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# Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Electrical Machines-I

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FOURTH SEMESTER

ELECTRICAL MACHINES 1

## 1. Mention the difference between core and shell type transformers.

In cor e type , the windings surr ound the core considerably and in shell type the core
surround the winding.

## N1, N2 are the number of pr imary and secondary turns.

4. Does the transformer draw any current when secondary is open ? Why ?

Yes,it ( primary) will draw the current fr om the main supply in order to magnetise the
core and to supply iron and copper losses on no load . There will not be any current in the
secondar y since secondary is open.

## 5. Define voltage regulat ion of a transformer

When a tr ansfor mer is loaded with a constant primar y voltage , the secondary voltage
decreases for lagging power factor load, and increases for leading pf load because of its
internal resistance and leakage reactance . The change in secondar y ter minal voltage from
no load to full load expressed as a percentage of no load or full load voltage is termed as
regulation .

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% regulation down = (oV2-V2) x 100/oV2

## % regulation up = (oV2-V2) x 100/V2

6. Full load copper loss in a transformer is 1600 watts. What will be the loss at half
load ?

If x is the ratio of actual load to full load then copper loss = x2(full load copper loss)

## 7. Define all day efficiency of a transformer .

It is the computed on the basis of energy consumed during a certain period , usually a day
of 24 hrs.

## 8. Why transformers are rated in kVA ?

Copper loss of a transfor mer depends on current and iron loss on voltage . Hence total
losses depends on Volt- Ampere and not on the power factor. That is why the rating of
transformers are in kVA and not in kW.

## 9. What are the typical uses of auto transformer ?

(i)To give small boost to a distribution cable to correct for the voltage drop.

## (iv)As interconnecting transfor mers

(v)In control equipment for single phase and 3 phase elective locomotives.

10. What are the applications of a step-up and step- down t ransformers ?

Step-up transformers are used in gener ating stations. Normally the generated voltage will
be either 11 kV or 22 kV. This voltage is stepped up to 110 kV or 220 kV or 400 kV and
transmitted through transmission lines. (In short it may Be called as sending end) .

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Step-down transformers are used in receiving stations. The voltage are again stepped
down to 11 kV or 22 kV and transmitted through feeders.(In short it may be called as
receiving end).

Fur ther these 11 kV or 22kV are stepped down to 3 phase 400 V by means of a
distr ibution transformer and made available at consumer premises.

The transformer s used at gener ating stations and r eceiving stations are called power
transformers.

## Spirakor e type is a latest transformer and is used in big transformer s.

In core type, the windings(pr imar y and secondar y)surround the core and in shell
type, the core surround the windings.

## The core is constructed of transformer sheet steel laminations assembled to provide a

continuous magnetic path with a minimum of air gap included. The steel used is of high
silicon content sometimes heat treated to produce a high permeability and a low
hysteresis loss at the usual operating flux densities.the eddy cur rent loss is minimized by
laminating the core, the laminations being insulated from each other by light coat of core-
plate vanish or by an oxide layer on the surface .the thickness of laminations varies from
0.35 mm for a frequency of 59 Hz and 0.5 mm for a frequency of 25 Hz.

## 13. When will a Bucholz relay operate in a transformer ?

Bucholz rely is a protective device in a tr ansfor mer. If the temperature of the coil exceeds
its limit, Bucholz relay operates and gives an alarm.

14. How does change in frequency affect the operation of a given transformer ?

With a change in frequency, iron loss, copper loss, regulation, efficiency and heating
varies and ther eby the Operation of the transfor mer is affected.

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15. What is the angle by which no-load current will lag t he ideal applied volt age ?

In an ideal transformer , there are no copper loss and no cor e loss,(i.e. loss free core). The
no load current is only magnetizing current. Therefore the no-load current lags behind by
an angke of 90. However the windings possess resistance and leakage r eactance and
therefore the no-load current lags the applied voltage slightly less than 90.

## 18. What is the function of transformer oil in a transformer ?

19. A 1100/400 V, 50 Hz single phase transformer has 100 turns on the secondary
winding. Calculate the number of turns on its primary.

## 20. What are the functions of no-load current in a transformer ?

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21. How will you tr ansfer the quantities from one circuit to another circuit in a
transformer ?

1.Secondary to primary-
2.Primar y to secondary

## 22. Define voltage regulat ion of a transformer.

When a tr ansfor mer is loaded with a constant primar y voltage , the secondary voltage
decreases for lagging factor load, and increases for leading power factor load because of
its internal resistance and leakage reactance.

## V2 = secondary terminal voltage on full load.

The change in secondar y terminal voltage from no load to full load is = oV2 V2.This
change divided by oV2 is known regulation down. If this chane is divided by V(i.e full
load secondary terminal voltage ) then it is called as r egulation up.

condition?

## 24. Distinguish between power transformer and distribution transformer .

Power transformer s have very high power ratings in the or der of mVa. They are used in
generating and receiving stations. Sophisticated contr ols are required. Voltage ranges will
be ver y high. *** Distribution tr ansfor mers are used in consumer side. Voltage levels
will be medium. Power ranging will be small in order of kVA. Complicated controls are
not needed.

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25. What is the purpose of providing taps in t ransformer and where these are
provided?

In order to attain the required voltage , taps are provided. Normally it will be pr ovided
at low voltage side.

## 26. What is prime mover?

The basic source of mechanical power which dr ives the armature of the generator is
called pr ime mover.

(iii)Insulation

## 28. What is MMF? Give its expression

MMF is the work done in moving a unit magnetic pole once around the magnetic circuit.

## Where N=no of turns

I =current in amp

## H=N I/l wher e N=no of turns;I=current in amp;l=length in metre

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30. What is reluctance?

It is the property of the magnetic material to oppose the magnetic lines of flux

S=F/F where F=MMF ; F=flux ;S=r eluctance in amp turns per weber

## 35. Compare electric and magnetic circuits

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36. How is the direction of induced e.m.f determ ined?

## 37. State Lenzes law.

Any induced e.m.f will circulate a current in such a dir ection as to oppose the cause
producing it.

e= -N dF/dt

## 38. What is self inductance?

The e.m.f induced in a coil due to change of flux in the same coil is known as self
inductance.

## 39. Give the expression for magnetizing force

F = B I l sin Newton,

Where

## Ener gy stored in the magnetic circuit = LI 2

L = Nao r / l

Ener gy Density = I2 N 2 ao r / l

## = B2 H 2 aor since H =NI/l

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= B2 la / 0 r

= Ba2 /S

= F2 /R Joules

41. What are the factors on which hyst eresis loss depends ?

The hysteresis loss depends on the magnetic flux density , frequency f and the volume of
the material V.

## 42. What is core loss? What is its significance in electric machines?

When a magnetic material undergoes cyclic magnetization , two kinds of power losses
occur on it hysteresis and eddy curr ent loss which together are known as core loss. It is
important in determining heating, tempar ature rise , rating and efficiency of transfor mers,
machines and other a.c run magnetic devices.

## 43. What is eddy current loss?

When a magnetic core carries a time var ying flux voltages ar e induced in all possible
paths enclosing flux. Result is the production of cir culating current in core. These
induced currents do no useful work are known as eddy cur rent and have power loss
known as eddy current loss.

## 44. How are hysteresis and eddy current losses minimized?

Hysteresis loss can be minimized by selecting materials for core such as silicon steel &
steel alloys with low hysteresis coefficient and electrical resistivity.

## 45. What is coupling coefficient?

k = M sqr root of L1 L2

Coupling coefficient is defined as the ratio of mutual inductance to the square root of the
product of two self inductances.

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46. Write an expression for energy stored in magnetic field.

Where

## + energy converted into heat.

For motors : electric and mechanical energy terms have positive values

## For generators: they have negative values.

49. What is the energy conversion medium in a singly-excited magnet ic field system

The magnetic circuits have air gap between stationary and moving members in which
consider able energy is stored in the magnetic field. This field acts as the energy
conversion medium and its energy is the reservoir between electric and mechanical
system.

50. What is the basic feature of an electro magnetic energy conversion devices?

They contain air gaps in their magnetic circuits in their moving parts.

51. Why does the energy st orage in a magnetic material occurs mainly in the air
gap?

The reluctance of the air gap is much larger than the magetic material . hence the
predominant energy storage occurs in the air gap and the properties of the air gap are
determined by the dimension of the air gap.

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52. What is multiply excited magnetic field syst em?

If the electromechanical devices have more than one set of exciting system it is called
multiply excited magnetic field system.

53. Give the relation between energy and co- energy for linear system.

## In rotating machines voltage is generated in windings or group of coils by rotating them

through a magnetic field or by mechanically rotating a magnetic field past the winding or
by designing the magnetic circuit so that the reluctance varies with rotation of the rotor.

## 56. Why are magnetic coils wound on iron cores?

To maximize the coupling between the coils, to increase the magnetic energy density
associated with the electromechanical interaction and to shape and distr ibute the
magnetic fields according to the machine design.

## 57. Why salient pole construction is a characteristic of hydroelectric generators ?

Because hydraulic turbines operate at relatively low speeds and a large number of poles
are required to produce the required frequency.

## 58. What are distributed windings?

Windings which are spread over a number of slots around the air gap periphery.

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59. Write the equation for total co-energy density.

= o/ Dl / 4 g

## o= Permeability of free space.

60. What is the expression for torque in terms of the result ant mmf wave Fsr?

## 61. What is torque proport ional to?

Tor que is pr oportional to the interacting fields and to the sine of the electrical space angle
between their magnetic axes.

62. How will you find the direction of emf using Flemings Right Hand Rule?

The thumb, the forefinger and the middle finger of the right hand are held so that these
finger s are mutually perpendicular, then

Forefinger - Field

ThuMb - Motion

## Middle finger- I ,current

63. How will you find the direction of force produced using Flemings Left Hand
Rule?

The thumb , forefinger and middle finger of the left hand are held so that those fingers are
mutually perpendicular then

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Forefinger - Field

## 64. Which type of d.c armature winding requires equalizer rings?

Lap winding

65. How are armature windings classified based on the placement of the coil inside
the armature slot s?

## 66. Write down the emf equation for d.c generator.

E = ( NZ / 60)( P/A) V

## = flux per pole

N= speed in rpm

67. Why the armature core in d.c machines is constructed with laminated steel
sheets instead of solid steel steel?

Steel sheets offer low relutance path for the magnetic field , laminated sheets r educe eddy
current loss.

## Conduct electr icity between armature and fixed brushes

Converts altenating emf into unidirectional emf and vice versa

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69. What is meant by selective commutation?

The use of more than one pair of brushes in wave winding does not divide the armature
coil sides into more than two parallel paths, but current collected from the armature i
divided between the brushes of like polarity. I n case of slight differences in contact
resistance the current collected by individual brushes may be different and is called
selective commutation.

## 70. Distinguish between shunt and series field coil constructions.

Shunt field coils are wound with wires of small cr oss section and have more number of
turns. Series field coils are wound with wires of larger cross section and have less number
of turns.

71. How does a d.c motor differ f rom d.c generator in construction?

Generators are nor mally placed in closed room , accessible only to skilled operators.
Ther efore on ventilation point of view they may be constructed with large opening in the
frame.

Motors on the other hand , have to be installed right in the place of use which may have
dust, dampness, inflammable gases, chemical fumes etc . To protect the motors against
these elements , the motor fr ames ar e made either par tly closed or totally closed or flame
proof etc.

72. How will you change t he direction of rotat ion of a d.c motor?

Either the direction of the main field or the direction of current through the armature
conductors is to be reserved.

## 73. What is back emf in d.c motors ?

As the motor armature rotates , the system of conductor come across alter nate North and
South pole magnetic fields causing an emf induced in the conductors. The direction of the
emf induced in the conductors is in the direction opposite to the current .As this emf
always opposes the flow of current in motor operation it is called back emf.

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74. Under what condition the mechanical power developed in a dc mot or will be
maximum?

## Condition for mechanical power developed to be maximum is

Eb = Va /2
or

I a= Va / 2Ra

75. What is the funct ion of a no-voltage release coil provided in a dc motor starter?

As long as the supply voltage is on healthy condition the current through the NVR coil
produce

76. Name the two types of automatic starters used for dc motors.

## 77. Enumerate the factors on which the speed of a dc motor depends.

78. List the different methods of speed control employed for dc series motor

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79. Name the different methods of electrical breaking of dc mot ors.

## (iii) Counter current braking or plugging

80. Under what circumstances does a dc shunt generator fail to build up?

## Absence of residual flux.

Initial flux set up by the field winding may be in opposite dir ection to r esidual flux

Shunt filed circuit resistance may be higher than its critical field resistance

Load circuit resistance may be less than its critical load resistance.

## 81. Define critical field resistance in dc shunt generator

Critical field resistance is defined as the resistance of the field circuit which will cause
the shunt generator just to build up its emf at a specified field.

82. How can one different iate between long shunt compound generator and short
shunt compound generator?

In a short shunt compound generator the shunt field cir cuit is shorter i.e. across the
ar mature ter minals. In a long shunt compound generator the shunt field circuit is
connected across the load terminals.

83. Why is the emf not zero when the field current is reduced to zero in a dc
generator ?

Even after the field current/magnetizing force is reduced to zero the machine is left out

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with some flux as residue. Emf due to this residual flux is available when field current is
zero.

## 84. Define t he t erm critical speed in dc shunt generator.

Critical sped is defined as the speed at which the generator is to be driven to cause self-
excited generator to Build up its emf for the given field cir cuit resistance.

## 85. On what occasions dc generators may not have residual flux?

The generator may be put for its first operation after its construction.

## In previous operation the generator would have been fully demagnetized.

86. What are the conditions to be fulfilled for a dc shunt generator to build up emf?

## The generator should have residual flux

The field winding should be connected in such a manner that the flux set up by the field
winding should be in the same direction as that of residual flux

The field circuit resistance should be less than critical field resistance

## Load circuit resistance should be above its critical load resistance

87. How the critical field resistance of a dc shunt generator is est imated from its
OCC?

Critical field resistance can be obtained from OCC by drawing a straight line passing
through the origin and tangent to the initial straight line portion of OCC. The slope of this
line gives the value of critical field resistance for the given speed at which OCC is
obtained.

## 88. Define t he t erm armature reaction in dc machines.

The interaction between the flux set up by the current car rying armature conductors with
the main field flux is defined as armature reaction.

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89. What are the two unwanted effect s of armat ure reaction?

## Cross magnetizing effect / Distorting effect

Demagnetising effect

90. Different iate between geometric neutral axis (GNA) and magnetic neutral axis
(MNA).

GNA is the axis which is situated geometrically or physically in the mid way between
adjacent main poles. MNA is the axis which passes through the zero crossing of the
resultant magnetic field wavefor m in the air gap.

## 92. What are the various types of commutation?

Linear commutation

Sinusoidal commutation

## 94. What is reactance emf in dc machine?

The self induced emf in the coil undergoing commutation which opposes the rever sal of
current is known as r eactance emf.

## 95. Define t he t erm commutation in dc machines.

The changes that take place in winding elements during the period of short circuit by a
brush is called commutation.

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96. How and why the compensating winding in dc machine excited?

## As the compensation r equired is pr oportional to the armatur e current the compensating

winding is excited by the armature current.

## 100. Why are carbon brushes preferred for dc machines?

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7.Explain the following terms related to mag netic circuits.

Magneto motive force ,Magnetic flux, Hopkinson's law, Reluctance, Micr oscopic origins
of reluctance

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing a magnetic
flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets and confined
to the path by magnetic coresconsisting of fer romagneticmaterials like iron, although
there may be air gaps or other materials in the path. Magnetic circuits are employed to
efficiently channel magnetic fields in many devices such as electric motors , generator s,
transformers , r elays, lifting electromagnets , Squids, galvanometers , and magnetic
recording heads .

## The concept of a "magnetic circuit" exploits a one-to-one correspondence between the

equations of the magnetic field in a non- hystereticmaterial to that of an electrical circuit .
Using this concept the magnetic fields of complex devices such as transformers can be
quickly solved using the methods and techniques developed for electr ical circuits.

## horseshoe magnet with iron keeper (low- reluctance circuit)

horseshoe magnet with no keeper (high-reluctance circuit)
electric motor (var iable-reluctance circuit)

## 1. Magnetomotive force (MMF)

EMFdrives a current of electrical charge in electrical circuits, magneto motive force
(MMF) 'drives' magnetic flux through magnetic circuits. The term 'magneto motive
force', though, is a misnomer since it is not a force nor is anything moving. It is perhaps
better to call it simply MMF. In analogy to the definition of EMF , the magneto motive
force around a closed loop is defined as:

The MMF represents the potential that a hypothetical magnetic charge would gain by
completing the loop. The magnetic flux that is driven is not a current of magnetic charge;
it merely has the same relationship to MMF that electr ical current has to EMF. (See
microscopic origins of reluctance below for a further description.)

The unit of magneto motive force is the ampere-turn ( At), represented by a steady, direct
electric currentof one ampere flowing in a single-turn loop of electrically conducting
mater ial in avacuum. The magneto motive force can often be quickly calculated using
Ampere's law . For example, the magneto motive force of long coil is:,

where Nis the number of turns and I is the current in the coil. In practice this equation is
used for the MMF of real inductor s with Nbeing the winding number of the inducting
coil.

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2. Magnetic flux
An applied MMF 'dr ives' magnetic flux through the magnetic components of the system.
The magnetic flux through a magnetic component is proportional to the number of
magnetic field lines that pass through the cross sectional area of that component. This is
the net number, i.e. the number passing through in one direction, minus the number
passing through in the other direction. The direction of the magnetic f ield vector Bis by
definition from the south to the North Pole of a magnet inside the magnet; outside the
field lines go from north to south.

## The fluxthrough an element of area perpendicular to the direction of magnetic field is

given by the product of themagnetic fieldand the area element. More generally,
magnetic flux is defined by a scalar productof the magnetic field and the area element
vector. Quantitatively, the magnetic flux through a surface Sis defined as the integral of
the magnetic field over the area of the surface

For a magnetic component the area S used to calculate the magnetic flux is usually
chosen to be the cross-sectional area of the component.

The SI unitof magnetic flux is the Weber (in derived units: volt-seconds), and the unit of
magnetic field is the Weber per square meter , or tesla .

## 3. Hopkinsons law: the magnetic analogy to Ohm's law

In electronic circuits , Ohm's law is an empirical relation between the EMFapplied across
an element and the current I it gener ates thr ough that element. It is wr itten as:

Where R is the electrical resistance of that material. Hopkinson's law is a counter part to
Ohm's lawused in magnetic circuits. The law is named after the British electrical
engineer , John Hopkinson . It states that

where is the magneto motive force (MMF) across a magnetic element, is the magnetic
fluxthrough the magnetic element, and is the magnetic reluctance of that element. (It
shall be shown later that this relationship is due to the empirical relationship between the
H-field and the magnetic field B, B= H, where is thepermeability of the material.)
Like Ohm's law, Hopkinson's law can be interpreted either as an empir ical equation that
works for some materials, or it may serve as a definition of reluctance.

4.Reluctance
Magnetic reluctance , or magnetic resistance , is analogous to resistance in an electrical
circuit(although it does not dissipate magnetic ener gy). In likeness to the way an electr ic

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field causes an electric currentto follow the path of least resistance,magnetic
a field
causes magnetic fluxto follow the path of least magnetic reluctance. It isscalara ,
extensive quantity , akin to electrical resistance.

The total reluctance is equal to the ratio of the (MMF) in a passive magnetic circuit and
the magnetic fluxin this circuit. In an AC field, the reluctance is the ratio of the
amplitude values for a sinusoidal MMF and magnetic flux. (see phasors )

## The definition can be expressed as:

where is the reluctance in ampere-turns per weber (a unit that is equivalent to turns per
henry ).

Magnetic flux always for ms a closed loop, as described by Maxwell's equations , but the
path of the loop depends on the reluctance of the surrounding materials. It is concentrated
around the path of least reluctance. Air and vacuum have high reluctance, while easily
magnetized materials such as soft iron have low r eluctance. The concentration of flux in
low-reluctance materials forms strong temporary poles and causes mechanical forces that
tend to move the materials towards regions of higher flux so it is always an attractive
force( pull).

## The inverse of reluctance is called permeance .

Its SI derived unit is thehenr y(the same as the unit ofinductance , although the two
concepts are distinct).

## 5.Microscopic origins of reluctance

The reluctance of a magnetically unifor m magnetic circuit element can be calculated as:

where

## lis the length of the element in metres

= r 0 is the permeability of the material ( r is the relative per meability of the
mater ial (dimensionless), and 0 is the permeability of free space)
Ais the cross-sectional area of the circuit in square metres

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8.Explain the analogy between magnetic circuits and electrical circuits

The following table summarizes the mathematical analogy between electrical circuit
theory and magnetic circuit theor y. This is mathematical analogy and not a physical one.
Objects in the same row have the same mathematical role; the physics of the two theories
are very differ ent. For example, current is the flow of electrical charge, while magnetic
flux is not the flow of any quantity.

## Analogy between 'magnetic circuits' and electrical cir cuits

Magnetic equivalent Symbol Units Electric equivalent Symbol
Magneto motive force (MMF) ampere-turn Definition of EMF
H-field H ampere / meter Electric field E
Magnetic flux Weber Electric Cur rent I
Hopkinson's Law Ohm's Law
Reluctance Henry Electrical resistance R
relation between Band HMicroscopic Ohm's Law
Magnetic field B B tesla Curr ent density J
per meability Henry / meter Electrical conductivity

## Limitations of the analogy

When using the analogy between magnetic circuits and electric cir cuits, the limitations of
this analogy must be kept in mind. Electr ic and magnetic cir cuits are only super ficially
similar because of the similarity between Hopkinson's law and Ohm's law. Magnetic
circuits have significant differences, which must be taken into account in their
constr uction:

Electric curr ents repr esent the flow of particles (electrons) and car ry power , which
is dissipated as heat in resistances. Magnetic fields don't represent the "flow" of
anything, and no power is dissipated in reluctances.
The current in typical electric circuits is confined to the circuit, with ver y little
"leakage". In typical magnetic cir cuits not all of the magnetic field is confined to
the magnetic circuit; there is significant " leakage flux " in the space outside the
magnetic cores, which must be taken into account but is difficult to calculate.
Most importantly, magnetic circuits are nonlinear ; the reluctance in a magnetic
circuit is not constant, as resistance is, but varies depending on the magnetic field.
At high magnetic fluxes the fer romagnetic materials used for the cores of
magnetic cir cuits saturate , limiting the magnetic flux, so above this level the
reluctance increases rapidly. The reluctance also increases at low fluxes. In

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addition, fer romagnetic materials suffer from hysteresis so the flux in them
depends not just on the instantaneous MMF but also on the past history of MMF.
After the source of the magnetic flux is turned off, permanent magnetism is left in
ferromagnetic circuits, creating a flux with no MMF.

## 9.State the magnetic Circuit Laws.

Magnetic circuits obey other laws that are similar to electrical circuit laws. For example,
the total reluctance of reluctances in ser ies is:
Rt =R1 +R2

This also follows from Ampre's law and is analogous to Kirchhoff's voltage law for
adding resistances in series. Also, the sum of magnetic fluxes into any node is always
zero:

This follows from Gauss's law and is analogous to Kirchhoff's cur rent lawfor analyzing
electrical cir cuits.

Together, the three laws above form a complete system for analysing magnetic circuits,
in a manner similar to electric circuits. Compar ing the two types of circuits shows that:

## The equivalent to resistance Ris the reluctance Rm

The equivalent to curr ent Iis the magnetic flux
The equivalent to voltage Vis the magnetomotive Force F

Magnetic circuits can be solved for the flux in each branch by application of the magnetic
equivalent of Kirchhoff's Voltage Law ( KVL ) for pure source/resistance circuits.
Specifically, whereas KVL states that the voltage excitation applied to a loop is equal to
the sum of the voltage drops ( resistance times current) around the loop, the magnetic
analogue states that the magnetomotive force (achieved from ampere-turn excitation) is
equal to the sum of MMF drops (product of flux and reluctance) across the rest of the
loop. (I f there are multiple loops, the current in each br anch can be solved through a
matrix equationmuch as a matrix solution for mesh circuit branch currents is obtained
in loop analysisafter which the individual branch currents are obtained by adding
and/or subtracting the constituent loop currents as indicated by the adopted sign
convention and loop orientations.) Per Ampre's law , the excitation is the product of the
current and the number of complete loops made and is measured in ampere-turns. Stated
more generally:

Stokes's theorem, the closed line integral of H dot dl around a contour is equal to the
open surface integral of curl H dot dA across the surface bounded by the closed contour.
Since, fr om Maxwell's equations , curl H = J, the closed line integr al of H dot dl evaluates
to the total current passing thr ough the surface. This is equal to the excitation, NI, which
also measures current passing through the surface, thereby verifying that the net current
flow through a sur face is zero ampere-turns in a closed system that conserves ener gy.

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More complex magnetic systems, where the flux is not confined to a simple loop, must be
analysed from fir st principles by using Maxwell's equations .

Applications
Air gaps can be created in the cores of certain transformers to reduce the effects
of saturation . This increases the reluctance of the magnetic cir cuit, and enables it
to store more energy before core saturation. This effect is also used in the flyback
transformer .

Variation of reluctance is the principle behind the reluctance motor (or the
variable reluctance generator) and the Alexanderson alternator .

## Multimedia loudspeakers are typically shielded magnetically, in order to reduce

magnetic interference caused to televisions and other CRTs . The speaker magnet
is covered with a material such as soft iron to minimize the stray magnetic field.

## Reluctance can also be applied to:

Reluctance motors
Variable reluctance ( magnetic) pickups

## The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael

Faraday and Joseph Henr y. However, Faraday was the fir st to publish the results of his
exper iments and thus receive credit for the discovery. The relationship between
electromotive force (EMF) or " voltage " and magnetic flux was for malized in an equation
now referred to as " Faraday's law of induction ":

. where:
Eis the magnitude of the EMF in volts
B
is the magnetic flux through the cir cuit

Faraday's experiments included winding a pair of coils ar ound an iron ring, thus creating
the first toroidal closed-core transformer.

Induction coils

The first type of transformer to see wide use was the induction coil , invented by Rev.
Nicholas Callan of Maynooth College,. He was one of the first researcher s to realize that
the more turns the secondar y winding has in relation to the primary winding, the lar ger is

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the increase in EMF. Induction coils evolved from scientists' and inventors' efforts to get
higher voltages from batter ies. Since batteries produce direct current (DC) rather than
alternating current ( AC) , induction coils relied upon vibrating electrical contacts that
regularly interrupted the current in the pr imar y to create the flux changes necessary for
induction. Russian engineer Pavel Yablochkov invented a lighting system based on a set
of induction coils where the primary windings were connected to a source of alternating
current and the secondary windings could be connected to several "electric candles" (arc
lamps) of his own design. The coils Yablochkov employed functioned essentially as
transformers. Induction coils with open magnetic cir cuits ar e ineff icient for transfer of
power to loads . Until about 1880 the paradigm for AC power transmission from a high
voltage supply to a low voltage loadwas a series circuit. Open-core transformer s with a
ratio near 1:1 were connected with their primaries in series to allow use of a high voltage
for transmission while presenting a low voltage to the lamps. The inherent flaw in this
method was that turning off a single lamp affected the voltage supplied to all others on
the same circuit. Many adjustable transformer designs were intr oduced to compensate for
this problematic character istic of the series circuit, including those employing methods of
adjusting the core or bypassing the magnetic flux around part of a coil. Lucien Gaulard
and John Dixon Gibbs first exhibited a device with an open iron core called a "secondar y
generator" then sold the idea to the Westinghouse company in the United States . They
also exhibited the invention in Turin, Italy , where it was adopted for an electr ic lighting
system.] However, the efficiency of their open-core bipolar apparatus remained low.
Efficient, practical transformer designs did not appear until the 1880s, but within a
decade the transformer would be instrumental in the " War of Curr ents", and in seeing AC
distr ibution systems triumph over their DC counterparts, a position in which they have
remained dominant ever since.

## Closed-core lightin g transformers

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11.Explain the various Energy losses in transformer

An ideal transformer would have no energy losses, and would be 100% efficient. In
practical transformers energy is dissipated in the windings, core, and surrounding
structures. Larger transformer s ar e generally more efficient, and those rated for electricity
distr ibution usually perfor m better than 98%.

## Exper imental transformers using superconducting windings achieve efficiencies of

99.85%. While the increase in efficiency is small, when applied to large heavily loaded
transformers the annual savings in energy losses are significant.

A small transformer, such as a plug-in " wall wart " power adapter commonly used for
low-power consumer electronicsdevices, may be as low as 20% efficient, with
consider able energy loss even when not supplying any power to the device. Though
individual losses may be only a few watts, it has been estimated that the cumulative loss
from such transfor mers in the United States alone exceeded 32 billion kilowatt-hours
(kWh) in 2002.

The losses var y with load current, and may be expressed as "no-load" or "full-load" loss.
Winding resistance dominates load losses, whereas hysteresis and eddy curr entslosses
contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss. The no-load loss can be signif icant, meaning
that even an idle tr ansfor mer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply, which encourages
development of low-loss transformers (also see ener gy efficient transformer ).

Tr ansfor mer losses are divided into losses in the windings, termed copper loss , and those
in the magnetic cir cuit, termed iron loss . Losses in the transformer arise from:

Winding resistance
Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors.
At higher frequencies, skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding
resistance and losses.

Hysteresis losses
Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due to
hysteresis within the core. For a given core material, the loss is proportional to the
frequency, and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected.

Eddy currents
Ferromagnetic mater ials are also good conductors , and a solid core made from
such a material also constitutes a single short- circuited turn throughout its entire
length. Eddy curr entsther efore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the
flux, and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. The eddy
current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse
square of the material thickness.

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Magnetostriction
Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material, such as the core, causes it to physically
expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field, an effect
known as magnetostriction . This produces the buzzing sound commonly
associated with transformers,and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in
susceptible cores.

Mechanical losses
In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating
electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondar y windings. These incite
vibrations within nearby metalwork, adding to the buzzing noise , and consuming
a small amount of power .

Stray losses
Leakage inductance is by itself largely lossless, since energy supplied to its
magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. However, any
leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive mater ials such as the transformer 's
support structure will give rise to eddy cur rents and be converted to heat. There
are also radiative losses due to the oscillating magnetic field, but these are usually
small.

12.Principles of Electromechanical
Energy Conversion

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15.Explain doubly excited magnetic field systems

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1.Construction Details of DC Generator

## 1. Yoke or Magnetic frame

2. Magnetic poles

3. Field coils

4. Ar mature

5. Commutator

6. Brushes

## 1.Yoke or Magnetic Frame:

It provide two functions It provide Mechanical support for the machine and act as a cover

for the machine. It forms the portion of the Magnetic circuit. The Yoke is made of cast
iron for smaller machines. For larger machines it is always made of fabricated steel either

in one or more number of pieces. For smaller machines the poles and Yokes are forged
into a single piece ,but for a larger machines poles are made separately and fitted with

## the inner periphery of the Yoke.

2. Magnetic poles:

The field Magnet consists of pole cor es and pole shoes. They spread out the flux in the air

gap. They support the field coils. The pole cores and pole shoes are built with thin
laminations of steel. These laminations are held together with Rivets. The cores are

laminated to reduce eddy current loss. The magnetic poles are fitted to Yoke by means of
screws.

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3. Field coils:

The function of the field coils is to produce uniform magnetic field within which
ar mature rotates. It consists of a number of salient poles bolted to inside of circular

frame. The magnetic field strength depends upon current flowing through the coil. The
field coils are mounted on the poles and carry DC exciting current. The North and South
Pole depend upon direction of current flowing through the coil.

4. Armature winding :

The armature core is keyed to machine shaft and rotates between the field poles. It

consists of slotted soft iron laminations (about 0.4 to 0.6 mm thick) These are stacked to
form a cylindr ical core. The laminations are insulated with each other by thin coating of
varnish. The purpose of laminating the core is to reduce the eddy current loss.

## The Armature winding is wound in two ways.

1. Lap winding

2. Wave winding.

Ventilating ducts are provided for reducing the heat of the armature winding .

5. Commutator:

## The emf induced in the armature is AC in nature. Commutator converts AC to DC.

The commutator is made up of a copper segments insulated from each other by mica
sheets and mounted on the shaft.

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6.Brushes:

## The purpose of brushes is to ensure electrical connections between the rotating

commutator and external load circuit.
The brush are made of car bon and rest in commutator.

## The Brushes are put inside the Brush holders.

The Brush holders are kept pressed against commutator by spr ing.
Bear ings and End cover:
1.End covers are made of cast iron or fabr icated steel.

## 2.They are fitted to both sides of Yoke.

3.The ball Bearings (or) Roller Bearings are fitted inside the End cover.

## 2 .Explain the working principle of DC generators .

An electric gener ator is a machine that conver ts mechanical into electrical energy
.
An electric gener ator is based on the principle that whenever conductor cuts the magnetic

flux is cut by the conductor ,an emf is induced in it according to Faradays law of electro

magnetic induction. The direction of induced emf is given by the Flemings Right hand

conductors

## In DC generators, a stationary magnetic field is produced by field magnet.

The Armature consisting of conductors is rotated inside the magnetic field by a prime

## mover.The pr ime mover may be a turbine (or) diesel engine(or)

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Petrol engine. The nature of emf induced in the armature is AC current.The AC emf is

## Simp le loop generator:

Consider a single turn loop ABCD rotating clockwise in a unifor m magnetic field with a
constant speed. As the loop rotates ,the flux linking the coil sides AB and CD changes
continuously.

When the loop is in position no.1, the generated emf is zero. Because coil sides cutting no
flux

When loop is in position no.2 ,the coil sides are moving at an angle to the flux and so low
emf is generated.

When the loop is in position no.3 ,the coil sides are at right angle to the flux and cutting
the flux are at maximum rate.so the maximum emf is generated.

At position 4, the generated emf is less because the coil sides ar e cutting the flux at an
angle.

At position 5 ,No magnetic flux lines ar e cut ,so induced emf is zero.

.At position no.6 ,the coil sides move under the pole of opposite polarity.and direction of
emf is reversed.

The emf generated in the loop is in Alternating nature .If the load connected across the
loop ,the AC current will flow thr ough the load.This AC current converts into DC current
by commutator.

Action of Commutator:

It consists of a cylindr ical metal r ing cut into two segments C1 and C2.
C1 and C2 are separated by a thin sheet of mica sheet.

The ends of coil sides AB and CD are connected to the Two commutators C1 and C2.The
two carbon brushes are placed on the commutator.The commutator at all times connects
the coil side under Spole to +ve Brush and that under N pole to ve Brush.

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1.In the first half cycle, AB coil sides placed under N -pole.and CD coil side placed
under S-pole.

2.The Commutator C1 connect the coil side AB to point P of the load resistance and
Commutator C2 connects the coil side CD to point Q of the load.The C1 is now contact
with -ve Brush and C2 is in contact with +ve Brush.The direction of current flow is
from Q to P.

3.In next half cycle (after 180 Rotation),the coil side AB is placed under S- pole and the
coil CD is placed under N-pole. The curr ent direction is also reversed.Now C1 is in
contact with +ve Brush and C2 is in contact with -ve Brush.

## Depending upon method of excitation DC generators are classified as :

1.seperatly excited DC generators
2.Self excited Dc gener ator s.
Separatly excited DC Generator:

## A dc gener ator whose field magnet is supplied from an independent external dc

source( eg.Battery) is called Separatly excited DC Generator.The voltage output depends
upon rotation speed of the Armature and Field curr ent.when the speed and field current
is maximum ,the generated emf is also maximum.

## Self excited DC Generator:

In self excited generator the emf induced in the armature supplies the exciting field
current.
The classifications are,
1.DC Series Generator
2.DC Shunt Generator
3.DC Compound Generator.

DC Series Generator:
In this, the field winding is connected in series with the armature and the external load
circuit.In ser ies Generator ,the Armature current (Ia),field current(If) ,and Load current
are same.
Ia = Ise = I.
Since the field winding carries the whole load cur rent and it has a few turns of thick wire
having low resistance.

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Compound Generator :

In DC compound generator, there are two sets field windings on each pole. One is in
series and other is in parallel with the armature.
The classifications are,
1.Long shunt Compound generator
2.Short shunt compound generator

## Long shunt compound generator:

In long shunt compound generator, the shunt field windings is in par allel with both
series field and armature windings

## Short shunt compound generator:

In short shunt compound generator in which only shunt field winding is in parallel
with armature winding.
DC compound generators are classified as,
Cumulative compound DC Gener ator
Differentially compound DC Generator

## a. Cumulative compound DC Genera tor:

In these Generators ,the flux produced by the shunt field winding acts in same
direction to the series field flux.Therefore total field flux acting in this type of generator
is the sum of two fluxes .

## b.Differentially compound DC generators:

In this type of generators,the flux produced by the shunt field winding and the flux
produced by the series field winding acts in opposite direction.Ther efore total field flux
acting in this type of generators is the dif ference of these two fluxes.

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4.State the applicati ons of DC genera tors.

Applications of DC Generators:

1. DC shunt Generator

The terminal voltage of DC shunt generator is more or less constant from no load to
full load .Therefore these generators are used where constant voltage is required.
For electro plating
Batter y charging
For excitation of Alter nators.

2. Series Generators:

The ter minal voltage of series generator increases with load current from no load to full
load .Therefore these generators are,
Used as Boosters
Used for supply to ar c Lamps

## Differential Compound generators are used to supply dc welding machines.

Level compound generators are used to supply power for offices ,hostels and Lodges etc.
Over compound generators are used to compensate the voltage drop in Feeders.

applications.

## Where a wide range of voltage is required for the testing purposes.

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5. Derive the EMF equa tion of DC generator.

## E.M.F Equation of a DC Generator:

We shall now derive an expr ession for emf generated in a d.c generator.
Let = flux or pole in weber
Z = Total number of Ar mature conductors
P = number of poles
A = number of parallel paths.
N = speed of Ar mature in R.P.M
Eg = e.m.f of Generator
Flux cut by one conductor in one Revolution of the Armature
d = P webers.
Time taken to complete one Revolution
dt = 60/N second
emf generated /conductor = d =P = P N volts.
dt = 60/N

e.m.f of generator
Eg = emf per parallel path
= P N/ z
60 A

Eg = P z N/
60 A
A = 2 for wave winding
A = P for lap winding .

## Its operation is based on the principle that when a current carrying

conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor exper iences

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the mechanical force. The direction of force given by Flemings right hand rule
The magnitude of force is given by.

F = BIl Newtons.

Where,
F = force produced in conductor in Newtons.
B = Magnetic flux density in Web / m2.
L = Length of conductor in the magnetic field.
I = The current flowing through the conductor in ampere.

## Back e.m.f (or) counter e.m.f:

When a D.C supply is given to dc motor its ar mature starts rotating. The ar mature
rotates and cuts the static magnetic flux produced by the field magnets. Therefore emf is
induced in the armature conductors (Faradays law of electromagnetic induction ).As per
Len s law this induced emf opposes the supply voltage. Hence the emf induced in the
ar mature is called Back emf (or)counter emf(Eb).
Back emf induced in the armature of the dc motor
Eg = P zN
60 A
Where

## = flux or pole in Weber

Z = Total number of Ar mature conductors
P = number of poles
A = number of parallel paths
V = supply voltage to motors
Ia = armatur e current
Ra = armature resistance in ohms
IaRa = voltage drop in the armature circuit.
Eb = v IaRa.

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