o n v e n t i o n m o r e than c o n v i c t i o n in this
respect. J e r o m e says that, ' s o m e of the old a u t h o r s attribute it to the J e w
P h i l o ' . T h e M u r a t o r i a n C a n o n e v e n lists it a m o n g the N e w T e s t a m e n t
w r i t i n g s . A p p a r e n t l y the c o m m e n t in the M u r a t o r i a n C a n o n M u r a t o r i
6 9 - 7 1 , ' S a p i e n t i a a b a m i c i s S a l o m o n i s in h o n o r e m i p s i u s s c r i p t a ' ,
3 9
reflects a possible m i s t r a n s l a t i o n of .
A l r e a d y (Hist Eccl 2 : 1 6 - 1 7 ) , E u s e b i u s refers to the older report that,
on the o c c a s i o n of his m i s s i o n to C a l i g u l a , P h i l o h a d contact with P e t e r
and in De vita contemplativa d e s c r i b e d the life of the T h e r a p e u t a e as that
of early C h r i s t i a n ascetics; J e r o m e (De Viris Illustribus 11) e v e n m a k e s
h i m out to b e a Christian author. C o n s e q u e n t l y , it w o u l d be quite u n d e r
s t a n d a b l e if R o m a n C h r i s t i a n s t o w a r d the e n d of the s e c o n d or b e g i n n i n g
of the third c e n t u r y t h e s c h o l a r H i p p o l y t u s c o m e s to m i n d h e r e h a d
i n c l u d e d W i s d o m in the N e w T e s t a m e n t c a n o n as P h i l o ' s w o r k . It m a y
h a v e also b e e n an a t t e m p t to i n c o r p o r a t e the p o p u l a r b o o k into the N e w
T e s t a m e n t , at least after its a b s e n c e from t h e H e b r e w B i b l e b e c a m e
apparent.
' D i s q u a l i f y i n g ' g r o u n d s , then, in addition to a b s e n c e from the H e b r e w
c a n o n , w e r e late origins (Sirach a n d the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s , as well as
W i s d o m ) , but, for s o m e also, q u e s t i o n a b l e c o n t e n t (Esther, Judith and,
as the protest in Julius Africanus s h o w s , the S u s a n n a story). A certain
m i s o g y n y m a y also b e i n v o l v e d here. T h e latter three w o r k s are typical
novelistic p r o d u c t s of the Hellenistic period, i n c l u d i n g e v e n the erotic
e l e m e n t s . In the p r e d o m i n a n t l y 'pacifist' Christianity of the s e c o n d a n d
third c e n t u r i e s , the nationalistic, bellicose a c c o u n t s of 1 a n d 2 M a c c a b e e s
or Judith m a y also h a v e e x c i t e d objections.

4. The Rejection of Authentic 'Apocrypha'

It r e m a i n s yet to ask w h y , b e g i n n i n g with the third c e n t u r y , ' A p o c r y p h a l


b o o k s ' (as they w e r e later called) such as Esther, Judith, Tobit, B a r u c h ,

, s
A t i s s u e is an i n s t a n c e o f in W i s d . 11:17 in a m e a n i n g o t h e r w i s e unattested ;'/;
scripturis canonicis. T h e w h o l e p a s s a g e reads: 'First, o n e m u s t k n o w that, to date, w e
h a v e not f o u n d the w o r d "material" (hyle) u s e d a n y w h e r e in the c a n o n i c a l scriptures for
the s u b s t a n c e u n d e r l y i n g the b o d y [Isa. 10:17 L X X f o l l o w s a l o n g w i t h an e x p o s i t i o n ] .
A n d , in the e v e n t that the w o r d "material" s h o u l d appear in another p a s s a g e o f scripture
(in alio loco scriptum), o n e w i l l still not find it, in m y o p i n i o n , in the m e a n i n g w i t h w h i c h
w e are c o n c e r n e d here, e x c e p t in the s o - c a l l e d " W i s d o m o f S o l o m o n " ; but this b o o k is not
r e c o g n i z e d by all (qui utique liber non ab omnibus in auctoritate habenturY ( T e x t and
G e r m a n translation by H. G r g e m a n n s and H. Karpp, ' O r i g e n e s : V i e r B c h e r v o n d e n
P r i n z i p i e n ' , Tz F 24 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 8 0 1 ) . Cf. a l s o J u n o d ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 0 n. 7 ) , 118.
w
Cf. S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / 1 . 5 4 . T h i s a l s o e x p l a i n s its a p p e a r a n c e a m o n g the N e w
T e s t a m e n t b o o k s ; cf. a l r e a d y S w e t e , 2 6 8 . In h i s p r o l o g u e to W i s d o m . L u t h e r , t o o .
c o n s i d e r s P h i l o n i c a u t h o r s h i p a p o s s i b i l i t y ; cf. . L o h s e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 6 n. 2 2 ) , 188.
W i s d o m , Sirach and the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s w e r e a c c e p t e d at a l l e v e n
t h o u g h rather g r u d g i n g l y w h i l e o t h e r s o m e w h a t theologically interest
i n g d o c u m e n t s w e r e finally c o m p l e t e l y r e j e c t e d . T h e s e d o c u m e n t s
i n c l u d e , e s p e c i a l l y , t h e m u c h - c i t e d b o o k of Enoch, but also the
Assumption of Moses a l r e a d y p r e s u p p o s e d in the letter of J u d e , the
Martyrdom of Isaiah as a p o r t i o n of the early C h r i s t i a n a p o c a l y p s e , the
40
Ascension of Isaiah, a l l u d e d to in H e b r e w s 11:37, the b o o k of the
4]
Repentance of Jannes and Jambres, u n d e r l y i n g 2 T i m o t h y 3:8, the
4 2
b o o k of Eldad and Modad, b a s e d on N u m b e r s l l : 2 6 - 7 , t h e o n l y
d o c u m e n t f o r m a l l y c i t e d in H e r m a s 2 : 3 : 4 ( 7 : 4 ) , not to m e n t i o n the
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, w h i c h is so closely related to N e w
T e s t a m e n t ethics and w h i c h w a s already subjected to Christian revision
41
in the s e c o n d c e n t u r y , or the Prayer of Joseph, f a v o u r e d by O r i g e n .

4 0
S e e S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / 1 , 3 3 5 - 4 1 . T h e l e g e n d o f the d i s m e m b e r m e n t o f Isaiah o c c u r s
in J u s t i n , Dial 1 2 0 : 5 (cf. M . H e n g e l , D u r h a m , 4 9 ) ; T e r t u l l i a n , De Patientia 14:1;
Scorpiace 8 : 3 . O r i g e n a l s o k n o w s the d o c u m e n t , cf. Epistola ad Africanum 9: ' T h e
traditions ( ) say that the p r o p h e t Isaiah w a s d i s m e m b e r e d , and this appears
in an a p o c r y p h o n ( ) ; this w a s , h o w e v e r , i n t e n t i o n a l l y
corrupted b y the J e w s for they h a v e i n s e r t e d a f e w u n s u i t a b l e w o r d s s o that the entire
d o c u m e n t b e c o m e s u n r e l i a b l e . ' T h e s a m e is true, a c c o r d i n g to O r i g e n , o f the S u s a n n a
story b e c a u s e it a l s o d e p i c t s the J e w i s h e l d e r s in a very bad light. It s h o u l d b e e m p h a s i z e d
that O r i g e n e m p l o y s the w o r d ' a p o c r y p h a l ' here in a literal s e n s e , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the
H e b r e w \:i ( s e e b e l o w , p. 91 n. 4 6 ) : the b o o k is not forbidden, but ' h i d d e n ' , that is e x c l u d e d
from p u b l i c r e a d i n g . It did not y e t h a v e any d e r o g a t o r y c o n n o t a t i o n for the A l e x a n d r i a n ,
but neither did it y e t i n d i c a t e , as it did after J e r o m e in the fifth c e n t u r y , the ' i n t e r m e d i a t e
group'.
4 1
T h i s is a m i d r a s h o f sorts o n E x o d u s 7 : 8 - 1 1 , already p r e s u p p o s e d in C D 5 : 1 8 . T h e
story o f the t w o E g y p t i a n m a g i c i a n s , w h o lost a m a g i c i a n s ' c o n t e s t w i t h M o s e s , is k n o w n
b o t h in the r a b b i n i c literature a n d in P l i n y the E l d e r and A p u l e i u s . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n
literature a l s o m a k e s frequent r e f e r e n c e to it, but n e v e r as H o l y Scripture, instead a l w a y s
as a story in relation to M o s e s . O r i g e n e v e n c i t e s it as e v i d e n c e that the N e w T e s t a m e n t
often refers to ' h i d d e n b o o k s ' : '. . . sicut I a m n e s et M a m b r e s restiterunt M o y s i ' n o n
invenitur in p u b l i c i s libris, s e d in libro s e c r e t o qui suprascribitur liber I a m n e s et M a m b r e s '
( M a t t h e w c o m m e n t a r y o n Matt. 2 7 : 9 [Commentariorum series 117], G C S Origenes 11,
E. K l o s t e r m a n n , e d . [ L e i p z i g , 1 9 3 3 ] , 2 5 0 ; cf. a l s o o n M a t t h e w 2 3 : 3 7 - 9 [Comm. Ser. 2 8 ] ,
l o c . cit., 5 0 - 1 ) . A l l c i t a t i o n s from S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I1I/2, 7 8 1 - 3 . T h e actual b o o k is o n l y
p r e s e r v e d in a f e w p a p y r u s f r a g m e n t s ; s e e A . P i e t e r s m a and R. T . Lutz, 'Jannes and
J a m b r e s ' , in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha II, J. H. C h a r l e s w o r t h , ed. ( L o n d o n .
1 9 8 5 ) , 4 2 7 - 4 2 , and the e d i t i o n o f the G r e e k text by A . P i e t e r s m a , The Apocryphon of
Jannes and Jambres the Magicians ( R G R W 119; L e i d e n , 1 9 9 4 ) .
4 2
.
. O t h e r w i s e , it is o n l y m e n t i o n e d in the
s t i c h o m e t r y o f N i c e p h o r u s a m o n g the O l d T e s t a m e n t A p o c r y p h a ; cf. S c h r e r (rev.) III/2,
7 8 3 ; P r e u s c h e n ( s e e a b o v e , p. 5 7 n. 1), 6 4 . O n l y the v e r s e c i t e d has b e e n p r e s e r v e d ; cf.
a l s o E. G. Martin, ' E l d a d and M o d a d ' , in C h a r l e s w o r t h II ( s e e a b o v e , n. 4 1 ) , 4 6 3 - 5 .
" A c c o r d i n g t o the s t i c h o m e t r y o f N i c e p h o r u s , the p r a y e r h a d 1 1 0 0 s t i c h o i a n d ,
a c c o r d i n g to O r i g e n , w a s still in u s e a m o n g the J e w s o f his t i m e . O n l y nine c h r i s t o l o g i c a l l y
v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g v e r s e s are p r e s e r v e d as c i t a t i o n s in O r i g e n ; cf. S c h r e r ( r e v . ) III/2,
7 9 8 - 9 , and J. Z. S m i t h , 'Prayer o f J o s e p h ' , in C h a r l e s w o r t h II ( s e e a b o v e , n. 4 1 ) , 6 9 9 -
7 1 4 . Cf. M . H e n g e l , The Son of God ( L o n d o n , 1 9 7 6 ) , 4 7 - 8 .
O n e c o u l d c o n t i n u e here at length a n d list all t h o s e b o o k s rejected in t h e
later c a t a l o g u e s s u c h as t h e G e l a s i a n D e c r e e , r e g a r d e d as h e r e t i c a l
forgeries a n d m o s t l y lost, if not p r e s e r v e d in translations, o n the fringes
of the c h u r c h , such as the theologically i m p o r t a n t a p o c a l y p s e , 4 Ezra in
its Latin, Syriac a n d E t h i o p i e v e r s i o n s , or the related a p o c a l y p s e , the
Apocalypse ofBaruch, s u r v i v i n g only in S y r i a c . A l s o significant are t h e
Book of Enoch, c a n o n i c a l in the Ethiopie c h u r c h , the Book of Jubilees in
the s a m e l a n g u a g e , a n d , finally, 2 Enoch a n d t h e Abraham Apocalypse in
44
the O l d S l a v o n i c .
A n o t h e r l o o k at t h e H e b r e w c a n o n will a s s i s t in a n s w e r i n g t h e
q u e s t i o n of the origin of this distinction. T h e c a n o n c o n t a i n s only d o c u
m e n t s b e t w e e n M o s e s a n d Ezra. C o n s e q u e n t l y , a c c o r d i n g to a baraita
45
in bBB 1 4 , e v e n the b o o k of J o b w h i c h a c c o r d i n g to J e w i s h tradi
tion s t e m m e d from a d e s c e n d a n t of E s a u in t h e patriarchal p e r i o d
w a s written b y M o s e s . T h u s , j u d g e m e n t w a s p r o n o u n c e d u p o n all
w r i t i n g s c l a i m i n g to s t e m from a n a u t h o r before M o s e s . C h r i s t i a n s , t o o ,
could not permanently avoid the Jewish model. This tendency w a s
s t r e n g t h e n e d b e c a u s e t h e G n o s t i c s not o n l y a p p e a l e d t o p r e v i o u s l y
46
' h i d d e n ' ( ) traditions a n d d o c u m e n t s , but also t h e m s e l v e s
p r o d u c e d d o c u m e n t s attributed to patriarchs. I n d e e d , they h a d a certain
p r e f e r e n c e for such ' p r i m e v a l w r i t i n g s ' . T h e G n o s t i c library at N a g
H a m m a d i c o n t a i n e d t w e l v e p s e u d e p i g r a p h i c a l ' a p o s t o l i c w r i t i n g s ' , but
also an A d a m A p o c a l y p s e , t w o texts that a p p e a l e d to the ancient
r e v e l a t i o n s of Seth, A d a m ' s third son, w h o b e c a m e the e p o n y m o u s h e r o
of s o - c a l l e d S e t h i a n g n o s i s , a n d o n e d o c u m e n t e a c h f r o m S h e m ,
47
M e l c h i z e d e k and N o r e a , p u r p o r t e d l y a d a u g h t e r of A d a m or N o a h . S u c h
e x c e s s i v e p r o d u c t i o n c o u l d best b e c o u n t e r a c t e d b y an appeal to the basic

4 4
F o r the c a n o n o f the E t h i o p i e c h u r c h , w h i c h e x h i b i t s a n u m b e r o f p e c u l i a r i t i e s related
to the i s o l a t i o n o f this c h u r c h , cf. B e c k w i t h , 4 7 8 - 5 0 5 . In a d d i t i o n to Enoch. 4 Ezra and
Jubilees, it a l s o i n c l u d e s , for e x a m p l e , Josippon, the early m e d i e v a l H e b r e w r e v i s i o n and
e x p a n s i o n o f J o s e p h u s by J o s e p h ben G o r i o n ; cf. a l s o H . - P . R g e r , ' D e r U m f a n g d e s
a l t t e s t a m e n t l i c h e n K a n o n s in d e n v e r s c h i e d e n e n k i r c h l i c h e n T r a d i t i o n e n ' , in M e u r e r ( p .
6 6 n. 2 2 ) , 1 3 7 - 4 5 . Cf. a l s o b e l o w , p. 7 3 . 4 9 . O n the Slavonic Enoch, s e e n o w C h .
B t t r i c h , Weltweisheit, Menschheitsethik, Urkult ( W U N T 11/50; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 2 ) ; o n the
Abraham Apocalypse, s e e R. R u b i n k i e w i c z in C h a r l e s w o r t h I, 6 8 1 - 7 0 5 .
4 5
C i t a t i o n in B i l l . I V : 4 3 4 ; cf. a l s o B e c k w i t h , 1 2 2 ; B a r t h l m y , 'L'tat d e la B i b l e
juive", 14; E l l i s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 5 7 . 2 ) , 13: 'It is significant that the baraita is c o n c e r n e d
not w i t h the identity o f the c a n o n i c a l b o o k s but w i t h their order. That is, it s u g g e s t s no
c o n t r o v e r s y about the limits o f the c a n o n , but it m a y reflect a situation in w h i c h there
w e r e u n c e r t a i n t i e s or d i v e r g e n t t r a d i t i o n s a m o n g t h e J e w s a b o u t t h e s e q u e n c e and
d i v i s i o n s o f t h e c a n o n , for e x a m p l e , w h i c h b o o k s b e l o n g e d a m o n g the P r o p h e t s and
w h i c h a m o n g the W r i t i n g s ' (ital. in o r i g i n a l ) . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f all O l d
T e s t a m e n t A p o c r y p h a and P s e u d - e p i g r a p h a is a v a i l a b l e in A . Lehnardt, Bibliographie zu
den jdischen Schriften aus hellenistisch-rmischer Zeit ( J S H R Z V I , 2 ; G t e r s l o h , 1 9 9 9 ) .
4 6
Cf. Irenaeus, Adv Haer 1:20:1 ; H i p p o l y t u s , Reftatio Omnium Haeresium 7:20:1.
4 7
R e g a r d i n g S e t h , N o r e a , C a i n and M e l c h i z e d e k a m o n g the G n o s t i c s , s e e the v a r i o u s
e s s a y s by P e a r s o n ( s e e a b o v e , p. 21 n. 8 ) , 5 2 - 1 2 3 .
principle w h e r e b y o n e f o l l o w e d the old b i b l i c a l - J e w i s h tradition that
t h e first b o o k s of t h e H o l y S c r i p t u r e s w e r e w r i t t e n by M o s e s a n d
n o n e other. T h e c o n c l u s i o n s of 4 Ezra ( 1 4 : 4 4 - 4 6 ) , s t e m m i n g from a
J e w i s h ' a p o c a l y p t i c i s t ' closely related to P h a r i s a i s m a r o u n d 100 CE,
attempts to resolve the d i l e m m a b e t w e e n the k n o w n writings of the canon
and the ' h i d d e n ' b o o k s by h a v i n g the inspired seer dictate ninety-four
b o o k s in forty d a y s . Of these, on G o d ' s c o m m a n d , he p u b l i s h e d the first
twenty-four, i.e. the b o o k s of the H e b r e w c a n o n ' f o r the w o r t h y and
the u n w o r t h y (priora quae scripsisti in palam pone, et legant digni et
4 8
indigniy, but ' p r e s e r v e d ' the other seventy. Such a compromise,
h o w e v e r , u l t i m a t e l y found a d h e r e n c e neither in the r a b b i n i c s y n a g o g u e
n o r the c h u r c h .
S i n c e T o b i a s s u p p o s e d l y b e l o n g e d in the A s s y r i a n p e r i o d and Judith
and B a r u c h in the t i m e of N e b u c h a d n e z z a r , E s t h e r a n d E z r a fell in the
p e r i o d of A r t a x e r x e s I, w h i l e W i s d o m a n d S i r a c h ( t h e p r o l o g u e to
m i n u s c u l e 2 4 8 from the thirteenth century calls Sirach a ' c o m p a n i o n of
S o l o m o n ' ) w e r e included in the C o r p u s S a l o m o n i s , there r e m a i n e d only
t h e b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e , C o d e x V a t i c a n u s a n d
A t h a n a s i u s e x c l u d e d t h e m . T h e i r final i n c l u s i o n in t h e r e c o g n i z e d
collection of c h u r c h writings m a y b e related to the fact that they f o r m e d
the historical b r i d g e to the present, the t i m e of fulfilment. F u r t h e r m o r e ,
t h e m o t i f of t h e w o n d r o u s d e l i v e r a n c e of G o d ' s p e o p l e a n d t h e i r
m a r t y r t h e o l o g y w a s a m o d e l for the early c h u r c h for the r o u g h l y t w o
and a half c e n t u r i e s ' period from 6 4 to 311 CE b e c a u s e they e n c o u r a g e d
c o m m u n i t i e s suffering from uncertain legal status and sporadic
p e r s e c u t i o n . H e r e , o n e c o u l d further point to the c h u r c h ' s h i g h regard
s i n c e O r i g e n a n d E u s e b i u s for J o s e p h u s , w h o s e Jewish Wars w a s
c o n s i d e r e d e v i d e n c e of t h e fulfilment of J e s u s ' p r o p h e c y a b o u t the
destruction of J e r u s a l e m and the t e m p l e , thus confirming Christian truth
over against J u d a i s m ; B o o k 6 of the Wars in a Syriac translation w a s
49
e v e n included in m a n u s c r i p t s of the P e s h i t t a .
T h e q u e s t i o n r e m a i n s o p e n as to h o w , from the H e b r e w B i b l e , so
significantly d i v e r g e n t a Christian collection of S c r i p t u r e s as the L X X
c a m e to b e in the first place. O n the o n e h a n d , d e s p i t e the usurpation of

w
Conservatis, A r a m , r ; ; ; cf. 12:37; 14:6; SyrBar 2 0 : 3 . O n this text, c o m p a r e J . - D .
K a e s t l i , ' L a R c i t d e IV Esdras 14 et sa V a l e u r pour l ' H i s t o i r e du C a n o n de l ' A n c i e n
T e s t a m e n t ' , in Kaestli and W e r m e l i n g e r , 7 1 - 1 0 2 . O n the o n e h a n d , E z r a ' s d i c t u m mirrors
for the first t i m e the fixed H e b r e w c a n o n o f t w e n t y - f o u r b o o k s . On the other, the e m p h a s i s
o n the s e v e n t y h i d d e n b o o k s is to be e v a l u a t e d as an attempt to l e g i t i m i z e the a p o c a l y p t i c
literature against the d e c i s i o n s o f the rabbis in J a b n e h ; that is, the s t a t e m e n t is to be
classified as c a n o n o c e n t r i c . R e g a r d i n g the m i r a c l e o f inspiration in 4 Ezra, s e e pp. 3 9 and
99.
w
H. S c h r e c k e n b e r g , Die Flavius-Josephus-Tradition in Antike und Mittelalter
( A L G H L 5; L e i d e n , 1 9 7 2 ) , 6 1 - 2 : ' B o o k S i x o f the Wars appears as "5 M a c c a b e e s " in the
Syriac V u l g a t e ' that w a s translated from the G r e e k in the fourth/fifth c e n t u r y .
the L X X as the c o r p u s of ' p r o p h e t i c ' Scriptures translated by the Seventy
t h r o u g h d i v i n e inspiration, it w a s i n d e e d n e v e r p o s s i b l e to b e entirely
free of the authority of the H e b r e w Bible, precisely b e c a u s e of the appeal
t o t h e i n s p i r e d , m i r a c u l o u s t r a n s l a t i o n at t h e t i m e of P t o l e m y II
P h i l a d e l p h u s in the third c e n t u r y BCE. C o n s e q u e n t l y , d o c u m e n t s written
later, s o m e transmitted only in G r e e k , c o u l d n e v e r b e r e g a r d e d as fully
e q u a l , but essentially a l w a y s only as ' s e c o n d c l a s s ' . O n the o t h e r h a n d ,
o n e did not w i s h a s , to a d e g r e e , did s o m e of the later R e f o r m e r s
s i m p l y to d i s r e g a r d t h e s e e x t r a b o o k s in c o m p a r i s o n to t h e J e w i s h
' c a n o n ' b e c a u s e of their acculturation a n d practical v a l u e in the c h u r c h .
E v e n L u t h e r , in his f o r e w o r d s to individual d o c u m e n t s , e m p h a s i z e d their
v a l u e for piety and right living (Jud., T o b . , W i s d . , Sir. and 1 M a c e ) ,
w h i l e h e s h a r p l y c r i t i c i z e d o t h e r s (2 M a c e , A d d i t i o n s to D a n . a n d
50
E s t h . ) . In o r d e r to a n s w e r the q u e s t i o n of h o w the e x p a n d e d 'collection
of b o o k s ' c a m e to b e , w e m u s t turn in P a r t IV to the p r e - C h r i s t i a n
d e v e l o p m e n t of the L X X w r i t i n g s . W e c o n c e n t r a t e , first, on its peculiar
differences from the H e b r e w Bible and, related to this, the history of its
influence in the earliest Christian c o m m u n i t i e s .

M ,
W A DB 12 o n the i n d i v i d u a l d o c u m e n t s and B . L o h s e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 6 n. 2 2 ) ,
188-91.
THE ORIGIN OF THE JEWISH LXX

1. The Translation of the Torah and Its Enduring Significance

T h e l e g e n d of the translation of the five b o o k s of the T o r a h into G r e e k by


the s e v e n t y - t w o Palestinian elders is certainly not a historically reliable
report, a l t h o u g h it g o e s b a c k to a historical event.
T h u s , a l r e a d y by about 170 BCE, the first k n o w n J e w i s h p h i l o s o p h e r of
religion, A r i s t o b u l u s , attests that the T o r a h w a s translated u n d e r P t o l e m y
II P h i l a d e l p h u s ( 2 8 4 - 2 4 6 ) . ' T h e great J e w i s h D i a s p o r a in E g y p t and
A l e x a n d r i a h e l l e n i z e d v e r y r a p i d l y in the first d e c a d e s of the third
c e n t u r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , an u r g e n t liturgical n e e d for such a translation of
M o s e s ' T o r a h into the G r e e k l i n g u a franca arose r a t h e r q u i c k l y . It is not
unlikely that the king legitimized the translation in s o m e form since h e ,
the first truly ' a b s o l u t i s t ' ruler in antiquity, w o u l d not h a v e b e e n un
interested in the l a w s followed by a large e t h n o - r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y in his
r e a l m . J u d a e a , t o o , w a s u n d e r P t o l e m a i c d o m i n i o n t h r o u g h the third
c e n t u r y . P r e s u m a b l y the S a m a r i t a n s w e r e not slow to p r e p a r e a c o m p e t
i n g r e v i s i o n of t h e P e n t a t e u c h for t h e i r D i a s p o r a , t h e s o - c a l l e d
' S a m a r e i t i k o n ' , only fragments of w h i c h are p r e s e r v e d . W e m e e t the first
e v i d e n c e of this D i a s p o r a as early as c. 100 BCE o n D e l o s ; in the fourth
century CE w e find a S a m a r i t a n s y n a g o g u e in T h e s s a l o n i c a from w h i c h
c o m e s a b i l i n g u a l i n s c r i p t i o n w i t h an u n u s u a l G r e e k v e r s i o n of the
2
priestly b l e s s i n g . A l r e a d y u n d e r the son of the s e c o n d P t o l e m y , P t o l e m y

1
F r a g m e n t 4 ( = E u s e b i u s . PraepEv 1 3 : 1 2 : 1 - 2 ; G e r m a n text in, N . W a l t e r , Fragmente
jdisch-hellenistischer Exegeten: Aristobulos, Demetrios, Aristeas ( J S H R Z H I / 2 ; 2nd
e d n ; G t e r s l o h , 1 9 8 0 ) , 2 5 7 - 9 6 ; the p a s s a g e in q u e s t i o n , 2 7 3 - 4 ; E n g l i s h translation by
A . Y . C o l l i n s , in O T P II, 8 3 1 - 4 2 [ 8 3 9 ] ) . A t the s a m e t i m e , he m a i n t a i n s that o l d e r partial
translations had already b e e n read by P y t h a g o r a s and P l a t o ; cf. S w e t e , 1 - 2 . A n a t o l i u s , the
later b i s h o p o f C a e s a r e a and f o r m e r p e r i p a t e t i c and m a t h e m a t i c i a n f r o m A l e x a n d r i a
( s e c o n d half o f the third c e n t u r y ) c o u n t s A r i s t o b u l u s h i m s e l f a m o n g the s e v e n t y translators
o f P t o l e m y ' s t i m e ; cf. the introduction to F r a g m e n t 1 (= E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 7 : 3 2 : 1 6 ) ;
F r a g m e n t 3 c o n t r a d i c t s this p o s i t i o n , h o w e v e r . 2 M a c e . 1:10 s u g g e s t s that A r i s t o b u l u s
w a s the t e a c h e r o f y o u n g P t o l e m y V I P h i l o m e t o r ( 1 8 0 - 1 4 5 BCE ); cf. in g e n e r a l N . W a l t e r ,
Der Thoraausleger Aristobulos ( T U 8 6 ; B e r l i n , 1 9 6 4 ) ; M . H e n g e l , Judentum und
Hellenismus ( W U N T 1/10; 3rd e d n ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 8 ) , 2 9 5 - 3 0 7 = idem, Judaism and
Hellenism ( L o n d o n , 1974), 1 6 3 - 9 ; Schrer (rev.) I l l / 1 , 5 7 9 - 8 7 .
2
CI J I 2 n d e d n . B . L i f s h i t z , 1 9 7 5 1/2, n o . 6 9 3 a ; additional literature in S c h r e r (rev.)
I I I / 1 , 6 6 - 7 ; D e l o s : P. B r u n e a u , B C H 106 ( 1 9 8 2 ) , 5 6 5 - 7 . O n the ' S a m a r e i t i k o n ' s e e
S. N o j a , ' T h e S a m a r e i t i k o n ' , in A . D . C r o w n , e d . , The Samaritans (Tbingen, 1989),
III E u e r g e t e s ( 2 4 8 - 2 2 2 ) and his s p o u s e B e r e n i c e , w e also p o s s e s s the
first G r a e c o - J e w i s h s y n a g o g u e i n s c r i p t i o n s . ( C I J II, 1 4 4 0 . 1 5 3 2 a =
H o r b u r y / N o y 2 2 . 1 1 7 ) . W e find t h e e a r l i e s t l i t e r a r y u s e of t h e n e w
t r a n s l a t i o n in t h e J e w i s h h i s t o r i a n D e m e t r i u s u n d e r P t o l e m y IV
3
P h i l o p a t o r ( 2 2 2 - 2 0 5 ) . T w o J e w i s h i n s c r i p t i o n s from t h e i s l a n d of
4
R h e n e i a n e a r D e l o s from c. 100 BCE i m p l y the use of the L X X o u t s i d e
E g y p t a l s o . T h e A l e x a n d r i a n t r a n s l a t i o n of t h e P e n t a t e u c h m a r c h e d
victoriously t h r o u g h o u t the w h o l e G r e e k - s p e a k i n g J e w i s h D i a s p o r a .
T h e v a r i o u s r e m a i n s of t h e l e a r n e d J e w i s h - H e l l e n i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e ,
o r i g i n a t i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y in A l e x a n d r i a , c o n c e n t r a t e n o t a b l y , a l m o s t
e x c l u s i v e l y indeed, on the P e n t a t e u c h , especially on M o s e s and
h i s g i v i n g of t h e l a w ; t h e l a t e r h i s t o r i c a l a n d p r o p h e t i c t r a d i t i o n
d i m i n i s h e s s t r i k i n g l y in s i g n i f i c a n c e in r e l a t i o n to its i m p o r t a n c e in
the Palestinian m o t h e r l a n d . T h i s is true also of the reports from p a g a n
a u t h o r s c o n - c e r n i n g the J e w s . O n l y the T o r a h a p p e a r s in the Letter of
Aristeas itself; n o t a s i n g l e w o r d c o n c e r n s t h e p r o p h e t s ( q u i t e in
contrast to later Christian interpretation since Justin; see a b o v e p p . 2 6 -
8 ) . T h e J e w i s h m o t h e r l a n d a p p e a r s to b e r e l a t i v e l y f o r e i g n to t h e
p s e u d e p i g r a p h e r ; his report a b o u t it is r e m o t e from reality and p o i n t s
p o l i t i c a l l y to a later p e r i o d of i n d e p e n d e n c e b e t w e e n c. 130 a n d 6 3
BCE. H e is primarily c o n c e r n e d with d e f e n d i n g the translation, a l r e a d y
r e v e r e d in h i s t i m e , a g a i n s t c o m p e t i n g t r a n s l a t i o n s or r e v i s i o n s . It
w a s a p p a r e n t l y publicly r e c o g n i z e d by the J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y of
A l e x a n d r i a ; a n y ' r e v i s i o n ' w a s f o r b i d d e n . B y m e a n s of t h e t h r e a t ,
a d o p t e d from D e u t e r o n o m y , that any a l t e r a t i o n w o u l d i n v o k e G o d ' s
c u r s e , it w a s declared sacrosanct:

(310) As the scrolls were read, the priests, the oldest of the translators,
representatives of the [Jewish] population and the heads of the entire
community met together and said: 'Since the translation is good, pious, and
complete, it is right that it be preserved as it is and that no revision take
place.' (311) Now since everyone agreed to these words, they placed under a

4 0 7 - 1 2 ; A Companion to Samaritan Studies, e d . A . D . C r o w n et al. ( T b i n g e n ,


1 9 9 3 ) , 2 0 9 - 1 0 ; . . The Greek and Hebrew Bible ( V T . S 7 2 ; L e i d e n . 1 9 9 9 ) , 4 5 9 - 7 5
( 4 5 9 n. 1) and 5 1 3 - 1 7 . T h e S a m a r e i t i k o n a l s o u s e d nomina sacra like , s e e a b o v e
p. 41 n. 5 3 .
3
T h e s u r v i v i n g w o r k o f D e m e t r i u s s h o w s n o r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the H e b r e w text; the
c h r o n o l o g y and the G r e e k s p e l l i n g o f the biblical proper n a m e s are identical w i t h the
L X X . T h e f r a g m e n t s o c c u r in e x c e r p t s from A l e x a n d e r P o l y h i s t o r (ca. 1 0 0 BC) c i t e d b y
E u s e b i u s and C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a : cf. . Walter, in J S H R Z H I / 2 . 2 8 0 - 9 2 ; s e e a l s o
H e n g e l , Judentum und Hellenismus. 128 = Judaism and Hellenism, V o l . 1, p. 6 9 and n.
96; Schrer (rev.) Ill/1, 5 1 3 - 1 7 .
4
CIJ I 7 2 5 ; cf. S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / l , 7 0 . For a G e r m a n translation and an e x t e n s i v e
d i s c u s s i o n o f the L X X p a r a l l e l s , s e e A . D e i s s m a n n , Licht vom Osten (4th e d n ; T b i n g e n ,
1928), 3 5 1 - 6 2 .
curse, as is the practice among them, those who would revise [the translation]
through additions, rearrangements or omissions. They did this rightly, so
5
that it should remain perpetually unchanged for all time.

I n d e e d , w e find a similar f o r m u l a at the e n d of the o n l y t h o r o u g h l y


' p r o p h e t i c a l l y i n s p i r e d ' d o c u m e n t in the N e w T e s t a m e n t , R e v e l a t i o n
22:18, 26.
J o s e p h u s , w h o incorporates the Letter of Aristeas in his major history
(Ant 1 2 : 1 2 - 1 1 8 ) , takes the e d g e off this d a n g e r o u s p a s s a g e and, i n d e e d ,
r e v e r s e s it, e v e n t h o u g h h e e m p h a s i z e s t h e i n t e n t i o n that t h e e x t a n t
translation r e m a i n u n c h a n g e d , by r e p l a c i n g the c o n c l u d i n g curse with
the instruction:

If, however, someone discovers something in the law that is superfluous, or


missing, he should be concerned with making it publicly known and correct
ing it (12:109).

H e r e s p e a k s the learned priest a n d P h a r i s e e , originally from Palestine,


writing in R o m e t o w a r d the e n d of the first c e n t u r y CE, a w a r e that the
A l e x a n d r i a n translation of the T o r a h r e q u i r e d i m p r o v e m e n t , and thus
justifying the efforts at correction originating in P a l e s t i n e , p r o b a b l y in
P h a r i s a i c c i r c l e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , J o s e p h u s ' k n o w l e d g e of the s u p p l e -

5
G e r m a n translation, N . M e i s n e r : ' ,
. . . , ' ,

. . . Cf. D e u t e r o n o m y 4 : 2 ; 1 2 : 3 2 ; 2 9 : 1 9 , 2 6 and J o s e p h u s , Ant
4 : 1 9 6 ; s e e a l s o W . C . van U n n i k , ' D e la r g l e , d a n s
l'histoire du c a n o n ' , VigChr 3 ( 1 9 4 9 ) , 1 - 3 6 ( = idem, Sparsa Collecta II [ N T . S 3 0 ; L e i d e n ,
1 9 8 0 ] , 1 2 3 - 5 6 ) . For the i n t e n t i o n o f t h e Letter of Aristeas, cf. V . T c h e r i k o v e r , ' T h e
I d e o l o g y o f the Letter o f A r i s t e a s ' , HThR 51 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 5 9 - 8 5 ( = Studies, 181-207), who
s e e s in it an a p o l o g y for the G r e e k l a n g u a g e and an o p e n i n g to the G r e e k w o r l d : ' F r o m
n o w o n the J e w s w o u l d not n e e d the H e b r e w l a n g u a g e any m o r e , e v e n in their r e l i g i o u s
s e r v i c e ; G r e e k , the l a n g u a g e o f the k i n g s and the state, w o u l d s e r v e for all their spiritual
n e e d s , and there w o u l d be n o l a n g u a g e barrier b e t w e e n the J e w s and G r e e k s ' ( 1 9 8 ; cf.
a l s o p p . 2 0 5 - 7 ) ; D . W . G o o d i n g , ' A r i s t e a s and S e p t u a g i n t O r i g i n s : A R e v i e w o f R e c e n t
S t u d i e s ' , VT 13 ( 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 5 7 - 7 9 ( = Studies, 158-80); Jellicoe, 4 7 - 5 2 , 5 9 - 6 1 ;
D . B a r t h l m y , ' P o u r q u o i la T o r a h a - t - e l l e t traduite e n G r e c ' , in idem, 321-40
( o r i g i n a l l y in On Language, Culture and Religion, F S E. A . N i d a [La H a y e , 1 9 7 4 ] , 2 3 -
4 1 ) and B r o c k , 6 3 : ' T h e t e n d e n c y h i d d e n b e h i n d A r i s t e a s ' portrayal m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d
as a d e f e n s e o f the o r i g i n a l L X X P e n t a t e u c h a l text in the face o f c o n t e m p o r a r y efforts to
r e v i s e it o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e H e b r e w t e x t . In t h e s e c o n d a n d first c e n t u r y B C E , t w o
d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d o p t i o n s regarding the L X X s e e m to h a v e surfaced: o n e [ p r e s u m a b l y
P a l e s t i n i a n , M. H e n g e l , s e e a b o v e p. 2 9 n. 13] s c h o o l t h o u g h t that the L X X did not render
the H e b r e w p r e c i s e l y e n o u g h and thus required c o r r e c t i o n . T h e other [ A l e x a n d r i a n , M .
H e n g e l ] m a i n t a i n e d that the translations t h e m s e l v e s w e r e i n s p i r e d and thus n o r e v i s i o n
w a s n e c e s s a r y . ' T h e Letter of Aristeas, h o w e v e r , d o e s not yet s p e a k o f inspiration. T h e
b e g i n n i n g s o f this n o t i o n first o c c u r in P h i l o . T h e J e r u s a l e m i t e priest J o s e p h u s k n o w s o f
n o theory o f the inspiration o f the S e v e n t y , but represents a m o r e p r a g m a t i c standpoint;
s e e a b o v e , p. 2 6 8 ) . Cf. a l s o B r o c k ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 9 n. 13), 3 0 8 - 9 .
m e n t a r y and corrective oral T o r a h m u s t be p r e s u m e d (Ant 1 3 : 2 9 7 - 8 , 4 0 8 ;
18:15). T h e e x p e r i e n c e of the J e w i s h historian s o m e time a r o u n d the
y e a r 9 0 CE, i n v o l v i n g d i s p u t e s with C h r i s t i a n s in R o m e w h o a p p e a l e d to
the L X X in r e s p o n s e to their J e w i s h d i a l o g u e p a r t n e r s ( m u c h like Justin
in r e s p o n d i n g to T r y p h o ) , m a y a l r e a d y s t a n d b e h i n d this c o n s c i o u s
reversal of the e x e m p l a r .
T w o generations earlier Philo unfolds the Aristeas story quite
differently in his Vita Mosis 2 : 3 3 - 4 4 : w h e r e a s in the Letter of Aristeas
the s e v e n t y - t w o translators bring the text into a g r e e m e n t t h r o u g h
reciprocal c o m p a r i s o n a n d majority decision ( 3 2 : 3 0 2 ) , in Philo, w h o d o e s
6
not m e n t i o n the n u m b e r s , this occurs through divine inspiration.
A c c o r d i n g to Philo, the a n n i v e r s a r y of the translation w a s regularly c e l e
brated on the island of P h a r o s as a J e w i s h folk festival. T h e translation
had w o r l d w i d e significance, for Philo w a s certain that w h e n the fate of
the n o w unfortunate p e o p l e of Israel w a s r e v e r s e d i . e . in the M e s s i a n i c
7
e r a a l l p e o p l e s w o u l d a c c e p t t h e l a w as d i v i n e i n s t r u c t i o n . T h e
t e s t i m o n y of the J e w P h i l o h o l d s i n e s t i m a b l e significance for Christian
e s t i m a t i o n of the L X X as i n s p i r e d S c r i p t u r e . C h r i s t i a n s c o n s i s t e n t l y
f o l l o w e d the path h e p o i n t e d out.
T h e later C h r i s t i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d e x p a n d e d the
translation to include all a c k n o w l e d g e d O l d T e s t a m e n t Scriptures that
w e r e , for t h e m , i n s p i r e d ' p r o p h e t i c ' w r i t i n g s ( s e e a b o v e p p . 2 6 - 8 ) ,
a l t h o u g h the scope of the c o r p u s of inspired S c r i p t u r e s w a s not firmly
e s t a b l i s h e d at t h e o u t s e t . In a d d i t i o n , t h e w o n d r o u s p r o c e s s w a s
magnified by the legend of the c o m p l e t e l y isolated w o r k of the translators
in single or d o u b l e cells w h e r e , led by the H o l y Spirit, they p r o d u c e d an
identical text. T h u s the m i r a c l e of inspiration a c q u i r e d the function of
assuring the equality of the G r e e k translation w i t h the H e b r e w original
(see a b o v e , p p . 3 7 - 4 0 ) . T h a t is, the s a m e H o l y Spirit w a s at w o r k in the
p r o p h e t s and in the t r a n s l a t o r s . In the e v e n t of a difference b e t w e e n
the H e b r e w and the G r e e k text, b o t h texts ( s h o u l d n o later e r r o r b e
present) c o n f o r m e d to the d i v i n e Spirit and w e r e c o n s e q u e n t l y t h u s
A u g u s t i n e t o b e taken e q u a l l y seriously. In contrast, P h i l o ' s interests
w e r e still limited strictly to the T o r a h ; this is w h a t he has in m i n d , as a
rule e v e n w h e n he s p e a k s of ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' . A c c o r d i n g to L e i s e g a n g ' s
index, P h i l o cites r o u g h l y 1100 p a s s a g e s from the P e n t a t e u c h ( r o u g h l y
a third from G e n e s i s , f o l l o w e d by E x o d u s , w h i l e the three r e m a i n i n g
b o o k s play a relatively m i n o r role), but only forty-seven texts from other
b o o k s ( s e v e n t e e n from the P s a l m s , t w e l v e from K i n g s , e l e v e n from the
p r o p h e t i c b o o k s , P r o v e r b s four t i m e s , and o n e e a c h from J o s h u a , J u d g e s

h
T h e q u o t a t i o n already o c c u r s a b o v e , s e e p. 2 6 ; r e g a r d i n g P h i l o ' s t e s t i m o n y ; cf. a l s o
H a d , D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 4 6 - 7 .
7
S e e his De praemiis et poenis and U . F i s c h e r , Eschatologie und Jenseitserwartung im
hellenistischen Diasporajudentum ( B Z N W 4 4 ; Berlin and N e w Y o r k , 1 9 7 8 ) , 1 8 4 - 2 1 3 ;
(1984), 4 7 6 - 8 6 .
8
and J o b ) . T h e so-called ' a p o c r y p h a ' d o not a p p e a r at a l l . H e s e e m s to
h a v e either not k n o w n , or, m o r e likely, to h a v e i g n o r e d or rejected t h e m .
T h i s is all the m o r e r e m a r k a b l e s i n c e h e e x t e n s i v e l y cites G r e e k authors
from H o m e r to H e s i o d , the p r e - S o c r a t i c s , Plato, Aristotle, a n d all the
w a y to the S t o i c s . I n d e e d , e v e n t r a g e d i a n s a n d p o e t s such as P i n d a r are
not o m i t t e d . H e r e w e e n c o u n t e r the ' a r i s t o c r a t i c ' attitude of the c o m -
p r e h e n s i v e s c h o l a r w h o w a s a t y p i c a l in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the rest of
D i a s p o r a J u d a i s m . J e w i s h S i b y l l i n e texts a n d forged classical poetry
were alsoconsciouslyavoided.
T h u s P h i l o ' s w o r k is consistent with the fact that the Pentateuch also
held central i m p o r t a n c e in the other ' J u d a e o - a p o l o g e t i c ' writings from
Alexandria. T h e ' A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n ' i f one wishes to speak of o n e at
allconcentrates on the Pentateuch. T o b e sure, eschatological h o p e was
also alive in the Diaspora, as the Sibylline oracles indicate, but even in the
J e w i s h S i b y l l i n e s r e f e r e n c e s to the P e n t a t e u c h are o n l y slightly less
frequent than to the p r o p h e t i c b o o k s . F u r t h e r m o r e , as N o a h ' s (step-)
daughters the Sibyls could not even h a v e k n o w n the later H o l y Scriptures,
9
Christians considered t h e m p a g a n p r o p h e t e s s e s . In contrast, the didactic
p o e m of P s e u d o - P h o c y l i d e s , d e p e n d e n t entirely on older w i s d o m literature
(see p. 112 n. 26), comprises an exception that proves the rule to a degree.
N o r is it a c c i d e n t a l that the J e w i s h historians w h o p o r t r a y the history
of their o w n p e o p l e J o s e p h u s , J u s t u s of T i b e r i a s , E u p o l e m o s in the
M a c c a b e a n era, a n d the s o m e w h a t earlier A n o n y m o u s S a m a r i t a n w e r e
from the m o t h e r l a n d , w h i l e the D i a s p o r a J e w , J a s o n of C y r e n e , equally
l i n k e d to t h e m o t h e r l a n d , w r o t e h i s h i s t o r y of J u d a s M a c c a b e u s as
an e y e w i t n e s s of e v e n t s in J u d a e a , i.e. as a c o n t e m p o r a r y c h r o n i c l e .
Primarily Palestinians, including the author of 1 M a c c a b e e s , its continua-
tion in the h i s t o r y of J o h n H y r c a n u s , and J o s e p h u s ' priestly s o u r c e ,
m a i n t a i n e d the a n c i e n t tradition of J e w i s h h i s t o r i o g r a p h y e v e n in the
10
Hellenistic-Roman period.

K
H. L e i s e g a n g , ' I n d e x L o c o r u m V e t e r i s T e s t a m e n t i ' , in L. C o h n and P. W e n d l a n d ,
Philo von Alexandrien ( O p e r a q u a e s u p e r s u n t V I I / 2 ; B e r l i n , 1 9 3 0 ) , 2 9 - 4 3 ; cf. a l s o the
m o r e recent Biblia Patristica Supplment: Philon d'Alexandrie (Paris, 1 9 8 2 ) , w h i c h n o t e s
8 4 6 2 c i t a t i o n s and a l l u s i o n s . T h e d o m i n a n c e o f P e n t a t e u c h t e x t s is a l s o d e p e n d e n t o n the
p r e s e r v e d w r i t i n g s o f P h i l o , w h i c h are a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o m m e n t i n g on
the b o o k s o f M o s e s . N o t a b l y , o f the c i t a t i o n s f r o m the P r o p h e t s and the W r i t i n g s , forty-
o n e o c c u r in a l l e g o r i c a l e x e g e s i s and o n l y the f e w r e m a i n i n g are f o u n d in the other
w r i t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g the Questiones o n G e n e s i s and E x o d u s p r e s e r v e d o n l y in A r m e n i a n
(cf. a l s o H. B u r k h a r d , Die Inspiration heiliger Schriften bei Philo von Alexandrien
[ G l e s s e n and B a s e l , 1 9 8 8 ] , 7 3 - 4 , 1 2 9 - 4 6 ) .
9
Cf. S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / 1 , 6 1 8 - 5 4 ; M . H e n g e l , ' A n o n y m i t t , P s e u d e p i g r a p h i e und
"literarische F l s c h u n g " in der j d i s c h e - h e l l e n i s t i s c h e n Literatur', in Pseudepigrapha I,
E n t r e t i e n s sur l ' A n t i q u e C l a s s i q u e X V I I I ( V a n d u v r e s and G e n e v a , 1 9 7 1 / 7 2 ) , 2 2 9 -
3 2 9 ( 2 8 6 - 9 2 ) = Kleine Schriften I ( W U N T 90; Tbingen, 1996), 196-251 ( 2 3 7 - 4 1 ) ;
H. M e r k e l , J H S R Z V , 8 ( G t e r s l o h , 1 9 9 8 ) , S i b y l l i n e n (Lit.).
' " O n J e w i s h - H e l l e n i s t i c literature in P a l e s t i n e , s e e H e n g e l , The 'Hellenization' of
Judaea ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 0 n. 3 ) , 2 3 - 5 , 4 5 - 7 .
T h e significance of the translation of the T o r a h into the d o m i n a n t
l i n g u a franca w a s a u n i q u e p h e n o m e n o n in t h e G r e e k w o r l d a n d is
practically unparalleled. N o comparable barbarian 'holy book' was
t r a n s l a t e d into G r e e k . " A l t h o u g h l a c k i n g in rhetorical brilliance and
q u i t e v e r b o s e , it still a c q u i r e d isolated interpretationes graecae, for
e x a m p l e , t h e f a m e d a n d influential p a r a p h r a s e of the d i v i n e n a m e in
E x o d u s 3:14 with o r of the p r i m a l c h a o s in G e n e s i s 1:2
w i t h , r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e G r e e k
( W i s d . 11:17). A p o l o g e t i c c h a n g e s , such as the p r o h i b i
tion against d e f a m i n g foreign g o d s in E x o d u s 22:27, a n d h a r m o n i z a
12
tions with Ptolemaic law, can also be identified. T h e religious
l a n g u a g e of D i a s p o r a J u d a i s m w a s thereby d e e p l y i m p r i n t e d ; this w a s
c o n s e q u e n t l y also true for t h e early c h u r c h , early Christianity, a n d its
theology.

2. The Translation of Other Writings

a) D e p e n d e n c e o n Palestinian J u d a i s m

T h e l e g e n d of the s e v e n t y - t w o t r a n s l a t o r s , c o m p e t e n t in G r e e k , w h o
c a m e from J u d a e a to A l e x a n d r i a as translators, d e m o n s t r a t e s , even though
it is n o t historical, that the translation of H e b r e w writings into G r e e k
a l w a y s p r e s u m e d a n a r r o w c o n n e c t i o n with Palestinian J u d a i s m . A l r e a d y
in the third c e n t u r y , c o m p e t e n c e in H e b r e w c o u l d n o l o n g e r b e a s s u m e d
for E g y p t i a n J e w s . Practically all their s y n a g o g u e a n d g r a v e inscriptions,
13
as well as nearly all their n a m e s , are G r e e k . P h i l o k n e w little or n o
14
H e b r e w ; h e apparently visited J e r u s a l e m only o n c e as a p i l g r i m . Indeed,
the u s e a n d translation of H e b r e w writings in G r e e k w a s an i m p o r t a n t
i n s t r u m e n t for the religious p r o p a g a n d a of t h e m o t h e r l a n d a m o n g the
D i a s p o r a , w h i c h intensified after t h e a t t a i n m e n t of i n d e p e n d e n c e t h r o u g h
the M a c c a b e a n struggle for freedom. T h e (spurious) letter of the

" T h e r e w e r e i n d e e d m a n y c l a i m s , b u t t h e y are all q u e s t i o n a b l e ; cf. W . S p e y e r ,


' A n g e b l i c h e b e r s e t z u n g e n d e s h e i d n i s c h e n u n d c h r i s t l i c h e n A l t e r t u m s ' , JAC 1 1 / 1 2
( 1 9 6 8 / 6 9 ) , 2 6 ^ 1 1 , n o w in idem, Frhes Christentum im Antiken Strahlungsfeld ( W U N T 1/
50; Tbingen. 1989), 7 0 - 8 5 .
12
Cf., for e x a m p l e , . B i c k e r m a n , ' T w o L e g a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e S e p t u a g i n t ' ,
in idem, Studies in Jewish and Christian History (AGJU 9 / 1 ; Leiden, 1976 - 1956),
2 0 1 - 2 4 ; M . G r g , ' P t o l e m i s c h e T h e o l o g i e in der L X X ' , in . M h l e r a n d M . S t r o c k a .
e d s . Das ptolemische gypten (Mainz, 1978), 1 7 7 - 8 5 ; W. Barnes Tatum, 'The L X X
V e r s i o n o f the S e c o n d C o m m a n d m e n t : A P o l e m i c a g a i n s t I d o l s , not I m a g e s ' , JSS ( 1 9 8 6 ) ,
177-95.
" Cf. the material brought t o g e t h e r in S c h r e r (rev.) III/1, 3 8 - 6 0 . S e e . m o r e r e c e n t l y .
W . Horbury and D . N o y , Jewish Inscriptions of Graeco-Roman Egypt ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 9 2 ) ,
and t h e c a t a l o g u e o f n a m e s in V . A . T c h e r i k o v e r a n d A . F u k s , Corpus Papyrorum
Judaicarum III ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1 9 6 4 ) , 1 6 7 - 9 6 . T h e n u m b e r o f H e b r e w / A r a m a i c
i n s c r i p t i o n s is e x t r e m e l y s m a l l : s e e Horbury a n d N o y n o s 3 - 5 , 1 1 8 , 1 1 9 . 1 3 3 .
14
Cf. S c h r e r (rev.) III/2. 8 1 8 - 1 9 , 9 7 3 - 4 ; s e e a l s o III/1, 4 7 9 n. 2 7 .
J e r u s a l e m i t e s to the J e w s in E g y p t in 2 M a c c a b e e s 1:10b2:18 refers
near the e n d to a t e m p l e library f o u n d e d by N e h e m i a h w h e r e h e stored
' t h e b o o k s a b o u t the kings a n d p r o p h e t s and the w r i t i n g s of D a v i d and
letters of [foreign] k i n g s about v o t i v e offerings' (cf. E z r a 1:7-11 ; 5 : 1 3 -
6:5; 7:19). J u d a s is supposed to h a v e r e a s s e m b l e d w h a t h a d been scattered
by the war. T h e reference c o n c l u d e s w i t h the c l a u s e : 'If, then, you h a v e
n e e d of t h e m , s e n d p e o p l e to g e t t h e m for y o u . ' ' B o o k e x p o r t s ' to
A l e x a n d r i a and o t h e r p l a c e s in the D i a s p o r a facilitated the c o n n e c t i o n
with the m o t h e r l a n d and, again, especially with the s a n c t u a r y on Z i o n ,
increasingly the centre of w o r l d w i d e J u d a i s m , to w h i c h t h o u s a n d s of
15
p i l g r i m s from the D i a s p o r a travelled a n n u a l l y . R e m a r k a b l y , e v e n in
the J u d a e o - H e l l e n i s t i c literature of E g y p t , the c o m p e t i n g sanctuary at
L e o n t o p o l i s , f o u n d e d by O n i a s I V c. 160 BCE, p l a y s virtually n o role.
T h e e x c e p t i o n a l s p i r i t u a l r a d i a n c e of J e r u s a l e m in t h e D i a s p o r a is
c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p r e s e n c e of a l a r g e n u m b e r of r e t u r n i n g G r e e k -
s p e a k e r s w h o m a d e the G r e e k translation c o m m o n in t h e h o l y city as
well as e l s e w h e r e . In this c o n t e x t , the L X X w a s m o r e than m e r e l y a
translation of the H e b r e w B i b l e : it constituted the l e a d i n g w i t n e s s of
J u d a e o - H e l l e n i s t i c t h e o l o g y , ethics a n d e x e g e s i s , b o t h in the D i a s p o r a
a n d in the m o t h e r l a n d . E v e n H e r o d reinforced the political influence of
the Palestinian authorities in the life of the D i a s p o r a since they furthered
his o w n political influence on D i a s p o r a J u d a i s m , w h o s e patron he w a s .
F o r this r e a s o n h e s u m m o n e d to J e r u s a l e m leading D i a s p o r a J e w s such
as the h i g h priest S i m o n bar B o e t h u s . A p p a r e n t l y , h e a n d e v e n before
h i m , the H a s m o n e a n s e n g a g e d in i n t e n s i v e e x c h a n g e s b e t w e e n the
D i a s p o r a and the m o t h e r l a n d . A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t of h i m by D i a s p o r a
J u d a i s m s t r e n g t h e n e d his significance a n d reputation in R o m e and with
the E m p e r o r . A n essential factor in influence on the D i a s p o r a w a s J u d a e o -
Palestinian literature in the G r e e k l a n g u a g e already m e n t i o n e d . W e see it
already in the p r e - R o m a n Hellenistic period. T h e e x p a n d e d G r e e k b o o k
of Esther c o n t a i n s a c o l o p h o n referring to the transportation of the b o o k
16
to A l e x a n d r i a in the 'fourth y e a r of the reign of P t o l e m y a n d C l e o p a t r a '
by a priest or L e v i t e , D o s i t h e o s , and his son P t o l e m y . ' L y s i m a c h u s , the
son of P t o l e m y , a citizen of J e r u s a l e m , ' is s u p p o s e d to h a v e translated it.

15
For the role and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p i l g r i m a g e , cf. S. Safrai, Die Wallfahrt im Zeitalter
des Zweiten Tempels ( N e u k i r c h e n , 1 9 8 1 ) ; Y . A m i r , ' D i e Wallfahrt n a c h J e r u s a l e m aus
P h i l o n s S i c h t ' , in idem. Die hellenistische Gestalt des Judentums bei Philon von
Alexandrien ( N e u k i r c h e n , 1 9 8 3 ) , 5 2 - 6 4 ( o r i g i n a l l y in H e b r e w in FS A . Schallt [Jerusalem,
1 9 8 0 ] ) ; H e n g e l , Judentum und Hellenismus (p. 7 5 n. 1), 3 0 - 1 , 1 1 2 , 1 8 6 - 8 , 4 6 0 = idem,
Judaism and Hellenism, 17, 6 0 , 1 0 0 - 1 , 2 5 2 ; idem. The 'Hellenization' of Judaea, 18, 2 4 -
6, 3 7 = Kleine Schriften I, 1 8 - 2 0 . 2 4 ; idem, ' D e r v o r c h r i s t l i c h e P a u l u s ' , 2 1 2 - 1 4 , 2 2 4 - 5 ,
2 4 0 - 1 . 2 5 6 - 8 ; idem, ' J e r u s a l e m als j d i s c h e und h e l l e n i s t i s c h e Stadt Judaica, H e l l e n i s t i c a
et C h r i s t i a n a ' , Kleine Schriften II ( W U N T 109; 1 9 9 9 ) , 1 1 5 - 5 6 .
l h
T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n m a y refer to the y e a r s 1 1 7 , 7 7 or 4 8 BCE; p r e s u m a b l y the inter
m e d i a t e date s h o u l d be c h o s e n , f o l l o w i n g E. B i c k e r m a n ( 'The C o l o p h o n o f the Greek B o o k
o f E s t h e r ' . JBL 6 3 [ 1 9 4 4 [ : 3 3 9 - 6 2 (= Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 225-45]).
A n o t h e r translator k n o w n to us, the g r a n d s o n of B e n Sirach, also from
P a l e s t i n e , m i g r a t e d to E g y p t in 132 BCE and there translated his g r a n d
17
father' s w o r k . P r o b a b l y , h o w e v e r , a not insignificant n u m b e r of the later
writings h a d already b e e n translated in Palestine. T h i s is t h o u g h t to be
18
true of 1-2 E z r a (Ezra a n d N e h e m i a h ) a n d 1 M a c c a b e e s , a m o n g o t h e r s .
T h e G r e e k l a n g u a g e w a s m o r e w i d e s p r e a d in the m o t h e r l a n d after the
third c e n t u r y BCE than g e n e r a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d , a n d G r e e k a u t h o r s and
t r a n s l a t o r s w o r k e d t h e r e l o n g before the w e l l - k n o w n J u d a e o / J u d a e o -
C h r i s t i a n triad of T h e o d o t i o n , A q u i l a a n d S y m m a c h u s in the s e c o n d
19
c e n t u r y C E . F r a g m e n t s of L X X texts h a v e b e e n found even at Q u m r a n
in t h e l i b r a r y of the E s s e n e s , w h o w e r e h o s t i l e to all G r e e k c u l t u r a l
20
i n f l u e n c e . All this indicates, h o w e v e r , that a reciprocal literary e x c h a n g e
and a related translation p r o c e s s existed b e t w e e n the Palestinian m o t h e r
land a n d the G r e e k - s p e a k i n g D i a s p o r a o v e r a long period in w h i c h the
m o t h e r l a n d t e n d e d to g i v e a n d the D i a s p o r a to r e c e i v e . O n e c a n certainly
a s s u m e , h o w e v e r , that w o r k s such as W i s d o m or the writings of Philo
w e r e also read in J e r u s a l e m . T h e L X X had long b e e n at h o m e there.
T h i s r e l a t i v e d e p e n d e n c e on P a l e s t i n i a n J u d a i s m a n d r e c i p r o c a l
literary c o n n e c t i o n led r e p e a t e d l y , for e x a m p l e , to n e w revisions of the
G r e e k t e x t s in t h e l i g h t of t h e H e b r e w t e x t , v i e w e d as a u t h e n t i c ,
a l t h o u g h e x c e p t for the T o r a h , w h i c h w a s the earliest to b e e s t a b
l i s h e d i t w a s not yet itself clearly d e t e r m i n e d in the p r e - C h r i s t i a n era.
W e find such a ' r e v i s e d ' text in the M i n o r P r o p h e t s scroll first p u b l i s h e d
by B a r t h l m y , found in the J u d a e a n w i l d e r n e s s and p r o b a b l y dating

17
Cf. Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 8 6 - 9 . A c c o r d i n g to the p r o l o g u e , in a d d i t i o n t o the
T o r a h , the p r o p h e t s , and at least a p o r t i o n o f the H a g i o g r a p h a , already e x i s t e d in G r e e k
w h e n h e b e g a n his translation.
18
O n the state o f the d i s c u s s i o n , s e e Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 1 0 1 - 9 . T h e y regard
C a n t i c l e s , L a m e n t a t i o n s , R u t h , E s t h e r ( b e c a u s e o f the c o l o p h o n , s e e n. 16 a b o v e ) , and
Q o h e l e t h as h a v i n g certainly b e e n translated in P a l e s t i n e . For 1 Ezra, s e e . Z. W a c h o l d e r ,
Eupolemos: A Study of Judaeo-Greek Literature (Cincinnati, 1974), 2 7 4 - 6 , 2 7 9 . On 1
M a c c a b e e s , s e e the u n f o u n d e d a r g u m e n t o f G. M u s s i e s , ' G r e e k in P a l e s t i n e and the
D i a s p o r a ' , in The Jewish People in the First Century, S. Safrai and M . Stern, e d s ( C R I I / 2 ;
A s s e n and A m s t e r d a m , 1 9 7 6 ) , 1 0 4 0 - 6 4 ( e s p . 1 0 5 4 ) ; contrast Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h ,
105. T h e t h e s i s o f the P a l e s t i n i a n o r i g i n o f the P s a l m s translation is a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d ; cf.
A . v a n der K o o i j , ' O n the P l a c e o f O r i g i n o f the O l d G r e e k o f P s a l m s ' , VT 3 3 ( 1 9 8 3 ) , 6 7 -
7 4 ; H . - J . V e n e t z , Die Quinta des Psalteriums: Ein Beitrag zur Septuaginta-und
Hexaplaforschung ( H i l d e s h e i m , 1 9 7 4 ) , contra Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 104; s e e a l s o
H e n g e l , The 'Hellenization' of Judaea (p. 2 0 . 3 ) , 2 5 ; cf. J. S c h a p e r , ' D e r S e p t u a g i n t a -
Psalter als D o k u m e n t j d i s c h e r E s c h a t o l o g i e ' , in Die Septuaginta zwischen Judentum
und Christentum, M . H e n g e l and . M . S c h w e m e r , e d s ( W U N T 7 2 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 4 ) , 3 8 -
6 1 , and idem, E s c h a t o l o g y in the G r e e k Psalter ( W U N T 11/76; 1 9 9 5 ) , 3 4 - 4 5 .
1 9
Cf. M u s s i e s ( s e e a b o v e , . 18), ' G r e e k ' , and H e n g e l , The 'Hellenization' of Judaea.
7 - 2 9 , 6 3 - 8 9 ( w i t h b i b l i o g r a p h y ) = Kleine Schriften I, 1 2 - 5 1 , 7 2 - 8 5 .
2,1
Cf. M . H e n g e l , ' Q u m r a n und der H e l l e n i s m u s ' , in Qumran, M . D e k o r , e d . ( B E T h L
4 6 ; Paris and L e u v e n , 1 9 7 8 ) , 3 3 3 - 7 2 ( 3 3 9 ) = Kleine Schriften I, 2 2 8 - 9 4 ( 2 6 3 - 4 ) . For the
L X X f r a g m e n t s , s e e a b o v e , p. 2 9 . 13 and p. 41 n. 5 4 .
from the m i d d l e of the first c e n t u r y BCE. It has also b e e n p u b l i s h e d in a
substantial edition by . (see a b o v e , p . 2 9 n. 13). T h e text already
b e a r s m a r k e d e l e m e n t s of the later r e v i s i o n s of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y ,
p r o b a b l y d u e to the influence of Palestinian s c h o l a r s . D . A. K o c h points
out that Paul relies on a H e b r e w - o r i e n t e d revision of the G r e e k trans
lation for his citations from Isaiah, J o b and 1 K i n g s . In m y o p i n i o n , the
possibility c a n n o t be e x c l u d e d that the A p o s t l e himself u n d e r t o o k such a
revision. E v e n Justin is also fully a w a r e of certain differences b e t w e e n
his Christian text and that utilized by the J e w s w h i c h h e c o n s i d e r e d
i n c o r r e c t l y t o b e counterfeit. In the d i s c u s s i o n with the J e w s he v a l u e d
21
citations from the J e w i s h text.
T h i s t e n d e n c y to a c h i e v e the greatest possible a p p r o x i m a t i o n to the
original text also c o n t i n u e s after the s c h i s m b e t w e e n J e w s and Christians.
O n the J e w i s h side, this took p l a c e t h r o u g h significant alterations to
the old L X X text in the ' r e v i s i o n s ' of A q u i l a a n d T h e o d o t i o n , w h o s e
e d i t i o n s c o u l d a l m o s t be d e s i g n a t e d n e w t r a n s l a t i o n s . T h i s t e n d e n c y
r e a c h e d a n e w zenith in the third a n d fourth c e n t u r i e s , via the influence
of O r i g e n ' s H e x a p l a with its critical textual c o m p a r i s o n , in the s u b
sequent r e c e n s i o n s attributed to L u c i a n and H e s y c h i u s , a n d in J e r o m e ' s
22
V u l g a t e t r a n s l a t i o n . This influence a l w a y s e x e r c i s e d a corrective as well
as an unsettling, e v e n a confusing, effect. T h i s c a n be d e m o n s t r a t e d in
the history of the influence of the H e x a p l a and in the l a b o r i o u s a t t e m p t of
m o d e r n L X X editors to reconstruct the original L X X b e h i n d the v a r i o u s
r e c e n s i o n s and forms of the text. E v e n the v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s to r e d u c e the
c a n o n m o r e or less strictly to the b o o k s of the H e b r e w B i b l e (or e v e n to
reach b a c k to the original w o r d i n g ) are, essentially, a c o n s e q u e n c e of the
influence of the m o t h e r l a n d , w h i c h existed from t h e outset. It is hardly
accidental that b o t h Origen and J e r o m e u n d e r t o o k their philological w o r k
with the biblical text in Palestine, C a e s a r e a a n d B e t h l e h e m , a n d were in
contact with J e w i s h scholars.

b) T h e T r a n s l a t i o n and O r i g i n of Individual W r i t i n g s

T h e translation into G r e e k of t h o s e d o c u m e n t s later a s s e m b l e d in the


H e b r e w c a n o n m a y h a v e c o n t i n u e d for about three c e n t u r i e s into the
m i d d l e of the first c e n t u r y , i n d e e d e v e n to the b e g i n n i n g of the s e c o n d
century CE. It starts with the P e n t a t e u c h a n d e n d s with Q o h e l e t h a n d
2 E z r a (Ezra and N e h e m i a h ) after the very novelistic version of so-called
1 E z r a w a s first distributed (see b e l o w , p p . 8 6 - 7 ) . T h a t is, in various
p e r i o d s and at different p l a c e s n u m e r o u s translators w o r k e d on ' t h e '
S e p t u a g i n t . T h i s is especially true if o n e also includes the revisers of the
text.

: i
S e e a b o v e , pp. 2 8 - 9 . For Paul, s e e b e l o w , p p . 8 9 - 9 0 .
2 2
Cf. Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 1 6 2 - 7 3 .
Unfortunately, w e h a v e o n l y a very few c h r o n o l o g i c a l reference points
21
for the historical details of this translation p r o c e s s . It is fundamental
that these d o c u m e n t s in their G r e e k form c o m p r i s e n o unity w h a t s o e v e r ;
rather, e a c h m u s t b e investigated individually, a l t h o u g h they all naturally
d r a w on the great linguistic reservoir of the G r e e k P e n t a t e u c h a n d are, to
a significant d e g r e e , linguistically s h a p e d by it. Especially interesting is
the c o m p a r i s o n with the p r e - M a s o r e t i c a n d p r e - C h r i s t i a n texts from
Q u m r a n , s o m e of w h i c h d i v e r g e s u b s t a n t i a l l y o n o c c a s i o n f r o m the
r a b b i n i c - M a s o r e t i c text transmitted to us. B u t despite interesting parallels
o n e s h o u l d not o v e r l o o k the r e m a r k of . : ' A t Q u m r a n only a very
small n u m b e r of texts w a s found that w e r e closely related to the original
text of the L X X (less than five p e r cent of the biblical texts). T h e H e b r e w
scrolls from w h i c h the L X X w a s translated in E g y p t h a v e not b e e n found
in Q u m r a n . '
W e p o s s e s s in the L X X also t w o , three, or e v e n m o r e , v e r s i o n s of
several b o o k s , often starkly divergent. T h e n u m b e r of the s o m e t i m e s
s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i v e r g e n t f o r m s of the text is g r e a t e r than in the N e w
T e s t a m e n t . Rahlfs, in his small edition of the L X X , s o m e t i m e s offers
t h e m in synoptic form, as in J o s h u a 19 (A a n d B ) , J u d g e s ( A and B),
Tobit (B/A and Sin) and Daniel ( L X X and [proto-JTheodotion);
in a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s s m a l l e r a l t e r a t i o n s a n d a w k w a r d
t r a n s p o s i t i o n s w h i c h m a k e r e f e r e n c e difficult, as in t h e P s a l m s or
24
J e r e m i a h . A s a rule, these alterations c a n be traced to v a r i o u s f o r m s of
the original.
For a few b o o k s , the translators had e x e m p l a r s that d i v e r g e d
significantly from the M a s o r e t i c text. A H e b r e w text of 4 Q for 1 and
2 S a m u e l , w h i c h has a g o o d m a n y a g r e e m e n t s with the L X X , d i s c o v e r e d
a l m o s t forty y e a r s a g o at Q u m r a n a n d first p u b l i s h e d ( p a r t i a l l y ) in
1978, exists in three m a n u s c r i p t s . O n e , written in p a l a e o - H e b r e w script
s e e m s , since it dates far into the third c e n t u r y , to be the v e r y oldest
biblical text w e p o s s e s s . T h e a u t h o r of C h r o n i c l e s already h a d this form
25
of the t e x t . S i n c e the M a s o r e t i c text is significantly inferior h e r e to the

" A list w i t h the p r o b a b l e d a t e s o f translation appears in Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h ,


96-8.
2 4
T h e d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t to the M a s o r e t i c t e x t in the i n d i v i d u a l b o o k s are
a s s e m b l e d in S w e t e . ' T h e S e p t u a g i n t a as a V e r s i o n ' , 3 1 4 - 4 2 . For Q u m r a n and the L X X
s e e . , The Greek and Hebrew Bible, 2 8 5 - 3 0 0 ( q u o t a t i o n 3 0 0 ) .
2 5
E . U l r i c h (The Qumran Text of Samuel and Josephus, H S M 19 [ M i s s o u l a , 1 9 7 8 ] )
a
p u b l i s h e d the c o n t e x t o f the 4 Q S a m s c r o l l and a l m o s t all the variae lectiones and
i n v e s t i g a t e d its relationship to the L X X r e c e n s i o n s and J o s e p h u s ' e x e m p l a r . S e e , h o w e v e r ,
the r e v i e w o f . in The Greek and Hebrew Bible, 2 7 3 - 8 3 : 'the a r g u m e n t b e t w e e n
a
4 Q S a m and the L X X is s m a l l e r than s u g g e s t e d by U l r i c h ' . H i s t h e s e s sparked an i n t e n s e
d e b a t e and h a v e not g o n e u n c h a l l e n g e d ; cf. the o v e r v i e w in van der W o u d e ( s e e a b o v e , p.
4 6 n. 7 1 ) . 2 8 9 - 9 2 ; J e l l i c o e , 2 8 3 - 9 0 : Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 1 7 5 - 6 . E. U l r i c h ( ' T h e
B i b l i c a l S c r o l l s from Q u m r a n C a v e 4: A P r o g r e s s Report o f their P u b l i c a t i o n ' , RQ 14/2
1 1 9 8 9 ] , 2 0 7 - 2 8 ) offers an o v e r v i e w o f all the biblical f r a g m e n t s from 4 Q . T h e v o l u m e
L X X e x e m p l a r , the L X X acquires special significance in relation to s o m e
of these f r a g m e n t s from 4 Q , especially since the translators w o r k e d very
precisely.
In contrast, the translation of Isaiah is m o r e c o n t e x t - r e l a t e d . It is to b e
26
d a t e d w i t h S e e l i g m a n n t o the early M a c c a b e a n period, i.e. in the
m i d d l e of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y , after the J e w i s h h i g h priest O n i a s IV
founded the t e m p l e at L e o n t o p o l i s (c. 160) and also s t r e n g t h e n e d the
p o l i t i c a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s of J e w s in E g y p t ; at a f e w p o i n t s t h e
P t o l e m a i c - E g y p t i a n m i l i e u a n d t h e h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n of its o r i g i n
b e c o m e s e v i d e n t (cf. Isa. 1 9 : 1 8 - 2 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g to m o r e recent studies,
allusions are m a d e e v e n to the R o m a n c o n q u e s t of C a r t h a g e and the
27
P a r t h i a n c o n q u e s t of B a b y l o n ( 1 4 6 a n d 141 BCE r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . It
already p r e s u m e s the translation of the P s a l m s , the M i n o r P r o p h e t s and
28
E z e k i e l . A little later, the J u d a e o - P a l e s t i n i a n h i s t o r i a n E u p o l e m o s
29
s e e m s to h a v e utilized C h r o n i c l e s in G r e e k translation for his w o r k .
T h e p o s s i b i l i t y c a n n o t be e x c l u d e d that t h e I s a i a h - L X X i n v o l v e s an
u p d a t i n g r e v i s i o n of an older translation. I c o n s i d e r it unlikely that the
m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r o p h e t i c b o o k w o u l d be translated so late. T h e p r o l o g u e
of Sirach, 2 M a c c a b e e s 2:13 a n d the c o l o p h o n of E s t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e
that the very p e r i o d , d u r i n g a n d after the M a c c a b e a n revolt, that led
indirectly to a s t r e n g t h e n i n g of J e w r y in Egypt, w a s an e p o c h of intensive
t r a n s l a t i o n a c t i v i t y i n t o G r e e k , n o t o n l y in E g y p t , b u t a l s o in t h e
m o t h e r l a n d . O n e can well u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o m p l a i n t of the g r a n d s o n and
translator of B e n S i r a c h in his p r o l o g u e a b o u t t h e difficulty of such
translation from H e b r e w into G r e e k . B u t apparently in this period m a n y
J e w s did not flinch from this labour. T h i s series of n e w translations,
w h i c h c r e a t e d an entirely n e w literary c o r p u s , w a s an intellectual a c c o m
p l i s h m e n t of the first order. A s i n d i c a t e d by the f r a g m e n t s p r e s e r v e d in
A l e x a n d e r Polyhistor, this translation p r o c e s s w a s paralleled by a vital

a a
( n o . 5 4 ) c o n t a i n s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f 4 Q J u d g and 4 Q S a m ; cf. ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 0 n. 3 ) ,
Unpublished Qumran Texts, 9 5 , and the e s s a y s in B r o o k e and L i n d a r s , The Septuagint
and the Dead Sea Scrolls, 1 1 - 2 9 7 ; cf. DJD IX, 1 6 1 - 9 7 .
2 6
1 . L. S e e l i g m a n n , The Septuagint Version of Isaiah (Leiden, 1948): Jellicoe, 2 9 9 -
300.
2 7
S e e A . van der K o o i j , Die alten Textzeugen des Jesajabuches ( O B O 3 5 ; Freiburg and
G t t i n g e n , 1 9 8 1 ) , 3 0 : Harl. D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h . 9 7 : s o m e t i m e b e t w e e n 1 7 0 and 132.
2I<
S e e l i g m a n n ( s e e a b o v e , n. 2 6 ) , 7 0 - 2 , 9 1 - 3 . Cf. a l s o A . van der K o o i j , 'The Old
G r e e k o f Isaiah in R e l a t i o n to the Q u m r a n T e x t s o f I s a i a h ' , in B r o o k e and Lindars, 1 9 5 -
11
2 1 3 : ' L X X Isa and lQIsa reflect a free a p p r o a c h toward their V o r l a g e ' ( 1 9 7 ) .
:i)
Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 9 0 : E u p o l e m o s h a r m o n i z e d 1 K i n g s and 2 C h r o n i c l e s ;
for E u p o l e m o s h i m s e l f , cf. 2 M a c c a b e e s 4:11 and 1 M a c c a b e e s 8 : 1 7 ; text w i t h c o m
mentary: C . R. H o l l a d a y , Fragments from Hellenistic Jewish Authors, V o l . I: H i s t o r i a n s
( C h i c o . C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 8 3 ) . 9 3 - 1 5 8 . S e e a l s o H e n g e l , Judentum und Hellenismus;
\idem, Kleine Schriften I, 4 0 - 1 . 4 3 ^ 1 , 2 0 2 - 3 ; 1 6 9 - 7 5 ; W a c h o l d e r ; S c h r e r (rev.) I I I / l ,
517-21.
literary productivity d e p e n d e n t on the L X X , in original G r e e k and in
G r e e k literary forms.
T h e translation of J e r e m i a h is severely a b b r e v i a t e d . T h e L X X offers a
text a b r i d g e d by r o u g h l y an eighth, w h i c h d e p e n d s a s d e m o n s t r a t e d
again by fragments from Q u m r a n a t least in part on an a b b r e v i a t e d
10
H e b r e w o r i g i n a l . By contrast, in the very free translation of J o b , already
strongly influenced by Hellenistic thought, the translator p r o b a b l y a b b r e
viated the e x t r e m e l y difficult text by r o u g h l y 2 0 per cent. C o n s e q u e n t l y
the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the u n a b r i d g e d J o b c a u s e d b o t h O r i g e n a n d J e r o m e
e x t r e m e difficulties. T h e t r a n s l a t o r of J o b a d d e d an a p p e n d i x to the
a b r i d g e d w o r k in w h i c h J o b w a s identified w i t h the E d o m i t e king J o b a b
( G e n . 3 6 : 3 3 ; cf. 9 - 1 3 ) and at the s a m e t i m e b e c a m e E s a u ' s g r a n d s o n
and thus A b r a h a m ' s descendant. A Jewish 'historian', Aristeas, pre
served in a fragment of A l e x a n d e r Polyhistor, s e e m s to h a v e e x t e n d e d
this tradition. T h e later J u d a e o - H e l l e n i s t i c Testament of Job e v e n m a k e s
J o b an E g y p t i a n king. T h e b o o k of J o b , w h i c h on the basis of its c o n t e n t
31
s e e m s m o r e like a 'foreign b o d y ' , is thus linked to biblical h i s t o r y . T h e
translator of P r o v e r b s w a s e v e n m o r e intensely o p e n to the spirit of the
t i m e s . H e not only inserted purely G r e e k p r o v e r b s , but also e x p e r i m e n t e d
with h e x a m e t e r s and i a m b i c s . H e p o r t r a y e d the pre-existent w i s d o m of
32
P r o v e r b s 8 : 2 2 - 2 4 in a form r e s e m b l i n g the Platonic w o r l d - s o u l .
In v i e w of the f r e e d o m of translation, it s e e m s to m e an o p e n question
w h e t h e r the interpreters of J o b and P r o v e r b s already regarded t h e m as
sacrosanct 'Holy Scripture' or rather as didactic w i s d o m b o o k s , analogous
to the n u m e r o u s ' i n t e r n a t i o n a l ' w i s d o m b o o k s w i t h i n a n d b e y o n d Israel.
T h i s is especially true since ' J o b ' i n v o l v e s a p r e s u m a b l y non-Israelite
' a u t h o r ' . Indeed, the t r a n s m i s s i o n history of such w i s d o m w r i t i n g s as
A h i q a r , parts of w h i c h w e r e i n c l u d e d in A e s o p ' s Vita, Sirach, T o b i t , the
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs a n d t h e s a y i n g s of S e x t u s or
M e n a n d e r d e m o n s t r a t e h o w easily they c o u l d b e e x p a n d e d or abridged.

, H
C f . E i s s f e l d t . 4 6 9 - 7 0 ; J e l l i c o e , 3 0 0 - 1 ; . , The Septuagint Translation of
Jeremiah and Baruch: A Discussion of an Early Revision of the LXX of Jeremiah 29-52
andBaruch 1:1-3:8 ( H S M 8; M i s s o u l a , 1 9 7 6 ) ; H a d , D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 180. For the
Q u m r a n d i s c o v e r i e s , s e e the s u m m a r y in van der W o u d e ( s e a b o v e , p. 4 6 n. 7 1 ) , 2 9 4 - 5 :
b
'. . . that the f r a g m e n t s o f 4 Q J e r d i s p l a y a text that c o r r e s p o n d s in m a n y r e s p e c t s , not
j
o n l y t e x t u a l l y but a l s o structurally . . . to L X X Jer . . .'. w h i l e 4 Q J e r r e s e m b l e s the
M a s o r e t i c text.
11
S e e J. Z i e g l e r , ' D e r t e x t k r i t i s c h e Wert der S e p t u a g i n t a d e s B u c h e s J o b ' , in idem. 9 -
2 8 ( o r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d in 1 9 3 4 ) ; idem, Beitrge zum griechischen Job ( M S U 18;
G t t i n g e n , 1 9 8 5 ) ; idem, Job ( S e p t u a g i n t a : V e t u s T e s t a m e n t u m G r a e c u m X I / 4 ; G t t i n g e n ,
1 9 8 2 ) , 9; S w e t e , 2 5 5 - 6 ; Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 9 1 , 1 7 9 ; for the historian A r i s t e a s ,
cf. S c h r e r ( r e v . ) / 1 , 5 2 5 - 6 , and C. A . H o l l a d a y ( s e e a b o v e , p. 8 5 . 2 9 ) . V o l . I, 2 6 1 -
7 5 ; for TestJob, Schrer, 5 5 2 - 5 .
, 2
S w e t e , 2 5 5 ; Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 179; H e n g e l , Judentum und Hellenismus (p.
7 5 . 1 ), 2 9 2 - 5 ; G. S c h i m a n o w s k i , Weisheit und Messias ( W U N T / 1 7 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 5 ) ,
35-8.
F r e e s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n a l s o o c c u r s , h o w e v e r , in m o r e n o v e l i s t i c
fashion, in individual historical b o o k s . M o s t notably h e r e , the so-called
1 ( L X X ) or 3 ( V u l g a t e - A p p e n d i x ) E z r a , c o m p o s e d f r o m p a r t s of
2 C h r o n i c l e s , E z r a and N e h e m i a h , w a s e x p a n d e d by a d d i n g the w i s d o m
n o v e l l a of t h e c o n t e s t of t h e r o y a l p a g e s b e f o r e D a r i u s in w h i c h
Z e r u b b a b e l prevails (chs 3 and 4 ) . In contrast to the h y p o t h e s i s that this
w a s an original portion of the c h r o n i c l e r ' s history, it s e e m s m o r e likely
that the translator m a d e a selection leading from J o s i a h ' s celebration of
P a s s o v e r , via the destruction of J e r u s a l e m and the return from Exile, to
the r e a d i n g of the law u n d e r N e h e m i a h ( 7 : 7 2 - 8 : 1 3 a ) . H e c o m b i n e d t h e m
by m e a n s of the central a c c o u n t of h o w Z e r u b b a b e l ' s w i s d o m gained the
p e r m i s s i o n to return. T h e translation s e e m s to p r e s u m e J u d a h ' s i n d e p e n d
e n c e u n d e r S i m o n (141 BCE; 4 : 4 9 - 5 0 ) . T h e a u t h o r w a s c o n c e r n e d with
c r e a t i n g , t h r o u g h selection, e x p a n s i o n and style, a historical a c c o u n t
easily r e a d by G r e e k readers a n d m o r e interesting for G r e e k - s p e a k i n g
33
D i a s p o r a J e w r y than the original b o o k of E z r a . H i s a c c o u n t a g r e e a b l y
b r i d g e s the historical g a p b e t w e e n Josiah, the last p i o u s king before the
E x i l e and the reform efforts of E z r a a n d N e h e m i a h . T h e o l d e r '2 E z r a '
(Ezra and N e h e m i a h ) w a s p r o b a b l y translated o n l y significantly later in
the first c e n t u r y CE. A l t h o u g h in h i s Antiquities, written t o w a r d the e n d of
the first c e n t u r y , J o s e p h u s h a d a l r e a d y a r g u e d for the Palestinian c a n o n
(see b e l o w , p p . 9 9 - 1 0 0 ) , h e u s e d 1 E z r a as an e x e m p l a r , rather than the
t w o ' c a n o n i c a l ' b o o k s of the H e b r e w c a n o n , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e of the
greater readability m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . H e r e and at c o u n t l e s s other points
his great literary freedom in relation to the sacred text is e v i d e n t . T o h i m ,
m a k i n g a f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n on the r e a d e r w a s m o r e i m p o r t a n t than
'fidelity to the t e x t ' a n d historico-philological p r e c i s i o n . T h i s w a s true
for m o s t J e w i s h a l s o for early C h r i s t i a n l i t e r a t u r e b e t w e e n the s e c o n d
centuries BCE a n d CE.
E s t h e r , t o o , w a s e x p a n d e d in a n o v e l i s t i c - d i d a c t i c m a n n e r w h e n
translated into G r e e k by the J e r u s a l e m i t e L y s i m a c h u s , son of P t o l e m y ,
in the s e c o n d half of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y : the a u t h o r a d d e d as an intro
d u c t i o n to this a l m o s t profane n o v e l l a , in the original form of w h i c h
religious motifs are s u b d u e d , M o r d e c a i ' s d r e a m a n d its interpretation;
also t w o royal letters and o n e p r a y e r each from M o r d e c a i and Esther.
T h e latter give a g e n u i n e l y religious content to the originally profane
w o r k t h e H e b r e w v e r s i o n d o e s n o t m e n t i o n G o d , for e x a m p l e . In
contrast, and a p p e a r about twenty-five t i m e s each in the
e x p a n d e d G r e e k version. It also mitigates the offensive notion that a

" J e l l i c o e . 2 9 0 - 4 : '. . . the G r e e k Esdras . . . the first attempt to present the a c c o u n t o f


the Return in H e l l e n i s t i c d r e s s ' ( 2 9 1 ) ; R. Hanhart, Text und Textgeschichte des 1 Esra-
Buches(MS\i 12; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 7 4 ) , 1 7 - 1 8 ; in g e n e r a l , S c h r e r ( r e v . ) III/2, 7 0 8 - 1 8 . J. T.
M i l i k c l a i m s to h a v e d i s c o v e r e d an A r a m a i c precursor to the prayer o f Esther in 4 Q ; s e e
' L e s m o d l e s a r a m e s du livre d ' E s t h e r d a n s la Grotte 4 de Q u m r n ' , RQ 15 ( 1 9 9 1 / 9 2 ) ,
3 2 1 - 4 0 6 ; but s e e a b o v e , p. 4 8 n. 7 5 .
J e w e s s w o u l d m a r r y a p a g a n ruler (ch. 2 6 ) . E v e n the political s c e n a r i o is
altered to fit the t i m e s : in 10:14 H a m a n , the A g a g i t e (i.e. A m a l e k i t e ; cf.
1 S a m . 1 5 : 8 - 9 , 3 2 - 3 ) , b e c o m e s a M a c e d o n i a n w h o intends to betray the
Persian e m p i r e to the M a c e d o n i a n s . H e r e , too, w e h a v e v a r i o u s forms of
the text, the L X X p r o p e r a n d a relatively free revision originating in a
relatively early period. In the Antiquities J o s e p h u s utilizes the e x p a n d e d
L X X text in his o w n r e v i s i o n ; yet a n o t h e r f o r m s the e x e m p l a r of the
34
O l d L a t i n . O n e can p r o c e e d from the a s s u m p t i o n that both 1 E z r a and
E s t h e r w e r e not translated as ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' , b u t as b o o k s of religious
instruction that also p r o m i s e d g o o d e n t e r t a i n m e n t . In addition, E s t h e r is
i n t e n d e d , as the c o l o p h o n d e m o n s t r a t e s , to e n c o u r a g e the j o y o u s cele
bration of P u r i m in A l e x a n d r i a .
T h e b o o k of D a n i e l , i n c l u d i n g the v a r i o u s ' a p o c r y p h a l ' D a n i e l frag
3 5
m e n t s from 4 Q , p e r m i t s o n e to conjecture that the c a n o n i z e d version
w a s c o m p o s e d at t h e c l i m a x of t h e p e r s e c u t i o n by A n t i o c h u s IV
E p i p h a n e s in 165 BCE. In this c a s e the u n k n o w n a p o c a l y p t i c i s t p r e
s u m a b l y b e l o n g e d to the circle of the ' H a s i d i m ' m e n t i o n e d at the e n d of
D a n i e l 11 as masklm.^ T h e translation f o l l o w e d rather early, a b o u t one
or t w o g e n e r a t i o n s later. T h e narrative a d d i t i o n s to Daniel ( S u s a n n a and
Bel a n d the D r a g o n ) m a y b e l o n g to this w i d e r narrative circle. T h e P r a y e r
of A z a r i a h and the S o n g of the T h r e e Y o u n g M e n are a d d e d as liturgical
t e x t s . L i k e the p r a y e r s in E s t h e r , they are i n t e n d e d to intensify the
d i d a c t i c c h a r a c t e r of the ' m a r t y r s t o r y ' t h u s e m p h a s i z e d by a d d i n g
a h a p p y e n d i n g to D a n i e l 3 . O n c e a g a i n , there are t w o v e r s i o n s : (1)
the v e r s i o n by J e r o m e (Prologus in Danihele Propheta), incorrectly
attributed to T h e o d o t i o n , but w h i c h is n e v e r t h e l e s s older than the true
T h e o d o t i o n , w h i c h d o m i n a t e s in C h r i s t i a n m a n u s c r i p t s , a n d (2) the
L X X , p r e s e r v e d only in the S y r o h e x a p l a , m i n u s c u l e 8 8 , and, partially,
in P a p y r u s 9 6 7 , w h i c h , in e x t e n s i v e sections, r e p r e s e n t s m o r e a para
p h r a s e than a translation a n d w h i c h is r e p l a c e d by the literal ( P s e u d o - )
T h e o d o t i o n i c version. R. A l b e r t z seeks to d e m o n s t r a t e that a ' p r e c u r s o r '
of the y o u n g e r , A r a m a i c , c a n o n i c a l D a n i e l narrative underlies the L X X
text of D a n i e l 4 - 6 , w h i c h is significantly d i v e r g e n t and, in part, m o r e
e x t e n s i v e . H e points to an u n r e s o l v e d p r o b l e m , a l t h o u g h his s u g g e s t i o n

, 4
S e e R. H a n h a r t , Esther ( S e p t u a g i n t a : V e t u s T e s t a m e n t u m G r a e c u m VTII/3;
G t t i n g e n , 1 9 6 6 , 2nd e d n 1 9 8 3 ) , 8 7 - 9 , 9 6 - 8 ; m o r e g e n e r a l l y , Schrer (rev.) H I / 2 , 7 1 8 -
22.
, 5 a c
Cf. 4 Q o r N a b and the P s e u d o - D a n i e l - c y c l e , 4 Q p s D a n a r ( s e e Schrer [ r e v . ] I l l / 1 ,
4 4 0 - 3 ; van der W o u d e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 6 n. 7 1 ) , ' Q u m r a n f o r s c h u n g ' . 2 6 8 - 9 ) : o n the
c a n o n i c a l D a n i e l f r a g m e n t s , s e e van der W o u d e , l o c . cit., 3 0 1 - 2 , and, m o r e r e c e n t l y , ,
' U n p u b l i s h e d Q u m r a n T e x t s ' , 9 6 - 8 ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 6 n. 7 1 ) .
1 6
For the hasdm, s e e 1 M a c e . 2 : 4 2 ; 7 : 1 3 ; 2 M a c e . 14:6. S e e a l s o H e n g e l , Judentum
und Hellenismus, 3 1 9 - 2 1 = idem, Judaism and Hellenism, 1 7 5 - 6 ; and idem,
' S c h r i f t a u s l e g u n g und S c h r i f t w e r d u n g ' , in idem. ' J u d a i c a . H e l l e n i s t i c a et C h r i s t i a n s ' ,
Klein Schriften / / ( W U N T 109; 1 9 9 9 ) ^ 4 4 - 6 .
has not itself found w i d e s p r e a d a g r e e m e n t . " J o s e p h u s k n e w the L X X
version of D a n i e l , a l t h o u g h h e did not take the a d d i t i o n s into account,
p e r h a p s b e c a u s e the ' c a n o n i c a l ' D a n i e l , w h i c h h e v a l u e d very m u c h as
a w o r k of p r o p h e t i c o r a c l e s , w a s , for h i m , in c o n t r a s t to E z r a a n d
E s t h e r , a l r e a d y ' i n t e g r a l ' . A c c o r d i n g to h i m , its a l r e a d y fulfilled
oracles h a d c o n v i n c e d A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t in J e r u s a l e m of its d i v i n e
o r i g i n a n d r e f u t e d t h e E p i c u r e a n d e n i a l of G o d ' s p r e s c i e n c e (Ant
10:277). T h i s e x p r e s s e s t i m a t i o n of D a n i e l is c o n s i s t e n t with his o w n
report (Vita 12) that he h a d a l i g n e d h i m s e l f w i t h the P h a r i s e e s . T h e
p r o b l e m is o n l y w h e n he did so. T h i s d o e s not p r e c l u d e the possibility
that h e also fell b a c k on an A l e x a n d r i a n legend for his A l e x a n d e r - D a n i e l
story.
Q o h e l e t h a n d C a n t i c l e s w e r e , like 2 Ezra, translated only very late. In
Q o h e l e t h , the (rabbinic) translation principles of an A q u i l a are already
38
e v i d e n t . I n d e e d , I d o u b t w h e t h e r the translation of Q o h e l e t h w a s first
p r o d u c e d by A q u i l a , the student of A q i b a , at the b e g i n n i n g of the s e c o n d
39
c e n t u r y . H a d this b e e n so, t h e n it w o u l d not h a v e b e e n so r e a d i l y
a c c e p t e d by t h e c h u r c h a n d a l r e a d y c o m m e n t e d u p o n in t h e t h i r d
century (see a b o v e , p. 6 8 - 9 ) . Its translation m a y g o b a c k to a first-century
P h a r i s a i c school of translators, w h o s e t e n d e n c i e s A q u i l a e x t e n d e d in
s t r e n g t h e n e d f o r m a n d w h i c h h a d a l r e a d y r e v i s e d t h e L X X of t h e
p r o p h e t s and o t h e r d o c u m e n t s . A p p a r e n t l y , e v e n Paul utilized a r e v i s e d
text for Isaiah, J o b and 1 a n d 2 K i n g s , i.e. for relatively freely translated
O l d T e s t a m e n t texts. I h a v e a l r e a d y said that it is entirely possible that
P a u l h i m s e l f t o o k u p r e c e n s i o n a l a l t e r a t i o n s in t h e t e x t s i n c e , as a
P h a r i s e e a n d s c h o l a r w h o h a d s t u d i e d in J e r u s a l e m , h e k n e w t h e
40
o r i g i n a l . After the b u i l d i n g of the H e r o d i a n t e m p l e , J e r u s a l e m b e c a m e
e v e n m o r e than p r e v i o u s l y the religious centre of w o r l d J u d a i s m . T h e
P h a r i s e e s , the m o s t influential religious party in P a l e s t i n e , m u s t h a v e
h a d a p a r t i c u l a r interest that the form of the text they h a d established
should also gain entry into the D i a s p o r a s y n a g o g u e s a n d that its gradu
41
ally f o r m i n g c a n o n s h o u l d p r e v a i l t h e r e t o o . A n e x a m p l e of t h i s

" S e e a b o v e , p. 4 2 n. 5 7 ; Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 1834.


, x
Cf. J e l l i c o e , 8 2 ; G. B e r t r a m , ' H e b r i s c h e r und G r i e c h i s c h e r Q o h e l e t ' , TAW 6 4
(1952), 2 6 - 4 9 .
,If
S o B a r t h l m y ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 9 n. 13), Les devanciers d'Aquila, 32-3, 158-9.
4 0
S e e a b o v e , p p . 8 2 - 3 and b e l o w , pp. 1 0 8 - 9 . Cf. D e i n e s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 3 n. 5 8 ) ,
Jdische Steingefsse, 10.
4 1
On the p r o b l e m o f a specific P h a r i s a i c c a n o n , cf. B e c k w i t h , 3 6 6 - 9 ; B a r t h l m y ( s e e
a b o v e , p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ) , 'L'tat de la b i b l e j u i v e , ' 2 2 - 4 . R e p o r t s in rabbinic literature that
s p e a k o f the r e v i s i o n o f texts in J e r u s a l e m s h o u l d b e c o m p a r e d ; cf. mMQ 3 : 4 ; tYoma
4 : 1 8 - 1 9 ; ySheq 4 : 3 ( 4 8 a ) ; bYoma 7 0 a ; bKet 106a. Cf. Safrai ( Wallfahrt, 4, 2 5 6 - 7 , 2 6 2 - 3 )
w h o a s s u m e s that the p i l g r i m s brought their o w n scripture s c r o l l s w i t h t h e m to J e r u s a l e m
'in order to h a v e t h e m c o r r e c t e d in the t e m p l e against the " b o o k o f the forecourt" f o u n d in
the care o f the t e m p l e s c r i b e s ' ( 2 6 2 ) . T h e s a l e o f G r e e k scriptural s c r o l l s to festival
p i l g r i m s will a l s o h a v e p l a y e d a role here. A c t s 8 : 2 7 - 8 c o n t a i n s i n t e r e s t i n g e v i d e n c e o f
influence is the first reference to this very ' c a n o n ' of t w e n t y - t w o writings
in J o s e p h u s (Ap 1:37^4-2).
T h e y e n g a g e d on t w o fronts: on the o n e side, they confronted the
E s s e n e s (and p e r h a p s also e v e n other J e w i s h sects), w h o r e c o g n i z e d a
m u c h l a r g e r n u m b e r of ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' . A m o n g the r o u g h l y 8 0 0
different scrolls in the library at Q u m r a n of w h i c h fragments are p r e
s e r v e d , w e find all t h e b o o k s of the H e b r e w c a n o n e x c e p t E s t h e r ,
a d m i t t e d l y in very different n u m b e r s . H e r e , as in early Christianity, the
m o s t i m p o r t a n t b o o k s e e m s to h a v e b e e n the P s a l m s , with thirty-four
e x e m p l a r s , a l t h o u g h the c a n o n of P s a l m s w a s not yet fully fixed. It is
f o l l o w e d , in b o t h c o m m u n i t i e s , by Isaiah. A l o n g s i d e t h e s e s t a n d , in
e q u a l l y significant n u m b e r s , the various sectarian w r i t i n g s , i n c l u d i n g the
Temple Scroll, in w h i c h G o d s p e a k s to M o s e s in the first p e r s o n , but also
other ' a p o c r y p h a l ' and ' p s e u d e p i g r a p h i c a l ' b o o k s ( s o m e of w h i c h g o
b a c k to the third c e n t u r y BCE) s u c h as the Book of Jubilees, Enoch
d o c u m e n t s , patriarchal t e s t a m e n t s , T o b i t (in four A r a m a i c e x a m p l a r s and
42
o n e H e b r e w ) , Sirach, e t c . T h i s threatening m u l t i t u d e m u s t b e h e l d back
with a d a m , ' s o t h a t ' , to u s e a rabbinic formula, ' t h e divisions in Israel
c e a s e ' (bMeg 3a). O n the o t h e r side stood t h e S a m a r i t a n heretics, w h o
r e c o g n i z e d only the T o r a h as c a n o n i c a l , a n d o n this point not so w i d e l y
r e m o v e d from t h e m t h e S a d d u c e e s , w h o rejected any t r a n s c e n d e n t a l -
e s c h a t o l o g i c a l future h o p e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y c o u l d hardly h a v e a very
p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to p r o p e r l y p r o p h e t i c b o o k s . T h e y certainly did not
43
r e c o g n i z e the b o o k of D a n i e l .

this. T h e E t h i o p i a n financial official w h o c a m e to J e r u s a l e m to w o r s h i p , i.e. in order to


participate in o n e o f the p i l g r i m f e s t i v a l s , w a s , as a e u n u c h , not a p r o s e l y t e but a G o d -
fearer w h o had a l i g n e d w i t h the J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y (cf. M . H e n g e l , ' D e r H i s t o r i k e r L u k a s
und d i e G e o g r a p h i e P a l s t i n a s in der A p o s t e l g e s c h i c h t e ' , ZDPV 99 [ 1 9 8 3 ] , 1 4 7 - 8 2 [ 1 6 4 -
5 ] ) . H e c a n hardly h a v e k n o w n H e b r e w . O n e m u s t a s s u m e t h e r e f o r e that the I s a i a h
scroll h e read o n the j o u r n e y h o m e w a s written in G r e e k (the v e r s e s c i t e d from Isaiah 5 3
in v v . 3 2 - 3 c o r r e s p o n d v e r b a t i m to the L X X v e r s i o n , w h i c h differs in this p a s s a g e
m a r k e d l y from the M a s o r e t i c text) and that he p r o b a b l y b o u g h t it during his stay in the
h o l y c i t y . L u k e r e c o u n t e d the story, w h o s e historicity, naturally, c a n n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d ,
but w h i c h surely has a historical c o r e , 'in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the s i t u a t i o n ' (cf. J. R o l o f f ,
Apostelgeschichte [ N T D 5; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 8 1 ] , 1 4 0 - 1 ) . For the i n f l u e n c e o f the P h a r i s e e s
o n P a l e s t i n i a n J u d a i s m after H e r o d , s e e D e i n e s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 3 n. 5 8 ) , Jdische
Steingefsse, 2 0 - 2 , 2 4 4 - 6 , 2 6 9 - 7 0 , 2 7 8 - 8 3 , and idem, Die Phariser ( W U N T 101:
Tbingen, 1997), 5 3 4 - 5 5 .
4 2
Cf. the s u m m a r i e s in van der W o u d e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 6 n. 7 1 ) , ' Q u m r a n f o r s c h u n g ' ,
2 7 4 - 3 0 4 ; o n the p r o b l e m o f the c a n o n , s e e J. M a i e r , 'Zur Frage d e s b i b l i s c h e n K a n o n s i m
F r h j u d e n t u m im Licht der Q u m r a n f u n d e ' , JBTh 3 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 1 3 5 - 4 6 ; O. B e t z , ' D a s P r o b l e m
d e s " K a n o n s " in den T e x t e n v o n Q u m r a n ' , in G. M a i e r . e d . . Der Kanon der Bibel ( G i e s s e n
and W u p p e r t a l , 1 9 9 0 ) , 7 0 - 8 2 ; , ' U n p u b l i s h e d Q u m r a n T e x t s ' , 9 4 - 1 0 3 . Cf. a b o v e , p.
4 5 . 6 7 .
4
' O n the relation o f the S a d d u c e e s to the ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' , s e e J. Le M o y n e , Les
Sadducens (Paris, 1 9 7 2 ) . 3 5 7 - 9 .
c) T h e W r i t i n g s N o t F o u n d in the H e b r e w C a n o n

T h e r e w e r e ten or eleven writings not found in the Pharisaic-rabbinic


c a n o n w h i c h the c h u r c h r e c o g n i z e d , a l t h o u g h o n l y s l o w l y and half
heartedly. T h e s e w e r e the a d d i t i o n s to D a n i e l and Esther, T o b i t , Judith,
S u s a n n a , B a r u c h , Epistula J e r e m i a e , Sirach, W i s d o m , 1-4 M a c c a b e e s ;
of these 3 a n d 4 M a c c a b e e s w e r e not ' r e c e i v e d ' in the W e s t at all, and in
the East only conditionally. T h e y h a d a great deal in c o m m o n .

1. T h e y all b e l o n g to the G r a e c o - R o m a n period, i.e. they originated


b e t w e e n the third century BCE and the first century CE; T o b i t , S u s a n n a ,
other a d d i t i o n s to D a n i e l , and the E p i s t u l a J e r e m i a e m a y c o m e from the
third c e n t u r y , a n d Sirach from the b e g i n n i n g of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y . T h e
additions to Esther, Judith and 1 M a c c a b e e s b e l o n g to the period after
the victorious M a c c a b e a n rebellion. 2 M a c c a b e e s , a pleasantly enter
taining a n d instructive e p i t o m e of the five b o o k s of J a s o n of C y r e n e ,
from the t i m e after the death of J u d a s M a c c a b e u s (161 BCE), and the
s o m e w h a t later W i s d o m o r i g i n a t e d in the first half of the first century
BCE. 3 a n d 4 M a c c a b e e s a n d B a r u c h w e r e c o m p o s e d u n d e r R o m a n
d o m i n a t i o n . A s s u m i n g the P h a r i s a i c thesis that p r o p h e t i c inspiration
44
c e a s e d a n d the p e r i o d of the scholars b e g a n with E z r a (or N e h e m i a h ) ,
their e x c l u s i o n from the Palestinian ' c a n o n ' w a s t h o r o u g h l y justified.
T h e inclusion of Q o h e l e t h , Daniel and E s t h e r (and o t h e r relatively late
writings such as C a n t i c l e s , the final version of P r o v e r b s , and the b o o k s
of C h r o n i c l e s ) w a s based, by contrast, on a 'historical e r r o r ' . E v i d e n c e
of a w a r e n e s s that there w a s a p r o b l e m can be seen in the fact that, in
Palestine in contrast to the G r e e k B i b l e (see a b o v e , p p . 5 9 - 6 0 ) , D a n i e l
w a s not c o u n t e d in the p r o p h e t i c c o r p u s (this w a s already c l o s e d in the
45
second c e n t u r y ) , but included a m o n g the ' h a g i o g r a p h a ' . Q o h e l e t h w a s
still not v a l u e d as c a n o n i c a l in the school of S h a m m a i in the first century
CE. R. M e n a s i a h (c. 180 CE) c o u l d s e e in it o n l y S o l o m o n ' s p r o f a n e
w i s d o m . T h e earlier d o u b t of the w i s e m e n w a s later attributed to the fact
4 6
that 'they found w o r d s in it that t e n d e d t o w a r d h e r e s y ( m r c ) ' . T h e r e

4 4
S e e a b o v e , p p . 4 3 - 4 and p. 4 4 n. 6 4 . S e e a l s o H e n g e l , ' S c h r i f t a u s l e g u n g ' ( s e e a b o v e ,
p. 4 5 n. 6 7 ) , 2 0 - 8 .
4 5
In Q u m r a n , h o w e v e r , he w a s c o n s i d e r e d a p r o p h e t , as 4 Q F l o r 2 : 3 a t t e s t s ; for
J o s e p h u s , t o o , he a s s u m e s a l e a d i n g p l a c e . Cf. a l s o E l l i s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 5 7 n. 2 ) , Old
Testament, 4 1 - 6 , w h o a s s u m e s that D a n i e l ' s status w a s in d i s p u t e and that he w a s
r e c k o n e d a m o n g the p r o p h e t s in at least s o m e c i r c l e s . T h i s w a s e s p e c i a l l y true for those
D i a s p o r a J e w s (or C h r i s t i a n s ) w h o i n c l u d e d D a n i e l a m o n g the p r o p h e t i c b o o k s f o l l o w i n g
Ezekiel.
4ft
mYad 3 : 5 ; mEd 5 : 3 ; tEd 2:7; tYad 2 : 1 4 ; PRK 8:1 ; 2 4 : 1 4 ; QohR 1:4; c i t a t i o n s in Bill.
I V : 4 2 6 - 9 . T h e e x t e n t to w h i c h this d e b a t e w a s s e r i o u s , h o w e v e r , is d i s p u t e d . A p p a r e n t l y
p e d a g o g i c a l g r o u n d s , primarily, led s o m e t e a c h e r to c o n c e a l the b o o k " , a p r o c e d u r e
that a t t a c h e d h i g h e s t e e m to the c o n c e a l e d o b j e c t (contra tShab 13:5: o n e m a y burn
heretical b o o k s and g o d s , s e e a b o v e , p p . 4 5 - 6 ) . A R N 1 r e c o u n t s that P r o v e r b s , C a n t i c l e s
w a s also a certain, less e n d u r i n g discussion c o n c e r n i n g Ezekiel, Canticles
and P r o v e r b s . T h e relatively late origin and a c c e p t a n c e of E s t h e r m a y
h a v e also p l a y e d a role in the d i s c u s s i o n about it, a l t h o u g h the c o m m a n d
to r e a d ' t h e E s t h e r scroll' o n P u r i m very q u i c k l y m a d e it and the related
4 7
n a t i o n a l f e s t i v a l e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r . T h e o l d e s t e v i d e n c e for t h e
c e l e b r a t i o n of t h e festival is 2 M a c c a b e e s 15:37 ( t h e 14th A d a r as
the ' D a y of M o r d e c a i ' ) ; i.e. the festival w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , at the latest, in
the m i d d l e of the first c e n t u r y BCE. C a n t i c l e s , p r o p e r l y a p r o f a n e love
p o e m , w a s less d i s c u s s e d . It m u s t h a v e b e e n interpreted allegorically
very early. O n l y in this w a y c a n w e a c c o u n t for the fact that, w i t h four
e x e m p l a r s r e c o v e r e d t h r e e from C a v e 4it w a s highly e s t e e m e d in
the library at Q u m r a n . A q i b a d e s c r i b e d the fact that its ' c a n o n i c i t y ' could
48
b e d o u b t e d as c o m p l e t e l y b e y o n d c o m p r e h e n s i o n . Its r e c e p t i o n in
the c h u r c h i n v o l v e d s i m i l a r a s s u m p t i o n s : O r i g e n a n d o t h e r C h u r c h
F a t h e r s c o m m e n t e d on it enthusiastically; the s o b e r critic T h e o d o r e of
M o p s u e s t a w a n t e d to e l i m i n a t e it as a p r o f a n e s o n g . T h e rejection of
the ten or e l e v e n d o c u m e n t s , the later ' C h r i s t i a n a p o c r y p h a ' , by the
P h a r i s e e s a n d later r a b b i s , is thus less a q u e s t i o n of c o n t e n t t h a n of
c h r o n o l o g y . Judith (if it w a s written in H e b r e w or A r a m a i c , w h i c h is
p o s s i b l e but not certain) a n d T o b i t w o u l d fit in the H e b r e w c a n o n j u s t as
well as E s t h e r a n d D a n i e l . A s for S i r a c h , this w a s the first J u d a e o -

and Q o h e l e t h w e r e ' c o n c e a l e d ' s i n c e S o l o m o n ' s d a y s , b e f o r e they w e r e interpreted by


H e z e k i a h ' s m e n or the m e n o f t h e G r e a t A s s e m b l y , i.e. b e f o r e t h e i r f u n d a m e n t a l
a g r e e m e n t w i t h the ' c a n o n w i t h i n the c a n o n ' , the b o o k s o f M o s e s , w a s d e m o n s t r a t e d . T h e
story is r e c o u n t e d as an illustration o f the first m a x i m o f the m e n o f the Great A s s e m b l y :
' M a k e d e c i s i o n s c a u t i o u s l y . ' T h e n v e r s e s that o c c a s i o n o b j e c t i o n s and that c a n o n l y be
s a t i s f a c t o r i l y interpreted after a certain t i m e are c i t e d ( P r o v . 7 : 7 - 2 0 ; Cant. 7 : 1 1 , 1 2 - 1 3 ;
Q o h . 11:9). U n t i l t h e n , h o w e v e r , the b o o k s r e m a i n c o n c e a l e d in order to p r e v e n t an
' i n c a u t i o u s d e c i s i o n ' (on this p a s s a g e , c o m p a r e a l s o S t e m b e r g e r [p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ] , ' J a b n e ' ,
1 7 0 - 2 ) . A c c o r d i n g to this and o t h e r p a s s a g e s , c a n o n i c i t y is d e m o n s t r a t e d in relation to
the T o r a h . C o n c e r n i n g the d e b a t e o v e r Q o h e l e t h , cf. a l s o B e c k w i t h , 2 8 3 - 8 8 , 2 9 7 - 3 0 2 ,
3 1 0 - 1 1 , 3 1 9 - 2 1 ; B a r t h l m y , ' L ' t a t de la b i b l e j u i v e ' , 2 8 - 3 0 .
4 7
For Esther, cf. bMeg 7a; yMeg 1:4 ( 7 0 d ) : the n a t i o n a l i s t i c and x e n o p h o b i c a s p e c t
o f the b o o k m a d e it u n p o p u l a r , e s p e c i a l l y in the B a b y l o n i a n D i a s p o r a ; o n the other
hand, the Esther scroll is the o n l y b o o k in the T a n a k n o r m a l l y f o u n d as a private p o s s e s
s i o n (cf. B a r t h l e m n y , loc. cit.. o n bSanh 100a). T h e M i s h n a h tractate Megilla ('scroll')
is, c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , d e v o t e d to this b o o k and the P u r i m festival (cf. for the rabbinic
p a s s a g e s , B i l l . I V : 4 2 9 - 3 2 ; s e e a l s o B a r t h l m y , ' L ' t a t d e la b i b l e j u i v e ' , 3 8 - 4 0 ;
B e c k w i t h , 2 8 8 - 9 7 , 3 2 2 - 3 ; Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ) , 3 2 5 - 6 ;
Rger, 'Werden', 1 8 0 - 1 ) .
4 8
O n the m a n u s c r i p t s f r o m Q u m r a n , s e e van der W o u d e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 6 n. 7 1 ) ,
' Q u m r a n - f o r s c h u n g ' , 3 0 0 , and U l r i c h ( s e e a b o v e , p. 8 4 n. 2 5 ) , ' B i b l i c a l S c r o l l s from
a b c
Qumran Cave 4', 2 2 6 - 7 : 4QCant ; 6 Q C a n t ; for the rabbinic d i s c u s s i o n , s e e mYad 3:5
and B i l l . I V : 4 3 2 - 3 ; B e c k w i t h , 3 2 1 - 2 . T h e o l d e s t e v i d e n c e o f the a l l e g o r i c a l interpretation
is 4 Ezra 5 : 2 3 - 3 0 , cf. E i s s f e l d t , 6 6 1 ; R g e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ) , ' W e r d e n ' , 1 8 0 . Cf.
a l s o 2 J o h n 2 , 1 3 ; R e v e l a t i o n 3 : 2 0 . Cf. a l s o M . H e n g e l , D i e a u s e r w h l t e Herrin ( s e e a b o v e ,
p. 6 9 n. 3 4 ) .
Palestinian d o c u m e n t to k n o w , u n d e r Hellenistic influence, the c o n c e p t
49
of ' i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y ' , so that, a l t h o u g h a typical w i s d o m d o c u
m e n t , it w a s n a m e d a f t e r its a u t h o r ; t h i s v e r y o p e n n e s s l e d to
r e j e c t i o n . M e a n w h i l e , Q o h e l e t h , o n l y o n e or t w o g e n e r a t i o n s o l d e r
and s e m i - c l o a k e d u n d e r a p s e u d o n y m , w a s u l t i m a t e l y a c c e p t e d . H a d
B e n Sirach written his w o r k as a p s e u d - e p i g r a p h o n of an older biblical
a u t h o r , p e r h a p s as a w o r k of S o l o m o n , it w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y h a v e
b e c o m e as c a n o n i c a l as the ( r e d a c t e d ) b o o k of D a n i e l , a g e n e r a t i o n
l a t e r ( 1 6 5 B C E ) . D e s p i t e t h e s t r i c t p r o h i b i t i o n , a p o r t i o n of t h e s e
' o u t e r ' d o c u m e n t s c o n t i n u e d to b e read in at least s o m e J e w i s h circles;
o t h e r s w e r e e v e n later t r a n s l a t e d i n t o H e b r e w a n d A r a m a i c so t h a t
their influence did not c e a s e e v e n after their e x c l u s i o n (see a b o v e , p p .
45-6).

2. E x c e p t for W i s d o m and 2 - 4 M a c c a b e e s (and p e r h a p s S u s a n n a ) all


of these books probably had Hebrew or Aramaic exemplars and w e r e
translated into G r e e k , to b e sure not yet as ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' , but in o r d e r
to edify, e d u c a t e or entertain. A d d i t i o n a l l y , s o m e also served a certain
p r o p a g a n d a p u r p o s e in o r d e r to tie D i a s p o r a J u d a i s m e v e n m o r e firmly
to the n a t i o n ' s history and to the m o t h e r l a n d and thus, at the s a m e t i m e ,
to c o v e n a n t , l a w a n d s a n c t u a r y . E v e n n a r r a t i v e b o o k s s u c h as 2 - 4
M a c c a b e e s , written originally in the G r e e k l a n g u a g e with a d e g r e e of
rhetorico-literary skill, h a v e t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s . D e s p i t e their varied form
all, w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , possess a m a r k e d ' n a t i o n a l - r e l i g i o u s ' and, there
fore, ' t h e o c r a t i c ' character. T h e y e m p h a s i z e , for e x a m p l e , that p a g a n
rulers s h o u l d refrain from a t t a c k i n g G o d ' s p e o p l e lest they b e c o m e
subject to j u d g e m e n t . T h e m o s t h i g h G o d is on the side of Israel or the
J e w s and d o e s not allow m i s d e e d s c o m m i t t e d a g a i n s t his p e o p l e to g o
u n a v e n g e d . In this respect, 2 M a c c a b e e s , attributed to J a s o n of C y r e n e
and very Hellenistic in character, stands closer to H a s i d i c - P h a r i s a i c piety
than the p r o - H a s m o n e a n 1 M a c c a b e e s , written originally in H e b r e w and
m o r e in the style of C h r o n i c l e s , with S a d d u c e a n e l e m e n t s and already
p o s s e s s i n g a l m o s t the c h a r a c t e r of profane Hellenistic h i s t o r i o g r a p h y .
T y p i c a l of this profane quality is the p a n e g y r i c on S i m o n M a c c a b e u s in
1 M a c c a b e e s 1 4 : 4 - 5 and especially the final chapters of the b o o k , dealing
with the p e r i o d following the installation of J o n a t h a n as h i g h priest by
the Seleucid usurper A l e x a n d e r Balas ( 1 0 - 1 6 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n of this with
t h e P r a i s e of the F a t h e r s in B e n S i r a c h a b o u t o n e h u n d r e d y e a r s
e a r l i e r d e m o n s t r a t e s the c h a n g e in the intellectual climate. T h e fact that
religious instruction and p l e a s a n t e n t e r t a i n m e n t of the readers are not
m u t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y is e v i d e n t from the c o n c l u s i o n g i v e n by the
u n k n o w n e p i t o m i z e r to his s u m m a r y of the five-volume older history by
J a s o n of C y r e n e :

w
Cf. H e n g e l , Judentum und Hellenismus, 1 4 5 - 6 , 2 1 4 - 1 6 = idem, Judaism and
Hellenism, 7 8 - 9 , 1 1 6 - 1 7 ; idem, ' S c h r i f t a u s l e g u n g ' ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 5 n. 6 7 ) , 3 5 - 4 4 .
For just as it is harmful to drink wine alone, or, again, to drink water alone,
while wine mixed with water is sweet and delicious and enhances one's
enjoyment, so also the style of the story delights the ears of those who hear
50
the work.

T h i s e a s y - t o - r e a d ' r e l i g i o u s e n t e r t a i n m e n t literature' strengthens the


national identity of e d u c a t e d D i a s p o r a J u d a i s m a n d likewise, at a later
d a t e , s u p p l i e s a p p r o p r i a t e e t h i c a l e x h o r t a t i o n a n d i n s t r u c t i o n for
c a t e c h u m e n s and Christian families.
N o r is this n a t i o n a l , t h e o c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r a b s e n t from the w i s d o m
51
d o c u m e n t s , Tobit, Sirach, B a r u c h a n d W i s d o m . A p r o m i n e n t t h e m e in
these is the glorification of the T o r a h ; the d i v i n e w i s d o m manifest in it is
a p r o m i n e n t additional t h e m e , as is the harsh rejection of foolish and
i m m o r a l p a g a n w o r s h i p . A d d i t i o n a l c o m m o n e l e m e n t s in this literature
are the d e s c r i p t i o n s of the w o n d r o u s d e l i v e r a n c e of G o d ' s p e o p l e from
o p p r e s s i o n and the distress of w a r a n d a n i n n o v a t i o n of the Hellenistic
p e r i o d t h e incipient glorification of the m a r t y r p r e p a r e d to s u r r e n d e r
his life for the law and the nation. O n l y n o w d o e s the formula of ' d y i n g
52
for' l a w , G o d and nation e n t e r J e w i s h l i t e r a t u r e . All these features could
h a v e m a d e these d o c u m e n t s a c c e p t a b l e for P h a r i s a i c - r a b b i n i c J u d a i s m if
their late origin h a d not still b e e n e v i d e n t in the first century CE. It is all
the m o r e p u z z l i n g that the Christian c h u r c h of the s e c o n d century held to
t h e m so that they w e r e finally a c c e p t e d in the Christian c a n o n , a l t h o u g h
w i t h a c e r t a i n p e r s i s t e n t s e c o n d - c l a s s c h a r a c t e r , w h i l e the official
s y n a g o g u e in the s e c o n d c e n t u r y finally d i s t a n c e d itself from t h e m .

3. N o t a b l y , too, apocalyptic-eschatological components are almost


totally absent from the ' a p o c r y p h a l ' w r i t i n g s a c c e p t e d by the c h u r c h
(e.g. 1 M a c e , Jud., W i s d . ) or play only a m a r g i n a l role, limited in a
53
particularistic, J u d a i c m a n n e r . T h e r e s u r r e c t i o n of the dead is m e n
t i o n e d o n l y in 2 M a c c a b e e s 7 : 9 , 14; 1 2 : 4 3 , a n d the c o m i n g of the
M e s s i a h is not m e n t i o n e d at all, with the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of Psalms
54
of Solomon 17 and 18, w h i c h the c h u r c h ultimately did not a c c e p t .

5(1
2 M a c e . 1 5 : 4 0 ; cf. 2 : 2 0 - 3 3 , w h e r e the u n k n o w n e p i t o m i z e r e x p l i c i t l y a c k n o w l e d g e s
his e x e m p l a r ( J a s o n o f C y r e n e ) and his o w n o b j e c t i v e s , to t e a c h and to entertain. It is a l s o
c l e a r that this author had not the m o s t r e m o t e n o t i o n o f p u b l i s h i n g his b o o k as a sacred
text. For J a s o n , cf. H e n g e l , Judentum und Hellenismus, 1 7 6 - 8 6 = idem, Judaism and
Hellenism, 95-100.
5 1
Cf.. for e x a m p l e . Sirach 3 6 : 1 - 1 8 ; T o b i t 1 3 : 1 3 - 1 5 ; 1 4 : 5 - 7 ; B a r u c h 4 : 3 0 - 2 ; W i s d o m
1 3 - 1 9 ; etc.
" Cf. t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s in J. W . van H e n t e n , e d . . Die Entstehung der
jdischen Martyrologie ( S t P B 3 8 ; L e i d e n , 1 9 8 9 ) ; M . H e n g e l , The Atonement (London
and P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1981 ). 6 - 8 ; e t c .
5 1
Sirach 3 6 : 1 - 1 9 ; Tobit 13; B a r u c h 4 : 5 - 5 : 9 . O n the other hand, an o p p r e s s e d c h u r c h
that s a w in the O l d T e s t a m e n t the distress o f the p e o p l e o f G o d as a t y p e o f their o w n
history c o u l d pray t h e s e e s c h a t o l o g i c a l prayers for h e l p and restoration w i t h o u t difficulty.
5 4
Cf. S w e t e , 2 8 2 - 3 : Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h . 3 2 7 and a b o v e , pp. 5 8 - 9 .
At the s a m e t i m e , w e should not o v e r l o o k the fact that an entire series
of a p o c a l y p t i c d o c u m e n t s ( n o t to m e n t i o n t h e Q u m r a n d o c u m e n t s )
originated in precisely the p e r i o d that interests us, from the third century
BCE to the s e c o n d c e n t u r y CE. A significant portion of t h e m were trans
lated into G r e e k : b e s i d e s the five-part Enoch collection, the Assumption
of Moses, the Apocalypse of Abraham, the Paralipomena Jeremiae, the
Testament of Levi, the Syriac Baruch Apocalypse and 4 Ezra, to m e n t i o n
only a selection. A d d i t i o n a l texts such as the Testament of Abraham, the
G r e e k Baruch Apocalypse and the C o p t i c Zephaniah Apocalypse, the
S l a v o n i c Enoch, a n d the J e w i s h Sibyllines w e r e p r o b a b l y written in
the D i a s p o r a . I limit myself h e r e to the b e s t - k n o w n titles. T h e y h a v e
all c o m e to u s o n l y t h r o u g h c h u r c h t r a d i t i o n , s o m e in t r a n s l a t i o n s
from c h u r c h e s outside the m a i n s t r e a m , a n d often in C h r i s t i a n revisions
that at least partially o b s c u r e the J e w i s h core. In fact, in o n e c a s e or
a n o t h e r , t h e o r i g i n c o n t i n u e s to b e d i s p u t e d . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y for
this ' m a r g i n a l l i t e r a t u r e ' , the ' J e w i s h ' and the ' C h r i s t i a n ' c a n n o l o n g e r
a l w a y s b e c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d . Of o t h e r d o c u m e n t s w e k n o w o n l y
the titles a n d p e r h a p s a few q u o t a t i o n s , b e c a u s e they circulated a m o n g
the c h u r c h e s for o n l y a limited t i m e before they w e r e s u p p r e s s e d . A
w h o l e series of t h e m w o u l d h a v e d e s e r v e d i n c l u s i o n in the c h u r c h ' s
O l d T e s t a m e n t c a n o n n o less than the e l e v e n ( t h e m s e l v e s only half
h e a r t e d l y a c c e p t e d ) b o o k s of t h e ' A p o c r y p h a ' . T h e r e a s o n s for t h e
rejection of t h e s e d o c u m e n t s h a v e already b e e n d i s c u s s e d a b o v e (pp.
70-3).
T h e fact that the b o o k of D a n i e l , w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d only c. 165 BCE,
w a s r e c e i v e d so quickly a n d w i t h o u t hesitation s e e m s to b e a l m o s t a
m i r a c l e g i v e n its late o r i g i n s (it is y o u n g e r than s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n s
of t h e Enoch l i t e r a t u r e ) . T h a t m a y d e p e n d , in part, o n its w i s d o m -
martyrological narratives, especially, h o w e v e r , on its apocalyptic s c h e m e
of four e m p i r e s , the vision of G o d ' s d o m i n i o n in c h a p t e r s 2 and 7, the
c o m i n g of the S o n of M a n to j u d g e the godless p o w e r s ( 7 : 9 - 1 7 ) , a n d the
resurrection of the dead a n d the j u d g e m e n t in c h a p t e r 12. It s u m m a r i z e s
J e w i s h h o p e s for the future and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y facilitates a c o m p r e
h e n s i v e interpretation of history a n d the present. E v e n J o s e p h u s l i k e
the nearly c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s 4 Ezra, the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (II
B a r u c h ) and the A p o c a l y p s e of J o h n r e l a t e s D a n i e l ' s fourth e m p i r e to
R o m e with a p p r o p r i a t e caution. J e w i s h reception of the b o o k w a s thus
also d e t e r m i n a t i v e for early Christianity and, b e c a u s e of Daniel 7, w a s
p e r h a p s e v e n m o r e influential there than in J u d a i s m . T h u s o n e of the
m o s t m e s s i a n i c texts in the H e b r e w Bible, Daniel 7 : 1 3 , r e c e i v e s r e m a r k
ably little attention in J e w i s h e x e g e s i s . For C h r i s t i a n s , D a n i e l , a l o n g s i d e
the P s a l m s a n d Isaiah, therefore b e c a m e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t ' p r o p h e t i c '
d o c u m e n t . T h e A p o c a l y p s e (as well as M a t t h e w ) m a d e e x t e n s i v e use of
it and by the b e g i n n i n g of the third c e n t u r y H i p p o l y t u s h a d a l r e a d y
c o m m e n t e d on it. H i s c o m m e n t a r y on the b o o k of Daniel is the oldest
s u r v i v i n g o r t h o d o x B i b l e c o m m e n t a r y . T h i s latest w o r k in the ' H e b r e w
55
c a n o n ' essentially b e l o n g s in the vestibule of the N e w T e s t a m e n t c a n o n .

3. The Canon in the Jewish Diaspora

a) T h e P r o l o g u e of J e s u s b e n Sirach
In c o n n e c t i o n with the q u e s t i o n of the d e v e l o p m e n t of the J e w i s h c a n o n ,
reference is repeatedly m a d e to the P r o l o g u e b y t h e a u t h o r ' s g r a n d s o n ,
w h o w a s also the translator of Sirach. T h e a u t h o r s p e a k s three t i m e s of
a threefold d i v i s i o n of the J e w i s h S c r i p t u r e s . T h e very first s e n t e n c e
reads:
Whereas many great teachings have been given to us through the law, the
prophets, and the other [writings] that followed them . . . (
' ) .
T h e n e x t references o c c u r in the description of t h e activity of his g r a n d
father, w h o
devote[d] himself especially to the reading of the law and the prophets
and the other books of our fathers (

).
T h e final reference o c c u r s after h e h a s m e n t i o n e d the difference b e t w e e n
the H e b r e w original a n d the imperfect translation:
Not only this [work], but even the law itself, the prophecies and the rest of
the books differ not a little if read in the original (
56
) .
5 5
O n J o s e p h u s , cf. Ant 1 0 : 1 8 6 - 2 8 1 , w h e r e h e retells the w h o l e b o o k o f D a n i e l , but
refrains f r o m interpreting t h e fourth e m p i r e b e c a u s e he w a n t s to limit h i m s e l f in his
report t o the past a n d the present a n d , therefore, p a s s e s o v e r 'the future' ( ,
1 0 : 2 1 0 ) . B u t , h e i n f o r m s the i n t e r e s t e d reader, w h o e v e r h a s interest in ' l e a r n i n g h i d d e n
t h i n g s t o c o m e ' s h o u l d acquire the b o o k o f D a n i e l , f o u n d ' a m o n g the H o l y Scriptures
( ) ' . A l e x a n d e r h a d already f o u n d h i s victory o v e r the P e r s i a n s
p r e d i c t e d in it (cf. Ant 1 1 : 3 3 7 ) . T h e b o o k o f D a n i e l t h e n c a m e in for i n t e n s i v e u s e
e s p e c i a l l y in I r e n a e u s (cf. Biblia Patristica I, 2 1 1 - 1 5 ) a n d H i p p o l y t u s . T h e latter's c o m
m e n t a r y , written c. 2 0 4 ' ( i s ) the o l d e s t c o m m e n t a r y o n a b i b l i c a l b o o k p r e s e r v e d for us
from t h e early c h u r c h ' ( B . A l t a n e r and A . Stuiber, Patrologie [8th e d n ; F r e i b u r g / B a s e l /
V i e n n a , 1 9 7 8 ] , 1 6 7 ) , if o n e b r a c k e t s o u t the J o h n c o m m e n t a r y o f V a l e n t i n u s ' student
H e r a c l e o n , p r e s e r v e d by O r i g e n o n l y in s m a l l f r a g m e n t s , a n d the Hypotyposes of Clement
o f A l e x a n d r i a , l i k e w i s e transmitted o n l y in f r a g m e n t s . A l r e a d y in De Antichristo, a docu
ment written s o m e w h a t earlier, H i p p o l y t u s utilized and cited the book o f Daniel
e x t e n s i v e l y ( b o t h in GCS Hippolytus Werke I). C o n c e r n i n g the e x e g e s i s o f D a n i e l in the
early c h u r c h , cf. R. B o d e n m a n n , Naissance d'une Exgse ( B G B E 2 8 ; Tbingen, 1986).
Sfl
R e a d i n g , with a series o f Greek manuscripts and the Latin, Sahidic and Syro-
h e x a p l a r i c translations , i n s t e a d o f the C h r i s t i a n ; cf. the
apparatus in J. Z i e g l e r , Sapientia lesu Filii Sirach ( S e p t u a g i n t a : V e t u s T e s t a m e n t u m
G r a e c u m X I I / 2 ; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 6 5 ) . 125. F o r the ' c a n o n ' o f J e s u s b e n Sirach s e e a b o v e .
R. Hanhart, p p . 1 - 1 7 .
Clearly, the g r a n d s o n , w h o h i m s e l f e m i g r a t e d from P a l e s t i n e to E g y p t in
the y e a r 132, r e p r o d u c e s h e r e the H e b r e w c o n c e p t of c a n o n , a l t h o u g h w e
d o not k n o w exactly w h i c h b o o k s h e p l a c e d a m o n g ' t h e other b o o k s ' .
H i s threefold repetition and the c o n c l u d i n g s t a t e m e n t that h e h a d p u b
lished his b o o k for t h o s e ' a b r o a d w h o are e a g e r to l e a r n ' , w h o 'desire to
lead a life a c c o r d i n g to the l a w ' , s u g g e s t that h e r e g a r d e d his grand
f a t h e r ' s w o r k n o m o r e as ' c a n o n i c a l ' but as a type of hortatory i n t r o d u c
tion to a life a c c o r d i n g to the ' l a w , the p r o p h e t s , a n d the o t h e r b o o k s ' . H e
also e m p h a s i z e s the difference b e t w e e n the original H e b r e w a n d the
G r e e k text and the difficulty of the translation. In his o p i n i o n , the p i o u s
J e w i s h lifestyle w a s a p p a r e n t l y n o l o n g e r to b e t a k e n for g r a n t e d in
J e w i s h A l e x a n d r i a ; therefore h e feels the effort of translating the w o r k is
necessary. A r e v i e w of the w o r k , and especially of the writings e m p l o y e d
in the Praise of the F a t h e r s in Sirach 4 4 : 1 - 5 0 : 2 4 , d e m o n s t r a t e s that the
grandfather k n e w or cited all the b o o k s of the H e b r e w c a n o n except R u t h ,
C a n t i c l e s , E s t h e r a n d D a n i e l . H e c o u l d not h a v e k n o w n D a n i e l , b e c a u s e
it c a m e into e x i s t e n c e only later. Sirach 3 8 : 3 4 c - 3 9 : l , the self-portrait of
the scholar B e n Sirach, already essentially anticipates the division in the
prologue:
. . . he who devotes himself to the study of the law of the Most High will seek
out the wisdom of all the ancients, and will be concerned with prophecies; he
will preserve the discourse of notable men and penetrate the subtleties of
parables; he will seek out the hidden meanings of proverbs . . . [This is
followed in 39:6 by mention of] 'words of wisdom' and 'thanksgiving to the
Lord in prayer'.
T h i s s t a t e m e n t d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n l a w , p r o p h e t s , historical n a r r a
57
tive, w i s d o m b o o k s and h y m n i c p o e t r y . T h u s g r a n d f a t h e r and g r a n d
son a l r e a d y tell us relatively m u c h a b o u t the f o r m a t i o n of the ' H o l y
S c r i p t u r e s ' in the m o t h e r l a n d d u r i n g the s e c o n d c e n t u r y , but n o t h i n g
about w h a t w a s r e c o g n i z e d as ' c a n o n i c a l ' in A l e x a n d r i a . Instead, the
J e w s in the D i a s p o r a r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n o n this point. T h e
' p r o p h e t s ' in the p r o l o g u e m a y a s occurred later in the H e b r e w c a n o n
e n c o m p a s s b o t h historical and p r o p h e t i c b o o k s in the sense of the C I T D ;
58
[ " or , r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e f e r e n c e s to t h e ' o t h e r s t h a t
f o l l o w e d ' ' o t h e r f a t h e r s ' or ' o t h e r b o o k s ' r e s p e c t i v e l y b e t r a y an
uncertainty that m a k e s it clear that this collection of d o c u m e n t s w a s by
n o m e a n s definitely delimited e v e n in the g r a n d s o n ' s t i m e .

5 7
Cf. H. P. R g e r , ' L e S i r a c i d e : U n livre la frontire du C a n o n , ' in Kaestli and
W e r m e l i n g e r , 4 7 - 6 9 ( e s p . 6 0 - 6 ) . C o n c e r n i n g the c n i r o . R g e r w r i t e s : '. . . the h o m a g e
to t h e p a t r i a r c h s p r e s u p p o s e s only knowledge o f the Psalms. Job, Proverbs, Ezra-
Nehemiah, and the t w o b o o k s o f Chronicles. T a k e n as a w h o l e , h o w e v e r , Sirach permits
the a d d i t i o n to this list o f Qoheleth and Lamentations (p. 6 4 ) . ' U n u s u a l l y , S i r a c h d o e s not
m e n t i o n the n a m e o f Ezra in the b e n e d i c t i o n o f the patriarchs.
? x
S e e H e n g e l ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 5 n. 6 7 ) , 'Schriftauslegung'.
W e h a v e already m e n t i o n e d the s p u r i o u s letter of the J e r u s a l e m i t e s
to the J e w s in E g y p t (2 M a c e . 2:13) with its reference to the ' l i b r a r y ' p r e
s u m a b l y e s t a b l i s h e d b y N e h e m i a h in J e r u s a l e m , w h e r e ' t h e b o o k s
a b o u t the k i n g s and p r o p h e t s , a n d the w r i t i n g s of D a v i d and letters of
k i n g s a b o u t v o t i v e offerings' are listed. T h e letter also m e n t i o n s a partial
collection of O l d T e s t a m e n t Scriptures. T h i s c o u l d refer to the historical
b o o k s b e g i n n i n g with J u d g e s or 1 S a m u e l , the 'latter p r o p h e t s ' , a n d E z r a
a n d N e h e m i a h (see a b o v e , p p . 8 0 - 1 ) .

b) P h i l o ' s Therapeutae

R o u g h l y 130 years after the g r a n d s o n of B e n Sirach, P h i l o ' s description


of the Therapeutae, that e n i g m a t i c J e w i s h g r o u p w h o lived close to the
M a r e o t i c L a k e n e a r A l e x a n d r i a , offers only a superficial r e s e m b l a n c e
(VitCont 25):

In each of their houses is a holy room into which they bring nothing other
than 'laws and the sacred words of God proclaimed by prophets, and hymns,
and others through which knowledge and piety grow and mature (

) ' .

A little later (28) h e s p e a k s of their ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' and also of


' w r i t i n g s of holy m e n , w h o w e r e the f o u n d e r s of the sect, w h o left b e h i n d
t h e m n u m e r o u s (literary) m e m o r i a l s of allegorical n a t u r e ' ( 2 9 ) . T h e y
d e v o t e d t h e m s e l v e s , h o w e v e r , not only to allegorical interpretation of
Scripture, ' b u t i n c l u d e also s o n g s and h y m n s to G o d in v a r i o u s m e t r e s
and m e l o d i e s ' . ' L a w a n d p r o p h e c y ' m a y still h a v e i n v o l v e d the tradi
tional J e w i s h S c r i p t u r e s , y e t it is a l r e a d y q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r their
59
h y m n s are limited to the c a n o n i c a l P s a l m s . A t Q u m r a n , too, w e h a v e ,
6 0
b e s i d e s t h e s t i l l s o m e w h a t v a r i a b l e P s a l m s , a n u m b e r of o t h e r

5 g
That d e p e n d s o n w h e t h e r P h i l o r e p r o d u c e s here the t e r m i n o l o g y o f the T h e r a p e u t a e
or his o w n , s i n c e for P h i l o h i m s e l f d e s i g n a t e s the c a n o n i c a l P s a l m s . H e u s e s
(or ) i n s t e a d o f r a t h e r u n u s u a l to G r e e k e a r s , w h i c h m e a n s l y r e - p l a y i n g .
A l m o s t all c i t a t i o n s from the P s a l m s are introduced w i t h , or a similar
e x p r e s s i o n (Plant 2 9 : 3 9 ; C o / 3 9 : 5 2 ; Migr 157; Fug 5 9 ; Mut 1 1 5 ; Som 1:75; 1 1 : 2 4 5 - 4 6 ) ,
or the P s a l m i s t is d e s i g n a t e d as (Gig 17; Imm 7 4 , 7 7 , 8 2 : ; cf.
a l s o Agr 5 0 ; Her 2 9 0 ) . T h e c i t a t i o n from the p s a l m o f H a n n a h ( 1 S a m . 2 : 1 5 ) , w h i c h he
d e s i g n a t e s an , d e m o n s t r a t e s that this is n o a c c i d e n t . O n e c o u l d perhaps c o n j e c t u r e
that the T h e r a p e u t a e d i s t i n g u i s h e d their o w n sectarian d o c u m e n t s from t h o s e g e n e r a l l y
r e c o g n i z e d ; c o m p a r e R g e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ) , ' W e r d e n ' , 117; E l l i s ( s e e a b o v e , p.
2 2 n. 10), Old Testament, 8 - 9 ; B e c k w i t h , 1 1 5 - 1 8 , w h o o v e r l o o k s , h o w e v e r , the fact that
e v e n at Q u m r a n this b o u n d a r y w a s not y e t firmly fixed. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , before J o s e p h u s in
Contra Apionem w e h a v e n o d e t a i l e d , c l e a r l y J e w i s h c a t a l o g u e o f Scriptures. I n s t e a d , as a
rule, g e n e r a l terms s u c h as , ' , e t c . w e r e e m p l o y e d .
h a
" E s p e c i a l l y d i s p u t e d is 1 l Q P s , a scroll o f D a v i d i c p s a l m s that d i v e r g e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y
in character from the M a s o r e t i c text and c o n t a i n s a f e w a p o c r y p h a l texts and n o n - c a n o n i c a l
p s a l m s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the editor, J. A . S a n d e r s (The Psalm Scroll of Qumrn Cave 11,
s o n g s a n d l i t u r g i e s , e v e n i n c l u d i n g t e x t s that d e s c r i b e t h e c e l e s t i a l
S a b b a t h liturgy of the angels before G o d ' s throne and that consistently
61
speak of G o d as ' k i n g ' and of his ' k i n g d o m ' . P h i l o explicitly s p e a k s of
the T h e r a p e u t a e as h a v i n g their o w n s o n g s . B e y o n d the traditional core
of L a w a n d P r o p h e t s , they, like the E s s e n e s , a n d later the Christians,
m a y h a v e had n u m e r o u s writings of their o w n . T h e a t t e m p t has b e e n
repeatedly m a d e to assign individual p s e u d e p i g r a p h a , such as the lovely
novella of J o s e p h a n d A s e n a t h , to the T h e r a p e u t a e . Y e t w e c a n n o t get
beyond speculation.

c) J o s e p h u s : Ap 1:37^13

J o s e p h u s s p e a k s m o s t clearly of a d e l i m i t e d c a n o n of J e w i s h Scriptures
in Contra Apionem 1:37-4-3 t o w a r d the e n d of the first c e n t u r y CE. At
the t i m e , it is a p p a r e n t from 4 Ezra 14:45 and the d i c t u m of S i m e o n b.
Azzai (mYad 3:5) c o n c e r n i n g the d e c i s i o n of the s e v e n t y - t w o at J a b n e h
( ' o n the day w h e n they installed R. E l e a z a r b. A r a k h [as c h a i r m a n ] ' ) the
d i s p u t e in P a l e s t i n e a b o u t the c a n o n w a s in a final, d e c i s i v e , p h a s e .
J o s e p h u s w r o t e in an a p o l o g e t i c c o n t e x t , d e f e n d i n g t h e a b s o l u t e
r e l i a b i l i t y of p r o p h e t i c a l l y i n s p i r e d J e w i s h h i s t o r i o g r a p h y from the
period from M o s e s to A r t a x e r x e s : not e v e r y o n e has the right to write,
'only the p r o p h e t s , w h o received the m o s t r e m o t e a n d ancient history
communicated from God through inspiration (
) , 1:37)'. C o n s e q u e n t l y ,

We do not have innumerable writings that disagree and contradict, but only
twenty-two books which are truly reliable and contain the account of the
whole period [of Jewish history]. Of these, five books of Moses contain

D J D I V [ O x f o r d , 1 9 6 5 ] ) w a n t s to s e e the scroll as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a p r o t o - m a s o r e t i c


stage o f tradition (cf. idem, ' P r e - M a s o r e t i c Psalter T e x t s ' , CBQ 2 7 [ 1 9 6 5 ] : 1 1 4 - 2 3 ) . T h e
o b j e c t i o n is raised against this v i e w that the majority o f the P s a l m m a n u s c r i p t s f r o m
Q u m r a n f o l l o w the M a s o r e t i c psalter and 1 l Q P s " i n v o l v e s a s p e c i a l liturgical text (cf., for
e x a m p l e , S. T a l m o n , ' P i s q a B e ' e m a ' P a s u q und 1 l Q P s ' ' , Textus 5 [ 1 9 6 6 ] , 1 1 - 2 1 ; M. H.
a
G o s h e n - G o t t s t e i n , ' T h e P s a l m s Scroll [ H Q P s ] : A P r o b l e m o f C a n o n and T e x t ' , Textus
5 [ 1 9 6 6 1 , 2 2 - 3 3 ; R. B e c k w i t h , ' T h e C o u r s e s o f the L v i t e s and the E c c e n t r i c P s a l m s
S c r o l l s from Q u m r a n ' , RQ 11 [ 1 9 8 2 - 8 3 ] : 4 9 9 - 5 2 4 ; cf. a l s o van der W o u d e ( s e e a b o v e , p.
4 6 n. 7 1 ) , ' Q u m r a n f o r s c h u n g ' , 2 9 6 - 9 [ w i t h a list o f all the p u b l i s h e d P s a l m s m a n u s c r i p t s
and their c o n t e n t s ) ; idem, l o c . cit., ' F o r t s e t z u n g III: S t u d i e n zu frher v e r f f e n t l i c h t e n
H a n d s c h r i f t e n ' , ThR 5 7 [ 1 9 9 2 ] , 1 - 5 7 [ e s p . 4 5 - 9 ] ; cf. a l s o M a i e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 9 0 n. 4 2 ) ,
'Zur F r a g e ' , 1 4 4 - 5 ) .
6 1
For the s o n g s and liturgical texts f r o m Q u m r a n , cf. the s u m m a r y in S c h r e r (rev.)
I l l / 1 , 4 5 1 - 6 4 : for the s a b b a t h s a c r i f i c e s o n g s , s e e e s p . A . M . S c h w e m e r , ' G o t t a l s
K n i g u n d s e i n e K n i g s h e r r s c h a f t in d e n S a b b a t l i e d e r n a u s Q u m r a n ' , and H. L o h r ,
' T h r o n v e r s a m m l u n g und p r e i s e n d e r T e m p e l : B e o b a c h t u n g e n a m h i m m l i s c h e n H e i l i g t u m
i m Hebrerbrief und in d e n S a b b a t o p f e r l i e d e r n aus Q u m r a n ' , both e s s a y s in M . H e n g e l
and . M. S c h w e m e r , e d s , Knigsherrschaft Gottes und himmlischer Kult ( W U N T 1/55;
T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 1 ) , 4 5 - 1 1 8 and 1 8 5 - 2 0 6 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
the laws in addition to the tradition of the origin of humanity up to Moses'
death. This period encompasses almost 3000 years. From Moses' death to
Artaxerxes, the Persian king after Xerxes, the prophets have recorded the
events of their time in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain
hymns to God and didactic poems for human life.

H e r e w e m e e t for the first t i m e a clearly defined c a t a l o g u e of inspired


S c r i p t u r e s , w h o s e significance J o s e p h u s further e m p h a s i z e s by asserting
that in all of J e w i s h history ' n o o n e dared to add or delete or c h a n g e
a n y t h i n g ' . T h i s c o n t e n t i o n reflects the old, t r u s t e d f o r m u l a f r o m the
Letter of Aristeas and from D e u t e r o n o m y . It w a s also ' a c o m m o n p l a c e
62
of h i s t o r i o g r a p h y ' , h o w e v e r , w i t h w h i c h h e c h a r a c t e r i z e d his o w n
history in Ant 1:17. It has b e e n ' p l a n t e d ' in J e w s from their birth 'to
r e g a r d [these S c r i p t u r e s ] as G o d ' s d e c r e e s ( ) a n d to
p e r s e v e r e in t h e m , i n d e e d , if n e c e s s a r y , to die for t h e m ' (Ap 1:42). A
c o u r a g e o u s s t a t e m e n t at a t i m e w h e n D o m i t i a n s o u g h t to s u p p r e s s J e w s
in R o m e a n d in the E m p i r e by force!
T h e threefold division is b a s e d on the p r e l i m i n a r y distinction b e t w e e n
l a w , p r o p h e t s a n d w r i t i n g s a l r e a d y f o u n d in S i r a c h . T h e t h i r t e e n
' p r o p h e t i c b o o k s ' , said to h a v e treated the entire history of G o d ' s p e o p l e
from M o s e s ' death to A r t a x e r x e s , raise difficulties, h o w e v e r . J o s e p h u s
m u s t h a v e also i n c l u d e d h e r e b o o k s that w e r e assigned in P a l e s t i n e to
the G*3TO, ' W r i t i n g s ' , p e r h a p s C h r o n i c l e s , Ezra, Esther and D a n i e l . The
priest a n d P h a r i s e e , writing in R o m e but c o m i n g from J e r u s a l e m , thus
r e p r o d u c e s , for the m o s t part, the Palestinian c o n c e p t of c a n o n (to w h i c h ,
h o w e v e r , as a u t h o r he d o e s not strictly a d h e r e , see a b o v e p p . 8 6 - 7 ; the
g o o d w i l l of the e d u c a t e d a n c i e n t reader w a s m o r e i m p o r t a n t to h i m on
this point). S u p r e m e l y significant for h i m is the cessation of p r o p h e t i c
inspiration at the t i m e of A r t a x e r x e s I, the t i m e of the last p r o p h e t s ,
H a g g a i , Z e c h a r i a h , M a l a c h i and the first 'sofer\ Ezra. This concept
63
c o r r e s p o n d s c o m p l e t e l y to t h e rabbinic v i e w . T h i s v i e w of history w a s
prefigured long before by the c o n c e p t of the e n d of p r o p h e c y already
a p p a r e n t in P s a l m 7 4 : 9 ; L a m e n t a t i o n s 2:9; Z e c h a r i a h 13:2; cf. D a n i e l
3 : 3 8 ; it h a d already b e c o m e a fixed theory in the M a c c a b e a n p e r i o d (1
M a c e . 4 : 4 6 ; 9:27; 14:41). E s c h a t o l o g i c a l m o v e m e n t s such as E s s e n i s m ,
the ' z e a l o t ' p r o p h e t s of the first century d e s c r i b e d by J o s e p h u s , and early
C h r i s t i a n i t y m u s t c o u n t a g a i n s t this t h e o r y of the e n d of p r o p h e t i c
i n s p i r a t i o n . P h a r i s a i s m a n d t h e r a b b i n a t e h e l d it b e c a u s e , from this

6 2
L. F e l d m a n , Josephus and Modern Scholarship (1937-1980) ( B e r l i n and N e w Y o r k ,
1 9 8 4 ) , 135; s e e a l s o a b o v e , p. 7 7 n. 5.
M
Cf. a b o v e , p. 4 5 n. 6 7 and R. M e y e r , ' B e m e r k u n g e n z u m l i t e r a t u r g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n
H i n t e r g r u n d d e r K a n o n t h e o r i e d e s J o s e p h u s ' , in Josephus-Studien (FS O. Michel),
O . B e t z , K. H a a c k e r and M . H e n g e l . e d s ( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 7 4 ) , 2 8 5 - 9 9 ( = idem, Zur
Geschichte und Theologie des Judentums in hellenistisch-rmischer Zeit. W . Bernhardt,
ed. ( N e u k i r c h e n , 1 9 8 9 ) , 1 9 6 - 2 0 7 .
v i e w p o i n t , scholars h a d taken the p l a c e of p r o p h e t s since the legendary
64
' m e n of t h e G r e a t A s s e m b l y ' (mAv 1:1). T h e p o l i t i c a l m i s u s e of
p r o p h e c y in J e w i s h Palestine d u r i n g the d e c a d e s before the J e w i s h W a r
and its i m p o r t a n c e for early Christianity, as an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l - p r o p h e t i c
and universal m o v e m e n t motivated by the eschatological gift of the Spirit,
65
m a y h a v e further c o n s o l i d a t e d this p o s i t i o n .
T h e n u m b e r of only t w e n t y - t w o d o c u m e n t s raises difficulties since
Palestinian J u d a i s m s p e a k s of twenty-four. T h e y w e r e later s u p p o s e d to
h a v e already b e e n available to the ' m e n of the G r e a t A s s e m b l y ' (bBB
14b). E i t h e r J o s e p h u s , like the C h u r c h F a t h e r s later, c o u n t e d R u t h with
J u d g e s a n d L a m e n t a t i o n s with J e r e m i a h , or, as s e e m s m o r e likely to
m e , h e o p e r a t e d w i t h a s m a l l e r c a n o n . P e r h a p s it d i d n o t i n c l u d e
C a n t i c l e s and Q o h e l e t h , w h i c h w e r e translated into G r e e k very late and
66
w e r e still c o n t r o v e r s i a l a m o n g the rabbis in the s e c o n d c e n t u r y . T h e
a c c o u n t of R u t h in Ant 5 : 3 1 8 - 3 7 has a t h o r o u g h l y i n d e p e n d e n t char
acter b e t w e e n J u d g e s and 1 S a m u e l . It w o u l d b e d u b i o u s to attempt, with
earlier s c h o l a r s h i p , to point to the t w e n t y - t w o b o o k s of J o s e p h u s as an
' A l e x a n d r i a n c a n o n ' , w h i c h w o u l d t h e n h a v e b e e n s m a l l e r than the
H e b r e w B i b l e . A s a historian a n d ' J e w i s h ' t h e o l o g i a n , J o s e p h u s is m o r e
strongly o r i e n t e d t o w a r d Palestinian J u d a i s m , from w h i c h h e c a m e , than
t o w a r d the D i a s p o r a in A l e x a n d r i a . T h a t also applies generally to the
J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y in R o m e w h e r e h e lived.
T h e J e w i s h historian, w h o w r o t e , in addition to the Bellum Judaicum,
t h e Antiquitates Judaicae, a h i s t o r y of t h e J e w i s h p e o p l e from t h e
creation to the o u t b r e a k of the J e w i s h W a r in t w e n t y b o o k s , follows
the description of the historical r e c o r d in the c a n o n i c a l b o o k s , w h i c h
e n d s in t h e Antiquitates w i t h the E s t h e r n a r r a t i v e ( 1 1 : 1 8 4 - 2 9 6 ) , by
a s s u r i n g r e a d e r s that in a d d i t i o n ' t h e w h o l e h i s t o r y ( ) from

6 4
S e e H e n g e l ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 5 n. 6 7 ) , ' S c h r i f t a u s l e g u n g ' , 2 4 - 8 .
h 5
For the z e a l o t p r o p h e t s , cf. M . H e n g e l , Die Zeloten ( A G J U 1 ; 2 n d e d n ; L e i d e n , 1 9 7 6 ) ,
2 3 5 - 5 1 = idem, The Zealots ( E d i n b u r g h , 1 9 8 9 ) , 2 2 9 - 4 5 ; r e g a r d i n g early Christianity as a
p r o p h e t i c m o v e m e n t , s e e , a m o n g o t h e r s , G. T h e i s s e n , ' D i e T e m p e l w e i s s a g u n g J e s u .
Prophtie im S p a n n u n g s f e l d v o n Stadt und L a n d ' , ThZ?>2 ( 1 9 7 6 ) , 1 4 4 - 5 8 (= idem, Studien
zur Soziologie des Urchristentums [ W U N T 1/19; 3rd e d n ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 9 ) , 1 4 2 - 5 9 ) ;
M . S a t o , Q und Prophtie ( W U N T 11/43; T b i n g e n , 1 9 8 9 ) ; D . E. A u n e , Prophecy in Early
Christianity and the Ancient Mediterranean World (Grand R a p i d s , 1 9 8 3 ) ; U . B. M l l e r ,
Prophtie und Predigt im Neuen Testament ( S t N T 10; G t e r s l o h . 1 9 7 5 ) ; K. O. S a n d n e s ,
PaulOne of the Prophets? ( W U N T 11/43; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 1 ) . In p r i n c i p l e , n o o n e c o u l d
h a v e h i n d e r e d J o s e p h u s from a s s i g n i n g 1 M a c c a b e e s , w h i c h , like 1 Ezra, C h r o n i c l e s and
K i n g s , w a s an important s o u r c e for h i m , to the H o l y Scriptures and regarding it as an
inspired history. B u t this w a s n o l o n g e r p o s s i b l e for h i m b e c a u s e o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the
formation o f the Pharisaic ' c a n o n ' .
h h
S e e a b o v e , p p . 4 4 - 6 . Contrast M e y e r , ' B e m e r k u n g e n ' , 197: ' N e v e r t h e l e s s , this
contrast [ b e t w e e n 2 2 or 2 4 b o o k s , M. Hengel] is o n l y apparent; it s i m p l y rests on the fact
that J o s e p h u s still k n e w an a r r a n g e m e n t o f the H o l y S c r i p t u r e s s u c h as the o n e o n w h i c h
the L X X w a s a l r e a d y b a s e d . ' T h e n u m b e r 2 2 , w h i c h is, in fact, related to the n u m b e r o f
letters in the H e b r e w alphabet, p o i n t s to P a l e s t i n e . That is a l s o c l e a r in M e l i t o .
A r t a x e r x e s to the p r e s e n t [had] b e e n r e c o r d e d ' . T h e s e later s o u r c e s ,
h o w e v e r , are not c o n s i d e r e d as reliable as t h o s e p r e c e d i n g t h e m ' b e c a u s e
the precise succession of the prophets n o l o n g e r existed (
6 7
)'. Nevertheless,
J o s e p h u s , w h o utilized b o t h the H e b r e w B i b l e a n d the L X X for his
history (tending to e m p l o y the first up to the t i m e of J o s h u a and the
J u d g e s and the latter from the b o o k s of S a m u e l o n w a r d ) , can also copy
from later J e w i s h sources w i t h o u t reservation. L i k e individual Christian
authors w h o were familiar with the H e b r e w original (Paul, M a r k ,
M a t t h e w , J o h n ) , h e i n c r e a s i n g l y e m p l o y e d the G r e e k translation for the
s a k e of h i s r e a d e r s . N o r d i d h e s h r i n k d e s p i t e a strict ' p r o h i b i t i o n
against a l t e r a t i o n ' f r o m r e p e a t e d p a r a p h r a s e s and e x p a n s i o n s of the
b i b l i c a l r e p o r t d i r e c t e d at the G r e e k r e a d e r , s i m i l a r to the r a b b i s in
narrative m i d r a s h or L u k e in his history. In the c o n t e x t of his portrayal of
the J e w i s h ' c o n s t i t u t i o n ' , i.e. the M o s a i c law ( : Ant 4 : 1 9 6 ) , he
explicitly justified his m e t h o d of selecting and a r r a n g i n g the m a t e r i a l .
F o r the earlier history, h e cites only isolated p a g a n sources in o r d e r to
d e m o n s t r a t e for apologetic p u r p o s e s the reliability of the biblical report
from an o u t s i d e p e r s p e c t i v e , but following the Persian period J e w i s h
s o u r c e s a n d p a g a n historians a p p e a r a l o n g s i d e o n e a n o t h e r with a certain
e q u a l validation, a l t h o u g h he n e v e r n a m e s the former. H e w r i t e s , after
all, p r i m a r i l y for n o n - J e w s and w a n t s to o v e r c o m e the mistrust of pre
d o m i n a n t l y a n t i - J e w i s h e d u c a t e d r e a d e r s by referring to w e l l - k n o w n
p a g a n h i s t o r i a n s . T h u s h e utilizes 1 M a c c a b e e s w h i l e h e d i s d a i n s or
d o e s n o t k n o w T o b i t , J u d i t h , t h e a d d i t i o n s to D a n i e l a n d t h e m o s t
linguistically Hellenistic 2 and 3 M a c c a b e e s .
It s h o u l d n o l o n g e r b e d o u b t e d that w h e n J o s e p h u s refers to the
t w e n t y - t w o biblical b o o k s originating b e t w e e n M o s e s and A r t a x e r x e s
{Ap 1:37-43), the ( 4 2 ) , he is d e s c r i b i n g the ' p h a r i s a i c '
J e w i s h ' c a n o n ' o r i g i n a t i n g in P a l e s t i n e . T h i s is e v i d e n t f r o m t h e i r
i n c o n t r o v e r t i b i l i t y , w i t n e s s the fact t h a t o n l y t h e d i v i n e l y i n s p i r e d
p r o p h e t s w e r e justified in r e c o r d i n g the sacred history; the reference to
the ' e x a c t s u c c e s s i o n ' of these inspired historians; the prohibition against
' a d d i n g , r e m o v i n g , or a l t e r i n g ' ; and the w i l l i n g n e s s , if n e c e s s a r y , to die
for t h o s e that c o n t a i n ' G o d ' s d i r e c t i v e s ( ) ' . F o r the
s u b s e q u e n t h i s t o r y , b e g i n n i n g with A r t a x e r x e s II in the Antiquitates
( 1 1 : 2 9 7 - 9 9 ) , h e also tries to give a c o n t i n u o u s historical a c c o u n t b a s e d
largely on different J e w i s h s o u r c e s , a l t h o u g h these w e r e n o l o n g e r Holy
Scriptures for h i m and w e r e c o n s e q u e n t l y not of the s a m e i m p o r t a n c e .
F u r t h e r m o r e , and notably, J o s e p h u s ' ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' are portrayed here

h l
Ap 1:41. For J o s e p h u s as a historian and his treatment o f the s o u r c e s , cf. H. Lindner,
Die Geschichtsauffassung des Flavius Josephus im Bellum Judaicum ( A G J U 12; L e i d e n .
1 9 7 2 ) ; P. V a l l a l b a i V a r n e d a . The Historical Method of Flavius Josephus ( A L G H L 19;
Leiden, 1986), 2 6 6 - 7 2 ; etc.
as the e x c l u s i v e l y reliable sources of the earlier f u n d a m e n t a l Israelite-
J e w i s h history, w h o s e authors r e p r e s e n t an u n b r o k e n c h a i n of p r o p h e t s .
T h i s recalls Mishnah Avot 1:1, on the o n e h a n d , and, on the other, the
v i e w of history of later Christian a u t h o r s .
Basically, the last and greatest J e w i s h historian of antiquity already
stands n e a r in c o n c e p t i o n to the Christian a p o l o g i s t s a n d c h r o n o l o g i s t s
w h o w e r e interested in d e m o n s t r a t i n g both the great antiquity and the
reliability of biblical tradition, as well as e x t e n d i n g ' s a l v a t i o n h i s t o r y '
into the m o m e n t of the a p p e a r a n c e of Christ. T h e r a b b i s , by contrast,
c o n s c i o u s l y c h o s e to b e c o m e ' a h i s t o r i c a l ' . F o r t h e m h i s t o r i o g r a p h y
b r o k e off with the last p r o p h e t s . . N . G l a t z e r ' s s t a t e m e n t applies to
them:

Jewish historiography was not extinguished by a 'lack of strength', as many


historians assume, but by the acknowledgment that Jewish 'history' in the
proper sense of the word no longer existed. From the Jewish perspective
there was only a history of 'the others', which overshadowed the life of the
Jewish community and created the circumstances under which its external
68
life must be realized. The Jew no longer made history, but endured it.

6 8
Geschichte der talmudischen Zeit ( B e r l i n . 1 9 3 7 ) , 11 ( r e p u b l i s h e d w i t h the a u t h o r ' s
b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l s u p p l e m e n t by P. v o n der O s t e n - S a c k e n [2nd e d n ; N e u k i r c h e n . 1981J);
cf. a l s o idem, Untersuchungen zur Geschichtslehre der Tannaiten (Berlin, 1933).

THE ORIGIN OF THE 'CHRISTIAN SEPTUAGINT'
A N D ITS A D D I T I O N A L W R I T I N G S

1. Early Christianity

If w e c o n s i d e r t h e u s e of O l d T e s t a m e n t S c r i p t u r e s b y t h e e a r l i e s t
Christian a u t h o r s in the N e w T e s t a m e n t itself, it b e c o m e s evident h o w
r e m o t e they are from any q u e s t i o n a b o u t the c a n o n a n d its limits. ' T h e
S c r i p t u r e s ' ( ) are m e n t i o n e d quite self-evidently a n d without
further qualification. W h i l e M a t t h e w e m p l o y s the plural e x c l u s i v e l y ,
J o h n prefers the singular, , a n d L u k e a n d Paul use both. O n l y
o n c e , in the majestic introduction to R o m a n s (1:2), d o e s Paul m e n t i o n
t h a t G o d p r o m i s e d t h e g o s p e l in a d v a n c e t h r o u g h h i s p r o p h e t s
. Substantially rarer is the d o u b l e formula, ' t h e law and
the p r o p h e t s ' , w h i c h can vary in a n u m b e r of w a y s . S i n c e , from the
very b e g i n n i n g , early Christianity s a w the S c r i p t u r e s in a n e w light as
fulfilled o r fulfilling e s c h a t o l o g i c a l - m e s s i a n i c p r o m i s e s , t h e e n t i r e
1
Scriptures c a n also be e n c o m p a s s e d in the term ' p r o p h e t s ' , j u s t as, c o n
versely, Paul a n d J o h n can, u n d e r certain c i r c u m s t a n c e s , cite a p a s s a g e
from a p r o p h e t or the p s a l m s as ' l a w ' . A c c o r d i n g to the sources preserved
for us, the q u e s t i o n of a d e l i m i t e d c a n o n w a s not a p r o b l e m c o n s i d e r e d
or d i s c u s s e d . It w a s b e l i e v e d to be self-evident that o n e c o u l d k n o w w h a t
w e r e ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' a n d that o n e c o u l d refrain from m a k i n g any
2
definitive d i s t i n c t i o n . T h i s w a s first u n d e r t a k e n s u r e l y with a sidelong
g l a n c e at t h a t d a n g e r o u s ' h e r e t i c a l ' m e s s i a n i c s p l i n t e r g r o u p , t h e
C h r i s t i a n s b y the rabbinical t e a c h e r s of J a b n e h .
T h e t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n of the J e w i s h c a n o n is s e e n i n i n c i p i e n t
f o r m o n l y o n c e , in L u k e 2 4 : 4 4 , w h e r e the r e s u r r e c t e d J e s u s instructs
h i s d i s c i p l e s ' t h a t e v e r y t h i n g m u s t b e fulfilled t h a t s t a n d s w r i t t e n
c o n c e r n i n g m e in the law of M o s e s , the p r o p h e t s , a n d the P s a l m s ' . T h e

1
Cf. L u k e 1:70; 13:28; 1 8 : 3 1 ; 2 4 : 2 5 (cf. 2 7 ) ; A c t s 3 : 1 8 - 2 4 ; 1 0 : 4 3 ; 1 3 : 2 7 ; 2 6 : 2 7 (cf.
2 2 ) ; R o m . 1:12; H e b . 1:1; 1 P e t e r 1:10; cf. a l s o M a t t . 1 3 : 3 5 ( P s s . 7 8 : 2 :
) ; A c t s 2 : 2 9 - 3 0 ( D a v i d as a p r o p h e t , the P s a l m s as h i s p r o p h e c y ) . Cf. H e n g e l ,
'Schriftauslegung des 4. Evangeliums', 2 4 9 - 5 1 , 2 6 1 - 3 , 2 6 8 - 7 0 ; Campenhausen (see
a b o v e , p. 2 0 n. 4 ) , ' E n t s t e h u n g ' , 2 8 - 3 0 . S e e a l s o Justin, a b o v e , p p . 2 6 - 9 .
2
J. Barton ( " T h e L a w and the P r o p h e t s " , W h o are the P r o p h e t s ? ' , OTS 2 3 [ 1 9 8 4 ] ,
1 - 1 8 ) c o m e s to the c o n c l u s i o n that: 'In N e w T e s t a m e n t t i m e s , to d e s c r i b e a b o o k as o n e
o f the p r o p h e t s , or as written by a prophet, is to say that it is authoritative and inspired,
a l t h o u g h not part o f the T o r a h ' (p. 15), s e e a b o v e , p. 6 8 n. 3 0 .
q u e s t i o n arises, h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r L u k e uses ' P s a l m s ' as pars pro toto
the part for the w h o l e t o refer to the H a g i o g r a p h a . In m y o p i n i o n , it is
m o r e likely that he m e n t i o n s t h e m a l t h o u g h they (like all ' S c r i p t u r e s ' )
are a p r o p h e t i c w o r k a l o n g s i d e the ' p r o p h e t s ' b e c a u s e , for h i m , as for
all early Christianity, i n d e e d for the early c h u r c h , they represent the m o s t
i m p o r t a n t , m o s t utilized b o o k of the O l d T e s t a m e n t . L u k e is the only
N e w T e s t a m e n t a u t h o r w h o explicitly m e n t i o n s the b o o k of P s a l m s four
t i m e s , o t h e r w i s e they are s i m p l y s u b s u m e d u n d e r ' t h e p r o p h e t s ' (indeed,
in Paul a n d J o h n s o m e t i m e s u n d e r ) and i n t r o d u c e d with o n e of
3
the usual citation f o r m u l a e . T h i s particular i m p o r t a n c e of the Psalter in
early Christianity is related to christological scriptural e v i d e n c e . A s u b
stantial portion of its texts w e r e familiar to e v e r y J e w t h r o u g h the t e m p l e
liturgy, singing at the great festivals, and u s e of the P s a l m s in private
prayer. In m y o p i n i o n , the christological h y m n o d y of early Christianity
is also b a s e d on m e s s i a n i c p s a l m s such as P s a l m s 2 ; 8; 2 2 ; 4 5 ; 6 9 ; 8 9 ;
118, etc. P s a l m 110:1 is the m o s t q u o t e d Old T e s t a m e n t text in the N e w
T e s t a m e n t and a basic p r o o f for the d e v e l o p m e n t of earliest C h r i s t o l o g y .
T h e p o t e n t influence of the Psalter is further e v i d e n t in / Clement, in the
4
A p o l o g i s t s , and in the p a p y r i from the second c e n t u r y . A l o n g s i d e Isaiah,
it is basically the m o s t i m p o r t a n t ' C h r i s t i a n S c r i p t u r e ' in the first and
s e c o n d c e n t u r i e s . O n l y in the s e c o n d half of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y did
M a t t h e w and J o h n o v e r t a k e it.
Isaiah a n d then D e u t e r o n o m y follow c l o s e b e h i n d . A list of the literal
citations supplied with i n t r o d u c t o r y f o r m u l a e , a c c o r d i n g to the index of
O l d T e s t a m e n t c i t a t i o n s in t h e 2 5 t h e d i t i o n of N e s t l e p r o d u c e s the
following picture:

Psalms, 55;
Isaiah, 45;
Deuteronomy, 41 (14, however, are from the Decalogue and the love
commandment);
Exodus, 23 (10 from the Decalogue);

' Luke 20:42, "; 2 4 : 4 4 ,


; A c t s 1:20, ; 1 3 : 3 3 ,
. . . ; C o d e x D and the o l d Latin C o d e x
G i g a s from the thirteenth c e n t u r y , w h i c h s e e m s to p r e s e r v e a very o l d form o f the text,
read h e r e ' i n the first P s a l m ' . C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , Justin (Apol I 4 0 : 8 - 1 0 ) c i t e s the first
and s e c o n d P s a l m s as a unit. O r i g e n k n e w o f t w o different H e b r e w m a n u s c r i p t s . In o n e
the first P s a l m w a s l i n k e d to the s e c o n d (cf. a l s o B i l l . 11:772: S i m i l a r l y , bBer 9 b d o e s not
d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n the t w o P s a l m s ) . T h e reading 'in the first P s a l m ' , very o f t e n attested
in the C h u r c h Fathers in contrast to the m a n u s c r i p t tradition, d e p e n d s o n O r i g e n (cf. the
e x t e n s i v e treatment in M e t z g e r , Textual Commentary, 412-14).
4
Cf. M . H e n g e l , ' H y m n u s und C h r i s t o l o g i e ' , in Wort in der Zeit ( F S . . R e n g s t o r f ) ,
W . H a u b e c k and M . B a c h m a n n , e d s ( L e i d e n , 1 9 8 0 ) . 1 - 2 3 ; idem, ' C h r i s t u s l i e d ' ( a b o v e p.
6 5 n. 19). O n P s a l m 110 s e e idem, 'Sit at m y Right H a n d ' , in Studies in Early Christology
(Edinburgh, 1995), 1 1 9 - 2 2 5 .
Minor Prophets, 21 ;
Genesis, 16;
Leviticus, 14 (7 of 19:18);
Jeremiah, 9;
Proverbs 4;
Ezekiel, Daniel, Numbers and 2 Samuel, 2 each;
Job, Joshua, 1 Kings, 1 each.

T h u s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 per cent of all the direct citations of the O l d


T e s t a m e n t c o m e from three b o o k s : P s a l m s , Isaiah and D e u t e r o n o m y .
In Paul, the picture shifts in favour of Isaiah. A c c o r d i n g to D . A. K o c h ,
Paul has sixty-six scripture citations i n t r o d u c e d w i t h a formula from
seventy-five p a s s a g e s . Of these, t w e n t y - o n e are from Isaiah, sixteen from
the P s a l m s , and eleven e a c h from D e u t e r o n o m y a n d G e n e s i s ( p r o m i s e s
to A b r a h a m ) . T h u s fifty-nine p a s s a g e s , a p p r o a c h i n g 8 0 p e r cent, are
t a k e n from o n l y four b o o k s , five e a c h from the M i n o r P r o p h e t s and
5
E x o d u s , t w o e a c h from L e v i t i c u s a n d K i n g s , a n d o n e from J o b . In
c o n t r a s t , R e v e l a t i o n , w i t h its n u m e r o u s a l l u s i o n s a n d p a r a p h r a s e s
w i t h o u t c i t a t i o n f o r m u l a e falls o u t s i d e t h i s f r a m e w o r k . H e r e , t h e
p r o p h e t i c b o o k s , including E z e k i e l a n d D a n i e l , naturally d o m i n a t e m u c h
m o r e . N o t a b l y , D a n i e l , w h i c h i s , after a l l , m u c h s h o r t e r t h a n t h e
major p r o p h e t s , a p p e a r s primarily in allusions. B y contrast, the historical
b o o k s r e c e d e n o t i c e a b l y in t h e N e w T e s t a m e n t C h r o n i c l e s , E z r a ,
Esther, as well as C a n t i c l e s , L a m e n t a t i o n s and Q o h e l e t h are entirely
absent. T h e s a m e is true of the extra b o o k s of the Christian L X X . T h e
n e w N e s t l e - A l a n d (26th e d n ) , h o w e v e r , offers m a n y m o r e texts, since
it also s o m e t i m e s lists r e m o t e a l l u s i o n s , and, in c o n t r a s t to the 25th
edition, a d d s the ' a p o c r y p h a ' and ' p s e u d e p i g r a p h a ' , for w h i c h , h o w e v e r ,
especially in P a u l , u n a m b i g u o u s l y identifiable citations i n t r o d u c e d with
formulae are absent. T h i s c o u l d b e accidental, for there is n o question
that he k n e w a p o c r y p h a l scriptures. A few e n i g m a t i c citations m a y derive
from t h e m (see b e l o w , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 0 ) . A p p a r e n t l y , the p r o b l e m of the
d e l i m i t a t i o n of the h o l y , a n d thus inspired ' S c r i p t u r e s ' , w h a t m a y and
m a y not h a v e b e e n (2 T i m . 3:16), and w h o the
' m e n ' and their scriptures w e r e w h o ' m o v e d by the H o l y Spirit s p o k e
from G o d ' (2 Pet. 1:21), w a s at first hardly c o n t r o v e r s i a l . At least w e
6
hear n o t h i n g of such c o n t r o v e r s i e s . At first the d a n g e r did not consist,
as later in the d i s p u t e with the G n o s t i c s , in the i n t r o d u c t i o n of n e w ,
c o u n t e r f e i t e d ' s c r i p t u r e s ' , but m o r e in the ' i d i o s y n c r a t i c i n t e r p r e t a
t i o n ' of t h o s e w h i c h w e r e u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d (2 Pet. 1:20), or in

5
K o c h ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 2 n. 11), 'Schrift als Z e u g e ' , 2 1 - 3 .
6
Cf. a l s o P. S t u h l m a c h e r , ' D i e B e d e u t u n g der A p o k r y p h e n und P s e u d e p i g r a p h e n d e s
A l t e n T e s t a m e n t s fr d a s V e r s t n d n i s Jesu und der C h r i s t o l o g i e ' , in Apokryphen/rage
( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 6 n. 2 2 ) , Mererer. e d . , 1 3 - 2 5 .
c o r r e c t i o n s a n d e x p a n s i o n s of the text. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r o b l e m is
i m p l i e d in 2 Peter, the latest N e w T e s t a m e n t d o c u m e n t (about 130). T h e
u n k n o w n a u t h o r s t r i k e s f r o m t h e letter of J u d e , a text h e u s e d , the
reference to the b o o k of Enoch a n d the d i s p u t e o v e r the b o d y of M o s e s
7
that p r o b a b l y c o m e s from the Assumption of Moses. In view of the use
of t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t in early C h r i s t i a n i t y , o n e c o u l d s p e a k , if o n e
w i s h e d , of atacitly a s s u m e d e s c h a t o l o g i c a l l y d e t e r m i n e d ' c e n t r e of
the S c r i p t u r e s ' (Mitte der Schrift), that of fulfilment in the g o s p e l . O n e
c o u l d also say that it w a s d e t e r m i n e d by C h r i s t o l o g y , soteriology and
the n e w r i g h t e o u s n e s s o r i n a p h r a s e b y t h e 'justification of the
u n g o d l y ' ( R o m . 4 : 5 ; 5:6), a n d that it t h u s e s s e n t i a l l y e x c l u d e d the
possibility of an external d e l i m i t a t i o n of ' t h e truth of the g o s p e l ' (Gal.
2 : 5 - 1 4 ) t h r o u g h a firmly defined collection of ' c a n o n i c a l ' S c r i p t u r e s ,
a l t h o u g h o n e primarily c o n c e n t r a t e d on relatively few, very specific well-
k n o w n Scriptures.
T h e text e m p l o y e d w a s , as a rule, that of the L X X . A s I h a v e already
said, it w a s read and e x e g e t e d e v e n in the s y n a g o g u e s of the Hellenists in
J e r u s a l e m . A s a student in J e r u s a l e m , Paul m a y h a v e w o r k e d with both
the H e b r e w and the G r e e k texts in a c c o r d a n c e with the bilingual milieu
8
in the J e w i s h capital, w h e r e the Hellenists h a d their o w n s y n a g o g u e s .
Even those New Testament authors who presumably understood Hebrew
(or A r a m a i c ) generally cited the text familiar to G r e e k - s p e a k i n g readers,
a d m i t t e d l y with certain limitations. T h e use of the L X X and its l a n g u a g e
in a d o c u m e n t d o e s not, therefore, supply a d e q u a t e e v i d e n c e that the
author(s) did not c o m e from J e w i s h P a l e s t i n e n o r e v e n that they w e r e
n e c e s s a r i l y G e n t i l e C h r i s t i a n s . P a u l , for e x a m p l e , u s e s the L X X of
I s a i a h t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t S c r i p t u r e for h i m i n a form t h a t ' h a d
9
already u n d e r g o n e a H e b r a i z i n g r e v i s i o n ' . T h e s a m e is true for the few
citations from J o b and K i n g s . T h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e hardly results from the
fact that Paul accidentally c a m e into p o s s e s s i o n of such texts a n d w a s
10
not e v e n c o n s c i o u s of the peculiarity of this version, as K o c h s u s p e c t s .

7
Jude 1 4 - 1 5 , cf. 2 Pet. 2 : 1 7 - 1 8 ; Jude 9, cf. 2 Pet. 2 : 1 1 ; s e e a b o v e , pp. 5 4 - 6 , 7 0 - 4 .
* A c t s 6 : 9 . T h e G r e e k T h e o d o t o s s y n a g o g u e inscription a l s o refers to a G r e e k - s p e a k i n g
s y n a g o g u e culture in J e r u s a l e m . T h e t w o G r e e k w a r n i n g i n s c r i p t i o n s in the t e m p l e that
p r o h i b i t e d a n y n o n - J e w from e n t e r i n g the inner court o f the t e m p l e a l s o i n d i c a t e , s i m i l a r l y ,
that the c i t y r e p r e s e n t e d a r e l i g i o u s attraction for the entire R o m a n E m p i r e . For this
international character, c o m p a r e a l s o the a c c o u n t in A c t s 2 : 9 - 1 1. S e e a l s o a b o v e , pp.
8 0 - 3 a n d H e n g e l . 'Hellenization' ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 0 n. 3 ) , 1 1 , 1 3 - 1 5 ; idem, 'Der
v o r c h r i s t l i c h e Paulus". 2 5 6 - 6 6 : ' D a s g r i e c h i s c h p r e c h e n d e J e r u s a l e m und d i e g r i e c h i s c h e
s y n a g o g a l e Bildung". M . H e n g e l and . M . S c h w e m e r , Paulus zwischen Damaskus und
Antiochien ( W U N T 1 0 8 , T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 8 ) , 5 6 f f . T h a t Paul s p o k e A r a m a i c c a n be
p r e s u p p o s e d b e c a u s e o f his stay in N a b a t e a n A r a b i a and his l o n g t i m e in S y r i a w h e r e in
rural r e g i o n s the A r a m a i c l a n g u a g e still p r e v a i l e d .
9
K o c h , 'Schrift als Z e u g e ' , 7 8 .
1 0
K o c h , 'Schrift als Z e u g e ' , 8 1 . Cf. in contrast, H e n g e l . ' D e r v o r c h r i s t l i c h e P a u l u s ' .
2 3 4 and n. 1 9 1 .
A c c o r d i n g to K o c h , of the total of ninety-five texts that Paul a d d u c e s ,
s o m e t i m e s w i t h o u t citation formula, h e altered fifty-two a n d left only
thirty-seven u n t o u c h e d , w h i l e in four c a s e s n o clear j u d g e m e n t c a n be
1
r e a c h e d ; ' this m a y be related to his 'spirit-guided apostolic f r e e d o m ' . In
this respect he differs substantially from c o n t e m p o r a r y J e w i s h exegetical
practice. O n e s h o u l d not o v e r l o o k the fact that h e w a s a Pharisee and,
a c c o r d i n g to G a l a t i a n s 1:13-14, very likely also a scholar. D u r i n g his
t i m e , o n e c o u l d only study pharisaical s c h o l a r s h i p p r o p e r l y in the H o l y
12
L a n d and best in J e r u s a l e m .
T h e A p o c a l y p s e a l s o p r e s e n t s a s p e c i a l c a s e in t h i s c o n n e c t i o n .
Like J o s e p h u s , it utilized b o t h the H e b r e w text a n d the L X X (includ
i n g t h e P r o t o - T h e o d o t i o n o f D a n i e l ) a n d , f u r t h e r m o r e f o r an
apocalyptic work nothing else was even possiblevoluminous
13
apocalyptic-pseudepigraphic traditions. Nor should one overlook a
series of texts i n t r o d u c e d in the N e w T e s t a m e n t as scriptural citations
b u t u n i d e n t i f i a b l e in t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t in this f o r m : for e x a m p l e ,
1 C o r i n t h i a n s 2 : 9 , w h e r e K o c h s u s p e c t s an oral l o g i o n d e p e n d e n t on
Isaiah 6 4 : 3 , w h i l e H. G e s e points to the a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n the third
14
p h r a s e a n d Sirach 1:10b. A written p s e u d e p i g r a p h i c a l source c a n n o t
b e c o m p l e t e l y r u l e d o u t , h o w e v e r . O r i g e n r e f e r r e d to an u n k n o w n
15
Elijah A p o c r y p h o n that w a s a p p a r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e to h i m . Similarly
i n e x p l i c a b l e is the verse in 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 9:10 a d d u c e d by Paul as a
Scripture citation. H e r e , too, it s e e m s to m e , an u n k n o w n p s e u d e p i g r a p h a
16
is c o n c e i v a b l e . T h e fragment of a christological h y m n in E p h e s i a n s
5:14 is cited as Scripture. S e v e r i a n u s of G a b a l a in Syria (d. post 4 0 8 )
already p o i n t e d out that this is p r o b a b l y an inspired C h r i s t i a n ' p s a l m ' ,

" K o c h , 'Schrift als Z e u g e ' , 1 8 6 .


12
Cf. H e n g e l , ' D e r v o r c h r i s t l i c h e P a u l u s ' , 2 2 2 - 3 2 , 2 3 9 - 2 .
'-' Cf. the i n t r o d u c t i o n to R. H. C h a r l e s , A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the
Revelation of St. John, V o l . I ( I C C : E d i n b u r g h , 1 9 2 0 ) , l x x i i - l x x i i i ; idem, Enoch, x c v i - c i .
Cf. a l s o J. Frey in, Die johanneische Frage, M . H e n g e l , e d . ( W U N T 1/67; T b i n g e n ,
1993), 3 2 6 - 4 2 9 .
14
K o c h , 'Schrift als Z e u g e ' ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 2 . 11), \b-A\. T h u s , already J e r o m e , w h o
w r i t e s , in fact, in h i s e x e g e s i s o f Isaiah 6 4 : 3 , 'Ascensio enim Esaiae et Apokalypsis Eliae
hoc hahent testimonium , but still s e e k s to trace the citation to the Isaiah p a s s a g e ( ' C o m -
m e n t a r i o r u m in E s a i a m zu Jes 6 4 : 3 ' , CChr. S L 7 3 A : H i e r o n y m u s I / 2 A , M . A d r i a e n and
G. M o r i n , e d s [Turnhout, 1 9 6 3 ] , 7 3 5 ) ; cf. a l s o R g e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ) , ' W e r d e n ' ,
178 . 4 , w h o a r g u e s that J e r o m e c o u l d b e a b s o l u t e l y correct o n this point. T h e citation
w a s i n t r o d u c e d into the Latin v e r s i o n o f Ascension of Isaiah as a later interpolation. For
H. G e s e , s e e Aittestamentliche Studien ( T b i n g e n , 1991 ), 2 5 , 2 5 9 , 2 6 8 . 9 . 1 Cor. 2 : 6 - 1 0
a l s o c o n c e r n s the r e v e l a t i o n o f G o d ' s true w i s d o m in the c r o s s o f J e s u s Christ.
15
M a t t h e w c o m m e n t a r y o n 2 7 : 9 ( s e e a b o v e , p. 71 n. 4 1 ) , 2 5 0 : '. . . et a p o s t o l u s
scripturas q u a s d a m s e c r e t o r u m profert, sicut dicit alicubi " q u o d o c u l u s n o n vidit n e c auris
a u d i v i t " ; in n u l l o e n i m r e g u l a r i l i b r o h o c p o s i t u m i n v e n i t u r , n i s i in s e c r e t i s E l i a e
p r o p h e t a e ' . O n the Elijah A p o c a l y p s e in g e n e r a l , s e e S c h r e r ( r e v . ) III/2. 7 9 9 - 8 0 3 .
1 6
S o a l s o H. L i e t z m a n n and W . G. K m m e l , An die Korinther, I/II ( H N T 9; 5th e d n ;
Tbingen, 1969), 4 1 , etc.
17
s u c h as t h a t w h i c h P a u l p r e s u p p o s e s in 1 C o r i n t h i a n s 1 4 : 2 6 . A n
a d d i t i o n a l e n i g m a t i c , u n i d e n t i f i a b l e ' S c r i p t u r e c i t a t i o n ' a p p e a r s in
J a m e s 4 : 5 - 6 . If o n e d i s r e g a r d s the verbal citations, quite a p l e t h o r a of
tradition-historical linkages and dependencies can be established.
A m o n g the m a n y possibilities, H. G e s e refers to a f u n d a m e n t a l e x a m p l e :
' O n e s i m p l y c a n n o t t o n a m e only one e x a m p l e u n d e r s t a n d J o h n 1
8
w i t h o u t S i r 2 4 . " T h i s s e r i e s of c i t a t i o n s a n d a l l u s i o n s c o n t i n u e s
s e a m l e s s l y in the A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s , for e x a m p l e , Barn 6 : 1 3 ; 2 Clement
19
4 : 5 ; 1 1 : 2 - 4 ( ) ; 1 3 : 2 b . If such s t a t e m e n t s w e r e
attributed to the Lord, it c a n n o l o n g e r b e d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r they are
' O l d ' or ' N e w T e s t a m e n t a g r a p h a ' . Attention has already b e e n called to
the o c c a s i o n a l use of k n o w n p s e u d e p i g r a p h a , especially of Enoch, but
also of the Assumption of Moses, Eldad and Modad, Jannes and J ambres,
etc. (see a b o v e , p p . 70^4). T h i s state of affairs c h a n g e s only with the
A p o l o g i s t s after Justin, with I r e n a e u s and Tertullian, that is with m o r e
highly e d u c a t e d authors influenced by the d i s p u t e with the 'restrictive
c a n o n ' of Palestinian J u d a i s m , a m o n g other t h i n g s . F r o m n o w on, it is
with only a few e x c e p t i o n s , ' a c k n o w l e d g e d S c r i p t u r e s ' that are cited.
T h u s a m o r e p r o n o u n c e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g
' c a n o n i c a l ' authority of the Scriptures cited b e c o m e s evident. B u t e v e n
such a learned teacher of the c h u r c h as C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a is still
r e l a t i v e l y g e n e r o u s o n t h i s p o i n t a n d d o e s n o t p e r m i t h i s ' u s e of
S c r i p t u r e ' simply to b e e x t e r n a l l y prescribed.
T h i s p i c t u r e of the N e w T e s t a m e n t and early Christian u s e of the
Greek Bible, sketched with over-simplifying brevity, indicates a
t h o r o u g h l y bipartite reality: on the o n e h a n d , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o n a
r e l a t i v e l y t i g h t c i r c l e of f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d s c r i p t u r e s in w h i c h ' t h e
S c r i p t u r e s ' w e r e p r i m a r i l y seen from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the fulfilled
p r o p h e t i c p r o m i s e . T h u s , the w a s n o l o n g e r placed at the centre,
but the ' p r o p h e t i c w o r d ' fulfilled in Christ, w i t h a clear preference for
q u o t a t i o n s from the P s a l m s and Isaiah. In contrast, a quite free, inspired
t r e a t m e n t of t h e t e x t c o u l d a d d u c e as ' S c r i p t u r e ' e v e n i n d i v i d u a l
a p o c r y p h a and p s e u d e p i g r a p h a , s o m e k n o w n to us and s o m e n o longer
k n o w n , or oral s t a t e m e n t s 'of the L o r d ' . T h e q u e s t i o n of the external
c o m p a s s of the scriptural c a n o n is not yet clearly p o s e d . At any rate, a

17
K. S t a a b , Pauluskommentare aus der griechischen Kirche ( N T A 15; M n s t e r , 1 9 3 3 ;
2nd e d n 1 9 8 4 ) , 3 1 1 . In his D a n i e l c o m m e n t a r y (p. 3 2 8 , o n D a n . 4 : 5 6 ) , H i p p o l y t u s c i t e s
Isaiah as the s o u r c e , w h i l e E p i p h a n i u s o n c e a g a i n m e n t i o n s the Elijah A p o c a l y p s e as the
s o u r c e (Adv Haer 4 2 : 1 2 : 5 ) , w h i c h is u n l i k e l y . O t h e r w i s e O r i g e n , w h o still k n e w this
d o c u m e n t , w o u l d a l s o p r o b a b l y h a v e referred to it. F i n a l l y , E u t h a l i u s (fourth c e n t u r y )
refers t o a J e r e m i a h A p o c r y p h o n as the s o u r c e ( B V P V o l . 10, A . G a l l a n d , e d . [ 2 n d e d n ;
V e n i c e , 1 7 8 8 ] , 2 6 0 ) ; cf. S c h r e r ( r e v . ) III/2, 8 0 0 . For E p h e s i a n s 5 : 1 4 s e e a l s o M . H e n g e l
in Studies in Early Christology, 281-5.
18
H. G e s e , Alttestamentliche Studien, 27.
19
Cf. a l s o O e p k e (n. 1 0 8 ) , ' ' , 9 8 8 - 9 0 .
certain d e p e n d e n c e on J u d a e o - P a l e s t i n i a n tradition is u n r e m a r k a b l e for
a m o v e m e n t that originated t h e r e . All the m o r e n o t e w o r t h y is the relative
distance from c o n t e m p o r a r y scriptural interpretation, w h e t h e r the
p s y c h o l o g i z e d , allegorical e x e g e s i s of P h i l o , or the literal, but equally
associative T o r a h interpretation of the r a b b i s . O n e d e v e l o p e d o n e ' s o w n
christologico-eschatological exegesis oriented toward contemporary
fulfilment in a w a y that, with all its differences, m o s t closely parallels
2 0
the p r o p h e t i c pesher interpretation of the E s s e n e s at Q u m r a n .
T h e q u e s t i o n of the origin of the larger c a n o n of the early c h u r c h ,
w h i c h so o c c u p i e s us today, w a s a p p a r e n t l y not yet in v i e w . O n the basis
of the N e w T e s t a m e n t ' s use of S c r i p t u r e , o n e w o u l d actually e x p e c t a
smaller c a n o n . A p p a r e n t l y the c o n t e n t s of the b o o k c a s e s of the Christian
c o m m u n i t y in the first and at the b e g i n n i n g of the s e c o n d century w e r e ,
to a d e g r e e , q u i t e d i v e r g e n t a n d , in p o o r e r c o m m u n i t i e s , a l s o still
relatively m o d e s t . T h e essential b o o k s of P s a l m s , Isaiah, J e r e m i a h , the
T w e l v e P r o p h e t s , the P e n t a t e u c h a n d D a n i e l p r e d o m i n a t e d . B u t the
fact that w e h a v e n o associated citations d o e s not p r e c l u d e the notion
that o c c a s i o n a l l y other Scriptures w e r e eagerly r e a d a n d studied. T h u s
Paul very likely k n e w W i s d o m a n d p r o b a b l y a l s o S i r a c h . T h e r e are
also r e m a r k a b l e parallels to later texts such as 4 Ezra a n d the Syriac
2i
Apocalypse of Baruch. H e r e h e m u s t h a v e k n o w n older a p o c a l y p t i c
t r a d i t i o n s t h a t p o i n t b a c k to P a l e s t i n e . L u k e , w h o so e x q u i s i t e l y
imitates the style of the L X X , p r o b a b l y k n e w several of the so-called
A p o c r y p h a , especially the M a c c a b e a n history and, o n c e again, especially
2 M a c c a b e e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , he s e e m s to h a v e been familiar with h a g g a d i c
22
h i s t o r i o g r a p h y in t h e s t y l e of t h e Liber antiquitatum biblicarum.
T h e a u t h o r of H e b r e w s , also a scholar, w a s familiar with the m a r t y r
t r a d i t i o n of t h e Vitae prophetarumP J a m e s a n d M a t t h e w k n e w the
24
w i s d o m t r a d i t i o n of S i r a c h . B u t w e h a v e n o i n d i c a t i o n that t h e s e
(and other ' p s e u d e p i g r a p h i c a l ' ) b o o k s w e r e read essentially as ' H o l y

2 0
O n J e w i s h e x e g e s i s b e f o r e 7 0 , s e e D . I. B r e w e r , Techniques and Assumptions in
Jewish Exegesis before 70 CE ( T S A J 3 0 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 2 ) , and H e n g e l , ' S c h r i f t a u s l e g u n g ' ,
6 1 - 3 . O n scriptural q u o t a t i o n s in the first half o f the s e c o n d c e n t u r y in the n a m e o f the
Lord and the u s e o f A p o c r y p h a s e e idem. The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus
Christ ( L o n d o n , 2 0 0 0 ) .
2 1
Cf. H e n g e l , ' D e r v o r c h r i s t l i c h e P a u l u s ' ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 2 n. 10), 2 5 1 ; S t u h l m a c h e r ,
' B e d e u t u n g ' ( s e e a b o v e , p. 1 0 7 n. 6 ) . 2 0 . A b o u t t h e e a r l y C h r i s t i a n b o o k c a s e s s e e
M . H e n g e l , The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ ( L o n d o n , 2 0 0 0 ) , 121 ff.,
136-40.
2 2
S e e E . R e i n m u t h , Pseudo-Philo und Lukas: Studien zum Liber Antiquitatum
Biblicarum und seiner Bedeutung fr die Interpretation des lukanischen Doppelwerks
( W U N T 7 4 ; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 4 ) . O n L u k e as a H e l l e n i s t i c historian, s e e C.-J. T h o r n t o n , Der
Zeuge des Zeugen: Lukas als Historiker der Paulusreisen ( W U N T 1/56; T b i n g e n , 1991 ).
2 3
H e b r e w s 1 1 : 3 5 - 7 ; see b e l o w , pp. 1 1 8 - 1 9 .
2 4
Cf., for e x a m p l e , J a m e s 1:19 and S i r a c h 5 : 1 1 ; M a t t h e w 1 1 : 2 8 - 3 0 and S i r a c h 2 4 : 1 9 ;
51:23, 26-27; 6:28-29.
S c r i p t u r e ' . In any c a s e , they w e r e not cited as such. J u d e 14, w h e r e
E n o c h is i n t r o d u c e d as a ' p r o p h e t ( ) ' , constitutes an
exception. Apparently, both among Jews and Christians, opinions
c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o m p l e x a n d w i d e l y k n o w n l i t e r a t u r e still d i f f e r e d
25
significantly in the first c e n t u r y . In v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s , a v a r i e t y of
S c r i p t u r e s , s o m e t i m e s quite d i v e r g e n t , will h a v e b e e n read a n d treasured
in s y n a g o g u e s a n d c h u r c h e s , a l t h o u g h a r e c o g n i z e d ' b a s i c c a n o n ' of
major Scriptures, such as w a s already familiar to the g r a n d s o n of J e s u s
ben Sirach, existed in larger c o m m u n i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , o n e m u s t take
into a c c o u n t the fact that w i s d o m sayings from Sirach, Tobit, B a r u c h ,
etc. were also dispersed through oral tradition and catechetical
i n t r o d u c t i o n s in the style of the ' T w o - W a y C a t e c h i s m ' . T h i s dispersal
m a y h a v e b e e n a n a l o g o u s to that of the p r o p h e t i c t e s t i m o n i a c o l l e c t i o n s
w h i c h are p r e s u m e d to h a v e existed quite early a m o n g C h r i s t i a n s and
w h o s e e x p l a n a t o r y e x p a n s i o n s of the text, as Justin and later Christian
a u t h o r s d e m o n s t r a t e , h a v e at least superficially influenced the text of the
C h r i s t i a n L X X (see a b o v e , p p . 2 8 - 9 ) . Familiarity with these scriptures
still o u t s i d e the ' c o r e c a n o n ' w a s related to the p e r s o n a l interests or
l e a r n i n g of individual t e a c h e r s and authors and, at the s a m e t i m e , to the
26
library h o l d i n g s of the c h u r c h e s in q u e s t i o n .

2. The Problem of the Inclusion of the Writings


Not Contained in the 'Hebrew Canon '

T h e q u e s t i o n of why t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t attained in the c h u r c h precisely


the form p r e s e n t s t i l l not c o m p l e t e l y u n i f o r m l y i n the great c o d i c e s
of the fourth and fifth c e n t u r i e s is essentially insoluble. O n the b a s i s of

2 5
Cf., h o w e v e r , T i t u s 1:12, w h e r e the Cretan priest, E p i m e n i d e s , o n e o f the s e v e n w i s e
m e n o f the w o r l d , is cited affirmatively as a prophet, w i t h the m o d i f y i n g c l a u s e (v. 1 3 ) ,
. T h e a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f a truth attested O n l y ' extra-
b i b l i c a l l y w a s n o p r o b l e m for the authors o f the N e w T e s t a m e n t (cf. A c t s 17:28 and John
1 1 : 5 0 - 1 ) . T h e term m a y , h o w e v e r , h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d i r o n i c a l l y here.
2 6
Cf., for e x a m p l e , Pseudo-Phocylides, w h i c h p r o b a b l y o r i g i n a t e d in A l e x a n d r i a at the
b e g i n n i n g o f the first century and r e p r e s e n t s a k i n d o f e t h i c a l c o m p e n d i u m . A m o n g Old
T e s t a m e n t p a s s a g e s treated, w i s d o m literature d o m i n a t e s . S i r a c h is ' c i t e d ' ( i . e . trans
f o r m e d here into h e x a m e t e r ) m o s t often ( 7 5 x ) , f o l l o w e d by P r o v e r b s ( 5 2 x ) , L e v i t i c u s
( 4 8 x ) , D e u t e r o n o m y ( 4 4 x ) and E x o d u s (31 x ) . Q o h e l e t h ( l O x ) , T o b i t ( 8 x ) , J o b and
W i s d o m ( 7 x e a c h ) are c i t e d m o r e o f t e n than G e n e s i s ( 6 x ) or the p r o p h e t s , w h i c h o c c u r
c o l l e c t i v e l y o n l y e i g h t e e n t i m e s ( d i v i d e d a m o n g e i g h t p r o p h e t s ) . T h e Psalter, t o o , w i t h
o n l y s i x i n s t a n c e s , p l a y s n o great role. Cf. K . - W . N i e b u h r , Gesetz und Parnese (WUNT
11/28; T b i n g e n . 1 9 8 7 ) , 9 - 1 0 . O t h e r w i s e the use o f the P e n t a t e u c h d o m i n a t e s as a rule
( s e e a b o v e p p . 7 9 - 8 0 ) . H e r e i n is e v i d e n t the d e g r e e to w h i c h the literary f o r m and the
s e t t i n g in life i n f l u e n c e s the t y p e and o r i g i n o f the c i t a t i o n . T h i s m u s t be said e s p e c i a l l y in
v i e w o f the d i s t i n c t i v e t e a c h i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s s i n c e the s e c o n d half o f the s e c o n d c e n t u r y ,
w h o . like the e x t r e m e l y learned and i n d e p e n d e n t C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a , u n d e r t o o k to
w o r k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y t h r o u g h J e w i s h as w e l l as p a g a n literature in order t o trace the
praeparatio evangelica. At the s a m e t i m e , the s e a r c h for traces o f the logos sperrnatikos
is u n d e r t a k e n here for a p o l o g e t i c and m i s s i o n a r y r e a s o n s .
N e w T e s t a m e n t use of Scripture, it s e e m s likely that the s c o p e of the
C h r i s t i a n O l d T e s t a m e n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n s m a l l e r t h a n the H e b r e w
B i b l e . Indeed, the c h u r c h c o u l d h a v e d i s r e g a r d e d Q o h e l e t h , C a n t i c l e s , 2
Ezra or E s t h e r w i t h o u t difficulty. H e r e the m o d e l of the H e b r e w c a n o n is
evident; the ' c a n o n lists' of a M e l i t o and later of O r i g e n d e m o n s t r a t e that
C h r i s t i a n s w i s h e d to p o s s e s s t h o s e Scriptures in their entirety. B e c a u s e
of its offensive c o n t e n t , E s t h e r h a d difficulty g a i n i n g a c c e p t a n c e despite
its place in the H e b r e w c a n o n . U l t i m a t e l y the q u e s t i o n of h o w Judith,
Tobit, Sirach, W i s d o m and the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s c a m e to b e included,
and not others such as Enoch or the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs,
r e m a i n s a m y s t e r y . It m a y , as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , b e r e l a t e d to the
(Jewish) rejection of authors before M o s e s (see a b o v e , p p . 7 2 - 3 ) .

a) W r i t i n g s O u t s i d e the ' H e b r e w C a n o n '

T h e situation is simplest with the texts already p r e s e n t in e x p a n d e d form


in t h e L X X . E v e n J o s e p h u s u t i l i z e s t h e e x p a n d e d E s t h e r a n d t h e
novellistically amplified 1/(3) E z r a . F r o m the J e w i s h scrolls the first
C h r i s t i a n s c r i b e s a d o p t e d w i t h o u t r e s e r v e the e x p a n d e d D a n i e l with
S u s a n n a , Bel a n d the D r a g o n , the P r a y e r of A z a r i a h a n d the S o n g of the
T h r e e Y o u n g M e n . T h e various J e w i s h r e c e n s i o n s from the pre-Christian
p e r i o d m o v e d s e a m l e s s l y into the c h u r c h . T h e s o - c a l l e d T h e o d o t i o n
v e r s i o n of D a n i e l ( w h i c h p r e d a t e s T h e o d o t i o n ) c a n b e identified in
H e b r e w s 11:33, in J o s e p h u s , in the Shepherd of Hermas ( R o m e ) a n d in
27
the A p o c a l y p s e of J o h n (Asia M i n o r ) . S o m e w h a t later I r e n a e u s not only
28
r e p e a t e d l y cites t h e a d d i t i o n s to D a n i e l , b u t a l s o t w i c e , e x p l i c i t l y ,
29
p a s s a g e s in B a r u c h , o n c e as an oracle of the ' p r o p h e t J e r e m i a h ' and
o n c e (Bar. 3 : 2 9 - 4 : 1 ) with the i n t r o d u c t i o n , ' T h i s is w h y J e r e m i a h also
30
s p e a k s on his s u b j e c t . ' In his c o d e x of the p r o p h e t s , J e r e m i a h and
B a r u c h w e r e already linked, a c o m b i n a t i o n that p r o b a b l y g o e s b a c k to

2 7
D a n i e l 6 : 2 3 = H e r m a s 2 3 : 4 ( V/' 4 : 2 : 4 ) , cf. J. Z i e g l e r , Susanna, Daniel, Bel et Draco
( S e p t u a g i n t a : V e t u s T e s t a m e n t u m G r a e c u m X V I / 2 ; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 5 4 ) , 6 1 - 2 ; . B r o x , Der
Hirt des Hermas ( K A V 7; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 9 1 ) , 2 4 - 5 , 174; ( P s e u d o - ) T h e o d o t i o n ' s v e r s i o n
o f D a n i e l m a y be a very early r e v i s i o n o f the L X X text that a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y s u p p l a n t e d
its l e s s e x a c t p r e d e c e s s o r ; s e e J. S c h p p h a u s , ' D a s V e r h l t n i s v o n L X X - und T h e o d o t i o n -
T e x t in den a p o k r y p h e n Z u s t z e n z u m D a n i e l b u c h ' , TAW 8 3 ( 1971 ), 4 9 - 7 2 ; S c h r e r (rev.)
III/2, 7 2 7 - 8 . S e e a l s o a b o v e , p. 4 2 n. 5 7 (R. A l b e r t z ) .
2
*Adv Haer 4 : 2 6 : 3 = S u s a n n a : D a n i e l 1 3 : 2 0 , 5 2 - 3 ; Adv Haer 3 : 2 5 : 6 = D a n i e l 1 3 : 5 5 .
5 9 ; Adv Haer 4 : 5 : 2 = B e l : D a n i e l 1 4 : 4 - 5 , 2 5 . A n o v e r v i e w o f the u s e o f the a p o c
ryphal a d d i t i o n s t o D a n i e l in the early c h u r c h appears in C . J u l i u s , Die griechischen
Danielzustze und ihre kanonische Bedeutung ( B S t | F | V 1 / 3 - 4 ; Freiburg, 1901),
1 0 7 - 2 1 ; o n the c a n o n i c i t y o f the S u s a n n a story, s e e E n g e l ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 8 n. 7 5 ) ,
Susanna-Erzhlung, 17-29.
2 4
Adv Haer 5:35:1 c i t e s B a r u c h 4 : 3 6 - 5 : 9 .
TO
Demonstrations 9 7 , L. M . F r o i d e v a u x , e d . ( S C 6 2 ; Paris, 1 9 5 9 ) , 166. Furthermore,
Adv Haer 4 : 2 0 : 4 a l l u d e s to B a r u c h 3 : 3 8 .
31
J e w i s h L X X s c r o l l s . Tertullian, too, cites the letter of B a r u c h 6 : 3 - 5
as ' J e r e m i a e s c r i b e n t i s ' (Scorpiace 8:5). Similarly, A t h e n a g o r a s
a t t r i b u t e s B a r u c h 3 : 3 6 to t h e , p r e s u m a b l y
b e c a u s e h e r e g a r d s it as part of the b o o k of J e r e m i a h . H e follows it with
E x o d u s 2 0 : 2 - 3 ; Isaiah 4 4 : 6 ; 4 3 : 1 0 - 1 1 ; and 6 6 : 1 . U n d e r the n a m e of
J e r e m i a h , then, L a m e n t a t i o n s , B a r u c h and the Letter b e c a m e one
3 2
p r o p h e t i c b o o k . B a r u c h 3 : 3 8 , a t t e s t e d u n a n i m o u s l y in t h e m a n u
scripts, on the other h a n d , is p r o b a b l y a Christian addition that refers
to the ' i n c a r n a t i o n ' of ' W i s d o m ' and s h o w s h o w e v e n J e w i s h ' p r o p h e t i c
t e x t s ' w e r e ' s u p p l e m e n t e d ' very early by Christians. N u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s
of s u c h ' s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n s ' o c c u r a l r e a d y in J u s t i n ( s e e a b o v e , p p .
31-3).

b) I n d e p e n d e n t D o c u m e n t s o u t s i d e
the ' H e b r e w C a n o n '

T h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e r n s o n l y t h e independent documents
m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . T h e great u n k n o w n is the c o n t e n t of the ' c o m m u n i t y
a r c h i v e s ' o r ' l i b r a r i e s ' in the p e r i o d of t h e c h u r c h ' s c o n s o l i d a t i o n
u n d e r the l e a d e r s h i p of t h e l a r g e l y u n k n o w n m e n of t h e s e c o n d
and third g e n e r a t i o n s w h o b e c a m e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t N e w T e s t a m e n t
a u t h o r s b e t w e e n 7 0 a n d 110. A s already stated, it w a s certainly quite
varied to a d e g r e e a n d p r o b a b l y often c o n s i s t e d not only of generally
a c k n o w l e d g e d ' H o l y S c r i p t u r e s ' in the strict sense but also of a multi-

M
Cf. B e c k w i t h , 3 4 1 - 2 : the fact that in L a m e n t a t i o n s there is already o n e ' c a n o n i c a l '
a d d i t i o n to J e r e m i a h greatly f a c i l i t a t e s additional a p p e n d i c e s that supply e d i f y i n g r e a d i n g ,
but t h e s e o r i g i n a l l y did not n e c e s s a r i l y e n j o y the s a m e status as the p r o p h e t i c b o o k itself.
T h e d i f f e r e n c e w a s o b s c u r e d w h e n J u d a e o - H e l l e n i s t i c a n d later C h r i s t i a n r e a d e r s
attributed e v e r y t h i n g to the p r o p h e t J e r e m i a h h i m s e l f . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the b o o k o f
B a r u c h in J u d a i s m has not b e e n fully clarified, for B a r u c h is reported to h a v e b e e n read
t o g e t h e r w i t h L a m e n t a t i o n s o n c e a y e a r in the s y n a g o g u e (Apost Const 5 : 2 0 ; cf. S c h r e r
[rev.] III/2, 7 3 9 ; S u n d b e r g , 7 4 - 7 ; this report c o u l d , h o w e v e r , be b a s e d o n a c o n f u s i o n or
be a n a h i s t o r i c a l i n f e r e n c e d r a w n f r o m B a r u c h 1:14. T h i s p a s s a g e requires that the
b o o k b e read o n the F e a s t o f B o o t h s ; s e e R g e r [p. 4 4 n. 6 6 ] , ' W e r d e n ' , 1 8 0 ) . B a r t h l m y
{Les devanciers d'Aquila [ s e e a b o v e , p. 2 9 n. 1 3 ] , 1 5 9 ) p o s t u l a t e s a reading d u r i n g this
festival in the s y n a g o g u e s o f the D i a s p o r a . A c c o r d i n g to (Jeremiah and Baruch [p.
8 6 n. 3 0 ] , 2 0 9 - 1 2 , 2 1 5 ) , the r e v i s i o n o f the s e c o n d half o f J e r e m i a h and o f B a r u c h 1 : 1 - 3 : 8
w a s u n d e r t a k e n by the s a m e hand ( 5 0 BCE or earlier), w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s h o w c l o s e l y the
b o o k s w e r e l i n k e d , if not s e e n as o n e w o r k , in fact. T h e H e b r e w text o f the b o o k o f
J e r e m i a h c i t e s a w o r d o f e n c o u r a g e m e n t to B a r u c h t o w a r d the e n d ( 4 5 : 1 - 5 ) . T h e b o o k o f
B a r u c h p r o b a b l y s e e k s to e s t a b l i s h a c o n n e c t i o n to it.
A t h e n a g o r a s , Le gat i 9 : 1 , 3 8 (11. 2 and 9 ) d o e s not m e n t i o n B a r u c h , but lists o n l y
' M o s e s , Isaiah, J e r e m i a h , and the other p r o p h e t s ' . T h e q u o t a t i o n from B a r u c h 3 : 3 6 , 'The
L o r d is o u r G o d and n o o n e c a n b e c o m p a r e d to h i m ' (
) is very general and f u s e s s m o o t h l y into the f o l l o w i n g
q u o t a t i o n s . T h e s e m a y d e r i v e from a T e s t i m o n i a c o l l e c t i o n . Cf. a l s o R g e r , ' A p o k r y p h e n
( s e e a b o v e , p. 5 6 n. 9 6 ) . 2 9 1 , 3 0 7 - 8 , and for the other, n u m e r o u s r e f e r e n c e s to B a r u c h
in the early c h u r c h , s e e S w e t e , 2 7 4 - 6 ; S c h r e r (rev.) III/2. 7 4 0 - 1 .
faceted ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e ' of lesser significance. C e r t a i n large and
t h e r e f o r e l e a d i n g c o m m u n i t i e s (e.g. R o m e , A l e x a n d r i a , E p h e s u s a n d
A n t i o c h ) m a y h a v e b e e n better e q u i p p e d than o t h e r s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , w e
have no information about A l e x a n d r i a from this early period. T h e
c a t a s t r o p h e of 1 1 5 - 1 7 m u s t h a v e a l s o h a r s h l y i m p a c t e d t h e c h u r c h ,
of w h i c h w e a r e i g n o r a n t , b u t w h i c h m u s t h a v e b e e n s i g n i f i c a n t l y
s h a p e d b y J e w i s h C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h e g r e a t J e w i s h c o m m u n i t y in
A l e x a n d r i a w a s p r o b a b l y n e a r l y entirely d e s t r o y e d by the t w o ' J e w i s h
W a r s ' in E g y p t ( 1 1 5 - 1 7 ) and J u d a e a ( 1 3 2 - 5 ) . T h e only direct s e c o n d -
century w i t n e s s e s are the earliest Christian papyri with their
c o n c e n t r a t i o n in the O l d T e s t a m e n t o n the P s a l m s ( b e s i d e s three papyri
of J o h n , t w o o r three of M a t t h e w and s o m e f r a g m e n t s of a p o c r y p h a l
g o s p e l s ) . A t t h e e n d of t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y w e find in C l e m e n t an
A l e x a n d r i a n t e a c h e r w h o e n j o y e d a c c e s s to a s u p e r i o r library and w h o
cites, or at least k n o w s , m o s t of t h e a p o c r y p h a , a m o n g o t h e r texts like
P h i l o and J o s e p h u s . "
In m y o p i n i o n , substantial library h o l d i n g s in the early p e r i o d c a n also
be identified in R o m e , as e a r l y i n d e e d as t h e e a r l i e s t d o c u m e n t n o t
i n c l u d e d in the N e w T e s t a m e n t c a n o n , t h e letter of t h e R o m a n c o m
34
m u n i t y to the C o r i n t h i a n s (7 Clem.after 9 6 C E ) . H e r e w e find a few
citations or a l l u s i o n s that p r e s u p p o s e a c q u a i n t a n c e with o u r d o c u m e n t s .
After a series of e x a m p l e s of self-sacrifice a m o n g p a g a n s and C h r i s t i a n s ,
the a u t h o r m e n t i o n s the ' b l e s s e d J u d i t h ' , w h o ' p l a c e d herself in d a n g e r
. . . out of l o v e for h e r paternal c i t y ' , and ' E s t h e r , perfect in her faith'
( ) w h o , t h r o u g h ' h e r fasting and s e l f - a b a s e m e n t ' ,
p e r s u a d e d G o d to s a v e his p e o p l e (7 Clem. 5 5 : 4 - 6 ) . T h i s s h o w s that
these w o m e n w e r e u s e d in R o m e as s e r m o n illustrations and that E s t h e r
w a s actually cited a c c o r d i n g to the didactically e x p a n d e d G r e e k text used
by J o s e p h u s a l s o at a l m o s t the s a m e t i m e and in t h e s a m e p l a c e . In his
letter C l e m e n t of R o m e a s s u m e s that t h e s e b r a v e w o m e n w e r e also
k n o w n in C o r i n t h . R o u g h l y a h u n d r e d y e a r s later, the t w o a p p e a r again
in C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a , w h o e x t e n s i v e l y r e p e a t s C l e m e n t of R o m e ' s
35
p a r a p h r a s e a n d a d d s S u s a n n a a n d M i r i a m , M o s e s ' s i s t e r . T h e b o o k of
E s t h e r also a p p e a r s , for e x a m p l e , in a C h e s t e r Beatty uncial p a p y r u s from
36
the third c e n t u r y CE in E g y p t . C l e m e n t of R o m e p r o b a b l y also k n e w

v
' S e e a b o v e , p. 21 n. 5. For the a p o c r y p h a l material in C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a and the
p r o b l e m o f h i s c a n o n s e e the i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f J. R u w e t , Bib 2 5 ( 1 9 4 4 ) , 1 3 4 - 6 6 , 3 1 1 - 3 4 ;
29 (1948), 7 7 - 9 9 , 2 4 0 - 6 8 , 3 9 1 - 4 0 8 .
M
O n t h e d a t i n g 'in t h e last d e c a d e o f the first c e n t u r y ' , cf. . L i n d e m a n n , Die
Clemensbriefe ( H N T 17; T b i n g e n , 1 9 9 2 ) , 1 2 - 1 3 .
, s
Strom 4 : 1 1 8 : 4 - 4 : 1 1 9 : 3 ; cf. a l s o 1 : 1 2 3 : 2 . For C l e m e n t , cf. L i n d e m a n n ( s e e a b o v e , n.
3 4 ) , 156.
1 h
A l a n d , Repertorium ( s e e a b o v e , p. 41 n. 5 3 ) , 3 0 - 3 ( n o . 0 1 0 , R a h l f s n o . 9 6 7 ) . T h e
C o d e x a l s o c o n t a i n s significant p o r t i o n s o f E z e k i e l and the e x p a n d e d D a n i e l ; s e e a b o v e ,
p. 4 2 n. 5 7 . T h e r e is an earlier J e w i s h t e x t o f E s t h e r (late first or early s e c o n d c e n t u r y ) o n
a scroll p u b l i s h e d by K. L u c h n e r . O x y 6 5 ( 1 9 9 8 ) , 4 - 8 .
W i s d o m . " A d m i t t e d l y , W i s d o m is n e v e r cited as ' S c r i p t u r e ' . T h e m a t t e r
i n v o l v e s brief citations or allusions that are n e v e r specially indicated
3 8
as s u c h . I Clement 34:1 p r o b a b l y a l l u d e s to S i r a c h 4 : 2 9 b . O n the
39
other h a n d , similarities in the c o n t e x t of the great c o n c l u d i n g p r a y e r
c a n b e e x p l a i n e d in r e l a t i o n to c o m m o n J e w i s h l i t u r g i c a l d i c t i o n .
/ Clement d e m o n s t r a t e s m o r e clearly than any o t h e r d o c u m e n t from the
N e w T e s t a m e n t p e r i o d h o w the piety, e t h o s a n d liturgy of D i a s p o r a
J u d a i s m c o u l d b e a d o p t e d a l m o s t s e a m l e s s l y by Christian c o m m u n i t i e s .
K n o w l e d g e of the M a c c a b e a n m a r t y r tradition a n d the Martyrdom of
Isaiah c o u l d also c o n t r i b u t e to the letter to the H e b r e w s , w h i c h , in
m y o p i n i o n , is also related to R o m e , and w h i c h is already utilized in
40
/ Clement.
It also s e e m s n o t e w o r t h y that traces of the d o c u m e n t s with w h i c h we
are c o n c e r n e d o c c u r p r i m a r i l y in the W e s t , b u t are scarcely t r a n s m i t t e d
in the East until C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a .
T o b i t also s e e m s to h a v e b e e n k n o w n v e r y early in the C h r i s t i a n
c o m m u n i t i e s , e v e n if the citation in the letter of B i s h o p P o l y c a r p of
S m y r n a to the c h u r c h in Philippi (eleemosyna de morte librt [10:2],
c o m e s from T o b i t 4 : 1 0 / 1 2 : 9 ) n e e d not d e p e n d on the r e a d i n g of the
41
b o o k of T o b i t , b e i n g a b a s i c m o r a l i n j u n c t i o n . T h e e x h o r t a t i o n in
2 Clement 16:4 m a y b e m o r e likely to p r e s u p p o s e t h e text of T o b i t
42
1 2 : 8 - 9 since parallels are quite n u m e r o u s . It s e e m s relatively likely

1 7
Cf. / Clement 3:4 and W i s d o m 2 1 : 2 4 ; / Clement 2 7 : 5 and W i s d o m 1 2 : 1 2 or 1 1 : 2 1 -
2 2 ; s e e a l s o / Clement 7:5 and W i s d o m 1 2 : 1 0 (and H e b . 1 2 : 1 7 ) ; 1 Clement 6 0 : 1 and
W i s d o m 7 : 1 7 - 1 8 . H e r e , t o o , w e d o not k n o w the o r i g i n o f C l e m e n t ' s i n f o r m a t i o n .
K n o w l e d g e o f the b o o k in the Christian c o m m u n i t y f r o m the outset c a n , h o w e v e r , be
d e m o n s t r a t e d ; cf. C . Larcher, Etudes sur le livre de la Sagesse ( E t B ; Paris, 1 9 6 9 ) , 1 1 - 8 4
( e s p . 3 6 - 3 7 ) ; S t u h l m a c h e r ( s e e a b o v e , p. 107 . 6 ) , ' B e d e u t u n g ' , 1 4 - 1 6 , 2 0 . R e g a r d i n g
additional passages, see Schrer (rev.) III/l, 5 7 3 - 6 .
, s
1 Clement: ;
Sir: . . . . Cf. R g e r , ' A p o k r y p h e n
. 291.
1 9
Cf., for e x a m p l e , / Clement 5 9 : 3 and S i r a c h 1 6 : 1 8 - 1 9 ; Judith 9 : 1 1 ; 2 M a c c a b e e s
7 : 3 5 ; / Clement 6 0 : 1 ; 6 1 : 2 and S i r a c h 2 : 1 1 ; 4 3 : 2 9 - 3 0 ; T o b i t 3 : 2 ; 13:7, 11; 1 Clement
63:1 and Sirach 5 1 : 2 6 . L i n d e m a n n , Clemensbriefe, 168: ' E c h o e s o f biblical ( L X X ) d i c t i o n
and a l s o , e s p e c i a l l y , certain a n a l o g i e s to the J e w i s h E i g h t e e n B e n e d i c t i o n s are o b v i o u s . '
See his e x e g e s i s , pp. 1 6 2 - 7 5 .
4,1
Cf. H . - F . W e i s s . Der Brief an die Hebrer ( K E K 13; 15th e d n ; G t t i n g e n , 1991
[= the first e d i t i o n o f the r e v i s i o n ] ) , 6 1 9 - 2 0 , 6 2 1 - 2 . For the parallels b e t w e e n / Clement
and H e b r e w s , cf. 7 6 - 8 (written to R o m e ) and 1 1 5 - 1 6 ; L i n d e m a n n , Clemensbriefe, 19-20.
4 1
Cf. G a m b e r o n i ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 8 n. 3 3 ) , Die Auslegung Tobias. 19-20.
4 2
2 Clement: -
, ,
. . .
: Tobit (Codices + ):
-
.
. . Cf. L i n d e m a n n ,
Clemensbriefe, 248.
that 2 Clement is a R o m a n s e r m o n from the first half of the s e c o n d
43
c e n t u r y . T h e n at the b e g i n n i n g of the third c e n t u r y , H i p p o l y t u s of
R o m e , in h i s c o m m e n t a r y o n D a n i e l , c o m p a r e s G o d ' s h e l p for
44
S u s a n n a with that e x p e r i e n c e d by T o b i a s and S a r a h . W h e r e a s , contra
G a m b e r o n i , n o use of T o b i t in Tertullian can be d e m o n s t r a t e d , this little
b o o k is cited relatively often in C y p r i a n ' s ethical e x h o r t a t i o n and is
4 5
i n t r o d u c e d as ' s c r i p t u m d i v i n a ' or e v e n ' D o m i n u s ' . O n the other h a n d ,
I r e n a e u s k n o w s T o b i t and H a g g a i only as the n a m e s of Old T e s t a m e n t
4 6
prophets a m o n g the O p h i t e s . This may have already been older
c o m m u n i t y tradition. C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a m e n t i o n s the T o b i t story in
his outline of the 'salvation h i s t o r y ' from M o s e s to M a l a c h i (Stromateis
1:123:5). H e cites (2:139:2) the g o l d e n rule from T o b i t 4 : 1 5 as
and, similarly {Stromateis 6 : 1 0 2 : 2 ) , the piety rule from T o b i t 1:28 as
, although in the t r a n s p o s e d form,
47
(cf. 2 Clem. 1 6 : 4 ) .
In all, u p to the b e g i n n i n g of the third c e n t u r y , there is a rather timid
use of the b o o k , t h r o u g h w h i c h , t h a n k s to its c a t e c h e t i c o - p a r a e n e t i c
interests, an e l e m e n t of J e w i s h piety in the best sense also p e r v a d e d the
c h u r c h . T h e c a t e c h e t i c o - p a r a e n e t i c use of such texts i n d i c a t e s the extent
to w h i c h t h e s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d l i v e d p i e t y of e a r l y C h r i s t i a n
c o m m u n i t i e s essentially r e s e m b l e d t h o s e of the s y n a g o g u e elites.
Tertullian is the s e c o n d w i t n e s s for Judith after C l e m e n t of R o m e
o n c e again in the W e s t . T h e M o n t a n i s t rigorist praises h e r after Isaac and
J o h n , the ' s p a d o C h r i s t i ' , for the u n i q u e n e s s of her m a r r i a g e and 'tot alia
48
e x a m p l a s a n c t o r u m ' . In Adversus Marcionem 1:7:2 w e find reference
to H o l o f e r n e s after A l e x a n d e r a n d D a r i u s . A s with the t w o C l e m e n t s , of
R o m e a n d of A l e x a n d r i a , the b o o k d o e s n o t s t a n d so m u c h in t h e
f o r e g r o u n d as d o e s the person as a moral e x a m p l e . T h e A l e x a n d r i a n is
the first to cite (Strom 2:35:4) from the w o r k itself the c o n c l u s i o n of the
h e r o i n e ' s exhortation (8:27b), a l t h o u g h with n o formal introduction. O n l y
49
O r i g e n d e a l s with the d o c u m e n t rather m o r e f r e q u e n t l y . In his h o m i l y

4 1
D e s p i t e L i n d e m a n n ' s r e s e r v a t i o n s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 115 n. 3 4 ; p. 8 9 n. 3 7 ) about R o m e
as the o r i g i n , this s o l u t i o n s e e m s m o r e l i k e l y to m e b e c a u s e o f p a r a l l e l s w i t h / Clem.; s o
a l s o A . v. H a r n a c k . Geschichte der altchristlichen Literatur bis Eusebius, ll/l: Die
Chronologie der Literatur bis Irenaus nebst einleitenden Untersuchungen (2nd edn;
Leipzig, 1958), 4 4 2 - 6 .
4 4
O p . cit. ( s e e a b o v e , p. 9 6 n. 5 5 ) , 4 0 ( 1:28:6).
45
De Biblia Patristica II. 2 0 7 c o u n t s e i g h t e e n c i t a t i o n s , s o m e o f w h i c h are e x t e n s i v e
(from s e v e n d o c u m e n t s ) , t w o others o c c u r in the Vita Cypriani. O f the s e c o n d - and third-
century authors, C y p r i a n c i t e s it m o s t o f t e n after O r i g e n .
4(1
Adv Haer 1:30:11 ; s e e a b o v e , p. 6 8 n. 3 3 .
4 7
T h e r e f e r e n c e s can be f o u n d in S c h r e r (rev.) I I I / l . 2 2 7 ; Biblia Patristica I (see
a b o v e , p. 6 7 n. 2 3 ) , 2 1 7 - 1 8 ( s e v e n p a s s a g e s ) ; cf. a l s o S w e t e , 2 7 3 ^ 4 .
4S
De Monogamia 17:1.
4 9
For the r e f e r e n c e s , cf.. b e s i d e s S w e t e , 2 7 2 - 3 . and S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / l , 2 2 0 , a l s o
A . - M . D u b a r l e . Judith. Formes et sens des diverses traditions I (AnBib 24; Rome.
1 9 6 6 ) . 1 1 0 - 2 5 , 1 7 2 - 4 , and idem. 'La m e n t i o n de Judith d a n s la littrature a n c i e n n e j u i v e
on N u m b e r s 2 7 : 1 , he refers to the moral instruction of the c a t e c h u m e n
t h r o u g h r e a d i n g E s t h e r , T o b i t , J u d i t h a n d t h e c o m m a n d m e n t s of
5 0
W i s d o m ; in De Oratione 2 9 : 3 , h e praises h e r a l o n g with E s t h e r and
others as the m o d e l supplicant, a l t h o u g h , referring to E p h e s i a n s 4 : 2 5 , he
51
r e p r o a c h e s her s k i l l a l s o that of J a c o b i n d e c e p t i o n . In the J e r e m i a h
52
h o m i l i e s he offers, in reference to Judith 1 2 : 6 - 7 , 14, an e x a m p l e
of h o w a ' r i g h t e o u s p e r s o n ' can b r e a k an a g r e e m e n t . D e s p i t e
certain ethical r e s e r v a t i o n s , the b o o k found u l t i m a t e r e c o g n i t i o n from
h i m , w h i l e his c o n t e m p o r a r y C y p r i a n c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d it, p r o b a b l y
b e c a u s e of his objections to its content.
W i t h respect to the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s , o n e can a s s u m e that H e b r e w s
11:35 ( p r e s u m a b l y in R o m e o n c e a g a i n )

s h o w s k n o w l e d g e of the m a r t y r l e g e n d s in 2 M a c c a b e e s 6 : 1 8 -
53
7:42. H e b r e w s 1 1 : 3 - 4 c o u l d b e b a s e d on 2 M a c c a b e e s 5:27 (cf. 6 : 3 0 ) .
T h e motif of the creation of the world from n o t h i n g (
[sc. h e a v e n a n d earth] 2 M a c e . 7:28) a p p e a r s
again in H e r m a s 26:1 (= Mandata 1:1 , . . .
) . S i n c e at this p o i n t H e r m a s is q u o t i n g
p a r t of a J e w i s h c o n f e s s i o n of f a i t h , l i t e r a r y d e p e n d e n c e r e m a i n s
u n c e r t a i n . W e find s u c h d e p e n d e n c e , h o w e v e r , in t h e Letter of the

et c h r t i e n n e ' , RB 6 6 ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 5 1 4 - 4 9 . O n the G r e e k text, s e e R. H a n h a r t , Text und


Textgeschichte des Buches Judith ( M S U 14; G t t i n g e n , 1 9 7 9 ) ; for the p r o b l e m o f the
A r a m a i c or H e b r e w e x e m p l a r and the c o n f u s i o n already o f the texts a v a i l a b l e to J e r o m e ,
see pp. 8 - 1 0 .
5 0
O r i g e n , 'In N u m e r o s H o m i l i a X X V I I ' , GCS Origenes 7, W . A . B a e h r e n s , ed.
( L e i p z i g , 1921 ), 2 5 5 - 8 0 ( 2 5 6 ) : ' H i s e r g o c u m recitatur talis a l i q u a d i v i n o r u m v o l u m i n u m
l e c t i o , in qua non videatur a l i q u i d o b s c u r u m , libenter a c c i p i u n t , verbi c a u s a , ut est l i b e l l u s
H e s t e r aut Iudith vel e t i a m T o b i a e aut m a n d a t a S a p i e n t i a e . ' T h e reason is ' b e c a u s e it
c o n t a i n s a s i m p l e moral i n s t r u c t i o n , w i t h o u t o b s c u r i t y , i m m e d i a t e l y a c c e s s i b l e t o the
reader' ( s o Harl, D o r i v a l and M u n n i c h , 3 2 3 ) . A c c o r d i n g to O r i g e n , the o p p o s i t e o f t h e s e
b o o k s is L e v i t i c u s , from w h i c h the b e g i n n e r w o u l d turn i m m e d i a t e l y a w a y b e c a u s e he
c a n n o t r e c o g n i z e its h i d d e n m e a n i n g , w h i c h is the m a i n thing in this c a s e . W e m a y set
a s i d e the q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r this b e t r a y s an a n t i - J e w i s h p o l e m i c a g a i n s t the u s e o f
L e v i t i c u s as a reading primer for c h i l d r e n ( s o R g e r , ' W e r d e n ' , 187 n. 11 ; cf. a l s o H e n g e l ,
Judentum und Hellenismus, 151 = idem, Judaism and Hellenism, 8 2 - 3 ) , or w h e t h e r this
a d v i c e is s i m p l y the product o f l o n g t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . In any c a s e , it is certain that the
use o f Judith, T o b i t , S a p i e n t i a S a l o m o n i s and Sirach by m i n o r s and c a t e c h u m e n s i n d i c a t e s
the protreptic character o f t h e s e d o c u m e n t s . In the l o n g e r t e r m , h o w e v e r , it p r o v i d e s for
their ' s e c o n d a r y ' c a n o n i z a t i o n s i n c e they w e r e g r a d u a l l y s a n c t i o n e d by e x p a n d i n g u s e in
the c h u r c h . T h i s d e v e l o p m e n t is m o r e p r o n o u n c e d in the W e s t than in the East ( s e e a b o v e ,
pp. 6 3 , 6 6 - 9 ) .
1
- O r i g e n , ' D e o r a t i o n e ' , GCS' Origenes 2, P. K o e t s c h a u , e d . ( L e i p z i g , 1 8 9 8 ) . 2 9 5 - 4 0 3
( c i t a t i o n , p. 3 8 2 ) .
5 2
O r i g e n , ' H o m i l e 2 0 zu Jer 2 0 : 7 - 1 2 ' , GCS Origenes 3, E. K l o s t e r m a n n , e d . ( L e i p z i g ,
1901). 1 7 6 - 9 4 ( 1 8 7 - 8 ) .
M
S e e a b o v e , p. I 16 n. 4 0 .
54
Martyrs of Lyon (111 C E ) w h e r e the slave B l a n d i n a is c o m p a r e d to the
h e r o i c m a r t y r m o t h e r w h o e x h o r t e d h e r sons and w a s the last to d i e .
S i n c e C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a m e n t i o n s the ' b o o k of the d e e d s of the
M a c c a b e e s ' , in the s a m e breath as E s t h e r (Strom 1:123:2), he p r e s u m a b l y
m e a n s the s e c o n d b o o k , since, j u s t before ( 1 : 1 2 3 : 1 ) , he refers to
N e h e m i a h as the b u i l d e r of the t e m p l e . T h i s idea is found only in the
story in 2 M a c c a b e e s 1 : 1 9 - 3 6 . In Strom 5:97:7 h e refers directly to 2
55
M a c c a b e e s 1:10.
1 M a c c a b e e s , utilized e x t e n s i v e l y by J o s e p h u s in R o m e ( w h o d i s
r e g a r d s 2 M a c c a b e e s ) , is first m e n t i o n e d by T e r t u l l i a n in Adversos
Judaeos 4 : 1 0 (temporibus Maccabaeorum), where he describes the
v i c t o r i o u s battle against the e n e m y on the S a b b a t h (1 M a c e . 2 : 3 8 , 4 0 4 1 ,
4 8 ) . At a l m o s t the s a m e t i m e , H i p p o l y t u s of R o m e utilized it frequently
in his D a n i e l c o m m e n t a r y to d e m o n s t r a t e the fulfilment of D a n i e l ' s
p r o p h e c i e s in t h e p e r i o d of t h e D i a d o c h i a n d the p e r s e c u t i o n u n d e r
A n t i o c h u s IV. Later, P o r p h y r i u s s h o w e d D a n i e l to be a vaticinium ex
eventu d u r i n g the M a c c a b e a n s t r u g g l e , i.e. h e too m u s t h a v e k n o w n the
J e w i s h s o u r c e s well. T h e fact that, in addition to O r i g e n , H i p p o l y t u s
already k n e w several b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s c a n be d e d u c e d from the fact
that in his c o m m e n t a r y on D a n i e l 3 he refers to 1 M a c c a b e e s 1:5-9 with
5 6
the f o r m u l a xfj .
In contrast, he s e e m s to h a v e r e g a r d e d the s e c o n d b o o k as h a v i n g only
m a r g i n a l status. At a b o u t the s a m e t i m e as H i p p o l y t u s , the Christian
Julius A f r i c a n u s , the librarian of C a e s a r S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r ( 2 2 2 - 3 5 ) ,
57
attests to k n o w l e d g e of 1 M a c c a b e e s in his c h r o n o g r a p h y .
C y p r i a n a l s o c i t e s 1 M a c c a b e e s r e p e a t e d l y , a n d e v e n m o r e often
the story of the m a r t y r s in 2 M a c c a b e e s 6 and 7. T h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e
58
c o n t i n u e s in the W e s t with V i c t o r i n u s of Pettau (d. 3 0 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e ,
L a c t a n t i u s c o u l d use 2 M a c c a b e e s as s o m e t h i n g of a literary m o d e l for
59
his w o r k , De mortibus persecutorum. N o t a b l y , h e r e , t o o , the first t w o
b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y less v a l u e d in the East: C l e m e n t of
A l e x a n d r i a m e n t i o n s t h e m only in p a s s i n g and they a p p e a r m o r e often
only in the great w o r k of O r i g e n , p r i m a r i l y h e r e t o o the m a r t y r o l o g y of

5 4
Cf. E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 5 : 1 : 5 5 w i t h 2 M a c c a b e e s 7 : 2 1 - 3 , 2 7 - 9 .
5 5
Cf. S c h r e r ( r e v . ) I I I / 1 , 5 3 4 .
, 6
H i p p o l y t u s ( s e e a b o v e , p. 9 6 n. 5 5 ) , 194. For the r e f e r e n c e s , cf. S c h r e r (rev.) I I I / l ,
183.
" C f . Biblici Patristica II ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 7 n. 2 3 ) . 2 2 8 (1 M a c e . 1 6 : 1 - 2 . 2 1 - 4 ) . T h e
s c a n t y r e m a i n s o f this first Christian c h r o n i c l e o f the w o r l d are p u b l i s h e d in M . R o u t h .
Reliquiae Sacrae II ( O x f o r d . 1 8 4 6 ) , 2 3 8 - 3 0 9 ( 2 9 0 ) .
S!i
De Fabrica Mundi 6, C S E L 4 9 , J. H a u s s l e i t e r , e d . , 1 - 9 ( 6 ) , an a l l u s i o n to the e v e n t s
reported in 1 M a c c a b e e s 2 : 2 4 - 2 5 and 2 : 4 0 - 4 1 . In his c o m m e n t a r i e s , V i c t o r i n u s d e p e n d s
on Papias, Irenaeus, Hippolytus and. especially, Origen.
? 9
Cf. L a c t a n t i u s , De Mortibus Persecutorum. J. L. C r e e d , e d . ( O x f o r d , 1 9 8 4 ) . x x x v i i i -
xxxix.
60
2 M a c c a b e e s 6 and 7. Interest is c o n c e n t r a t e d on a few p a s s a g e s . This
m o r e p r o m i n e n t use of the b o o k s of M a c c a b e e s in the W e s t m a y be
related, a m o n g other factors, to the typical R o m a n regard for a n y t h i n g
military. W e already e n c o u n t e r this attitude in / Clement 2 1 : 4 ; 2 8 : 2 ;
3 6 : 6 - 3 7 : 4 ; 4 1 : 1 a l s o e v e n in Tertullian, g e n e r a l l y so r i g o r o u s , b u t a
c e n t u r i o n ' s son.
O n e m i g h t a n t i c i p a t e b e t t e r attestation for W i s d o m , t h e o l o g i c a l l y
multi-faceted and often very similar to N e w T e s t a m e n t literature, than
for the w o r k s m e n t i o n e d so far. B u t as C. L a r c h e r ' s e x t e n s i v e o v e r v i e w
61
d e m o n s t r a t e s , this is true o n l y to a d e g r e e . A p a r t from 1 Clement,
already cited, clear a l l u s i o n s are m i s s i n g in the A p o s t o l i c F a t h e r s a n d in
the majority of the A p o l o g i s t s . P e r h a p s o n e m a y a s s u m e that T a t i a n ,
J u s t i n ' s student in R o m e , s u m m a r i z e d the s t a t e m e n t in W i s d o m 2 : 2 3 in
his Oratio ad Graecos 7 : 1 . M e l i t o , t o o , m a y a s s u m e k n o w l e d g e of
W i s d o m in his P a s s o v e r H o m i l y , a l t h o u g h , in m y o p i n i o n , L a r c h e r over
e s t i m a t e s the significance of the similarities. T h e s e can b e e x p l a i n e d
e q u a l l y well t h r o u g h the t e r m i n o l o g y of J u d a e o - H e l l e n i s t i c p a s s o v e r
preaching Melito employs.
I r e n a e u s , by contrast, d o e s m e n t i o n the d o c u m e n t a g a i n in the W e s t .
A c c o r d i n g to E u s e b i u s (Hist Eccl 5:26), I r e n a e u s refers to the L e t t e r to
the H e b r e w s a n d the ' s o - c a l l e d W i s d o m of S o l o m o n ' in a lost b o o k of
' v a r i o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n s ' ( ) , p r o b a b l y a collection
of s e r m o n s a n d also cites the latter. T o b e sure, w e find a few points of
c o n t a c t in Adversus Haereses, but only o n e ' c i t a t i o n ' , and this w i t h o u t
62
direct i n t r o d u c t i o n .
A little later, Tertullian (Adversus Valentinianos 2:2) alludes to the
b e g i n n i n g of the w o r k ( W i s d . 1:1-2): ' P o r r o facies dei s p e c t a t u r in
simplicitate q u a e r e n d i , ut d o c e t ipsa S o p h i a , n o n q u i d e m V a l e n t i n i , sed
61
S a l o m o n i s . ' H e also a d d u c e s W i s d o m 2 : 1 2 . T h e r e are a few additional
citations and points of contact. T h u s , W i s d o m w a s u n a m b i g u o u s H o l y
S c r i p t u r e for n e i t h e r I r e n a e u s n o r T e r t u l l i a n . T h e relative c o n f u s i o n
c o n c e r n i n g this b o o k is also reflected in the c o n t e m p o r a r y M u r a t o r i a n
C a n o n a l s o of R o m a n origin, p e r h a p s in the t i m e of H i p p o l y t u s w h e r e
it t u r n s up a m o n g N e w T e s t a m e n t writings b e t w e e n the t w o letters of
J o h n and the a p o c a l y p s e s of J o h n and Peter. In the G r e e k original, the
u n k n o w n a u t h o r m a y h a v e e v e n c l a i m e d P h i l o as the author (see a b o v e ,
p p . 6 9 - 7 0 ) . C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a w a s the first to b e fully satisfied with
the b o o k and to cite it as S o l o m o n ' s w o r k . C y p r i a n also m a k e s frequent

6 0
S e e Biblia Patristica III ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 7 n. 2 3 ) , 2 2 0 - 1 ; cf. a l s o S w e t e , 2 7 6 - 8 .
6 1
Larcher ( s e e a b o v e , p. 115 n. 3 7 ) , 3 6 - 4 6 .
w
Adv / / a e r 4 : 3 8 : 3 , 'incorruptela v e r o p r o x i m u m facit e s s e D e o " , d e r i v e s f r o m W i s d o m
6 : 1 9 , .

T e r t u l l i a n , Adv Valentinianos, C C h r . S L 2 , 7 5 1 - 7 8 , h e r e , 7 5 4 ; cf. a l s o De
Praescriptione Haereticorum 7 : 1 0 ; Adversus Marcionem 3 : 2 2 : 5 and F r a g m e n t I V , w h e r e
W i s d o m 3:1 is c i t e d ( l o c . cit. 1 3 3 5 ) .
use of it u n d e r the n a m e S a p i e n t i a S a l o m o n i s and s o m e t i m e s i n t r o d u c e s
64
it as 'scriptura d i v i n a ' , ' s c r i p t u r a s a n c t a ' , or ' s c r i p t u m e s t ' , e t c . O r i g e n ,
w h o o c c a s i o n a l l y cites it, a l t h o u g h very m u c h less often than P r o v e r b s
or J o b , is a w a r e of the c a n o n i c a l p r o b l e m and has r e s e r v a t i o n s about its
S o l o m o n i c a u t h o r s h i p (see a b o v e , p . 6 9 n. 38). M e t h o d i u s of O l y m p u s in
Asia M i n o r (d. 3 1 1 ) was the first to s h o w a p r o n o u n c e d preference for
65
it. Yet a certain reticence c o u l d n e v e r be c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d in the
Eastern c h u r c h .
T h e p r o v e r b i a l w i s d o m of Sirach, t o o , e x e r c i s e d n o m a j o r influence in
the s e c o n d c e n t u r y so far as is k n o w n . Didache 4:5 a n d the identical
Barnabas 19:9 c o r r e s p o n d in s u b s t a n c e to Sirach 4 : 3 1 , but w h a t w e find
here is a c o m m o n e x h o r t a t i o n from the doctrine of the t w o w a y s . N o use
c a n b e d e m o n s t r a t e d in t h e A p o l o g i s t s , n o t e v e n in I r e n a e u s a n d
Tertullian. It is in the Paidagogos of C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a that the
relatively frequent catechetical use, already m e n t i o n e d , first b e c o m e s
apparent. H e also r e p e a t e d l y cites Sirach as or with
a n d related f o r m u l a e , and in certain c i r c u m s t a n c e s as sayings of
6 6
Christ, the true . T h e d e s i g n a t i o n , a p p e a r s
67
t w i c e . F o u r t i m e s in the Stromateis C l e m e n t also n a m e s S o l o m o n as
the a u t h o r , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e at t h e s e p o i n t s h e is q u o t i n g from
6 8
m e m o r y . In t h e Paidagogos, w h e r e , u n d e r s t a n d a b l y , m o s t of t h e
references o c c u r , he s e e m s to h a v e h a d the b o o k to h a n d and avoids such
errors. In o n e c a s e , h o w e v e r , he d e c l a r e s the m a x i m s of Sirach 34(31 ):29
to b e o l d e r t h a n the t r a g e d i e s of S o p h o c l e s , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e h e
69
attributed it to S o l o m o n .
T h e p s e u d o - c y p r i a n i c d o c u m e n t , De Aleatoribus c h a p . 2, w h i c h m a y
date b a c k to the b e g i n n i n g of the third c e n t u r y , cites Sirach for the first
time in the W e s t with the f o r m u l a 'et alia scriptura d i c i t ' . C y p r i a n v a l u e s
Sirach m u c h as did C l e m e n t , but consistently i n t r o d u c e s it as a w o r k of
70
S o l o m o n ( ! ) . T h i s practice s p r e a d s in the W e s t a n d J e r o m e p o l e m i c i z e s

6 4
T h e p a s s a g e s in C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a or C y p r i a n can be f o u n d in Schrer (rev.)
111/1, 5 7 4 or 5 7 5 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
i
" For the S e p t u a g i n t p a s s a g e s in his w o r k , cf. the i n d e x in Le Banquet, H. M u s u r i l l o
and V . - H . D e b i d o u r , e d s ( S C 9 5 ; Paris, 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 3 6 ( n i n e p a s s a g e s ) .
h h
: Paid 1:8:62, 6 8 ; 11:2:34; 5 : 4 6 ; 8 : 6 9 ; 8 : 7 6 ; 1 0 : 9 8 - 9 ; 111:3:17, 2 3 ; 4 : 2 9 ; 11:58,
8 3 ; : Paid 1:8:69, 7 2 ; 9 : 7 5 ; 1 3 : 1 0 2 ; 11:1:8; 2 : 2 4 ; 7 : 5 4 , 5 8 - 9 ; Strom 5 : 3 : 1 8 :
: Paid II: 10:99, cf. 1 0 1 . 1 0 9 .
1,7
Strom 1:4:27; 1 0 : 4 7 . T h e title o f the b o o k in the G r e e k m a n u s c r i p t s is
.

Strom 2 : 5 : 2 4 ( 2 x ) ; 6 : 1 6 : 1 4 6 ; 7 : 1 6 : 1 0 5 .
b
* Paid 11:2:24; r e g a r d i n g the entire s u b j e c t , s e e O. S t h l i n , Clemens Alexandrinus und
die Septuaginta ( N r n b e r g , 1901 ), 4 6 - 5 8 ; S c h r e r (rev.) 11171, 2 0 7 .
7 0
For De Aleatoribus, cf. C S E L 3 / 3 , 9 4 ; the p a s s a g e s in C y p r i a n are in S c h r e r (rev.)
I l l / 1 , 2 0 8 . T h e Latin d e s i g n a t i o n E c c l e s i a s t i c u s a l s o s t e m s f r o m C y p r i a n : ' T h e later n a m e
. . . marks the b o o k as the m o s t important or the m o s t p o p u l a r o f the libri ecclesiastic/
the b o o k s w h i c h the C h u r c h u s e d for the p u r p o s e o f instruction, a l t h o u g h t h e y w e r e not
i n c l u d e d in the J e w i s h c a n o n ' ( S w e t e , 2 7 0 ) .
against it in his c o m m e n t a r y on Daniel 9:24, w h e r e h e alludes to the high
priest S i m o n ' q u o r g e n t e p o p u l u m , Iesus filius Sirach scripsit librum
qui g r a e c a a p p e l l a t u r et a p l e r i s q u e S a l o m o n i s f a l s o
71
d i c i t u r ' . F o r this reason, W e s t e r n c a n o n lists often list five S o l o m o n i c
72
d o c u m e n t s as a w i s d o m ' P e n t a t e u c h ' . D e s p i t e its profitable content,
Sirach h a d difficulty in g a i n i n g a c c e p t a n c e in the c h u r c h , as a m o n g the
r a b b i s , b e c a u s e it w a s t o o r e c e n t . O n l y ' i n t e l l e c t u a l k i n s h i p ' to the
biblical a u t h o r S o l o m o n strengthened its authority, primarily in the W e s t ,
v e r y m u c h as t h e a n o n y m o u s l e t t e r to t h e H e b r e w s e a r l i e r f o u n d
a c c e p t a n c e in the East as a p u r p o r t e d l y P a u l i n e d o c u m e n t . In the East,
73
the d e s i g n a t i o n , first used in reference to P r o v e r b s ,
74
w a s also applied to i t .

c) T h e D i s s e m i n a t i o n and P r e v a l e n c e of T h e s e W r i t i n g s in the C h u r c h
W h y did these w r i t i n g s , a l t h o u g h absent from the H e b r e w Bible ( w h i c h ,
d e s p i t e all r e s e r v a t i o n s , still finally r e m a i n e d t h e m o d e l ) u l t i m a t e l y
prevail in c h u r c h use, i m m e d i a t e l y in the W e s t , m o r e slowly a n d half
h e a r t e d l y in the E a s t ? B a s i c a l l y , L u t h e r ' s w e l l - k n o w n a s s e s s m e n t is
sufficient here. T h e y w e r e 'useful and g o o d to r e a d ' for the c h u r c h , w h i c h
w a s g a i n i n g stability a n d m o v i n g into b r o a d e r layers of society t o w a r d
the e n d of the s e c o n d a n d the b e g i n n i n g of the third century. T h e e t h o s
r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e m e x c e p t for the r e a d i n e s s for m a r t y r d o m r e j e c t e d
all e x t r e m e s . A t the s a m e t i m e , they w e r e c l e a r l y m o n o t h e i s t i c and
h u m a n i t a r i a n , with an orientation t o w a r d s G o d ' s c o m m a n d m e n t s . T h e i r
effect w a s didactic, a n d truly furthered discipline ( ) ; thus they
essentially b o u n d t o g e t h e r c h u r c h and s y n a g o g u e , w h i c h stood n e a r e r to
o n e a n o t h e r at t h i s p o i n t t h a n b o t h w i s h e d to a c k n o w l e d g e . T h e y
r e p r e s e n t e d a practical civic h u m a n i t y and piety w h i c h w a s j u s t , upright,
e v e n h e r o i c in c o n f l i c t s of f a i t h , a n d t h u s c o n s t i t u t e d a g e n u i n e
' p r a e p a r a t i o e v a n g e l i c a ' . A d m i t t e d l y , there r e m a i n e d a thorn that m a y
h a v e even b e c o m e m o r e p o i n t e d as s c h o l a r s h i p d e v e l o p e d : these w o r d s
w e r e still ' n o t c o n s i d e r e d of equal v a l u e with the Holy S c r i p t u r e s '

71
C C h r . S L 7 5 A : Hieronymus 1/5, Commentariorum in Danielem III zu Dan 9:24,
F. G l o r i e , e d . (Turnhout, 1 9 6 5 ) , 8 6 0 - 9 1 2 ( 8 7 3 ) , w i t h r e f e r e n c e to E u s e b i u s , Dem
8:2:71 ( s e e b e l o w , . 7 4 ) .
7 2
S c h r e r (rev.) I I I / l . 2 0 8 : cf. . N e s t l e . ' M i s c e l l e n 8. F n f B c h e r S a l o m o s " , Z A W 2 7
(1907): 2 9 4 - 7 .
" Cf. / Clem. 5 7 : 3 - 5 : the citation from P r o v e r b s 1 : 2 3 - 2 5 is introduced w i t h
; cf. a l s o C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a , Strom 2 : 1 3 6 : 3 (Prov.
1:32); and H e g e s i p p u s in E u s e b i u s , Hist Eccl 4 : 2 2 : 9 . Cf. G. W . H. L a m p e . A Patristic
Greek Lexicon, 1 9 6 1 . 1 0 0 1 : 'Title o f W i s d o m B o o k s (as e n s h r i n i n g r e v e l a t i o n o f d i v i n e
wisdom)'.
7 4
First b y E u s e b i u s in his h i s t o r y , then a l s o in his Dem 8 : 2 : 7 1 , s e e GCS Eusebius 6,
I. . H e i k e l , e d . ( L e i p z i g , 1 9 1 3 ) . 3 8 0 : '. . . . . .
' , cf. S c h r e r (rev.) I I I / l , 2 0 7 .
e s p e c i a l l y not in the East. T h e i r m o r a l - p e d a g o g i c a l effect, to w h i c h
C l e m e n t a n d O r i g e n c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n , w a s helpful p r i m a r i l y for the
instruction of c a t e c h u m e n s . F o r this reason, e s p e c i a l l y , these writings
w e r e not o v e r l o o k e d . A solid l i t e r a t u r e , s u i t a b l e for edification and
instruction, v e n e r a b l e b e c a u s e of its a g e , w a s n e e d e d ; but at the s a m e
t i m e , a literature that e x p r e s s e d the continuity of the c h u r c h with the
teachers a n d p i o u s h e r o e s of a n c i e n t Israel, G o d ' s c h o s e n p e o p l e . It m a y
b e that T o b i t , J u d i t h , Sirach a n d W i s d o m a l r e a d y h a d an a n a l o g o u s
function in the instruction of p r o s e l y t e s in a n u m b e r of s y n a g o g u e s of
the D i a s p o r a . T h i s r e m a i n s m e r e s p e c u l a t i o n , h o w e v e r ; it is m e n t i o n e d
by neither P h i l o n o r J o s e p h u s .
T h e q u e s t i o n of how t h e y p r e v a i l e d is to b e s e p a r a t e d from t h e
question of why. W h a t I offer in c o n c l u s i o n is necessarily no m o r e than a
h y p o t h e s i s . T h e c a u s e m a y lie in the c o m m u n i t y a r c h i v e or library of the
R o m a n m e g a - c h u r c h at the t i m e of C l e m e n t . After 7 0 , R o m e u n l i k e
A l e x a n d r i a and A n t i o c h , w h i c h h a d b o t h suffered h e a v i l y b e c a u s e of the
J e w i s h W a r of 6 6 - 7 3 s t i l l h a d an intact, large a n d p r o s p e r o u s J e w i s h
c o m m u n i t y w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e ' a u r a ' , d e s p i t e all e f f o r t s , s u c h as
D o m i t i a n ' s , to s u p p r e s s it. C h r i s t i a n s participated in it. In A l e x a n d r i a ,
the t w o J e w i s h rebellions in the first half of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y will
p r e s u m a b l y h a v e also i n v o l v e d the ( p r e d o m i n a n t l y J u d a e o - ) C h r i s t i a n
c o m m u n i t y in severe suffering. T h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n the lack of infor
m a t i o n b e f o r e the e n d of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y . T h e d i s p u t e a b o u t the
c o n v e r s i o n t o J u d a i s m or C h r i s t i a n i t y ? o f Titus F l a v i u s C l e m e n s and
his wife D o m i t i l l a typifies the situation in R o m e t o w a r d the e n d of the
75
first c e n t u r y . T h e great Christian c o m m u n i t y w a s , as s h o w n p r e s u m
ably in H e b r e w s a n d clearly in 1 Clement, h a r s h l y i m p a c t e d by this
J u d a e o - H e l l e n i s t i c m i l i e u in t h e R o m a n c a p i t a l . W h a t w a s v a l u e d
there as instructional r e a d i n g w a s also interesting for the C h r i s t i a n s .
T h u s , the b o o k s n a m e d w e r e also available to t h e m : 'not equally v a l u e d
. . . but useful and g o o d to r e a d ' . In this light, the starting point for
C l e m e n t of R o m e a n d t h e w i d e r a t t e s t a t i o n in t h e W e s t b e c o m e s
c o m p r e h e n s i b l e . So d o e s the early translation of t h e O l d Latin, a r o u n d or
soon after 2 0 0 , from the G r e e k , i n c l u d i n g the b o o k s u n d e r discussion,
s o m e t i m e s in a u n i q u e old form of the text. S o the Old Latin text of
Sirach has additions w h i c h m u s t g o b a c k to a G r e e k original that has not
b e e n p r e s e r v e d . It is p e r h a p s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t w i t n e s s for t h e
significance of this ' e d i f y i n g - i n s t r u c t i o n a l ' literature, b o r r o w e d from the
s y n a g o g u e . D u r i n g the first three centuries n o c o m m u n i t y attracted so
m a n y Christian travellers of all k i n d s , b i s h o p s a n d intellectuals from all
parts of the E m p i r e , as the capital city. Its archive w a s also interesting to

7 5
D i o C a s s i u s 6 7 : 1 4 : 2 . Contra S c h r e r ( r e v . ) III/1, 7 9 n. 9 7 and 1 6 8 - 9 n. 5 7 , the
q u e s t i o n o f the c o n v e r s i o n to J u d a i s m or Christianity is not to be d e c i d e d d e f i n i t i v e l y in
f a v o u r o f the first p o s s i b i l i t y ; cf. H e n g e l ( s e e a b o v e , p. 4 8 n. 7 5 ) . ' S c h r e r ' . 3 9 ^ - 0 .
visitors, as H e g e s i p p u s a n d I r e n a e u s testify. T h e list of b i s h o p s as well
as the c a t a l o g u e of G o s p e l s and their authors in I r e n a e u s originated there,
76
in m y o p i n i o n . O c c a s i o n a l l y the c o m m u n i t y itself p u b l i s h e d b o o k s ; in
Hermas 8:3 (Vis 2:4:3), C l e m e n t is g i v e n the responsibility of s e n d i n g
the h e a v e n l y letter r e c e i v e d by the p r o p h e t H e r m a s to 'cities a b r o a d ' .
T h u s the distribution of d o c u m e n t s , in addition to letters, also served
p r o p a g a n d a p u r p o s e s to s o m e e x t e n t . S u c h n e e d n o t h a v e b e e n t h e
case w i t h o u r texts; the interest of visitors w h o m a d e c o p i e s is sufficient
to explain this. T h u s the b o o k s c a m e to L y o n , C a r t h a g e , e v e n finally in
the third c e n t u r y to Pettau in Styria, and, n a t u r a l l y , also to the East.
T h e r e w a s an old c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n R o m e a n d A l e x a n d r i a . T h e M a r k
l e g e n d in E u s e b i u s (and in the letter fragment of C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a ,
the authenticity of w h i c h is v e r y disputed) w a s not created entirely from
77
t h i n a i r . N a t u r a l l y , s o m e of t h e s e d o c u m e n t s a l s o c i r c u l a t e d in
the East, but they w e r e less highly e s t e e m e d there. B u t the m e r e fact
that they w e r e r e a d and utilized in instruction in R o m e and then also
in A l e x a n d r i a (1 Clement, C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a ) m a d e t h e m interest
ing e l s e w h e r e as w e l l , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e t h e y w e r e c o m p l e t e l y n o n -
speculative a n d g a v e rise to n o ' g n o s t i c d a n g e r s ' . 1 Clement, Hermas
and 2 Clement, and the l e a d e r of the catechetical school in A l e x a n d r i a
attest to a ' C h r i s t i a n civic spirit' that m i g h t s e e m to be in s y m p a t h y
with the t o n e of t h o s e a p o c r y p h a l J e w i s h w r i t i n g s .
T h i s d o e s n o t rule o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t s o m e d o c u m e n t s w e r e
also t r a n s m i t t e d in other p l a c e s . 3 and 4 Maccabees, originating c o n
78
siderably later in the first c e n t u r y CE, and attested only since E u s e b i u s ,
s e e m to h a v e ' c a u g h t o n ' in the East. T h e s a m e is true of the Psalms
of Solomon w h i c h only rarely found their w a y on to c h u r c h b o o k - s h e l v e s .
T h e strict authority of the c o m m u n i t y , w h i c h did not h a v e m o n a r c h i c a l
l e a d e r s h i p until well into t h e m i d d l e of the s e c o n d c e n t u r y b u t w a s
d i v i d e d into several ' h o u s e c h u r c h e s ' , w a s not d e c i s i v e for d e p e n d e n c e
o n R o m e as t h e m o t i v a t i o n for a d o p t i n g t h e s e s i m p l e r w o r k s , b u t
r a t h e r t h e c u r i o s i t y a n d p r a c t i c a l i t y of v i s i t o r s i n t e r e s t e d in b o o k s
' u s e f u l a n d g o o d to r e a d ' . I n i t i a l l y , t h e y w e r e r a r e l y e m p l o y e d in

7 6
1 f o l l o w here the c o n v i n c i n g t h e s i s o f T h o r n t o n ( s e e a b o v e , p. 111 n. 2 2 ) , 4 8 - 5 3 , w h o
has e x t e n s i v e l y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s e w i t n e s s e s ; s e e a l s o H e n g e l , Evangelienberschriften
( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 2 n. 12), 3 7 - 4 0 . O n Sirach s e e W . T h i e l e , ' D i e l a t e i n i s c h e n S i r a c h t e x t e als
Z e u g n i s der g r i e c h i s c h e n S i r a c h b e r l i e f e r u n g ' , in Evangelium-Schriftauslegung-Kirche:
FS P. Stuhlmacher zum 65: Geburtstag, e d . J. d n a et alii ( G t t i n g e n , 1 9 9 7 ) . 3 9 4 - 4 0 2 .
7 7
E u s e b i u s (Hist Eccl 2 : 2 4 ) n a m e s the e v a n g e l i s t Mark as the first b i s h o p o f A l e x a n d r i a ,
a c t i v e until the e i g h t h year o f N e r o ' s r e i g n ; cf. h o w e v e r , the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s in Hist Eccl
4 : 1 1 : 6 . For the purported letter o f C l e m e n t , w h i c h c i t e s the ' S e c r e t G o s p e l a c c o r d i n g to
M a r k ' , cf. H. M e r k e l , ' A n h a n g : D a s " g e h e i m e E v a n g e l i u m " n a c h M a r k u s : F r a g e m e n t e
d e s " g e h e i m e n E v a n g e l i u m s " nach M a r k u s ' , in I (5th e d n ) , 8 9 - 9 2 ( b i b l i o g r a p h y ) .
I p e r s o n a l l y b e l i e v e it is u n a u t h e n t i c .
7 8
Cf. S c h r e r (rev.) I I I / l , 5 4 0 . 5 9 1 .
w o r s h i p a n d theological d e b a t e . T h e m a r k e d r e t i c e n c e of the A p o l o g i s t s
and the relative reticence of an I r e n a e u s or a Tertullian s p e a k against
such u s a g e . T h e fact that this c h u r c h , w h i c h w a s rich and situated in
the capital of the e m p i r e a n d w h i c h , after the destruction of J e r u s a l e m ,
b e c a m e the m o s t i m p o r t a n t , c o u l d ' t e a c h ' o t h e r w i s e is e v i d e n t , not
only in 1 Clement and the Shepherd of Hermas, but also in o p i n i o n s
such as t h o s e e x p r e s s e d in Ignatius, Letter to the Romans 3 : 1 , a n d later in
7 9
I r e n a e u s , Adversus Haereses 3 : 3 : 1 - 3 .
T h e p r a c t i c a l s e n s i b i l i t y they a d d r e s s , a s e n s i b i l i t y r e l a t e d to the
s h a p i n g of life and the significance of e x a m p l e s , unites t w o o t h e r w i s e
very distinct figures: C l e m e n t of A l e x a n d r i a a n d C y p r i a n b o t h h e l d
these d o c u m e n t s in high e s t e e m for ethical instruction a n d n o t l e a s t
for their e x h o r t a t i o n to m a r t y r d o m . T h e y contain i m p r e s s i v e e x a m p l e s
and p r a c t i c a l - m o r a l w i s d o m for the Christian citizenry that, since the
time of C o m m o d u s himself, w a s s p r e a d i n g e v e n into senatorial circles.
C l e m e n t , p r o b a b l y b o r n in A t h e n s a n d w i d e l y t r a v e l l e d f r o m l o w e r
Italy ( p r o b a b l y e v e n R o m e ) to S y r i a or P a l e s t i n e h e l p e d t h e m , then,
to gain a c c e p t a n c e e v e n in the East, although only with partial success.
T h e greater confidence in their use in the W e s t c o u l d b e an additional
indication of their R o m a n origin.
D e s p i t e this p r a g m a t i c attitude, East and W e s t c o u l d not fully agree
on the question of the O l d T e s t a m e n t c a n o n . T h i s is not the p l a c e to trace
the disputes that c o n t i n u e d in the fourth a n d fifth c e n t u r i e s ; w e h a v e
already referred briefly to t h e m a b o v e (pp. 6 3 ^ 4 ) . O n l y the W e s t w a s
truly ' c o n s i s t e n t ' . In contrast, A t h a n a s i u s ' bipartite division prevailed
in the East. A c c o r d i n g to the t e s t i m o n y of the I n t e r o r t h o d o x C o m m i s
sion, it is still v a l i d t o d a y . Its a s s e s s m e n t of t h e s e c o n d g r o u p , t h e
, c o m e s astonishingly close to L u t h e r ' s : 'that these
texts are to b e distinguished from the canonical and inspired b o o k s as
regards the authority of their d i v i n e inspiration, but that they are to be
c o n s i d e r e d n e v e r t h e l e s s as p a r t of H o l y S c r i p t u r e , a n d useful and
m
profitable to the faithfuV .
A s a N e w T e s t a m e n t scholar and Christian t h e o l o g i a n , I w o u l d like to
p o s e a q u e s t i o n in view of the p r o b l e m e m e r g i n g here. D o e s the c h u r c h

7
'' Cf. L a m p e ( s e e a b o v e , p. 2 2 n. 9 ) , Christen. 7 0 - 1 , 3 4 1 - 3 , 4 3 3 , i n d e x , s.v. 'Lehrer';
T h o r n t o n ( s e e a b o v e , p. 111 n. 2 2 ) , Zeuge des Zeugen, 3 1 - 4 7 . S e e a l s o for the G o s p e l
c o l l e c t i o n M . H e n g e l , The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ ( L o n d o n .
2 0 0 0 ) . T h e b o o k s h e l v e s o f the R o m a n c o m m u n i t y w e r e the m o s t important after 7 0 and
until the e n d o f the s e c o n d century.
m
' D i v i n e R e v e l a t i o n and the W a y It E x p r e s s e s Itself for the S a l v a t i o n o f M a n : T o w a r d s
the Great C o u n c i l ' ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 4 . T h u s w a s r e s c i n d e d a d e c i s i o n o f the S y n o d o f J e r u s a l e m
( 1 6 7 2 ) . in w h i c h T o b i t . Sirach, Judith and W i s d o m had b e e n d e c l a r e d c a n o n i c a l ; cf. R g e r ,
' A p o k r y p h e n , 1 3 8 - 4 0 ; . O i k o n o m o s , ' D i e B e d e u t u n g der d e u t e r o k a n o n i s c h e n
Schriften in der o r t h o d o x e n K i r c h e ' , in Apokryphenfrage ( s e e a b o v e , p. 6 6 . 2 2 ) , M e u r e r ,
ed., 2 6 - 4 0 .
still n e e d a clearly d e m a r c a t e d , strictly c l o s e d O l d T e s t a m e n t c a n o n ,
since the N e w T e s t a m e n t is, after all, the ' c o n c l u s i o n ' , the goal a n d the
fulfilment of the O l d ? I n d e e d , d o e s o n e not face an essential contradiction
if o n e , in an unhistorical b i b l i c i s m , clings to a limited ' H e b r e w ' , or better
Pharisaical, ' c a n o n ' from J a b n e h ? M u s t not the O l d T e s t a m e n t r e m a i n to
a d e g r e e o p e n to the N e w ? Is not a figure like the e s c h a t o l o g i c a l p r o p h e t
J o h n the Baptist the m o s t i m p o r t a n t e x a m p l e i n the N e w T e s t a m e n t
itselfof this o p e n n e s s of the O l d for the N e w , the final? ' T h e L a w and
the P r o p h e t s are until J o h n ' , says J e s u s in L u k e 16:16 (cf. Matt. 11:13).
W e s i m p l y c a n n o t g o any further back. E v e n the v a r y i n g , relatively o p e n
m a r g i n s of the G r e e k O l d T e s t a m e n t in the early c h u r c h , w h e r e the b o o k
of Enoch w a s d i s c u s s e d with e q u a l intensity, c a n be r e g a r d e d as a sign
that ' t h e L a w and the P r o p h e t s ' w e r e not s i m p l y c l o s e d with ' E z r a ' or
Esther, but only find their g o a l and fulfilment in the m e s s i a n i c w o r k of
J e s u s of N a z a r e t h . O n l y t h r o u g h this u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the O l d T e s t a m e n t
' c a n o n ' d o e s the religious w e a l t h of late O l d T e s t a m e n t a n d early J e w i s h
literature from the time before the closing of the H e b r e w - P h a r i s a i c c a n o n
(c. 100 CE) b e c o m e truly visible. T h e origin of Christianity as well as of
rabbinic J u d a i s m after 7 0 CE b e c o m e s at all historically interesting and
c o m p r e h e n s i b l e only t h r o u g h this literature, w h i c h includes in a w i d e r
d i m e n s i o n also J o s e p h u s , P h i l o and the P s e u d e p i g r a p h a . O n e p o r t i o n of
this l i t e r a t u r e w a s p r e s e r v e d , s o m e t i m e s u n w i l l i n g l y , by C h r i s t i a n
tradition; the other c o m e s to light n o w in the Q u m r a n texts. T h e great
interest that this rich ' p o s t - b i b l i c a l ' J e w i s h text tradition finds a m o n g
J e w s and C h r i s t i a n s c o u l d p e r h a p s be a s s e s s e d as a sign of the relative
o p e n n e s s of the ' c a n o n ' in b o t h directions, g i v e n the fact that J e w s and
C h r i s t i a n s p a r t e d w a y s c o n c l u s i v e l y o n l y after t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of
J e r u s a l e m t o w a r d the e n d of the first century CE.
I w o u l d , therefore, like to e n d with s o m e f u n d a m e n t a l reflections of
8
Harmut Gese: '

A Christian theologian may never approve of the masoretic canon. The


continuity with the New Testament is in significant measure broken here. It
seems to me that, among the effects of humanism on the Reformation, the
most fateful was that the reduced pharisaic canon and the masoretic textual
tradition which was appealed to as a 'humanistic' source were confused with
one another and the apocrypha were set aside. With the thesis of the essential

x l
H. G e s e , ' E r w g u n g e n zur E i n h e i t der b i b l i s c h e n T h e o l o g i e ' , in Vom Sinai zum
Zion ( B e v T h 6 4 ; M u n i c h , 1 9 7 4 ; 3rd edn 1 9 9 0 ) , 1 1 - 3 0 ( 1 6 - 1 7 ) ; the e s s a y a p p e a r e d first
in ZThK 6 7 ( 1 9 7 0 ) , 4 1 7 - 3 6 ; s e e a l s o , idem. Zur biblischen Theologie (BevTh 78;
M u n i c h 1 9 7 7 = 3rd e d n ; T i i b i n g e n , 1 9 8 9 ) , 13: ' S i n c e the historical d i s c o v e r i e s o f the
n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and e s p e c i a l l y after t h o s e at Q u m r a n , w e n o l o n g e r h a v e scientific
g r o u n d s for separating the a p o c r y p h a . B u t p r e c i s e l y s i n c e this t i m e , the B i b l e s o c i e t i e s
s e e m to h a v e s w o r n to protect us f r o m the a p o c r y p h a . ' S e e a l s o idem, Alttestamentliche
Studien, 25-8.
unity of the Old and New Testaments, of the one biblical tradition, the
precarious question of the Christian interpretation of the Old Testament was
settled . . . The New Testament brought the formation of Old Testament
tradition to an end, a final conclusion. The formation of biblical tradition is
thus, as a whole, concluded and thus, for the first time, in a deeper sense,
canonical.
INDEX OF BIBLICAL AND EXTRA-BIBLICAL CITATIONS

Citations in square brackets refer to alternative versification in the LXX;


italicized page numbers refer to footnotes.

I. O l d T e s t a m e n t Isaiah 30, 42, 46, 83, 85,


8 9 , 9 5 , 1 0 6 - 7 , 111
Genesis 7 8 , 107, 112
3:10 33
1:2 80
7:10 31
36:33 86
7:14 9,29-30,33
49:10(LXX) 33
7:14(LXX) 29-30,33
10:17(LXX) 70
Exodus 7 8 , 1 0 6 - 7 , 112
19:18-21 85
3:14 80
26:3 16
7:8-10 71
25:(6,) 8 7
20:2-3 114
43:10-11 114
22:27 80
44:6 114
53:7-8 (LXX) 90
Leviticus 107, 112, 118 64:3 109
66:1 114
Numbers 4 2 , 107
11:24,26 26
Jeremiah 4 2 . 8 4 - 5 , 101, 107,
ll:26f. 71
1 1 3 , 114
11:19 ( L X X ) 32
Deuteronomy 4 2 , 1 0 0 , 1 0 6 - 7 , 112
45:1-5 114
4:2 ' 77
10:15 36
Ezekiel 42,85,92.107
12:32 77
19:9 16
29:19.26 77
34:10 27
H ose a

/rAv/zwij 78, 107


13:10 7
19 84
Jonah
Judges 7 8 , 8 4 , 9 8 , 101
2:10 54
/ Samuel [1 Kings] 9 8 , 1 0 1 , 107 3:4 53
2:15 98 Micah
15:8-9,32-33 88
4:3-7 29

2 Samuel [2 Kings] 107


Habakkuk
22:3,47 16
3 59
23:3 16
Haggai 4 5 . 1 0 0 , 117
1 Kings [3 Kings] 107
Zechariah 4 5 . 100
2 Kings [4 Kings] 107 11 4
17:9 16 11:11 4
18:8 16 12:10 7
13:2 100 Daniel 42, 84, 9 0 - 3 , 95,
13:7 4 9 7 , 1 0 0 , 107, 1 1 1 ,
119
Malachi 4 5 , 100 2 95
3 88
Psalms see also Subject Index 3:38 100
2 106 4-6 (LXX) 88
8 106 6:23 113
22 106 7 95
3 1 : 3 130:3] 15-16 7:9-17 95
45 106 7:13 95
49:14 [48:14] 15 9:27 67
69 106 11 88
74:9 100 11:31 67
78:2 105 12 95
80:14 [79:14] 1 12:1 ( P r o t o t h e o d . ) 32
81:6f. | 8 2 : 6 f . | 33 12:11 67
89 106
96:10(95:10] 32 Ezra [= 2 Ezra] 28, 32, 73. 82, 83,
118 106 87, 8 9 , 9 8 , 100,
151 ( L X X ) 57,65 107,126
1:7-11 81
Job 28, 72, 79, 83, 86,
5:13-6:5 81
8 9 , 1 0 7 - 8 , 112
6:19-21 (LXX) 32
42:17b-e (LXX) 86
7:19 81

Proverbs 7 8 , 9 1 - 2 , 107,
Nehemiah 45, 82. 83, 87. 89,
112, 1 2 1 - 2
98
1:23ff. 122
7:71-8:13a 87
1:32 122
4:13 16
1 Chronicles 84,91
7:7-20 92
8:22-24 86
2 Chronicles 42,84,87.91
20:28 16

Ruth 4 6 . 6 2 , 82, 9 7 , 101

Canticles 28, 46, 6 2 - 3 , 6 8 - 9 , II. A d d i t i o n a l S c r i p t u r e s of the


82, 8 9 , 9 1 - 2 , 9 7 , Septuagint and the Old Testament
1 0 1 , 1 0 7 , 113 Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
7:1 1, 1 2 - 1 3 92
a) L X X S c r i p t u r e s
Qoheleth 28, 46, 62, 6 8 - 9 ,
82, 8 3 , 8 9 , 9 1 , 9 3 , 3 Ezra [1 Ezra] 3 2 . 8 2 , 8 7 , 101, 113
1 0 1 . 1 0 7 , 113 1:1-2 32
11:9 92 3-4 87
4:49f. 87
Lamentations 2 8 , 4 6 , 6 2 , 82, 97, 7:10-12 32
1 0 1 . 107, 1 1 4
2:9 100 Judith 11,46,50,68,70,
7 4 , 9 1 - 9 2 , 102.
Esther 28, 42, 46, 62, 1 1 3 , 1 1 8 . 123,
68-9, 73-4, 87-92, 125
97, 1 0 0 - 1 , 107, 8:27b 117
1 1 3 , 1 1 5 , 1 1 9 , 126 9:11 116
10:31 ( L X X ) 81,85 1 2 : 6 - 7 , 14 118
Tobit 46.50,68.70-1, 4 Maccabees 6 9 , 7 0 - 1 , 9 1 , 113,
8 4 , 8 7 . 9 0 - 2 . 102. 118,124
112-13, I 17-18,
123,125 Oratio Manassis 58
1:28 117
3:2 116 Wisdom of Solomon 8, 11, 50, 7 0 - 1 ,
4:10 116 7 3 - 4 , 82, 91, 9 3 - 4 ,
4:15 117 1 1 1 - 1 3 , 116,
12:8-9 116 120-1, 123,125
12:9 116 1:1-1 120
13 94 2:12 120
13:7,11 116 2:23 120
13:13-15 94 2:24 116
14:5-7 94 3:1 120
6:19 120
1 Maccabees 3, 46, 69. 70, 74, 7:17 116
79, 82, 91. 93, 11:17 70.80
1 0 1 - 2 , 113, 1 1 9 - 2 0 11:21-22 116
1:5-9 119 12:10 116
2:38,40-41.48 119 12:12 116
2:42 88 14:11 67
4:46 45. 1 0 0
7:13 88 Jesus ben Sirach 3 , 1 1 , 4 4 - 6 . 50,
8:17 85 7 0 - 1 , 7 3 - 4 , 86,
9:27 45, 1 0 0 9 0 - 1 , 9 3 - 4 , 100,
10-16 93-4 1 1 1 - 1 2 , 121. 123,
14:4-15 93 125
14:41 45, 1 0 0 Prolog 4. 85. 9 6 - 8
16:1-2,21-24 119 Prolog 1 2
P r o l o g 10 2
Prolog 10-11 2
2 Maccabees 3 , 8, 6 8 - 7 1 , 7 4 , 9 1 ,
Prolog 22 2
9 3 , 102, 111, 113,
Prolog 25 2
119-20
Prolog 26 2
1:10 119
Prolog 4 4 - 5 0 2
l:10b-2:18 81
1:10b 109
1:18-19 119
2:11 116
2:13 85.98
4:29b 116
4:11 85
4:31 121
5:27 118
5:11 ///
6-7 119
6:28-29 111
6:30 118
16:18-19 116
6:18-7:42 118
24 110
7 : 9 , 14 94
24:19 ///
7:21-23 119
31:29 121
7:27-29 119
36:1-19 94
7:28 118
36:1-18 94
7:35 116
38:4c-39:l 97
12:43 94
43:29-30 116
14:6 88
44-50:24 97
15:37 92
46:1 27
15:40 94
49:10 2
49:13-15 45
3 Maccabees 6 9 , 7 0 - 1 , 9 1 . 113, 51:23.26-27 ///
118,124 51:26 116
Baruch 55-6,70,73.91, 14:6 73
94,112-14 14:18-20 45
1:1-3:8 114 14:37-46 39
1:14 114 14:44-46 73
3:29-4:1 113 14:45 62.99
3:36 114
3:38 114
Joseph's Prayer 71
4:5-5:9 94
4:30-32 94
4:36-5:9 113 Ethiopie Enoch (~ 1 Enoch) see also
6:3-5 114 Subject Index
1:9 (Eth) 55
Letter of Jeremiah 91.114 1:1-32:6 55
5:4 67
Greek Additions to Daniel see also 6:6 67
S u b j e c t Index 8:1 67
8:3 67
Susannah 9:8 67
14 47 10:2 67
20:52-53 10:6 55
[13:20,52-53] 113 10:13-14 67
55:59[13:55.59] 113 12:4 55
15:8 67
Bel and the Dragon 18:5 55
4 - 5 , 25 [ 1 4 : 4 - 5 , 2 5 ] 113 19:1 67
19:3-21:9 55
37-71 55
b) O l d T e s t a m e n t A p o c r y p h a and 75-87 55
Pseudepigrapha 8 9 : 1 6 - 6 4 (Eth) 67
9 0 : 1 7 - 1 8 (Eth) 67
Apocalpyse 9 1 : 1 3 (Eth) 67
97:6-107:3 55
of Abraham 72, 95 99:7 67

Apocalypse Slavic Enoch 72, 95


of Baruch (S\r) 7 2 , 9 5 . 111
20:3 73 Joseph and Aseneth 99
Apocalpxse of
Elijah 109 Book of Jubilees 72, 90
2:22 62
Apocalypse of 2:22-23 62
Zephaniah (Copt) 95
Liber antiquitatum
Ascension biblicarum 11 1
of Isaiah 29. 7 1 - 2 , 109,
1 16 Paralipomena
Jeremiae 95
Assumption
of Moses 7 1 . 9 5 , 108. 110 Psalms of Solomon 5 8 - 9 , 124
17+18 94
Eldad and Modad 7 1 . 110
Sibyllines 79.95
4 Ezra 7 2 , 9 5 , 1 11
5:23-30 92 Testament of
12:37 73 Abraham 95
Testament of Job 86 C D (Damascus Scroll)
5:18 71
Testament of the 15:1 ( R o s t e d . ) 8
19:1 ( R o s t e d . ) 8
Twelve Patriarchs 7 2 , 8 6 , 9 0 , 1 13 19 ( T e x t B ) : 7 - 9 4

Levi 95 8 H e v X I I Gr. 4L 82-3

Vita prophetarum 111


IV. Judeo-Hellenistic Literature
III. D o c u m e n t s f r o m Q u m r a n
and the J u d e a n Desert Letter of Aristeas see also S u b j e c t I n d e x
32 78
J
4 Q J u d g (4Q 49) 85 302 78
310-311 76-7
;1
4QSam (4Q 51) 84 311 35

4 Q J e r ' (4Q 70) 86 Aristobulus see also Subject Index


b
Fragment 1 75
4QJer (4Q 71) 86
Fragment 3 75
a h l
Fragment 4 75
4Q C a n t
(4Q 106-108) 92
Eupolemos 7 9 , 85
l + h
4Q LXX Lev
F l a v i u s J o s e p h u s see also S u b j e c t Index
(4Q 119+120) 41

4Q LXX Num Antiquities


(4Q 121) 41 of the Jews 88

4Q L X X Deut 1:17 100


(4Q 122) 41 4:196 77, 102
5:318-337 101
4 Q O r N a b (4Q 242) 88 10:79 55
10:186-281 96
4 Q p s D a n ar' ^ 10:210 96
(4Q 243-245) 88 10:277 89
11:184-296 101
4Q MMT C
11:297-299 102
(4Q 3 9 4 - 3 9 9 )
11:337 96
10-11 45
12:12-118 77
12:56 26
4 Q Flor
12:57 26
2:3 91 12:107 26
12:109 77
6 Q Cant 92 13:297-298,408 77
18:15 77
7Q1 L X X Ex 41

7 Q 2 EpistJer 41 Contra Apionem 98


1:36-42 3
11Q P s ' Z i o n 98-9 1:37_43 90,99-103
1:37 99
11QT 1:38-41 61
1:40-41 45
(Temple Scroll) 90
1:41 102
1:42 1 0 0 , 102
1 l Q t g Job
(Job Targum) 47
Jewish Wars 101 Pseudo-Phokylides
6 73 Sententiae 7 9 , 112

Vita
V. N e w Testament
12 89 Matthew 9 5 . 102, 1 0 5 - 6
11:13 126
P h i l o see also S u b j e c t Index 11:28-30 ///
12:40 54
De Agriculture 13:35 195
50 98
Confusione Linguarum Mark 102
39.52 98
Luke 102,111
Quod Dens sit Immutahilis 1:70 105
74, 77, 82 98 10:1 26
13:28 105
De Fuga et Inventione 16:16 126
59 98 18:31 105
20:42 /6
De Gigantibus 23:18 34
17 98 24:25 705
24:27 705
Quis Rerum Divinantm Heres sit 24:44 28, 105
290 98
yoAn 1 0 2 , 105
De Migratione Abrahamo 1 1 10
157 98 10:42 27
11:50-51 112
De Mutt Urne Nominum 19:15 34
115 98 19:37 7

De Plantatione Am
29. 39 98 1:3 54
1:20 106
De Praemiis 2:9-11 70S
et Poenis 78 2:29 105
3:18-24 705
Questiones in Genesin 6:1-15 22
4:152 79 6:9 108
8:27-28 #9
De Somniis 8:32-33 90
1:75 98 10:43 705
11:245 98 13:27 705
13:33 106
17:28 //2
De Vita
18:25 21
Contemplativa 70
26:22 705
25 98
26:27 705
28 98
29 98
Romans
De Vita Mosis 1:2 27,105
2:32 26 3:19 27
2:33-44 78 4:5 108
2:37, 4 0 26 5:6 108
/ Corinthians 3:20 92
2:6-10 109 22:18,26 77
2:9 109
5:7 32
9:10 109 VI. N e w T e s t a m e n t A p o c r y p h a
14:21 27
14:26 110 Apocalypse of Peter 5 5 , 120
15:54-55 7
Gospel of Peter 5
Galatians
Secret Gospel
1:13-14 109 According to Mark 124

2 Timothy
3:8 71 VII. Apostolic Fathers
3:16 107
Titus Letter of Barnabas 58-9
1:12 //2 4:3 67
1:13 //2 6:13 110
8:5 32
Hebrews 1 1 1 , 116, 1 2 0 , 16:5 67
122-3 19:9 121
1:1 27,105
11:3-4 118 1 Clement 58-9,106,116,
11:33 113 123-5
11:35-37 /// 3:4 116
11:35 118 7:5 116
11:37 29,71 21:4 120
12:17 116 27:5 116
28:2 120
James 34:1 116
36:6-37:4 120
4:5f. 110 41:1 120
55:4-6 116
/ Peter 57:3-5 122
1:10 27.105 59:3 116
2 Peter 5 5 , 68. 108 60:1 116
1:20 107 61:2 7/6
1:21 107 63:1 116
2:11 108
2:17-18 108 2 Clement 5 8 - 9 , 124
4:5 110
2 John 69. 120 11:2-4 110
2:13 92 13:2b 110
16:4 116-17
Jude 54-55,6^,71,108
6 55 Constitutiones
9 108 Apostolorum 58
14 5 5 , 6 7 , 112 5:20 114
14-15 108
16 55 Didache 64
4:5 121
Revelation 62. 9 5 - 6 , 107, 1 1 5 ,
120 Shepherd of
1:7 7 Hennas ' ,58,64,125
Vis 2:3:4 (7:4) 71 11:7:58-59 121
Vis 2:4:3 (8:3) 124 11:8:69 121
Vis 4:2:4 (23:4) 113 11:8:76 121
Man 1:1 ( 2 6 : 1 ) 118 11:10:98-99 121
11:10:99 121
11:10:101 121
VIII. Church Fathers and 11:10:109 121
Later Christian Authors 111:3:17 121
111:3:23 121
Ambrosius 111:4:29 121
De Tabia 68 111:11:58,83 121

Aristo of Pella Stromata


Disputatio fasonis 1:4:27 121
et Papisci 34 1:10:47 121
1:28:1 61
A t h a n a s i u s see also S u b j e c t I n d e x 1:123:1 119
Epistulae Festales 1:123:2 7/5,119
39 56, 6 3 - 4 1:123:5 117
1:149:2 38
Ps-Athanasius 1:149:3 40
Synopsis scripturae 2:5:24 121
sacrae 58 2:35:4 117
2:136:2 122
Athenagoras 2:139:2 117
Supplicatio (Legatio/ 3:4:29 56
Libellus) pro Christianis 4:118:4-4:
9:1 114 119:3 115
24:1 67 5:3:3 61
5:3:18 121
A u g u s t i n e see also Subject Index 5:85:1 61
5:97:7 119
De Civitate Dei 51 6:16:146 121
18:42 26,51-2 6:102:2 117
18:43 51-2 7:16:105 121
18:44 53
Hypotyposes 96
Muratorian C a n o n 120
69-71 70 Ps-Clementina
Homiliae 3 : 4 7 - 4 9 35
C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a see also Subject
Index Ps-Cyprianus
De aleatoribus 2 121
Paedagogus De montibus
1:8:62' 121 Sina et Sion 9 32
1:8:68 121
1:8:69 121 Cyrill o f J e r u s a l e m
1:8:72 121 Catchses
1:9:75 121 IV:33-36 65
1:13:102 121
11:1:8 121 Dialogus Timothei
11:2:24 121 et A q u i l a e 35
11:2:34 121
11:5:46 121 Didascalia
11:7:54 121 Apostolorum 58
E p i p h a n i u s o f S a l a m i s see also Subject Introduction
Index ( L a g a r d e p. 2 ) 49

Panar ion Comm entario ru m


(Adversus haereses) in Esaiam
42:12:5 110
in E s X V I I
De mensuris et ponderibus (on Isa 6 4 : 3 ) 109
5 +6 26,37
14-15 43 Commentariorum in
Hiezechielem
II (on E z 5 : 1 2 ) 49
E u s e b i u s o f C a e s a r e a see also Subject
Index
Co mm en ta rio ru
in Danielum
Demonstratio evangelica
III (on D a n 9 : 2 4 ) 122
8:2:71 122

Commentariorum in
Praeparatio evangel tea Michaeam Prophetam
13:12:1-2 ' 75 I (on M i c 1 : 9 - 1 0 ) 49

Historia Ecclesiastica Apologia contra Rufinum


2:16-17 70 II 2 5 38
2:24 124
3:10:6 69 Dialogi contra
4:11:6 124 Pelagioanos libri III
4:22:9 61, 122 2:6 69
4:26:13-14 61
5:8:10 43 De viris inlustribus
5:8:11-14 39 11 70
5:8:12 38 13 69
5:8:13 38
5:8:15 39 Praefatio de translatione
5:26 120 graeca in libris
6:14-15 45 Salomonis
6:16 12-13 ( W e b e r II 9 5 7 ) 69
6:25-26 63
6:25:1 62 Praefatio in lib rum
6:25:2 11 Paralipomenon juxta
6:52:2 61 LXX interprtes 49
7:32:16 75
8:9:3 15 Prologus in Pentateucho
(Weber I 3:3f ) 38
Pseudo-Gregentius
Prologus in
Disputatio cum
libra Regum
Herbane Judaea 35
(Weber I 365) 50. 62

Heracleon Prologus Tobiae 46, 50


Commentarii
in lohannem 96 Prologus ludith 46

J e r o m e see also S u b j e c t I n d e x Prologus in


Liber quaestionum Danihele
Hebraicarum in Genesim raphe ta 88
H i l a r i u s o f Poitiers Epideixis (^demonstratio)
Instructif) Psalmorum Praedicationis apostolicae
15 62 78 32
97 113
H i p p o l y t u s see also S u b j e c t Index
De Christo et Pseudo-Johannes
Antichristo 96 Chrysostomus
//) sanctum
Commentant
in Danielem 96 pascha sermo VII 3 5
on D a n 1:14
(Prototheod.) 47 Julius A f r i c a n u s see also Subject Index
on D a n 1:28
(Prototheod.) 117 Chronographiae 119
on D a n 3 119
on D a n 4 : 5 6 110 Epistula ad
Origenem 36.48
Refutatio omnium Justin Martyr see also S u b j e c t Index
haeresium
7:20:1 72 Apologia 26-8
1:31:1-5 27
Hrabanus Maurus 69 1:32:4 27
1:33:1,4-6 30
Commentaria in 1:40:8-10 706
libros 1:41:4 32
Machabaeorum 69 1:67:3 61

Irenaeus o f L y o n see also Subject Dialogus cum


Index Tnphone ludaeo
Adversus 17:2 33
Haereses 120 30:1-2 28
1:10:1 67 43:3-8 30
1:15:6 67 43:8 9
1:20:1 56,72 48:4 30
1:30:11 68.117 49:1 30
3:1:1 ( = G o s p e l s 66:2-4 30
list) 124 67:1 30
3:3:1-3 125 67:2 30
3:20:4 32 68:5 30
3:21:1 30.43 68:6-8 30
3:21:2 39,50 68:7 27,30
3:21:3 39 71:1 27,31
3:21:3-4 39 71:2 29.31-2
3:25:6 113 71:3 30.31
4:5:2 113 72:1 28.32
4:20:4 113 72:2 32
4:22:1 32 72:4 32
4:26:3 113 73:1 32
4:33:1 32 73:3-4 32
4:33:12 32 73:5 33
4:36:4 67 73:6 43-4
4:38:3 120 77:3 30
5:28:2 67 84:1 30
5:31:1 32 84:2 32
5:35:1 113 84:3 30.31
91:4 27 Homily 20
120:3-4 33 (on Jer 2 0 : 7 - 1 2 ) 118
120:4 27
120:5 28,29,71 Commentant
124:2-3 33 in Matthaeum
124:3 27 XV:14
131:1 27 (on Mt 1 9 : 1 6 - 3 0 ) 10
133:2 33 on Mt 2 3 : 3 7 - 3 9
136:2 33 ( c o m . Ser. 2 8 ) 71
137:3 27.33 o n Mt 2 7 : 9
( c o m . Ser. 117) 71, 109
Ps-Justin
Cohortatio Contra Celsum
ad Graecos 37. 44 5:54 68
13 37
13:3 37 De oratione
29:3 118-19
Justinian
Novelle 146 De principiis
'Peri Hebraion ' IV 2:5 ( 1 2 ) 61-2
I 50 IV 4:6 69-70

Lactanz Epistula ad
De mortibus lulium Africanum 47-8
persecutorum 1 19 8 10
9 10, 71
13 46
Luther see also S u b j e c t Index
Polycarp of Smyrna
WAD 12 74 Epistula ad Philippenses
10:2 116
P r o l o g to W i s d o m
(WADB
12:50:25-28) 70 Rufinus T y r a n n u s
Apologia contra
M e l i t o of S a r d e s Hieron\mutn
Easter Homily 5 5 . 120 11:36-41 49

Nicephoros of Constantinople
Chronographia brevis S y n o d e of L a o d i c e a
Stichometry 5 8 , 71 Canon 60 65

Tatian
O r i g e n see also S u b j e c t Index
Oratio ad Graecos
7:1 120
In Numeros homiliae 8:1 67
X X V I I (on N u m 20:4 67
27:1) 117-18
Tertullian see also Subject Index
Libri X in Can tic urn Apologeticum
Canticorum 19:5-9 40
Prolog 69
De praescriptione
Homiliae in haereticorum
leremiam (graecae) 7:10 120
De patientia m A v 1:1 3 6 , 1 0 1 , 103
14:1 71 m Y a d 3:5 44, 92, 99
m Y a d 3:6 44
De cultu ferninarum
3:1-3 54 Tosefta
tShabl3:5 45,9/
Adversus Marcionem
tYoma 4:18-19 89
1:7:2 117
tEd2:7 91
3:19:1 32
tYad2:13 45
3:22:5 120
tYad2:14 91

A dve rs us Va lent in ici os


Babylonian Talmud
2:2 120
bBer 9b 106
Scorpiace bShabll5a 47
8:3 71 bShab!16a/b 45
8:5 114 bYoma 70a 89
b M e g 3a 90
De idolatria b M e g 7a 92
4:2 54 b M e g 9a-b 44
b K e t 106a 89
15:6 54
bGit 4 5 b 45
b B B 14 72
De monogamia
17:1 117 b B B 14b 45
b S a n 100a 92
Adversus Judaeos b S a n 100b 46
4:10 119
10:11-12 32 Jerusalem Talmud
13:11 32 y S h e q 4:3 ( 4 8 a ) 89
yMegl:4(70d) 92
Fragm. IV 120

Soferim
Ps-Tertullian
1:6 44
Carmen adversus
1:7 44
Marcionem
1:8 44
4:198-210 62

Qohelet Rabba
V i c t o r i n u s o f Pettau 1:4 97
Commentant in
Apocalxpsim loannis Pesiqta deRav
4:3:5 62 Kahana
8:1 91
Tractatus de 24:14 91
feu}rica mundi
6 119
XI. Ancient Pagan Literature

Cassius D i o
IX. Rabbinic Literature
67:14:2 12 3

Mishnah
mMeg 92 XII. Inscriptions and Papyri
m M Q 3:4 89
m S a n 10:1 45-6 Chester Beatty
mEd5:3 91 P a p y r u s 12 55
Chester Beatty PCair 1 0 7 5 9 55
Papyrus 9 6 7 42
PFoudinv. 266 41

CIJ V II POxyll66 41

POxy 2069 55
No. 693a 76
PRyl 1458 41
No. 1440/1532a 76
INDEX OF AUTHORS

A d a m s , A. W. 4 1 , 4 3 , 5 7 , 6 0 E i f e l d . . 4 2 , 8 6 , 9 2
A l a n d , . 4 1 - 2 , 5 5 , 115 E l l i s , . . 5 7 , 6 8 , 7 2 , 91
A l b e r t z , R. 4 3 , 1 13 E n g e l , . 4 8 , 113
Altaner, . 9 6
A m i r , Y . 81 F e l d m a n , L. . 100
Aune. D . E . 101 F i s c h e r , U. 7 8
Frey, J. 109
B a m m e l , C. 36,49 F r i c k e , K. D . 6 5
B a r t h l m y , D . 6, 2 9 , 4 4 - 5 . 5 0 . 7 2 , 7 7 , Frisch. C . T . 29,44
8 9 , 9 2 , 1 14 F r o i d e v a u x , L. 113
B a r t o n , J. 105 Fuks, A. 8 0
B a u d i s s i n , W . W . Graf v o n 8
B e c k w i t h , R. 4 5 , 6 3 , 6 8 , 7 2 , 8 9 , 9 2 ,
G a m b e r o n i , J. 6 8 , 116
9 8 - 9 , 114
Geissen, A. 4 2 - 3
B e d o u e l l e , G. 5 7
G e s e , H. 1 0 9 - 1 0 , 126
B e r g e r , K. 6 2
Glatzer, N. 103
Bertram, G. 8 9
Grg, M. 80
B e t z , O. 9 0
G o o d s p e e d , E. J. 6 7
B i ( c ) k e r m a n ( n ) , E . (J.) 4, 80-1
G o s h e n - G o t t s t e i n , M . H. 98-9
B i d e z , J. 3 7
Black, M. 55
H a e l s t . J. van 41,55
B o d e n m a n n , R. 9 6
H a h n . R. R. 5 8
Bttrich, C h . 7 2
Hamm, W. 42
Bogaert, P.-M. 4 2
B o r n k a m m , H. 6 5 Hanhart. R. 4 . 11, 8 7 - 8 , 118
Harl, M. 2 0 , 2 6 , 4 3 , 5 9 , 6 8 , 7 8 . 8 2 - 5 ,
B e r g e r , P.-R. 4 3
8 9 , 9 2 , 9 4 , 118
B r e w e r , D . I. 111
Harnack, A . v o n 117
B r o c k . S. P. 2 9 , 7 7
Hengel, M. 2 0 - 2 . 2 8 - 9 , 3 1 - 5 , 37,
B r o o k e , P. J. 8 5
40, 48, 54, 61, 63, 67, 69. 71, 76,
Brox, N. 113
7 9 - 8 1 , 82. 8 5 - 6 , 9 0 - 1 , 9 3 - 1 , 97,
B r u n e a u , P. 7 6
1 0 1 , 1 0 5 - 6 . 1 0 8 - 9 , 1 1 1 , 118,
Burkhardt, H. 7 9
123-5
H e n t e n . J. W . van 9 4
C a m p e n h a u s e n , H. v o n 2 0 , 2 7 , 105
H o i m - N i e l s e n . S. 5 8
C h a r l e s , R. H. 2 9 . 6 7 , 109
Horbury, W. 80
C o l l i n s , L. 19
H y r v r i n e n , K. 4 3
Crown, A. 76-7

D e i n e s . R. 4 3 , 8 9 J e l l i c o e , S. 3 7 . 4 3 . 7 7 , 8 4 , 8 7 , 8 9
Deissmann, A. 7 6 Jellinek. A. 4 6
D o r i v a l , G. 2 0 , 2 6 , 4 3 . 5 9 , 6 8 , 7 8 , 8 2 - 5 , J o a n n o u , P. P. 6 5
8 9 , 9 2 . 9 4 , 118 Julius. C . 113
D u b a r l e , A . M. 117 J u n o d . E. 6 0 . 6 4 , 6 8 , 7 0
Kaestli, J.-D. 73 P l o e g , J. P. M . van der 4 7
Kamesar. A. 30 P r e u s c h e n . E. 5 7 . 6 0 , 6 4 - 5 . 71
Kasher, A . 21 Prigent, P. 2 8 , 3 2
Katz, P. 2 9
K e n y o n , F. G. 4 1 , 4 3 , 5 7 , 6 0
Q u a c k , J. 66
Koch, D.-A. 22, 107-9
K o o i j , A . van der 8 2 , 8 5
K r a u s s , S. 4 3 Rahlfs, A. 32, 55, 5 8 - 9 . 6 8 - 9
K m m e l , W . G. 109 R e i n m u t h . E. 111
K u h n , K. G. 4 4 - 5 Resch,A. 32
Roberts, C H . 21
L a m p e . G. W . H. 5 6 , 1 2 2 , 125 R s e l . M. 3 0
L a m p e , P. 2 2 R o s t . L. 8
Larcher, C . 1 16, 1 2 0 R o l o f f . J. 9 0
Lehnardt, A . 7 2 R u b i n k i e w i c z , R. 7 2
L e i s e g a n g , H. 7 9 Rger, H.-P. 4 4 , 56, 66. 7 2 , 9 2 , 9 7 - 8 ,
L e o n , H. J. 2 2 109, 1 1 4 - 1 6 , 118, 125
L i e t z m a n n , H. 109 R u w e t , J. 2 1 . 115
Lindars, B. 85
Lindemann, A. 115-16 Safrai, S. 81,89
Lindner, H. 102 Salvesen, A. 36
Lohse, B. 66, 70, 73 S a l z m a n n , J. 61
L o h s e , E. 8 S a n d e r s , J. A . 9 8
L u c h n e r , K. 4 2 , 115 S a n d e r s o n , J. E. 4 2
Luri, . Z. 4 4 S a n d n e s , K. O. 101
Lutz, R. T. 71 S c h f e r , P. 4 5
Schenker, A. 12
M a i e r , J. 90,98-9 Schild, M. E. 4 8 - 9
Markschies, Ch. 21 S c h i m a n o w s k i , G. 86
Martin, E . G . 71 Schneider, H. 59
M e d i n a - L e c h t e n b e r g , R. 4 3 S c h r e c k e n b e r g , H. 3 5 , 5 0 , 7 3
M e r k e l , H. 124 S c h p p h a u s , J. 113
M e t z g e r , B. M. 2 1 , 6 5 , 106 Schrer, E. ( r e v . ) 4 3 , 4 6 - 7 , 5 8 , 6 2 ,
M e y e r , R. 100-1 68, 71, 7 5 - 6 , 7 9 - 8 0 , 8 5 - 6 , 88, 99,
M i l i k . J. T. 4 8 , 5 4 - 5 , 6 7 , 87 1 0 9 - 1 0 , 1 1 3 - 1 4 . 1 1 6 - 1 7 . 119,
M i t t m a n n , S. 6 9 121-4
M o y n e , J. le 9 0 S c h w a r t z , . 13, 6 7
Mller, U . B . 101 Schwemer, . M. 45, 69, 99
M u n n i c h , . 2 0 , 2 6 , 4 3 . 5 9 , 6 8 . 7 8 . S e e l i g m a n n . I. L. 85
8 2 - 5 , 8 9 , 9 2 , 9 4 , 118 S h e k a n , P. W . 4 2
M u s s i e s . G. 8 2 Shutt, P.-J. 2 6
S k a r s a u n e , O. 2 8 - 9 , 3 2 - 3 , 4 3
Nardi, C . 6 5 S m i t h , J . Z . 71
N a u t i n , P. 14.36.48 Smitmans, A. 62
N e s t l e , E. 122 Speyer. W. 80
Neuser. W. 65 Staab, K. 110
Niebuhr, K.-W. 112 Sthlin, . 121
N o j a . S. 7 5 S t e c k . . . 4 5
S t e m b e r g e r . G. 4 4 . 4 6 . 9 2
O e p k e , A . 5 6 . 1 10 Strack, H. L. 4 6
O i k o n o m o s , E. 125 S t u h l m a c h e r , P. 107, 1 1 1 , 1 1 6
Stuiber, A . 9 6
P e a r s o n , B. A . 21,72 S u n d b e r g , A . C . 2 0 , 4 5 , 6 0 , 113
Pelletier, A. 19.26,41.49 S w e t e . H. B . 3 2 , 4 3 , 5 7 - 8 . 6 3 . 7 5 ,
P i e t e r s m a , A . 71 8 4 , 8 6 . 9 4 , 1 14, 117, 119, 121
Talmon, Sh. 9 8 - 9 W a c h o l d e r , . . 8 2 , 8 5
T a t u m , W . B. 8 0 Walter, . 7 6
Tcherikover, V. (A.) 77, 80 W a s z i n k , J. . 5 4
T h e i e n , G. 101 W e i s s , H.-F. 116
Thiele, W. 124 W e n d l a n d , P. 36,41,49
T h o r n t o n , R. J. I l l , 1 2 4 - 5 W e n g s t , . 6 7
, . 2 9 , 4 2 , 4 6 , 5 5 , 6 9 , 7 6 , 8 4 , 9 0 , 1 1 4 Werbeck, W. 69
Wermelinger, O. 4 8 - 9 , 65
U l r i c h , . ( C . ) 42,84,92 W i n d e n , J. C . M . van 5 4
U n n i k , W . C . van 7 7 W o u d e , A . S. van der 4 7 - 8 , 8 4 , 8 6 , 8 8 ,
90, 92, 9 8 - 9
Veltri, G. 26,37,44,50
V e n e t z , H.-J. 8 2 Zahn, Th. 54,61,65
V i l l a l b a I V a r n e d a , P. 102 Z i e g l e r , J. 6 0 , 8 6 , 9 7 . 113
V o l z , H. 6 5 Z u n t z , G. 3 7 , 6 8
INDEX OF SUBJECTS

A b r a h a m 8 6 . 107 Artaxerxes I 3 , 7 3 , 9 9 - 1 0 0
A d a m and E v e 3 3 A r t a x e r x e s II 102
A h a z 31 A s i a M i n o r 113
Alexander Balas 93 asterisk 5 2
A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t 8 9 , 1 1 7 A t h a n a s i u s , lists o f 6 5 - 6 , 7 3
Alexander Polyhistor 8 5 - 6 d i v i s i o n o f c a n o n b y 125
Alexandria/Alexandrian 19-23, 25-6, Athens 125
3 8 , 4 0 , 6 4 , 7 5 - 6 , 8 1 , 9 7 - 8 , 1 0 1 , 112, A u g u s t i n e 36, 39, 4 9 , 5 1 ^ , 6 3 , 7 8
115,123-4 authors, b i b l i c a l 4 5 , 49, 1 0 2 , 114
Alexandrian catechetical schools 124 authority, b i b l i c a l 51
Alexandrinus, Codex 57-9 o f the H e b r e w B i b l e 7 4
allegory/allegorical 5 4 , 6 8 - 9 . 79, 9 2 , o f the S e p t u a g i n t 5 0 - 3
9 8 . 111 Azariah, Prayer of 88
Amoraim 45
Amphilochus of Iconium 65 Babylon/Babylonia 85
Anatolios, Bishop of Caesarea 75 Basiliano-Venetus, Codex 59
angel 9 9 Bede 68
anthropomorphism 16 Benedictus 59
anti-Judaism 4 8 Berenice, wife of Ptolemy 76
Antioch 115,123 Bethlehem 83
A n t i o c h u s IV E p i p h a n e s 43, 8 8 , 119 Bible, Hebrew 22, 50, 5 6 - 7 , 6 4 - 5 ,
A n t o n i n u s , s o n o f S e v e r u s 13 6 9 - 7 0 , 8 3 , 9 5 , 1 0 1 - 2 , 1 1 3 , 122
a p o c a l y p t i c i s m / a p o c a l y p t i c 2, 7 3 , 9 5 Bible manuscripts 5 9
apocrypha/apocryphal 2 - 3 , 1 1 , 2 0 , 2 9 , B o o k s see also H a g i o g r a p h a
3 2 , 4 5 - 6 , 50, 56, 6 4 - 5 , 68, 7 0 . 73, biblical 1 2 6
9 0 , 9 2 , 9 4 , 107, 1 1 0 , 115, 1 2 4 , 126, canonical/non-/deuterocanonical 50,
79 56, 6 4 - 5 , 6 9
Apollinarius 16 Christian 61
a p o l o g e t i c s / a p o l o g e t i c a l 2, 6 - 7 , 9 , 1 1 , distribution o f 2 8 1
6 6 , 8 0 , 9 9 , 1 0 2 - 3 , 1 0 5 , 1 1 0 , 112,
1 2 0 - 1 , 125 Caesarea 83
a p o s t l e / a p o s t o l i c 17. 3 8 - 9 , 4 9 , 5 4 , 6 1 , 6 4 C a i r o G e n i z a see G e n i z a
A p o s t o l i c Fathers 2 6 , 6 4 , 6 6 . 1 2 0 c a n o n / c a n o n i c a l / e x t r a - / c a n o n i c i t y 2,
A q i b a , Rabbi 4 5 - 6 . 9 2 3 - 4 , 6. 1 0 - 1 I, 19, 2 1 - 2 . 2 8 - 9 .
A q u i l a 6, 9 . 1 3 - 1 4 . 3 1 . 3 4 - 5 , 3 9 , 4 3 - 4 , 6 0 - 1 , 8 3 . 97, 105, 1 2 5 - 6
5 0 - 1 , 53, 60 A l e x a n d r i a n 3 . 8, 17, 1 9 - 2 0 , 7 9 , 101
translation Christian 6 8 , 9 4 - 5 , 1 11
principles 89 delimited/fixed 4 4 , 5 5 . 57, 9 9 , 105,
Aramaic 4 6 , 9 2 - 3 126
A r i s t e a s , J e w i s h historian 8 6 Ethiopian 72
A r i s t e a s (Letter o f ) 1 , 4 . 1 1 - 1 2 . 1 9 , 2 5 , Hebrew 19-20, 22, 36, 40, 5 4 - 5 , 56,
3 8 , 39, 5 0 - 1 . 7 6 . 1 0 0 6 0 - 1 , 6 4 - 6 , 7 0 - 7 4 , 8 3 , 88, 9 0 , 9 2 ,
Aristotle 7 9 9 6 - 7 , 1 0 2 , 113
canon (cont.) c o m m u n i t i e s , J e w i s h 2 2 . 7 6 , 90, 112
N e w Testament 70,115-16 R o m a n 3 4 , 123
o p e n n e s s o f 126 c o n f e s s i o n s o f faith, J e w i s h 118
o r i g i n a t i o n o f 9 7 , 101 congregational archives 114-15
P h a r i s a i c - P a l e s t i n i a n 3, 17, 4 4 , 8 7 , Corbeiensis, Codex 67
9 1 , 9 9 , 1 11, 126 Corinth 115
s c o p e o f 3 6 , 6 2 - 6 5 , 9 9 , 101 Creator/creation 118
S e p t u a g i n t 3 , 19, 2 5 , 4 0 criticism, historico-philological 53
s e q u e n c e o f w r i t i n g s in 5 9 - 6 0 culture, G r e e k / H e l l e n i s t i c 8 2
tripartite 28, 9 6 , 1 0 0 , 105 C y p r u s 21
C a n o n q u e s t i o n 50, 6 4 , 99 Cyprian 6 7 , 117. 1 1 9 - 2 1 . 125
c a n o n i c a l authority 110
c a n o n i z a t i o n 10, 118 Damasus, Bishop of R o m e 4 9
canon lists/catalogues 11,20,28, D a n i e l narratives, early 8 8
50, 5 2 , 5 8 - 6 1 , 6 3 - 5 , 98. 1 0 0 , Daniel fragments. Apocryphal 88
1 2 2 , cf. M e l i t o o f Sardis and D a n i e l , a d d i t i o n s to 4 7 , 6 3 , 7 0 , 8 8 , 9 1 ,
Origen 9 3 , 1 1 3 , 115
canonical formula 100 D a r i u s 8 7 , 117
Caracalla 14 Decalog 106
Caraite/caraitic 37 Delos 75
C a r t h a g e 8 5 , 124 D e m e t r i u s , J e w i s h historian 7 6
Carthage, S y n o d of 57, 66, 6 8 Demetrius of Phaleron 39
catechites/catechetic 6 4 , 6 6 , 9 4 , 112, Diaspora/diaspora/Judaism 2 0 - 2 , 4 3 - 4 ,
1 1 7 - 1 8 , 1 2 1 , 123 75, 7 9 - 8 3 , 85, 9 3 - 4 , 97, 101, 116
c a t e n a e (tradition) 16-17 Egyptian 75, 85
Celsus 68 Samaritan 75
Christians/Christianity/Christian 2 1 , Diaspora synagogues 4 4 , 8 9 . 1 1 4 , 123
3 5 - 6 , 3 9 , 4 2 , 45, 4 7 , 5 4 - 5 , 6 6 , D i d y m u s the B l i n d 6 8
7 0 - 2 , 9 9 , 1 0 2 - 3 , 1 1 2 , I 15. Dionysius of Alexandria 68
126 disciples 105
Christology/Christologica 27, 2 9 - 3 1 , D o d e k a p r o p h e t o n 6 3 , 8 5 , 111
49, 5 4 , 6 9 , 106, 108 see also ' M i n o r P r o p h e t s S c r o l l '
Christological hymn 109 Domitian 100, 123
chronographies. Domitilla. Flavia 123
Christian 103
c h u r c h 1 0 - 1 1 , 15, 2 2 - 3 , 3 5 , 3 9 , 4 9 , Early C h r i s t i a n i t y / E a r l y Christian 9, 9 0 .
5 1 - 2 , 5 6 , 6 4 - 5 , 8 9 , 9 1 , 9 4 , 112-13. 100, 1 0 5 - 6 , 1 0 8
1 17. 1 2 2 , 124. cf. Early c h u r c h Early c h u r c h 2 2 , 4 1 . 50, 5 6 . 6 0 . 6 3 , 6 5 ,
a d h e r e n c e to the O T 41 105-8, 112,126
church doctrine 55 Christian interpretation o f 127
praxis 5 5 , 6 5 Christological
C l e m e n t o f A l e x a n d r i a 12. 2 1 . 5 6 . 6 1 , exegesis of 2 7
6 7 . 7 6 . 1 1 0 . 112, 1 1 5 - 1 7 , 1 1 9 - 2 1 . prophetic understanding of 27
124-5 E b i o n i t e s 3 0 . 45
Clement of Rome 28. 66, 115, 117, Egypt/Egyptians 26, 4 1 , 82. 85, 97,
123-4 1 15
codex/ices 41-2,55.60 Eighteen Benedictions 116
commandments 122 E l d e r s , the s e v e n t y o n Sinai 3 6
Commodian 67 Eleazar, h i g h priest 51
Commodus 125 Elijah A p o c r y p h o n 109
c o m m u n i t i e s , Christian 2, 4 - 5 , 9, 4 7 , E n o c h , as prophet 112
74, 1 1 1 , 1 1 4 - 1 7 E n o c h literature 2 9 , 4 0 , 5 4 - 6 , 6 4 . 71 - 2 ,
R o m a n 2 8 , 5 6 , 1 1 5 , 123 9 5 , 108, 110, 1 1 3 , 126
Alexandrian E p h e s u s 2 0 , 2 2 . 115
Judeo-Christian 5 6 . 123 Epimenides 112
Epiphanius 48, 50, 65 H e r o d 2 6 , 81
eschatology/eschatological 22, 79. 90. Hesiod 79
9 4 - 5 , 1 0 0 - 1 , 1 0 5 . 108 Hesychius 83
E s s e n e s 8 2 , 9 1 , 9 9 - 1 0 0 , 111 see also S e p t u a g i n t , r e c e n s i o n s o f
Esther, C o l o p h o n o f 8 1 , 8 5 Hexapla of Origen 5 , 9 , 1 2 - 1 3 , 1 5 - 1 7 ,
e t h i c s / e t h i c a l / e t h o s 7 1 , 8 1 , 116, 122 34, 36, 4 8 - 9 , 52, 63, 83
Eucharist 61 Hezekiah 30
Eusebius of Caesarea 1 2 - 1 6 , 6 3 . 73, 76. h i g h priest 9 3
124 H i p p o l y t u s 6 7 - 8 , 7 0 . 9 5 , 9 6 , 119
Euthalius 110 historical b o o k s 1 9 - 2 0 , 9 8 , 107
e x e g e s i s / e x e g e t i c a l 3 3 , 3 8 , 1 0 9 , 111 history, b i b l i c a l 8 6
Christologico-eschatological 1 11 Jewish 100
rabbinic 11 1 historiography/er, Jewish 7 9 , 9 9 , 103
exile 87 profane H e l l e n i s t i c 92,102
Ezekiel Apocryphon 55 Holofernes 117
Ezra 4 5 , 5 4 , 9 1 H o l y S c r i p t u r e ( s ) 1 - 4 , 6, 8 - 1 1 , 2 2 , 2 8 ,
4 4 , 4 7 , 5 0 . 5 4 , 6 9 , 71, 7 3 , 7 8 - 9 , 8 8 ,
faith, Christian 10 9 0 , 9 3 , 9 8 , 101, 1 0 2 , 1 0 5 , 1 1 1 , 1 1 4 ,
Feast o f B o o t h s 114 122,125
F l o o d , the 5 4 inspired 2 0 , 4 4 , 5 0 , 107
Florilegia 3 4 I s r a e l ' s / o f the J e w s 3 5 , 61
Four E m p i r e s S c h e m e 95 p r o f a n i n g the h a n d s 44
p u b l i c reading in s y n a g o g u e s 5 0
Gamaliel 47 H o l y Spirit 4 8 - 4 9 , 5 2 , 7 8 , 101
Geniza, Cairo 4 4 , 47 H o l y L a n d 6, 109
Gentile Christians 108 Homer 78
gilyonim 4 4 - 5 Homily(ies)/sermon(s) 61,68
G l o r i a in e x c e l s i s 5 9 humanism/humanist/humanistic 53.
g n o s i s / G n o s t i c 2 1 . 4 2 . 5 5 - 6 , 7 2 , 107, 126
124 hymn writing
God, kingdom of 95, 99 early Christian 106
n a m e ( s ) o f 7 - 9 , 16, 4 5 , 8 0
throne o f 9 9 idolatry 9 4
g o l d e n rule, n e g a t i v e 117-19 inspiration/inspired 12, 1 6 , 4 5 , 5 3 , 125
golden calf 3 3 , 144 end o f p r o p h e c y 91,99-100
G o s p e l ( s ) 4 4 . 6 3 , 105. 108 inspiration l e g e n d (the S e v e n t y ) 12, 16,
grave inscriptions 8 0 36
Gregorius Thaumaturgus 68 inspiration m i r a c l e 3 5 - 6 , 3 9 , 4 9 , 7 8
Gregory of Nazianzus 65 instructional literature 1 15. 123
Greek 19,35,76.80-2 interpretationes
graecae 80
Haggadah/haggadic 68 Irenaeus 2 8 . 5 1 , 6 6 , 9 6 , 1 1 0 , 1 13, 1 2 0 .
h a g i o g r a p h a 2 0 . 4 7 . 6 2 , 82, 9 1 , 106 124-5
hallel 4 7 Isaiah, translation o f 8 5 - 6
H a m a n the A g a g i t e 88 Isaiah l e g e n d s 71
hasidim 88 Islamic 37
H e b r e w 3 5 . 4 6 , 5 1 - 3 , 9 2 - 3 . 109 Israel 4 4 . 9 0 . 9 3 - 4 , 123
Hebraica Veritas 4 9 . 6 6
Hegesippus 124 Jabneh 9 9 . 1 0 5 , 1 2 6
Hellenists 22 Jacob's blessing 33
hellenistic 70,81.86.90.92 Jason o f C y r e n e 7 9
Heracleon 96 Jehuda (benTlai), Rabbi 4 4
heresy/heretic/heretical 4 4 - 5 , 56. 64, J e r e m i a h , translation o f 8 6
6 7 . 7 2 , 9 1 , 105 Jeremiah A p o c a l y p s e 32
H e r m a s , Letter from H e a v e n 124 Jeremiah A p o c r y p h o n /10
J e r o m e 33, 3 7 - 9 . 4 1 , 4 6 . 4 8 , 5 0 - 4 , 5 6 , literature {cant.)
6 1 - 2 , 6 6 , 7 0 , 71, 8 6 , 109 J e w i s h 5 5 . 7 6 , 8 1 , 8 7 , 9 4 , 112
B i b l e translation 4 9 , 5 3 , 8 3 - 4 rabbinic 71, 89
c r i t i c i s m o f the S e p t u a g i n t 5 2 - 3 liturgy/liturgical 4 6 . 8 8 , 9 9 , 116
J e r u s a l e m 2 0 , 8 0 - 2 , 8 9 , 9 8 , 1 0 8 - 9 , 125 logos spermatikos 112
destruction of 39, 7 3 , 87, 1 2 5 - 6 Lord 110
Jericho 14-15 Lucian 83
J e s u s / J e s u s Christ 8, 2 7 , 28, 2 9 - 3 1 . 3 8 . see also S e p t u a g i n t , r e c e n s i o n s o f
5 0 , 5 4 . 7 3 , 1 0 3 , 1 0 5 , 109, 126 Luther 6 6 , 122
a p p e a r a n c e o f 5 0 , 103 Lyon 124
J e s u s S i r a c h 9 2 - 3 , 9 7 , 1 12
g r a n d s o n , translator o f 8 2 , 8 5 , 9 6 - 7 , L y s i m a c h o s , son o f P t o l e m y 8 1 . 87
112
Prolog of 9 6 - 8 Magnificat 59
Jews/Jewish 19-22, 2 7 - 8 , 37. 40, 5 0 - 1 , m a r t y r s / m a r t y r d o m 9 4 , 116, 1 1 8 , 1 2 2 ,
5 4 - 5 , 6 0 - 2 , 71, 7 6 . 8 3 . 8 7 , 9 3 , 9 5 . 125
105, 110, 1 1 2 , 116 Maccabees/Hasmoneans/Hasmonean 81,
Jewish Christians 4 0 , 4 5 , 6 0 116
J e w i s h W a r s 3 5 , 1 0 1 . 115 M a c c a b e e a n r e b e l l i o n 8 0 , 91
Job 86 Malachios Monachos 69
Job Targum 4 7 Manicheeans 55
Jobab 86 Marchalianus, Codex 16
John the Baptist 126 Marc ion 3 0 , 6 1
Johannes Hyrcanus I 79 Masada 4 6
Jonathan ( M a c c a b e e ) 9 3 M a s o r e t e s / m a s o r e t i c 31, 7
J o s e p h , father o f J e s u s 3 0 M a s o r e t i c text 7 - 8 , 8 4 - 5 , 90
J o s e p h u s F l a v i u s 2 5 , 3 8 , 6 2 , 69, 7 7 , 7 9 , M e g i l l o t , the five 4 6
8 7 , 9 9 - 1 0 3 , 1 1 3 , 119 Melchizedek 72
Josiah 87 M e l i t o of Sardis 29,60-1,120
J u d a i s m 3 4 . 4 6 . 6 8 . 7 3 . 9 5 , 114 c a n o n list 113
Alexandrian 20-1 ' M e n o f the Great A s s e m b l y ' 9 2 . 101
ancient 6 M e n a s i a h , Rabbi 91
H e l l e n i s t i c 2, 6, 8 - 9 M e n e d e m u s o f Eritrea 4 0
P a l e s t i n i a n 6, 8 0 , 8 2 , 1 0 1 , 111 messianic/Messiah/messianism 29-30.
( P h a r i s a i c - ) r a b b i n i c a l 9 4 , 126 78,94-5
Judas ( M a c c a b e e ) 79,91 Methodios of Olympos 121
J u d e a / J u d e a n 2 1 , 2 7 , 7 5 . 8 0 , 8 7 , 115 midrash/midrashic 102
judgment 93, 95 M i n o r P r o p h e t s b o o k / s c r o l l 6, 9 , 11, 29,
Judith 115 34, 82
Julius A f r i c a n u s 17. 4 7 , 6 3 , 6 7 , 7 0 , 119 Minucius Felix 67
justification o f the u n g o d l y 108 M i r i a m , M o s e s ' sister 115
Justin Martyr 2 6 . 3 5 , 4 7 , 6 6 , 7 8 . 8 3 , mission/missionary 112
110, 1 1 2 , 114 monotheism/monotheistic 122
Justinian 5 0 Montanist 117
Justus o f T i b e r i a s 7 9 Mordecai 87
M o s e s 3 5 , 7 2 - 3 , 7 6 , 1 0 0 . 108, 1 13
L a o d i c e a . (Particular) S y n o d o f 6 5 M u r a b b a ' a t , W a d i see Nahal H e v e r
law 1 9 - 2 0 , 2 2 , 87, 9 3 - 4 , 9 6 - 8 , 100 Nahal Hever 6
lectionary 68 Nag Hammadi 72
Leontopolis, T e m p l e of 8 1 , 85 Nebuchadnezzar 73
libraries, a n c i e n t 2 7 . 3 8 . 7 2 . 8 1 , 9 0 , 9 2 , N e h e m i a h 3, 8 1 . 9 1 . 119
9 8 . 1 1 4 - 1 5 . 123 N e w Testament/New Testamental 19.
literature 2 2 . 2 6 , 3 7 , 4 2 , 6 1 , 6 3 - 4 , 7 0 , 71, 9 6 ,
early Christian .56, 7 0 , 8 7 105, 107, 1 2 6 - 7
heathen/pagan 112 N i c o p o l i s (near A c t i u m ) 13,15
Noah 54,79 priests 7 6 - 7
n o m i n a sacra 14. 41 p r o f a n e 91 - 2
Norea 72 promise 105, 107, 110
nunc dimittis 59 propaganda, religious 80,124
prophets/prophecy/prophetic 38-9,
o b e l o s 10, 5 2 46, 49, 5 3 - 5 , 60, 78, 9 5 - 7 , 100-1,
odes 5 8 - 9 103
Old Testament 28, 4 1 , 4 9 , 55, 56, 6 0 , p r o p h e c y , the e n d o f 100
62, 6 5 - 6 . 105-8. 112-13, 126-7 p r o p h e t i c b o o k s 2 0 , 2 2 , 28, 82, 9 0
OniasIV 81,85 p r o s e l y t e 90, 123
Onkelos 43 P r o t o - T h e o d o t i o n 4 2 , 109, 113
Ophites 117 Proverbs
O r i g e n 1, 5, 6, 9 - 1 7 (passim), 36, 46, translator o f 86
4 9 . 5 2 - 3 , 6 1 - 3 , 6 7 - 8 , 71, 7 3 , 8 3 , 8 6 , Greek 86
9 2 , 1 0 6 , 1 0 9 , 1 1 7 - 1 9 , 1 2 1 , 123 P r o v i d e n t i a dei 40
c a n o n list o f 113 P s a l m s / p s a l t e r 28, 4 2 , 4 6 - 7 , 6 5 - 6 , 7 8 ,
original text, H e b r e w 1 2 - 1 3 . 2 9 , 3 1 . 3 6 , 82, 8 5 , 9 0 , 9 5 , 1 0 5 - 6 , \ \ \ , 112
47, 4 9 - 5 0 , 53, 63, 78, 82, 8 4 - 5 . 89, Hebrew 98-9
9 6 - 7 , 102 messianic 106
Psalm manuscripts
pagan 26,37,67,76,88,102,115 Greek 59
Palestine/Palestinian 20, 25, 29, 4 3 - 4 , Psalm canon 90, 98
6 5 , 7 6 - 7 , 8 9 , 9 7 , 9 9 , 108, 1 1 0 , pseudepigrapha/pseudepigraphical 20,
125 2 9 , 5 6 . 6 6 , 7 2 , 9 0 , 9 3 , 9 9 , 107,
Pamphilus 16 109-10
papyri. Christian 1 15 Ptolemies/Ptolemaic 3 8 - 9 , 7 5 - 6 , 80
Parthians 8 5 P t o l e m y II P h i l a d e l p h o s 19, 2 5 - 8 ,
Passion Narratives 34 3 7 - 8 , 40, 44, 56, 7 4 - 5
Passover 28 Purim festival 88,92
patriarchs 7 2 Pythagoras 75
Paul 2 2 . 8 3 , 8 9 - 9 0 , 102, 1 0 8 - 1 2
P e n t a t e u c h 7 9 . 8 3 - 4 , 111 Q u i n t a ( c o l u m n o f the H e x a p l a ) 14-16
translation o f 19, 2 7 - 2 8 , 4 4 , 4 9 , 5 2 , Qumran 4 1 , 4 6 - 7 , 5 5 . 69, 82, 84, 86, 90,
76 9 2 , 9 5 , 9 8 , 1 1 1 , 126
p e s h e r interpretation 111 Qumran, Psalm manuscripts 98-9
Peter 7 0
Pharisees/pharisaic 20, 4 3 , 7 3 , 77, 89, rabbis/rabbinic 4 4 , 5 6 , 6 2 , 6 9 , 9 0 , 9 2 ,
92, 100 1 0 0 , 1 0 2 - 3 , 122
Pharos 78 reading, worship 6 6
Philippi 116 see also H o l y S c r i p t u r e ( s )
P h i l o / p h i l o n i c 8, 11, 2 5 , 7 0 , 7 8 - 9 , 8 2 , r e c e n s i o n s see S e p t u a g i n t , r e c e n s i o n s
9 8 - 9 . 120 Reformation/reformers/reformational
philosophers/philosophy 79 66,74,126
piety 1 1 6 - 1 7 , 1 2 2 Resurrection 9 4
p i l g r i m 8 1 . 89 Reuchlin 53
Pindar 7 9 revelation 52
Plato 7 5 . 7 9 revision(s) 89
platonic w o r l d - s o u l 8 6 R o m a n s / r o m a n 2 0 - 1 , 8 9 , 9 1 , 108
p o l e m i c / p o l e m i c a l / p o l e m i c i z e 6 4 , 118 R o m e 2 0 , 22, 7 7 - 8 . 8 1 . 9 5 . 1 0 0 - 1 , 115,
between Jews 123-5
and Christians 4 8 , 6 4 - 5 Rufinus 14,49,63
Polycarp of Smyrna 116
Porphyrius 119 S a d d u c e e s / s a d d u c e e a n 4, 9 0 . 9 3
praeparatio e v a n g e l i c a 7/2,122 S a l v a t i o n history 103.117
prediction 5 4 , 8 9 Samaritan 37, 7 9
Samuel, Hebrew Son of Man 5 4
L X X Vorlage of 84 coming of 95
Scriptural e v i d e n c e 7, 2 7 , 2 9 , 106 Sophocles, tragedies of 121
scripture c i t a t i o n s 56 soteriology 108
scripture Spirit o f G o d 17,45
collections of 19,56-7,73-4,95 see also ' H o l y Spirit'
falsification o f 3 1 - 4 , 4 3 , 4 7 - 8 Stoa/Stoics 79
N T use of 111-12 Symmachus 5,13-14,16,43,51,53.
scripture s c h o l a r s 60, 82
Jewish/Palestinian 29,83,91,101 synagogue/synagogal 2 1 - 2 , 29, 32, 35,
scrolls, Jewish 4 1 , 60, 89-90 3 7 , 4 4 , 5 0 , 7 3 , 9 4 , 108, 1 1 2 , 117,
S e p t i m a ( c o l u m n o f the H e x a p a p l a ) 14 122-3
Septuagint 1-2, 5 - 8 . 1 9 - 2 0 , 2 2 - 3 , 34. s y n a g o g u e i n s c r i p t i o n s 7 6 , 8 0 , 108
5 0 - 1 , 54, 59. 7 3 - 4 , 8 3 - * . 8 8 - 9 . 102, s y n a g o g u e , Samaritan 7 5
1 0 8 - 9 , 126 Syria/Syrian 125
Christian appropriation o f 4 1 , 4 3 , 5 0 , S y r o h e x a p l a 16, 8 8
61
Christian 7, 4 7 , 5 6 , 5 9 , 1 1 2 Targum 47
criticism of 48 temple 108
d i v i s i o n o f the tradition 3 3 cult 4 7
f o r m s o f the text 3 4 , 8 3 , 8 8 destruction of 2 1 . 7 3
history o f the text 1 - 1 7 ( p a s s i m ) Jerusalem 20-1.81.89
inspiration o f 3 9 , 4 9 - 5 0 , 7 8 liturgy 106
in J u d a i s m 8 worship 4 6 - 7
Jewish-Christian consensus 30 Tertullian 5 4 . 6 1 , 6 6 - 7 , 1 1 0 , 1 1 7 , 1 2 0 .
J e w i s h m a n u s c r i p t s 3 3 , 1 13 125
Jewish use of 36 T e s t i m o n i a c o l l e c t i o n s 2 8 , 6 7 , 1 12, 114
n e w translations o f 43* tetragrammaton 7,14,41
o r i g i n a l / a n c i e n t tradition 10, 1 1 - 1 2 , tetrapla 9, 13, 16
16 text c o m p a r i s o n , p h i l o l o g i c a l 6 3 , 8 2
problematic of 35. 38 text, fidelity to 8 7
recensions 29, 33, 5 3 , 56, 83, 113 Theodore of Mopsuestia 92
reputation/authority o f 2 0 , 3 6 T h e o d o t i o n 4 , 10, 1 3 - 1 4 , 3 9 , 4 3 , 5 1 , 5 3 ,
r e v i s i o n s o f the text 4 3 - 4 , 4 7 , 5 2 , 6 0 . 8 2 , 88
82-3 see also P r o t o - T h e o d o t i o n
Seth 72 T h e o d o t u s s y n a g o g u e inscription 108
Seventy/seventy-two. The 19,25-6, see also s y n a g o g u e i n s c r i p t i o n s
3 0 - 1 , 3 4 - 5 , 37-8. 43, 4 8 - 5 1 , 53-4, theology/theological 80-1
75, 78, 80 Theophilus of Antioch 66
authority o f 2 7 - 8 . 3 0 , 3 6 therapeutoi 98-9
d i v i n e l y inspired I I , 17, 3 5 , 3 8 - 9 , 4 7 , Thessalonica 75
74 Titus Flavius C l e m e n s 123
isolation of 27, 30. 5 3 - 5 Tobit, Aramaic version of 46
prophets 5 0 - 4 Torah 4 , 3 6 . 4 4 . 4 6 , 8 2 , 9 0 , 9 4
Severianus of Gabala 109 oral 7 8
S e v e r u s A l e x a n d e r 4 7 . 119 Torah shrine 5 4 , 6 0
S e x t a ( c o l u m n o f the H e x a p l a ) 14-15 Translation 77
S h a m m a i , s c h o o l o f 91 Greek 2 2
Shem 72 J e w i s h 9 , 10. 12. 14, 16
S i m o n II, h i g h priest 3 Literality/fidelity 52-3
Simon (Maccabee) 87, 93 unalterability 7 7
S i m o n , s o n o f B o e t h o s 81 Translation legend
Sinai 36 Christian 2 6 - 8 , 3 0 . 3 6 - 8 , 4 0 - 1 . 4 8 - 9 ,
Sinaiticus, Codex 16.57-60 51. 56, 65, 78
Solomon 6 9 - 7 0 . 120-1 J e w i s h 17. 2 5 , 3 4 , 4 3 - 4 , 7 7 - 8 , 8 0
Translators, J e w i s h 5, 10, 16 w i s d o m 2 . 1 1 4 . 118
Trent, C o u n c i l o f 5 7 d i v i n e 8 5 . 109
Truth 7 3 Incarnation o f 114
evidence of 37. 73 prexistence of 86
Trypho 30-1,33.43,78 W i s e m e n . the s e v e n t y - t w o see
Seventy, The
Valentinans 6 9 worship
Vaticanus. Codex 5 7 - 6 0 . 64, 73 Christian 2 1 - 2 , 5 2 . 6 1 , 6 5 , 125
V e t u s Latina 17, 8 8 , 123 Jewish 22, 44, 77
V i r g i n birth 2 9 . 3 8
Vulgate 50 Zerubbabel 87