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20
Intel 965
MAX1772 Intel GM45
SMBUS ISL88731

Chapter 20

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Analysis of the laptop battery charging circuit

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There are all kinds of laptop charging chip,but it can be divided into two categories
usually,first,is the old charging chip used under the Intel1965 platform,the representative mode l is
MAX1772;second,is the new charging chip used above Intel GM45 platform,uses SMBUS to

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transfer the charging instruction,the representative model are ISL88731 and others.Next,analyze
respectively the working principle of two kinds of charging chip.

20.1 Intel 965GM


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MAX1772
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Analysis of charging chip MAX1772 used usually under Intel 965GM platform
MAX1772 Maxim
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MAX1772
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MAX1772
MAX1772 is the charger with high integration density,low cost and more chemical battery
brought out by Maxim company of USA,it can form the battery charger with high precision and high
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efficiency by taking advantage of it.MAX1772 also posses the function of the adapter
detection.MAX1772 has the following features:

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Input current limit;


0.7%
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The precision of output voltage is about 0.7%;


4A
Can provide the charging current more than 4A;
95%
The efficiency has a maximum of 95%;
99.99%

20-1 MAX1772

The duty cycle has a maximum of 99.99%;


Li+NiCdNiMH
The application range is wide,is suitable for Li+,NiCd,NiMH battery charging;
18.2V
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The charging current and the charging voltage can be controlled by the analog input.

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MAX1772 28 20-1
MAX1772 uses double row 28 pin packaging,,the top view of the pin permutation is shown in

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figure 20-1.
MAX1772 20-1
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The pin definition of MAX1772 is shown in table 20-1.

20-1 MAX1772
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Table 20-1 the pin definition of MAX1772
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1 DCIN
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DCIN 5.4V
2 LDO
1F
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3 CLS
4 REF 4.096V
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5 CCS
6 CCI
7 CCV
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8 GND
9 GND

10 ICHG

11 ACIN
12 ACOK AC ACIN REF/2

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REFI
13
N
REFIN/32REFIN REFIN/55
14 ICTL

15 VCTL 0REFIN
CELL LDO 4
16

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S LDO/2 3
17 BATT
18 CSIN

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19 CSIP CSIN

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20 PGND
21 DLO G
22 DLOV
S

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23 LX
24 DHI G
25
26
BST
CSSN
LX 1F

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27 CSSP
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28 IINP
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MAX1772 CT6 20-2


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CT6 20-3
MBDATAMBCLK
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TEMP_MBAT
MBAT+
MBATV ECEC
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1 the power input pin


2 the linear voltage.It makes the voltage input by DCIN pin to output 5.4V after being
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adjusted by the linear,during using,it should connect a shunt capacity with 1F between this pin and
the ground.
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3 the adapter current limit input


4 4.096V reference voltage output
5 charge compensation capacitor connection
6 the output current regulation loop compensation end
7 voltage regulation loop compensation end
8 analog ground
9 analog ground

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10 the battery charging signal amplification output,when the working mode converts from
the voltage model to the current mode,this end can be used to monitor and display the size of the
charge current.
11 the adapter voltage detection
12 AC detection output,is the open drain output form.When ACIN voltage is less than
REF/2,this pin open drain outputs.

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13 the reference input
14 the charging current control.The range of voltage is REFIN/32-REFIN.If its less than
REFIN/55.the chip stops charging.

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15 the maximum output voltage setting input.The range of voltage is 0-REFIN.
16 the battery serial number setting end,when this pin connects the ground,sets to be two

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series,when it connects LDO,sets to be four series,when it connects LDO/2,sets to be three series.
17 the battery voltage output pin
18 the output current detection input negative terminal

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19 the output current detection input positive terminal.During using,it should connect a
current detection resistance between CSIN pin. fi
20 the power ground
21 down tube driving output end.This end connects with the G pole of the down tube
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22 the down tube drive power connecting terminal
23 the power loop end of the top tube.This end connects with the S pole of the top tube and
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the inductance.
24 the top tube drive output end.This end connects with the G pole of the top tube.
25 the top tube drive connection end.During using,it should connect a capacitance with 1F
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between this pin and LX pin,


26 the adapter current detection negative terminal
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27 the adapter current detection positive terminal


28 the adapter input current monitor output
Application circuit
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In this section,we mainly introduces the application of MAX1772 in Quanta CT6,is shown in
figure 20-2.
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The battery interface signal of CT6 is shown in figure 20-3,the explanation of signal is below.
MBDATA,MBCLK:the system management bus data and clock.
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TEMP_MBAT:battery over temperature indicator.


MBAT+:the main voltage of the battery interface
MBATV:the battery voltage sampling point,the sampling voltage is sent to EC,EC judges the
fault.

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20-2 CT6 MAX1772


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Figure 20-2 the application of MAX1772 in CT6


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20-3 CT6

Figure 20-3 the battery interface signal of CT6

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The working process:


MAX1772 CELLS VCTL EC
CC-SET
ICTL MAX1772 ICTL


20-4 MAX1772 CELL
CELL 20-4 CELLS

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0.2V 2 CELLS 0.4V LDO 0.5V
3 CELLS LDO 0.25V 4

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MAX1772 through CELLS and VCTL sets the charging voltage.EC through the system
management bus reads the battery parameter,then sends the charging current setting signal CC-SET

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to ICTL pin of the charging chip,after MAX1772 receiving ICTL,starts to charge the battery
according to the set voltage and current,through charging current detection resistance to detect the
charging current.The setting of CELL pin is shown in figure 20-4,when the voltage of CELLS pin is

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less than 0.2V,sets to be 2 core;when the voltage of CELLS pin is higher than 0.4V and is less than
the voltage reduce 0.5V of LDO pin,sets to be 3 core;when the voltage of CELLS is higher than the
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voltage reduce 0.25V of LDO pin,sets to be 4 core.
20-2 CELLS 1772_5.4V 3
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REFIN 3VPCU3.3V VCTL REF4.09 0.848V20.1
12.6V
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The calculation of the charging voltage:according to the figure 20-2,we can know that CELLS
is from the partial pressure of 1772_5.4V,is set to be 3 core,REFIN is connected to
3VPCU(3.3V),VCTL gets 0.848V by the partial pressure of REF4.09.According to the
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formula(20.1),we can calculate that the charging voltage is 12.6V.As the following.
V V
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VBATT CELLS VREF REF VCTL 20.1


10 VREFIN

10
VBATT 3 4.096 4.096 0.848
3.3
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VBATT 3 4.096 0.105


VBATT 3 4.20
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VBATT 12.6
20-2 PR11220.2 RS2
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0.0520.2 VICTL
The calculation of the charging current:in the figure 20-2,the charging current detection
resistance PR112(is RS2 in the formula(20.2) is 0.05According to the formula(20.2),it only needs
to change VICTL,then the charging current can be changed.

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VREF VICTL
I CHG 1
RS2 VREFIN 20
EC VICTL 1V 1.24A
If VICTL sent by EC is 1V voltage,then we can calculate that the charging current is 1.24A.

I CHG 4.096 1 1
0.05 3.3 20
I CHG 4.096 1

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3.3
I CHG 1.24

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20.2 Intel GM45

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ISL88731

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Analysis of the charging chip ISL88731 used usually by the above Intel GM45
ISL88731 Intersil
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ISL88731 SMBUS EC
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SMBUS EC
SMBUS VCTL VICTL ISL88731
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ISL88731
ISL88731 is the lithium ion battery charger controller with highly integrated produced by
Intersil company,it can program through the system management bus.It is different from the
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traditional charging chip,ISL88731 though SMBUS communicates with EC to control


charging,SMBUS connects the battery interface,EC and the charging chip at the same time.The
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charging voltage,charging current,charging enable and other control signals are transmitted through
SMBUS,no VCTL,VICTL and other pins.ISL88731 has two functions of the adapter detection and
charging control.The main features of ISL88731:
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0.5
0.5% battery voltage accuracy;
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3
3% adapter current limiting accuracy;
3
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3% charging current accuracy;


SMBUS 2
2 wire serial interface of SMBUS;

Battery short circuit protection;

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Quick response pulse charging;



Rapid system load transient response;

Adapter detection output,the adapter current monitor output;
8A

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The maximum battery charging current 8A;
11A
The maximum current 11A of the adapter;

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+8+28V
+8+28V the range of the adapter voltage.

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ISL88731 28 TQFN 5mm5mm 0.8mmISL88731
20-5
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ISL88731 uses 28 pin TQFN packaging,5mm*5mm,the thickness is only 0.8mm.The top view
of ISL88731 pin name is shown in figure 20-5.
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20-5 ISL88731

Figure 20-5 the top view of ISL88731 pin name


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ISL88731 20-2
The pin definition of ISL88731 is shown in table 20-2.

20-2 ISL88731

Table 20-2 the pin definition of ISL88731

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1 the vacant pin

2 AC adapter detection input end.From the power adapter voltage dividing into voltage through
two resistances.

3 the reference voltage output,the standard value is 3.2V.

4 the charging current compensation point and the adapter current regulation loop

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5 the vacant pin

6 the compensation point voltage regulation loop

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7 the vacant pin

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8 inputs the current detection output,the voltage of ICM is equal to 20 times of (VCSSP_VCSSN)

9 the system management bus

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10 the system management bus

11 the system management bus module power supply

12 ground connection
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13 the adapter detection output.When ACIN is higher than 3.2V,ACOK signal open drain outputs
the high level,needs for external pulling up.
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14 the vacant pin

15 the battery voltage feedback


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16 the vacant pin

17 the charging current detection negative input terminal


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18 the charging current detection positive input terminal

19 ground connection
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20 the G pole driver signal of the charging down tube


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21 the linear voltage of 5.2V output

22 the main power supply input


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23 the phase pin,the top tube driving loop

24 the G pole driver signal of the charging top tube

25 boot-strap send,supplies power to the driver of the top tube

26 internal artificial circuit power supply,through 4.7 resistance connects VCC with VDDP

27 the adapter current detection negative input end

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28 the adapter current detection positive input end.





1 NC
AC
2 ACIN

3 VREF 3.2V

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4 ICOMP
5 NC
VCOM

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6
P
7 NC

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8 ICM ICM VCSSP-VCSSN 20
9 SDA

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10
11
SCL
VDDS


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MB
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12 GND
ACIN 3.2V ACOK
13 ACOK
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14 NC
15 VFB
16 NC
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17 CSON
18 CSOP
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19 PGND
20 LGATE G
21 VDDP 5.2V
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22 DCIN
23 PHASE
G
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24 UGATE
25 BOOT
26 VCC 4.7 VCC VDDP
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27 CSSN
28 CSSP

ISL88731 20-6
The typical application of ISL88731is shown in figure 20-6.

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20-6 ISL88731

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Figure 20-6 the typical application of ISL88731

20-6 ISL88731
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In the figure 20-6:the explanation of the working process of ISL88731:
DCIN
ACIN
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After the adapter switching in,and through the body diode sends to DCIN pin,supplies main
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power to the chip;at the same time,through the resistance dividing into voltage sends to ACIN pin.
VDDP 5.2V VCC
The chip internal linear regulator block outputs 5.2V linear voltage from the chip VDDP,and
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through the resistance supplies the main power supply to VCC.


3.2V
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The chip internal produces the reference voltage with 3.2V.


ACIN 3.2V ACOK VCC
After ACIN being higher than 3.2V,the chip open drain outputs ACOK,is pulled up to be high
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level by VCC.
HOSTEC SCLSDA EC
SDASCL ISL88731
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HOST(EC) through SCL,SDA communicate with the battery interface,when the battery is
low,EC through SDA,SCL transmits the charging voltage,the charging current,the charging enable
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and other control instruction to ISL88731.



The chip starts to drive the charging top tube and down tube conducted in turn,outputs the
voltage to charge the battery.
ISL88731 VFB CSOPCSON
ISL88731 through VFB monitors the charging voltage,through CSOP and CSON monitors the

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charging current.
CSSPCSSN RS1
CSSP-CSSN 20 ICM EC EC
The chip through CSSP and CSSN monitors the current RS1 flows,that is the adapter
current.Enlarge the value of CSSP-CSSN20 times through the chip internal,and outputs from ICM
to send to EC,informs EC the size of the complete machine input current at present.
EC

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According to the power dissipation of the total power of the adapter and the system operation

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currently,EC adjusts the size of the charging current properly,to prevent that the charging power is
too high and exceeds the adapter output limiting,then it will cause the adapter burning because of

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overload.

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