Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Investigatory

Project

Royal Gondwana
Public School &
Junior College
Rushikesh Shendare
Class
XII

Physics
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgment
..3
Overview..............................................
......................................................
......................... 4
Aim of the
Project...............................................
......................................................
.... 5
Apparatus and Materials
required..............................................
....................... 6
Theory
......................................................
......................................................
..................... 7
Procedure.............................................
......................................................
....................... 9
Observations and
Graph................................................
........................................ 11
To determine the horizontal component of
earths magnet
Field (H)
......................................................
......................................................
......11
From
graph.................................................
......................................................
.. 12
Result
......................................................
......................................................
..................... 13
Precautions
....13
Sources of
error.13
Facts.................................................
......................................................
..............................14
Applications
.....................................................
......................................................
.......14
Bibliography..........................................
......................................................
......................15

...2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my
sincere gratitude to my Physics
teacher, Mrs. Nitin
Jassal for giving us the wonderful
opportunity to do a case study and
providing vital support, guidance
and encouragement throughout the
project. Without her motivation
and help, the successful
completion of this project would
not be possible. Secondly i would
also like to thank my friends who
helped me a lot in finalizing this
project within the limited time
frame.

OVERVIEW
The tangent galvanometer was first
described in an 1837 by Claude-Servais-
Mathias Pouillet, who later employed this
sensitive form of galvanometer to verify
Ohms law. To use the galvanometer, it is
first set up on a level surface and the
coil aligned with the magnetic north-south
direction. This means that the compass
needle at the middle of the coil is
parallel with the plane of the coil when it
carries no current. The current to be
measured is now sent through the coil, and
produces a magnetic field, perpendicular to
the plane of the coil and is directly
proportional to the current.
The magnitude of the magnetic
field produced by the coil is B; the
magnitude of the horizontal component the
Earths magnetic field is B.The compass
needle aligns itself along the vector sum
of B and B after rotating through an angle
from its original orientation. The vector
diagram shows that tan = B/B. Since the
magnetic field of the Earth is constant,
and B depends directly on the current, the
current is thus proportional to the tangent
of the angle through which the needle has
turned.
.4

AIM OF THE PROJECT


The aim of the project is to study the
Earths magnetic field and find its value
(BH) using a tangent galvanometer.

Tangent galvanometer made by Topview of a tangent


galvanometer
J.H. Bunnell Co. around 1890.
made about 1950.
..5
APPARATUS AND MATERIALS
REQUIRED
Tangent Galvanometer (TG),
Commutator (C),
Rheostat (R),
Battery (E),
Ammeter (A),
Key (K), etc
6

THEORY
Tangent galvanometer is an early measuring
instrument for small electric currents. It
consists of a coil of insulated copper wire wound
on a circular non-magnetic frame. Its working is
based on the principle of the tangent law of
magnetism. When a current is passed through the
circular coil, a magnetic field (B) is produced
at the center of the coil in a direction
perpendicular to the plane of the coil.
The working of tangent galvanometer is
based on the tangent law. It is stated as when a
magnet is suspended freely in magnetic field F and
H, the magnet comes to rest making an angle with
the direction H such that,
F = H tan
(1)

When a bar magnet is suspended in two Magnetic fields B and Bh,


it comes to rest making an angle with the direction of Bh.

..7

Let a current I be passed through the coil of


radius R, having turns N. Then magnetic field
produced at the centre of coil is,

0 2IN
=
4
(2)
Let H is the horizontal component of earths
magnetic field and the magnetic needle comes to
rest at angle with the direction of H, then
according Eq. (1),

0 2IN
=
4

7
2IN
= 10

2107 IN
= (3)

by substituting the value of current I , from eq.


(3),


=

0 2
(4)
4

radius of coil of galvanometer R, deflection and


N, the value of H can be calculated.

.8
PROCEDURE
Connections are made as shown in the figure given
below, where K is the key, E the battery, A the ammeter,
R the rheostat, C the commutator, and T.G the tangent
galvanometer. The commutator can reverse the current
through the T.G coil without changing the current in the
rest of the circuit. Taking the average of the resulting
two readings for deflection averages out, any small
error in positioning the TG coil relative to the earths
magnetic field H .

PROCEDURE FOR PERFORMING THE EXPERIMENT

1. Make the circuit connections in accordance


with the circuit diagram.
2. Using spirit level, level the base and the
compass needle in compass box of tangent
galvanometer by adjusting the leveling screw.
3. Now rotate the coil of the galvanometer
about its vertical axis, till the magnetic
needle, its image in the plane mirror fixed at
the base of the compass box and the coil, i.e.
all
4. these three lie in the same vertical plane.
In this setting,

..9
5. the ends of the aluminium pointer should
read zero-zero. If this is not so, rotate the
box without disturbing the position of the coil
till at least one of the ends of the pointer
stands at the zero marks.

6. By closing the key K, the current flow in


the galvanometer. Read the both ends of the
pointer. Now reverse the direction of current
by using the reversing key. When the mean
values of both deflections shown by the pointer
in the two cases (i.e. before and after
reversing the current) differ by more than 1o,
then turn slightly the vertical coil until the
two values agree. This will set the plane of
the coil exactly in the magnetic meridian.

7. By adjusting the rheostat, bring the


deflection in galvanometer around 45o. The
deflection should not be outside the range
(30o-60o).
8. Record the reading of the ammeter and the
deflection of the compass needle in the box
shown by two ends of pointer on the scale.

9. Reverse the current in the coil of


galvanometer and again record the current and
deflection of needle.

10. By changing the value of current, take four


or more set of readings and plot the graph
between I and tan. The graph will be a
straight line.

11. Measure the inner and the outer diameter of


the coil with a half metre scale at least three
times. .10

OBSERVATIONS
1. Range of the Ammeter
2. Least count of Ammeter
3. Zero error in Ammeter
4. Number of turns used (N)

Table 1. For variation of with I

S.No. Value of deflection, Mean tan Ammeter


(degree) reading
For direct For (A)
current reverse
current
1 2 3 4 Obs Corrected
1. 35 35 35 35 35 0.70 0.15 0.15
2. 49 47 60 64 53.6 1.36 0.20 0.20
3. 36 36 55 58 46.25 1.04 0.25 0.25
4. 50 50 65 68 58.2 1.61 0.30 0.30
5. 45 45 64 65 53.8 1.37 0.27 0.27

Table 2. For radius of tangent


Galvanometer

S.No. Inner Outer Mean Mean


diameter diameter d2 diameter radius
d1 (cm) (cm) d (cm)
1. 16.0 102 16.40 102 16.20 102 8.10
102
2. 16.16 102 16.08 102 16.12 102
8.06 102
3. 16.06 102 16.10 102 16.08 102
8.04 102

Mean radius of coil R = 8.04 102


.11

GRAPH
BC
Slope of straight line = AC

tan
m =
I

Now substitute the m in Eq. (4),

0 2N
m =
4 RH

Then, H = 7.6867 108

.12

RESULT
The value of earths magnetic field by using a
tangent galvanometer is

H = 7.6867 108

PRECAUTIONS
1. The battery should be freshly charged.
2. The magnetic needle should swing freely in
the horizontal plane.
3. The plane of coil must be set in magnetic
meridian.
4. There should be no parallax in noting down
the readings of ammeter and deflection.
5. All the readings should be adjusted between
30o and 60o.

SOURCES OF ERROR
1. There may a magnetic material around
apparatus.
2. The plane of coil will not be exactly in
the magnetic meridian.
.13

FACTS
The tangent galvanometer is an early measuring
instrument for Current
The magnetic field produced by a circular
coil carrying current I is Proportional to I
.
The S.I unit of magnetic field is Tesla .
The magnitude of horizontal intensity of
earths magnetic field is3.5x10 T .
For better result while doing tangent
galvanometer experiment, the deflection
should be in between 30o-60o.
The value of is 4x10 NA

APPLICATIONS
T.G. can be used to measure the magnitude of
the horizontal component of the geomagnetic
field.

The principle can be used to compare the


galvanometer constants.
For calibration of secondary instruments.

.14

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Tangent Galvanometer (Procedure)
:Comprehensive Physics Activities Volume I :
Laxmi Publications Pvt Ltd.

Tangent Galvanometer (Theory) : Comprehensive


Physics Activities Volume I : Laxmi
Publications Pvt Ltd.

Tangent Galvanometer (Precautions and


Sources of error) : Comprehensive Physics
Activities Volume I : Laxmi Publications Pvt
Ltd.

Galvanometer:
http://physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Elec
trical_Measurements/Tangent_Galvanometer/Tang
ent_Galvanometer.html
Galvanometer: Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galvanometer

.15