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# Vidyalankar Institute of Technology

## Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017

Chapter 1 DFT and FFT
01 mark Questions

1. Write x[n] sequence and show in discrete time domain for i) periodic signal ii) aperiodic
signal iii) symmetric signal iv) asymmetric signal. [1 4 = 4]

## 3. Show a discrete power signal and calculate its energy.

4. What is the main difference between digital signal and discrete signals?

## 5. Draw discrete ramp signal with slope 3.

6. x[n] = [2 4 -1 -2]. Draw signals i) x[n-1] ii) x[n+2] iii) x[-n] iv) x[-n+2] v) x[-n-3] [1 5 = 5]

## 15. Define discrete Fourier series.

16. Write basic differences between periodic convolution and linear convolution.

17. What is the requirement of FFT when DFT and FFT both produce same result?

## 18. What is meant by radix 2 FFT?

19. Write basic difference between DIT and DIF FFT algorithms.

## 20. What is twiddle factor?

21. Write the best FFTIFFT pair formed by DIT-FFT, DIF-FFT, DIT-IFFT and DIF-IFFT?

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
02 marks Questions Chapter 1 DFT and FFT
1. Define i) periodic signal ii) aperiodic signal iii) symmetric signal iv) asymmetric signal and
show them in discrete time domain. [2 4 = 8]

## 5. Draw discrete ramp signal with slope 3. Is it an energy signal?

6. x[n] = [2 4 -1 -2]. Name the process and draw signals i) x[n-1] ii) x[n+2] iii) x[-n] iv) x[-n+2]
v) x[-n-3] vi) 3x[-2.5n + 7] vi) x[n] + x[n-2] vii) x[n] x[n+2] [2 7 = 14]

## 9. What is a linear phase system? What is its advantage?

10. Write the basic difference between DTFT and DFT with an example?

## 16. Define discrete Fourier series. Find DFS of x[n] = [1 2 2 3]

17. Explain differences between periodic convolution & linear convolution with example.

18. Find % reduction in addition & complex multiplication in 32point FFT compared to DFT.

19. Calculate speed increment in 64 point FFT compared to DFT of same point.

20. Write similarities and differences between DIT and DIF types of FFT algorithms.

## 22. What are the applications of FFT algorithm?

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
05 marks Questions Chapter 1 DFT and FFT

1. State and explain the relationship between DTFS, DFS, DFT and Z Transforms.

## 3 Find linear convolution and circular convolution for the sequences.

x[n] = [1 2 1 2] ; h[n] = [4 0 4 0]

## 4. What is DTFS? Find DTFS of x[n] = [0 1 2 3], with period N = 4.

5. Find the number of computations required to compute 32 point DFT using direct calculation
and by using FFT algorithm. Also find the computational complexity in each case.

n
6. Compute DFT of x[n] cos , N= 4, using DIF-FFT algorithm.
2

## 7. Find IDFT of X(k)=[3 2+j 1 2-j]

10 marks questions

## 1. Compute IDFT of the following sequence using inverse FFT algorithm.

X(k) = [3 0 3 0 3 0 3 0].

## 3. Given X(k) = [20, -5.828-j2.414, 0, -0.172-j0.414, 0, -0.172+j0.414, 0, -5.828+j2.414], find

x[n] by inverse FFT algorithm.

## 5. Find circular convolution by DFT-IDFT approach x1[n] = [1 2 0] and x2[n] = [2 2 1 1].

6. Find DTFS of x[n] = [0 1 2 3] with period N = 4. State & explain time shifting property of
DTFS.

7. Find y[n] by DFT-IDFT method and not otherwise. The sequence y[n] is generated through
convolution of x[n] and h[n]. Both x[n] and h[n] are periodic sequences. x[n]=[1 2 3 4];
and h[n] = [4j -3+2j 0 j].

8. Find DFT of 2 sequences x[n] and h[n] by taking DFT only once. Both x[n] and h[n] are
periodic sequences. x[n]=[1 2 3 4]; and h[n] = [4 5 6 7].

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
Chapter 2 IIR Digital Filters

01 mark Questions

## 6. Why Butterworth filter is called to have monotonic response?

7. Why analog filter designing is a part of digital filter designing method and not vice versa?

8. Write the formula for IIM and BLT method of s to z domain transform.

9. Write the equation used to find c and order of low pass Butterworth filter, given fs, fp, As, Ap
(gain ratio form)

10. Write the equation used to find c and order of low pass Butterworth filter, given are fs, fp, s
dB, p dB (attenuation form)

11. Write the equation used to find c and order of low pass Chebyshev 1 filter, given fs, fp, As,
Ap (gain ratio form)

12. Write the equation used to find c and order of low pass Chebyshev 1, given are fs, fp, s dB,
p dB (attenuation form)

13. Write true or false FIR filter poles are all at origin in Z plane whereas all poles of IIR filter
are not at origin in Z plane.

14. Write true or false IIM method has aliasing effect but BLT method does not have aliasing
effect.

## 15. What is frequency warping in BLT method?

16. What are the negative effects of frequency warping in BLT method?

## 17. How to overcome negative effects of frequency warping? or What is pre-warping?

18. Write formula for analog frequency transformation of filter function H(s) from normalized
low pass filter to de-normalize low pass filter.
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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
01 mark Questions contd Chapter 2 IIR Digital Filters

19. Write formula for analog frequency transformation of filter function H(s) from normalized
low pass filter to de-normalize high pass filter.

20. Write formula for analog frequency transformation of filter function H(s) from normalized
low pass filter to de-normalize high pass filter.

21. Write formula for analog frequency transformation of filter function H(s) from normalized
low pass filter to de-normalize high pass filter.

22. Among analog and digital filter design techniques, which one is more advanced and why?

## 02 marks Questions Chapter 2 IIR Digital Filters

1. Write magnitude function of Butterworth filter. What is the effect of varying filter order (N)
on magnitude and phase response of filter?
2. Show two points in s domain which when mapped into Z domain by IIM method are
overlapping onto each other (many to one map property of IIM).
3. Write the formula and find fourth order Butterworth low pass filter stable pole locations.
4. Write the formula and find fourth order Chebyshev-1 low pass filter stable pole locations.
5. Write the basic differences between pole pattern of Butterworth filter and Chebyshev filter.
6. Explain why Chebyshev-1 filter poles are closer to j axis than those of same order
Butterworth filter.
7. Explain why A causal and stable IIR filter cannot have linear phase.
8. Explain why FIR filter poles are all at origin in Z plane whereas all poles of IIR filter are not
at origin in Z plane.
9. Mathematically show that for same fs, fp, As, Ap (gain ratio form) values, Butterworth filter
order always will be greater than that of Chebyshev-1 filter.
10. Why IIM is not preferred in designing of any other IIR filter than low pass filters?
11. Explain why IIM method has aliasing effect but BLT method does not have aliasing effect.

12. Show graph between analog and digital frequencies and explain non-linear frequency
transform (warping effect) of BLT method.

13. Which filter is better Butterworth or Chebyshev-1 from i) passband characteristic point of
view ii) transition characteristics point of view iii) VLSI design area point of view?

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
05 marks Questions Chapter 2 IIR Digital Filters
1. Compare analog filters and digital filters.

## 2. With block diagram, explain the steps in digital filter designing.

3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of IIM and BLT methods?

4. Justify with example IIM is many to one mapping of poles whereas in BLT is 1 to 1 mapping.

5. Explain frequency warping effect in designing IIR filter using BLT method. Write its remedy.

## 7. Write detailed note on analog domain frequency transformation in IIR filters.

10 marks questions

## 1. Convert following filters with system functions.

1 ( s 0.1)
i) H ( s) ii) H ( s)
( s 2)( s 0.6) ( s 0.1)2 9

into digital filter by means of impulse invariant and bilinear transform methods.

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2. Given H ( s) , Ts = 2 seconds. Design digital IIR filter using BLT method. Explain
s 4s 3
2

## frequency warping in BLT method.

3. Design Butterworth low pass filter to meet the following specifications; Passband gain = 0.89,
Passband frequency edge = 30 Hz, Attenuation band gain = 0.20, Stopband edge = 75 Hz.

4. Use BLT method to obtain digital filter notch frequency of 75 Hz and sampling frequency of
s2 1
200 Hz, for a given normalized second order filter having transfer function H ( s) .
s2 s 1

## 5. Design an analog Butterworth filter that has passband attenuation of -2 dB at frequency 20

rad/second and at least -10 dB attenuation at 30 rad / second.

6. Design a Butterworth IIR digital LPF using Impulse Invariance Method for the specifications
0.707 H (e j ) 1.0 for 0 0.3 and H (e j ) 0.2 for 0.75 , T = 1 Sec.

7. Use BLT to design digital band-pass Butterworth filter for p = 2 dB in passband 800 Hz to
1000 Hz, and s = 20 dB in first stopband of 0 to 400 Hz and second stopband of 2000 Hz to .
Sampling frequency = 8 KHz.
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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
Chapter 3 FIR Digital Filters

01 mark Questions

1. What are the different types of filters based on system impulse response?

## 9. FIR filters are always stable filters explain why?

10. Show x[n] for type I, type II, type III, type IV FIR filter of length 7. [14 = 4]

11. Show signature zero location in Z plane for type I, type II, type III, type IV FIR filter of
length 7. [14 = 4]

## 12. Why FIR filters are always stable?

13. What conditions are to be imposed on FIR h[n] so that it will give linear phase response?

## 14. What is Gibbs phenomena?

02 mark Questions

## 4. What are the disadvantageous features of IIR filters?

5. What is meant by linear phase response explain with an example of FIR filters.

6. h[n] = [1 1/2] is it a FIR filter? Does this filter have linear phase?

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
01 mark Questions Chapter 3 FIR Digital Filters

7. Explain maximum phase system with example. Show phase response from pi to pi.

8. Explain minimum phase system with example. Show phase response from pi to pi.

9. Explain mixed phase system with example. Show phase response from pi to pi.

10. What is the condition that FIR filter has to satisfy to generate constant group delay? Explain
with an example.

11. What are the desirable characteristics of windows used for FIR filter designing?

12. Explain Gibbs phenomena with increasing order of length of windows. What is its effect on
FIR filter design?

## 13. What is the need of windowing in FIR filter designing?

14. Show response of Rectangular window in frequency domain; assume window length to be 7.

## 15. Compare Hanning window and Hamming window?

16. Explain principle used for designing Fir filters by frequency sampling method.

17. For what type of FIR filter design frequency sampling method is suitable?

05 marks Questions

1. Explain the term linear phase FIR filters. State its importance in digital filter performance.

2. Differentiate between FIR filters and IIR filters. [10 points required]

3. Explain the conjugate and reciprocal property of FIR filter zero locations with examples for
both. Consider length of the FIR filter to be 7.

4. Type I, type II, type III, and type IV FIR filter can be and cannot be used to design which type
system (LPF, HPF, BPF, BSF, Hilbert transform etc.) show in tabular form.

5. Tabulate non-causal equations, main lobe width, and ripple ratio in dB for rectangular,
triangular, Hanning, Hamming and Blackman window. Comment which window is most suitable
for narrowest transition band and which window gives minimum ripple ratio.

10 marks questions

1. Design low pass FIR filter with 11 coefficients for the following specifications passband
frequency edge = 0.25 KHz, sampling frequency = 1KHz. Use Rectangular window for design.
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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
10 marks questions Contd Chapter 3 FIR Digital Filters
2. Explain the concept of linear phase in FIR filter. Prove that a filter has linear phase response if
its phase response .

3. Design a low pass FIR filter with 7 coefficients for the following specifications passband
frequency = 0.25 KHz, sampling frequency = 1 KHz. Use Hamming window in designing.
4. Write down design steps for FIR filter using window techniques. Compare different window
characteristics and their performances.

5. Design 6th order linear phase LPF for cut off frequency /2. Use Blackman window function.

6. Write detailed notes on Gibbs Phenomenon. Show all the diagrams of approximated filter
response in frequency domain for increasing values of N (window length). State its significance
in FIR filter design.

7. Design FIR filter by windowing technique where ideal filter frequency response is given by

H d (e j ) 1 for and H d (e j ) 0 for .
2 2 2
Design for i) Rectangular window ii) Triangular window iii) Hanning window iv) Hamming
window and v) Blackman window. For all cases, consider window length = 9. Determine FIR
filter amplitude and phase response equations, and time delay.

8. Design FIR filter by windowing technique where ideal filter frequency response is given by

H d (e j ) 1 for and H d (e j ) 0 for .
4 4 2
Design for i) Rectangular window ii) Hanning window iii) Hamming window. Consider window
length = 9. Determine FIR filter amplitude and phase response equations, and time delay.

9. Design FIR filter by windowing technique where ideal filter frequency response is given by

H d (e j ) 1 for
and H d (e j ) 0 for .
4 4
Design for i) Rectangular window ii) Triangular window iii) Hanning window iv) Hamming
window and v) Blackman window. For all cases, consider window length = 9. Determine FIR
filter amplitude and phase response equations, and time delay.
10. Explain the frequency sampling method of FIR filter design with an example.

## 11. Determine FIR filter coefficients h[n] by frequency sampling method

j ( N 1) 2

H d (e j ) e for 0 and H d (e j ) 0 for .
2 2
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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
Chapter 4 Finite Word Length Effects in Digital Filters

01 mark Questions

## 1. Define fixed point arithmetic.

2. Define floating point arithmetic.
3. Define block floating arithmetic.
4. What are different types of fixed point number representations?
5. What is understood by sign magnitude representation?
6. What the three main quantization errors due to finite word length registers in digital filters?
7. Define coefficient quantization error.
8. Define product quantization error.
9. Define input quantization error.
10. Define truncation type of quantization error.
11. Define rounding type of quantization error.
12. Define truncation.
13. Which realization is less sensitive to quantization process?
14. Draw quantization noise model of Ist order system.
15. Define zero input limit cycle operation.
16. Define overflow oscillation.
17. Define saturation arithmetic.
18. Define dead band of a filter.
19. Define scaling.
02 mark Questions

## 1. Distinguish fixed point arithmetic and floating point arithmetic.

2. Explain 1s complement form of sign magnitude representation with an example.
3. Explain 2s complement form of sign magnitude representation with an example.
4. Define fixed point arithmetic with an example.
5. Define floating point arithmetic with an example.
6. What are advantages of fixed point arithmetic?
7. What are advantages of floating point arithmetic?

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
02 mark Questions Chapter 4 Finite Word Length Effects in Digital Filters

8. Express 7/8 and -7/8 in sign magnitude, 1s complement and 2s complement forms.
9. What is coefficient quantization error? How does it affect performance of digital filters?
10. What is product quantization error? How does it affect performance of digital systems?
11. What is input quantization error? How does it affect performance of digital systems?
12. Define truncation. How does it affect error generated in floating point numbers?
13. Find relationship between truncation error e and number of bits b used to represent
decimal into binary.
14. Define rounding. How does it affect error generated in all types of number representation?
15. Explain the effect of quantization on digital filter pole locations.
16. Explain with reason - cascade realization is less sensitive to quantization process?
17. With an example explain step size in quantization.
18. What are the assumptions made concerning the statistical independence of various noise
sources that occur in realizing digital filter?
19. How is steady state noise power of quantization is related to the bits representing the binary
sequence? Write the formula.
20. Draw quantization noise model of Ist order system and explain.
21. Draw quantization noise model of IInd order system and explain.
22. Define with example zero input limit cycle operation.
23. Define overflow oscillation with an example.
24. Mention steps used to prevent overflow oscillations.
25. Explain saturation arithmetic with an example.
26. Explain dead band of the filter with an example.
27. Explain need of scaling in digital filter implementation.
28. Why FIR filter does not show limit cycle oscillation in direct form or in cascade form?
29. Why rounding is preferred to truncation in realizing digital filters?

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
05 mark Questions Chapter 4 Finite Word Length Effects in Digital Filters

1. Compare fixed point arithmetic and floating point arithmetic with relevant examples.
2. Explain quantization effect in computation of DFT.
3. Write short note on - Limit cycle oscillations.
4. Write short notes on - Product quantization error and input quantization error. [5 2 = 10]
5. Explain truncation and rounding types of quantization errors with examples.
6. Explain the following terms with examples i) dead band ii) limit cycle oscillations

## 7. What is meant by limit cycle in IIR system? Give example.

10 mark Questions
1
1. A discrete time system has a transfer function H ( z ) . A four bit processor
1 0.8 z 0.12 z 2
1

is used in which MSB represents sign bit and remaining 3 bits store quantized coefficients.

i) What is the effect of quantization on pole location if direct form II is used for realization?

ii) If cascade form I is used for realization, then what is the change in the pole values after
quantization?

iii) In which of the above two cases the shift from the actual pole location due to quantization is
less or in which case the quantization error is less?

2. Explain the following terms i) zero input limit cycle ii) dead band iii) truncation iv) rounding.

3. Draw the quantization noise model for the 2nd order system given by
1
H ( z) find the steady state output noise variance.
1 2r cos z 1 r 2 z 2

4. A digital system is given by following difference equation y[n] 0.9 y[n 1] x[n] . Explain
the limit cycles generated in the output and determine the deadband of the system when input
x[n] = 0 and y[n-1] = 12.

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5. In a recursive system defined by the transfer function H ( z ) ,
1 0.35z 1 0.62 z
1 1

assume that products are rounded to 4 bits including sign bit and the product range is -1 to 1.
Find output round-off noise power in direct form realization.

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
Chapter 5 Introduction to DSP Processors

01 mark Questions

## 1. What are the classifications of digital signal processors?

2. Give examples of fixed point DSP processors.
3. Give examples of floating point DSP processors.
4. What is VLIW architecture?
02 mark Questions

## 1. What are the applications of PDSPs?

2. What are advantages and disadvantages of VLIW architecture?
3. What is pipelining in DSP processors?
4. Mention the stages of pipelining/
5. Mention the elements that control the processing unit of TMS320C67XX processors.
05 mark Questions

## 4. Explain the addressing modes of TMS320C67XX processors.

5. What is the need of DSP processors when high speed microprocessors are available?

## 8. What are general purpose I/O pins?

10 marks Questions

1. Draw neat architecture of TMS 320C67xx DSP processor and explain each block.

2. What are the salient features of TMS320C67XX family of DSP processor explain with its
architecture.
3. Explain addressing modes of TMS320C67XX DSP processor with examples.

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Vidyalankar Institute of Technology
Comprehensive Question Set DSPP TE ETRX - 2016-2017
01 mark Questions Chapter 5 Introduction to DSP Processors

4. Explain Von-Neuman, Harvard and modified Harvard architecture in details. How architecture
of advanced digital signal processor is different from modified Harvard architecture.

5. Explain VLIW architecture in detail OR Explain how higher throughput is obtained in DSP
using VLIW architecture?

## Chapter 6 Application of DSP Processors

05 mark Questions

## 3. Explain different signal processing operations involved in Subband coding.

10 mark Questions

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